Organizational Culture: Mapping the Terrain


Joanne Martin

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Foundations for Organizational Science: A Sage Publications Series

    Series Editor

    David Whetten, Brigham Young University


    Peter J. Frost, University of British Columbia

    Anne S. Huff, University of Colorado and Cranfield University (UK)

    Benjamin Schneider, University of Maryland

    M. Susan Taylor, University of Maryland

    Andrew Van de Ven, University of Minnesota

    The FOUNDATIONS FOR ORGANIZATIONAL SCIENCE series supports the development of students, faculty, and prospective organizational science professionals through the publication of texts authored by leading organizational scientists. Each volume provides a highly personal, hands-on introduction to a core topic or theory and challenges the reader toÿ20explore promising avenues for future theory development and empirical application.

    Books in This Series


    Edited by L. L. Cummings and Peter J. Frost


    Karl E. Weick


    W. Richard Scott


    Peter J. Frost and M. Susan Taylor

    RESEARCHERS HOOKED ON TEACHING: Noted Scholars Discuss the Synergies of Teaching and Research

    Rae Andr, and Peter J. Frost

    THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DECISION MAKING: People in Organizations

    Lee Roy Beach


    Robert Folger and Russell Cropanzano

    RECRUITING EMPLOYEES: Individual and Organizational Perspectives

    Alison E. Barber


    Arthur P. Brief

    IDENTITY IN ORGANIZATIONS: Building Theory Through Conversations

    Edited by David Whetten and Paul Godfrey

    PERSONNEL SELECTION: A Theoretical Approach

    Neal Schmitt and David Chan

    BUILDING STRATEGY FROM THE MIDDLE: Reconceptualizing Strategy Process

    Steven W. Floyd and Bill Wooldridge

    MISSING ORGANIZATIONAL LINKAGES: Tools for Cross-Level Research

    Paul S. Goodman


    Lex Donaldson

    ORGANIZATIONAL STRESS: A Review and Critique of Theory, Research, and Applications

    Cary L. Cooper, Philip J. Dewe, and Michael P. O'Driscoll


    W. Richard Scott

    ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE: Mapping the Terrain

    Joanne Martin


    View Copyright Page

    List of Tables and Figures

    Introduction to the Series

    The title of this series, Foundations for Organizational Science (FOS), denotes a distinctive focus. FOS books are educational aids for mastering the core theories, essential tools, and emerging perspectives that constitute the field of organizational science (broadly conceived to include organizational behavior, organizational theory, human resource management, and business strategy). Our ambitious goal is to assemble the “essential library” for members of our professional community.

    The vision for the series emerged from conversations with several colleagues, including Peter Frost, Anne Huff, Rick Mowday, Benjamin Schneider, Susan Taylor, and Andy Van de Ven. Many common interests emerged from these sympathetic encounters, including enhancing the quality of doctoral education by providing broader access to the master teachers in our field, “bottling” the experience and insights of some of the founding scholars in our field before they retire, and providing professional development opportunities for colleagues seeking to broaden their understanding of the rapidly expanding subfields within organizational science.

    Our unique learning objectives are reflected in an unusual set of instructions to FOS authors. They are encouraged to (a) “write the way they teach,” framing their book as an extension of their teaching notes rather than as the expansion of a handbook chapter; (b) pass on their “craft knowledge” to the next generation of scholars, making them wiser and not just smarter; (c) share with their “virtual students and colleagues” the insider tips and best bets for research that are normally reserved for one-on-one mentoring sessions; and (d) make the complexity of their subject matter comprehensible to nonexperts so that readers can share their puzzlement, fascination, and intrigue.

    We are proud of the group of highly qualified authors who have embraced the unique educational perspective of our “Foundations” series. We encourage your suggestions for how these books can better satisfy your learning needs—as a newcomer to the field preparing for prelims or developing a dissertation proposal or as an established scholar seeking to broaden your knowledge and proficiency.

    DavidA.Whetten Series Editor


    Any lengthy book gets written with much help. An exceptionally generous group of friends and anonymous reviewers undertook the gargantuan task of critiquing an early draft of the manuscript. Peter Frost offered, as always, a mix of support and keen insight. Dave Whetton, the editor of the Foundations for Organizational Science series, did as I asked and challenged my assumptions and assertions as hard as he could. He did so with panache and cogency, and even after my greatest efforts to respond fully, his arguments continue to ring in my ears. Ralph Stablein and Walter Nord helped me to maintain a critical perspective and sharpened my discussion of qualitative methods. Gideon Kunda spent hours reading and arguing about the ideas in this book, increasing my awareness, and making it very difficult for me to settle for easy answers to tough problems. Deb Meyerson, coauthor of articles that were the genesis of the three-perspective view of culture, was again a partner in this endeavor. She found what I had not said, what I should have said, and what I should not say. A second group of helpful friends gave detailed critiques of chapters in their areas of expertise: Mary Jo Hatch, Hazel Markus, Michael Morris, Denise Rousseau, and Majken Schultz. The diversity of views that these critics offered made this a much better book, although perhaps to their credit they might disown some of the views I express.

    This book was also written with the help of people who never saw the manuscript but whose intellectual ghosts sat on my shoulders as I wrote. Linda Smircich and Marta Calás, through their work and through memories of the long talks we have had throughout the years, constantly pulled me toward more radical theories and methods. This was exceptionally valuable because I am usually surrounded by more conservative intellectual influences. John Van Maanen's work has taught me that it is essential that a cultural portrait capture the complex diversity of views held by lower-level employees. John also writes like an angel, albeit an angel with an eye for irony, an ear for what is not said, and a voice unlike any other. Although I did not attain his grace with words, his work encouraged me to try. Ed Schein, one of the fathers of organizational culture research, has taught me with patience and persistence to honor his ideas with the depth of understanding they deserve. In addition to these guiding ghosts, I thank the doctoral student-collaborators who worked with me on the studies that form the empirical backbone of the cultural theory presented in this book: Alan Wilkins, who first introduced me to the topic of culture; Caren Siehl, Melanie Powers, Michael Boehm, Sim Sitkin, Martha Feldman, Mary Jo Hatch, Kathy Knopoff, and Christine Beckman; and Deb Meyerson, my most frequent coauthor, co-conspirator, and friend. These people have been my teachers.

    The references section at the end of this volume is long enough to be a book in itself. Lea Richards, my faculty assistant, spent long days tracking down disappearing citations and doing all the unrewarding, picky work involved in constructing such a reference list. Linda Bethel typed and drew the most difficult figures and tables and also gave Lea much needed help when the references needed proofing. The Graduate School of Business at Stanford University has been consistently generous in its support of my research and writing, not in the least by attracting such fine doctoral students.

    On a more personal note, I have two Beaux to thank. The younger one, Beau M. Sheil, is my son. His love of life and fine sense of humor are a pleasure and a reminder of what is important. For decades, my husband, the other Beau Sheil, has been a constant source of love and encouragement (including much appreciated computer expertise and proofreading for this manuscript). He is the rock that supports all else in my life, including this book. Thank you all.


    To Beau A. Sheil, my husband, and Beau M. Sheil, my son, who constantly remind me of what is important.

  • References

    Abolafia, M., & Kilduff, M. (1988). Enacting a market crisis: The social construction of a speculative bubble. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 177–193.
    Abratt, R. (1989). A new approach to the corporate image management process. Journal of Marketing Management, 5, 63–76.
    Adler, N. (1991). International dimensions of organizational behavior. Boston: Kent.
    Adler, P., & Adler, P. (1988). Intense loyalty in organizations: A case study of college athletics. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 401–417.
    Agar, M. (1980). An informal introduction to ethnography. New York: Academic Press.
    Agar, M. (1986). Speaking of ethnography. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Albert, S., & Whetten, D. (1985). Organizational identity. In L.Cummings & R.Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior, Vol. 7 (pp. 263–295). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Aldrich, H. (1992). Understanding, not interpretation: Vital signs from three perspectives in organizations. In M.Reed & M.Hughes (Eds.), Rethinking organizations: New directions in organizational theory and analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Altman, Y., & Baruch, Y. (1998). Cultural theory and organizations: Analytical method and cases. Organization Studies, 19, 769–785.
    Alvesson, M. (1993a). Cultural perspectives on organizations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Alvesson, M. (1993b). Organizations as rhetoric: Knowledge-intensive firms and the struggle with ambiguity. Journal of Management Studies, 30, 997–1015.
    Alvesson, M. (1996). Communication, power and organization. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    Alvesson, M. (1998). The local and the grandiose: Method, micro and macro in comparative studies of culture and organizations. Unpublished manuscript, Lund University, Sweden.
    Alvesson, M., & Berg, P. (1992). Corporate culture and organizational symbolism. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    Alvesson, M., & Billing, Y. (1997). Understanding gender and organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Alvesson, M., & Deetz, S. (1996). Critical theory and postmodern approaches to organization studies. In S.Clegg, C.Hardy, & W.Nord (Eds.), Handbook of organization studies (pp. 191–217). London: Sage.
    Alvesson, M., & Melin, L. (1987). Major discrepancies and contradictions in organizational culture: Both in the phenomenon of culture itself and in cultural studies. Paper presented at the International Conference on Organizational Symbolism and Corporate Culture, Milan.
    Alvesson, M., & Willmott, H. (Eds.). (1992). Critical management studies. London: Sage.
    Alvesson, M., & Willmott, H. (1995). Strategic management as domination and emancipation: From planning and process to communication and praxis. In C.Stubbart & P.Shrivastava (Eds.), Advances in strategic management, 11. Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Alvesson, M., & Willmott, H. (1996). Making sense of management: A critical analysis. London: Sage.
    Anzaldua, G. (1987). Borderlands/La Frontera: The new Mestizo. San Francisco: Spinsters/Aunt Lute.
    Aurelio, J. (1995). Using Jungian archetypes to explore deeper levels of organizational culture. Journal of Management Inquiry, 4, 347–368.
    Baburoglu, O., & Göcer, A. (1994). Whither organizational culture? Privatization of the oldest state-owned enterprise in Turkey. Industrial & Environmental Crisis Quarterly, 8, 41–54.
    Bailyn, L. (1993). Breaking the mold: Women, men and time in the new corporate world. New York: Free Press.
    Barley, S. (1983). Semiotics and the study of occupational and organizational cultures. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 393–414.
    Barley, S. (1986). Technology as an occasion for structuring: Evidence from observations of CT scanners and the social order of radiology departments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 78–108.
    Barley, S., Meyer, G., & Gash, D. (1988). Cultures of culture: Academics, practitioners, and the pragmatics of normative control. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 24–61.
    Baron, J., Burton, M., & Hannan, M. (1996). The road taken: Origins and evolution of employment systems in emerging companies. Industrial and Corporate Change, 5, 239–275.
    Baron, J., Hannan, M., & Burton, D. (1999). Building the iron cage: Determinants of managerial intensity in the early years of organizations. American Sociological Review, 64, 527–547.
    Baron, J., Hannan, M., Hsu, G., & Kozak, O. (in press). In the company of women: Gender and the organization-building process in start-up firms. In M.Guillén, R.Collins, P.England, & M.Meyer (Eds.), Economic sociology at the millennium. New York: Russell Sage.
    Bartunek, J. (1984). Changing interpretive schemes and organizational restructuring: The example of a religious order. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 355–372.
    Bartunek, J., & Moch, M. (1991). Multiple constituencies and the quality of working life intervention at FoodCom. In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Louis, C.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 104–114). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Bateson, G., & Mead, M. (1942). Balinese character: A photographic analysis. New York: New York Academy of Science.
    Baudrillard, J. (1983). Simulations. New York: Semiotext(e).
    Becker, H. (1982). Culture: A sociological view. Yale Review, 71, 513–527.
    Befu, H. (1963). Patrilineal descent and personal kindred in Japan. American Anthropologist, 65, 1328–1341.
    Bell, E. (1990). The bicultural life experience of career-oriented black women. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11, 459–478.
    Bell, E., Denton, T., & Nkomo, S. (1993). Women of color: Toward an inclusive analysis. In E.Fagenson (Ed.), Women in management: Trends, issues and challenges in managerial diversity (pp. 105–130). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Benghozi, P. (Ed.). (1987). Art and organization [Special issue]. Dragon, 2.
    Berg, P. (1989). Postmodern management? From facts to fiction in theory and practice. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 5, 201–217.
    Berger, P. (1967). The sacred canopy. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Berger, P., & Luckmann, T. (1967). The social construction of reality. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Bernstein, D. (1992). Company image and reality: A critique of corporate communications. London: Cassell.
    Birth, K. (1990). Reading and the righting of writing ethnographies. American Ethnologist, 17, 549–557.
    Blake, W. (2000). Auguries of innocence I. In D.Fuller (Ed.), Selected poetry and prose. Harlow, UK: Longman. (Original work published 1863)
    Blau, P. (1965). The comparative study of organizations. Industrial and Labour Relations Review, 28, 323–338.
    Boas, F. (1901). The Eskimo of Balin Land and Hudson Bay. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 15 (Part 1).
    Bockus, S. (1983). Corporate values: A refutation of uniqueness theory. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
    Bogdan, R., & Taylor, S. (1975). Introduction to qualitative research methods. New York: John Wiley.
    Boje, D., & Dennehy, R. (1993). Managing in the postmodern world. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
    Boland, R., & Hoffman, R. (1983). Humor in a machine shop: An interpretation of symbolic action. In L.Pondy, P.Frost, G.Morgan, & T.Dandridge (Eds.), Organizational symbolism. Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Botti, H. (1995). Misunderstandings: A Japanese transplant in Italy strives for lean production. Organization, 2, 55–86.
    Boyacigiller, N., & Adler, N. (1991). The parochial dinosaur: Organizational science in a global context. Academy of Management Review, 16, 262–290.
    Brown, J., & Duguid, P. (1991). Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: Toward a unified view of working, learning, and innovation. Organizational Science, 2, 40–57.
    Bruner, J., Goodnow, J., & Austin, G. (1956). A study of thinking. New York: John Wiley.
    Bruni, A., & Gherardi, S. (in press). Omega's story: The heterogeneous engineering of a gendered professional self. In M.Dent & S.Whitehead (Eds.), Managing professional identities. New York: Routledge.
    Brunsson, N. (1985). The irrational organization. New York: John Wiley.
    Brunsson, N. (1986). Organizing for inconsistencies: On organizational conflicts, depression, and hypocrisy as substitutes for action. Scandinavian Journal of Management Studies, 2, 165–185.
    Brunsson, N. (1988). Organizational reforms. Paper presented at the SCANCOR conference on organizations, Hemsedal, Norway.
    Brunsson, N. (1989). The organization of hypocrisy: Talk, decisions and actions in organizations (N. Adler, Trans.). New York: John Wiley.
    Brunsson, N. (1995). Ideas and actions: Justification and hypocrisy as alternatives to control. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 13, 211–235.
    Bryman, A., Gillingwater, D., & McGuinness, I. (1996). Industry culture and strategic response: The case of the British bus industry. Studies in Cultures, Organizations and Societies, 2, 191–208.
    Buell, B. (1997, December 4). “Ambidextrous” organizations judged most likely to succeed. Stanford Report, 10.
    Burowoy, M. (1979). Manufacturing consent: Changes in the labor process under monopoly capitalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Burrell, G., & Morgan, G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organizational analysis. London: Heinemann.
    Burrus, K. (1997). National culture and gender diversity within one of the universal Swiss banks: An experimental description of a professional woman officer and president of the Women Managers’ Association. In S.Sackmann (Ed.), Cultural complexity in organizations (pp. 209–227). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Butler, J. (1989). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge.
    Calás, M. (1987). Organizational science/fiction: The postmodern in the management disciplines. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
    Calás, M., & Smircich, L. (1987). Post-culture: Is the organizational culture literature dominant but dead? Paper presented at the International Conference on Organizational Symbolism and Corporate Culture, Milan.
    Calás, M., & Smircich, L. (1991). Voicing seduction to silence leadership. Organization Studies, 12, 567–602.
    Calás, M., & Smircich, L. (1993, March/April). Dangerous liaisons: The “feminine-in-management” meets globalization. Business Horizons, 71–81.
    Calás, M., & Smircich, L. (1996). From “the woman's” point of view: Feminist approaches to organization studies. In S.Clegg, C.Hardy, & W.Nord (Eds.), Handbook of organization studies (pp. 218–257). London: Sage.
    Calás, M., & Smircich, L. (1999). Past-postmodernism? Reflections and tentative directions. Unpublished manuscript, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
    Calvert, L., & Ramsey, J. (1992). Bringing women's voice to research on women in management: A feminist perspective. Journal of Management Inquiry, 1, 79–88.
    Campbell, D., & Fiske, D. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81–105.
    Campbell, D., & Stanley,). (1966). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Chalmers, A. (1982). What is this thing called science? (
    2nd ed.
    ). Brisbane, Australia: University of Queensland Press.
    Chatman, J. (1991). Matching people and organizations: Selection and socialization in public accounting firms. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 459–484.
    Chia, R. (1996). The problem of reflexivity in organizational research: Towards a postmodern science of organization. Organization, 3, 31–59.
    Christensen, S., & Kreiner, K. (1984). On the origin of organizational cultures. Paper presented at the International Conference on Organizational Symbolism and Corporate Culture, Lund, Sweden.
    Clark, B. (1972). The organizational saga in higher education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 178–184.
    Clark, H. (1998). Communal lexicons. In K.Malmkjaer & J.Williams (Eds.), Context in language learning and language understanding (pp. 63–87). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Clegg, S. (1990). Modern organization: Organization studies in the postmodern world. London: Sage.
    Clegg, S., & Dunkerley, D. (Eds.). (1977). Critical issues in organizations. New York: Routledge Kegan Paul.
    Clegg, S., & Hardy, C. (1996). Organizations, organization and organizing. In S.Clegg, C.Hardy, & W.Nord (Eds.), Handbook of organization studies (pp. 1–28). London: Sage.
    Clifford, J. (1988). The predicament of culture: Twentieth-century ethnography, literature, and art. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Clifford, J. (1997). Spatial practices: Fieldwork, travel, and the disciplining of anthropology. In A.Gupta & J.Ferguson (Eds.), Anthropological locations (pp. 185–222). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Clifford, J., & Marcus, G. (1986). Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Cohen, M., & March, J. (1974). Leadership and ambiguity: The American college president. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Cohen, M., March, J., & Olsen, J. (1972). A garbage can model of organizational choice. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 1–25.
    Collinson, D. (1992). Managing the shop floor: Subjectivity, masculinity and workplace culture. New York: de Gruyter.
    Collinson, D., & Hearn, J. (1994). Naming men as men: Implications for work, organization and management. Gender, Work and Organization, 1, 2–22.
    Collinson, D., Knights, D., & Collinson, M. (1990). Managing to discriminate. London: Routledge.
    Cook, T., & Campbell, D. (1979). Quasi-experimentation. Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Cook, T., & Reichardt, C. (1979). Beyond qualitative versus quantitative methods. In T.Cook & C.Reichardt (Eds.), Qualitative and quantitative methods in evaluation research (pp. 7–32). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Cooke, R., & Rousseau, D. (1988). Behavioral norms and expectations: A quantitative approach to the assessment of culture. Group and Organizational Studies, 13, 245–273.
    Cooper, R. (1989). Modernism, postmodernism and organizational analysis. The contribution of Jacques Derrida. Organizational Studies, 10, 479–502.
    Cooper, R., & Burrell, G. (1988). Modernism, postmodernism and organizational analysis: An introduction. Organization Studies, 9, 91–112.
    Cox, T. (1993). Cultural diversity in organizations: Theory, research, and practice. San Francisco: Barrett-Koehler.
    Cox, T., Jr., & Nkomo, S. (1990). Invisible men and women: A status report on race as a variable in organizational behavior and research. Journal of Organization Behavior, 11, 419–431.
    Crapanzano, V. (1986). Hermes’ dilemma: The masking of subversion in ethnographic description. In J.Clifford & C.Marcus (Eds.), Writing culture (pp. 51–76). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Czarniawska, B. (1997). Narrating the organization: Dramas of institutional identity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Czarniawska, B. (1998). A narrative approach to organization studies (Qualitative Research Methods Series). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Czarniawska, B. (1999). Writing management: Organization theory as a literary genre. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Czarniawska, B. (2000). Identity lost or identity found? Celebration and lamentation over the postmodern view of identity in social science and fiction. In M.Schultz, M.Hatch, & M.Larsen (Eds.), The expressive organization. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Czarniawska-Joerges, B. (1988). Ideological control in non-ideological organizations. New York: Praeger.
    Czarniawska-Joerges, B. (1992). Exploring complex organizations: A cultural perspective. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Daft, R. (1980). The evolution of organizational analysis in ASQ: 1959–1979. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25, 623–636.
    Daft, R., & Weick, K. (1984). Toward a model of organizations as interpretation systems. Academy of Management Review, 9, 284–295.
    Damon, C. (1997). Making sense of Meridian. A cultural analysis of organizational life in a new television station. Unpublished manuscript, University of Kent at Canterbury, UK.
    Davis, S. (1984). Managing corporate culture. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    Deacon, D., Bryman, A., & Fenton, N. (1998). Collision or collusion? A discussion and case study of the unplanned triangulation of quantitative and qualitative research methods. Social Research Methodology, 1, 47–63.
    Deal, T., & Kennedy, A. (1982). Corporate cultures: The rites and rituals of corporate life. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Deetz, S. (1992). Democracy in an age of corporate colonization: Developments in communication and the politics of everyday life. New York: State University of New York Press.
    Degot, V. (1987). Portrait of the manager as an artist. Dragon, 2, 13–50.
    Dellheim, C. (1987). The creation of a company culture: Cadburys, 1861–1931. American Historical Review, 92, 13–44.
    Denison, D. (1990). Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness. New York: John Wiley.
    Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. (Eds.). (1994). Handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Derrida, J. (1976). Of grammatology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    de Vries, S. (1997). Ethnic diversity in organizations: A Dutch experience. In S.Sackmann (Ed.), Cultural complexity in organizations (pp. 297–314). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    DiMaggio, P. (1997). Culture and cognition. Annual Review of Sociology, 23, 263–287.
    Doi, T. (1973). The anatomy of dependence. Tokyo: Kodansha.
    Donaldson, L. (1985). In defense of organization theory: A reply to the critics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Douglas, M. (1975). Implicit meanings. London: Routledge Kegan Paul.
    Dutton, J., & Dukerich, J. (1991). Keeping an eye on the mirror: Image and identity in organizational adaptation. Academy of Management Review, 34, 517–554.
    Early, P. (1995). Of culture, quagmires, and perspectives. Contemporary Psychology, 40, 578–579.
    Ebers, M. (1995). The framing of organizational cultures. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 13, 129–170.
    Egri, C., & Pinfield, L. (1996). Organizations and the biosphere: Ecologies and environments. In S.Clegg, C.Hardy, & W.Nord (Eds.), Handbook of organization studies (pp. 459–483). London: Sage.
    Eisenberg, E. (1984). Ambiguity as strategy in organizational communication. Communication Monographs, 51, 227–242.
    Enomoto, E. (1993). In-school truancy in a multiethnic urban high school examined through organizational culture lenses (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1993). UMI Dissertation Services, 9331999.
    Etzioni, A. (1961). A comparative analysis of complex organizations. New York: Free Press.
    Evans-Pritchard, E. (1937). Witchcraft, oracles and magic among the Azande. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
    Evered, R. (1983). The language of organizations: The case of the Navy. In L.Pondy, M.Luis, P.Frost, & T.Dandridge (Eds.), Organizational symbolism. Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Feldman, M. (1989). Order without design: Information processing and policy making. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Feldman, M. (1991). The meanings of ambiguity: Learning from stories and metaphors. In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Louis, C.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 145–156). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Ferguson, K. (1984). The feminist case against bureaucracy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Ferguson, K. (1993). The man question. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Fernandez, J. (1982). Racism and sexism in corporate life: Changing values in American business. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Firth, R. (1967). We, the Tikopia. London: Allen and Unwin. (Original work published 1936)
    Flax, J. (1990). Thinking fragments: Psychoanalysis, feminism, and postmodernism in the contemporary west. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Fleming, P., & Stablein, R.E. (1997). Normative control in organization and management theory (Working Paper Series 97/01). Dunedin, New Zealand: University of Otago, Department of Management.
    Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punishment: The birth of prison. London: Lane.
    Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge. New York: Pantheon.
    Frederick, T. (1985). A theory of culture development and methodology for analysis. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
    Friedman, S. (1983). Cultures within cultures? An empirical assessment of an organization's subcultures using projective measures. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Dallas.
    Frost, P., Moore, L., Louis, M., Lundberg, C., & Martin, J. (Eds.). (1991). Organizational culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Frost, P., & Stablein, R. (Eds.). (1992). Doing exemplary research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Frug, G. (1986). The ideology of bureaucracy in American law. Harvard Law Review, 97, 1276–1388.
    Gagliardi, P. (Ed.). (1990). Symbols and artifacts: Views of the corporate landscape. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    Gagliardi, P. (1991). Reflections on reframing organizational culture. Invited presentation at the International Conference on Organizational Symbolism and Corporate Culture, Copenhagen.
    Gagliardi, P. (1996). Exploring the aesthetic side of organizational life. In S.Clegg, C.Hardy, & W.Nord (Eds.), Handbook of organization studies (pp. 565–580). London: Sage.
    Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.
    Geertz, C. (1980). Negara: The theater state in nineteenth century Bali. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Geertz, C. (1983). Local knowledge: Further essays in interpretive anthropology. New York: Basic Books.
    Geertz, C. (1988). Works and lives: The anthropologist as author. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Geertz, C. (1995). After the fact: Two countries, four decades, one anthropologist. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Gephart, R. (1978). Status degradation and organizational succession: An ethno-methodological approach. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 553–581.
    Gephart, R. (1988). Ethnostatistics: Qualitative foundations for quantitative research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Gherardi, S. (1995a). When will he say “Today the plates are soft?”: The management of ambiguity and situated decision-making. Studies in Cultures, Organizations and Societies, 1, 9–27.
    Gherardi, S. (1995b). Gender, symbolism and organizational culture. London: Sage.
    Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Chicago: Aldine.
    Globokar, T. (1997). Eastern Europe meets west: An empirical study on French management in a Slovenian plant. In S.Sackmann (Ed.), Cultural complexity in organizations (pp. 72–86). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Goffman, E. (1961). Asylums: Essays on the social structure of mental patients and other inmates. Chicago: Aldine.
    Golden, K. (1992). The individual and organizational culture: Strategies for action in highly-ordered contexts. Journal of Management Studies, 29, 1–21.
    Golden-Biddle, K., & Locke, K. (1993). Appealing work: An investigation of how ethnographic texts convince. Organization Science, 4, 595–616.
    Golden-Biddle, K., & Locke, K. (1997). Composing qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Goodhead, G. (1985). What do corporations believe? Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
    Gottfredson, S. (1978, October). Evaluating psychological research reports: Dimensions, reliability, and correlates of quality judgments. American Psychologist, 33, 920–934.
    Grafton-Small, B., & Linstead, S. (1995). Bricks and bricolage: Deconstructing corporate images in stone and story. Paper presented at the Antibes Conference Workshop on Organizational Symbolism and Corporate Culture, Antibes, France.
    Grafton-Small, R., & Linstead, S. (1987). Theory as artifact. Paper presented at the International Conference on Organizational Symbolism and Corporate Culture, Milan.
    Graham, J. (1986). Principled organizational dissent: A theoretical essay. Research in organizational behavior, 8, 1–52.
    Greenwood, R., & Hinings, C. (1988). Organizational design types, tracks and the dynamics of strategic change. Organization Studies, 9, 293–316.
    Gregory, K. (1983). Native-view paradigms: Multiple cultures and culture conflicts in organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 359–376.
    Greiner, L. (1972). Evolution and revolution as organizations grow. Harvard Business Review, 50, 37–46.
    Gundry, L., & Rousseau, D. (1994). Communicating culture to newcomers. Human Relations, 47, 1065–1088.
    Gupta, A., & Ferguson, J. (Eds.). (1997). Anthropological locations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Gutek, B., & Morasch, B. (1982). Sex-ratios, sex role spillover, and sexual harassment of women at work. Journal of Social Issues, 38, 55–74.
    Habermas, J. (1971). Knowledge and human interests (J. Shapiro, Trans.). London: Heinemann.
    Hafner, K. (1997, May). The epic saga of The Well: The world's most influential online community. Wired, 98–142.
    Hannan, M., Burton, D., & Baron, J. (1996). Inertia and change in the early years: Employment relations in young, high technology firms. Industrial and Corporate Change, 5, 503–536.
    Hardy, C., & Clegg, S. (1996). Some dare call it power. In S.Clegg, C.Hardy, & W.Nord (Eds.), Handbook of organization studies (pp. 622–641). London: Sage.
    Harper, D. (1987). Working knowledge: Skill and community in a small shop. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Harré, R. (1986). Varieties of realism: A rationale for the natural sciences. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Harris, S., & Sutton, R. (1986). Functions of parting ceremonies in dying organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 19, 5–30.
    Hassard, J. (1988). Overcoming hermeticism in organization theory. Human Relations, 41, 247–259.
    Hassard, J., & Parker, M. (Eds.). (1993). Postmodernism and organizations. London: Sage.
    Hassard, J., & Pym, D. (Eds.). (1990). The theory and philosophy of organizations: Critical issues and new perspectives. London: Routledge.
    Hatch, E. (1973). Theories of man and culture. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Hatch, M. (1990). The symbolics of office design. In P.Gagliardi (Ed.), Symbols and artifacts: Views of the corporate landscape (pp. 129–146). Hawthorne, NY: de Gruyter.
    Hatch, M. (1993). The dynamics of organization culture. Academy of Management Review, 18, 657–693.
    Hatch, M. (1996). The role of the researcher: An analysis of narrative position in organization theory. Journal of Management Inquiry, 5, 359–374.
    Hatch, M. (1997). Irony and the social construction of contradiction in the humor of a management team. Organization Science, 8, 275–288.
    Hatch, M. (1999). Exploring the empty spaces of organizing: How improvisational jazz helps redescribe organizational structure. Organizational Studies, 20, 75–100.
    Hatch, M., & Ehrlich, S. (1993). Spontaneous humour as an indicator of paradox and ambiguity. Organization Studies, 14, 505–526.
    Hatch, M., & Jones, M. (1996). Photocopy lore at work: Aesthetics, collective creativity and the social construction of organizations. Studies in Culture, Organizations and Societies, 3, 1–25.
    Hatch, M., & Schultz, M. (1997). Relations between organizational culture, identity and image. European Journal of Marketing, 31, 356–365.
    Hearn, J., & Parkin, P. (1987). “Sex” at “work.”New York: St. Martin's.
    Hedberg, B. (1981). How organizations learn and unlearn. In P.Nystrom & W.Starbuck (Eds.), Handbook of organizational design: Adapting organizations to their environments, 1(pp. 3–27). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Hermans, H., & Kempen, H. (1998). Moving cultures: The perilous problems of cultural dichotomies in a globalizing society. American Psychologist, 53, 1111–1120.
    Hemes, H. (1997). Cross-cutting identifications in organizations. In S.Sackmann (Ed.), Cultural complexity in organizations (pp. 343–366). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Hemes, T. (1998). Exploring the fringes of organizations. Unpublished manuscript, TromsØ University, TromsØ, Norway.
    Hemes, T. (1999). Organizational boundaries: A dynamic perspective. Exploring the fringes of organizations. Unpublished manuscript, Tromsø University, Tromsø, Norway.
    Hirsch, P., & Andrews, A. (1983). Ambushes, shootouts, and knights of the roundtable: The language of corporate takeovers. In L.Pondy, M.Luis, P.Frost, & T.Dandridge (Eds.), Organizational symbolism. Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Hochschild, A. (1989). The second shift: Working parents and the revolution at home. New York: John Wiley.
    Hodson, R. (1998). Organizational ethnographies: An underutilized resource in the sociology of work. Social Forces, 76, 1173–1208.
    Hofstede, G. (1980). Cultures consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Hofstede, G., Neuijen, B., Ohayv, D., & Sanders, G. (1990). Measuring organizational cultures. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 286–316.
    Hong, Y., Morris, M., Chiu, C., & Benet-Martinez, V. (2000). Multicultural minds: A dynamic constructivist approach to culture and cognition. American Psychologist, 55, 709–720.
    Hurtado, A. (1989). Relating to privilege: Seduction and rejection in the subordination of white women and women of color. Signs, 14, 833–855.
    Iacocca, L. (1984). Iacocca: An autobiography. New York: Bantam.
    Ignatow, G., & Jost, J. (2000). “Idea hamsters” on the “bleeding edge”: Metaphors of life and death in Silicon Valley (Research Paper No. 1628). Stanford, CA: Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    Iser, W. (1978). The act of reading: A theory of aesthetic response. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Ishida, T. (1984). Conflict and its accommodation: Omote-Ura and Uchi-soto relations. In E.Krauss, T.Rohlen, & P.Steinhoff (Eds.), Conflict in Japan. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.
    Jackson, N., & Willmott, H. (1987). Beyond epistemology and reflective conversation: Towards human relations. Human Relations, 40, 361–380.
    Jaeger, A. (1979). An investigation of organizational culture in a multinational context. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
    Jaggar, A. (1983). Feminist politics and human nature. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld.
    Jamison, M. (1985). The joys of gardening: Collectivist and bureaucratic cultures in conflict. Sociological Quarterly, 26, 473–490.
    Jang, S., & Chung, M. (1997). Discursive contradiction of tradition and modernity in Korean management practices: A case study of Samsung's new management. In S.Sackmann (Ed.), Cultural complexity in organizations (pp. 51–71). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Jeffcutt, P. (1991). Styles of representation in organizational analysis: Heroism, happy endings and the carnivalesque in the organizational symbolism literature. Paper presented at the International Conference on Organizational Symbolism and Corporate Culture, Copenhagen.
    Jeffcutt, P. (1994). From interpretation to representation in organisational analysis: Postmodernism, ethnography and organisational symbolism. Organisation Studies, 15, 241–274.
    Jeffcutt, P. (in press). Culture and symbolism in organizational analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Jelinek, M., Smircich, L., & Hirsch, P. (1983). Introduction: A code of many colors. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 331–338.
    Jermier, J. (1985). When the sleeper wakes: A short story extending themes in radical organization theory. Journal of Management, 11, 67–80.
    Jermier, J., Slocum, J., Fry, L., & Gaines, J. (1991). Organizational subcultures in a soft bureaucracy: Resistance behind the myth and facade of an official culture. Organizational Science, 2, 170–194.
    Jick, T. (1979). Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: Triangulation in action. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 602–611.
    Jones, M., Moore, M., & Snyder, R. (1988). Inside organizations: Understanding the human dimension. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Jonsson, S., & Lundin, R. (1977). Myths and wishful thinking as management tools. In P.Nystrom & W.Starbuck (Eds.), Studies in Management Sciences: Prescriptive Models of Organizations (Vol. 5, pp. 157–170). Amsterdam: North Holland.
    Kanter, R. (1977). Men and women of the corporation. New York: Anchor.
    Katz, D., & Kahn, R. (1978). The social psychology of organizations (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: John Wiley.
    Keesing, R. (1981). Cultural anthropology: A contemporary perspective. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Kilduff, M. (1993). Deconstructing organizations. Academy of Management Review, 18, 13–31.
    Kilduff, M., & Corley, K. (2000). Organizational culture from a network perspective. Unpublished manuscript, Pennsylvania State University, University Park.
    Kilmann, R. (1985). Beyond the quick fix: Managing five tracks to organizational success. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Kilmann, R., Saxton, M., Serpa, R., & Associates. (1985). Gaining control of the corporate culture. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Kimberly, J. (1979). Issues in the creation of organizations: Initiation, innovation, and institutionalization. Academy of Management Journal, 22, 437–457.
    Kimberly, J., & Miles, R. (1980). The organizational life cycle. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Kimberly, J., & Quinn, R. (Eds.). (1984). Organizational transitions. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
    Kitayama, S., & Markus, H. (Eds.). (1994). Emotion and culture: Empirical studies of mutual influence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Kleinberg, J. (1989). Cultural clash between managers: America's Japanese firms. In S.Prasad (Ed.), Advances in international comparative management (Vol. 4, pp. 221–244). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Knights, D. (1992). Changing spaces: The disruptive impact of a new epistemological location for the study of management. Academy of Management Review, 17, 514–536.
    Knights, D., & Willmott, H. (1987). Organizational culture as management strategy. International Studies of Management and Organization, 17, 40–63.
    Koene, B., Boone, C., & Soeters, J. (1997). Organizational factors influencing homogeneity and heterogeneity of organizational cultures. In S.Sackmann (Ed.), Cultural complexity in organizations (pp. 273–293). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Kondo, D. (1990). Crafting selves: Power, gender, and discourses of identity in a Japanese workplace. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Koot, W. (1997). Strategic utilization of ethnicity in contemporary organizations. In S.Sackmann (Ed.), Cultural complexity in organizations (pp. 315–339). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Koot, W., Sabelis, I., & Ybema, S. (1996). Contradictions in context. Amsterdam: University Press.
    Kotter, J., & Heskett, J. (1992). Corporate culture and performance. New York: Free Press.
    Kreiner, K., & Schultz, M. (1995). Soft cultures: The symbolism of cross-border organizing. Studies in Culture, Organizations and Societies, 1, 63–81.
    Kreiner, K., & Tyggestad, K. (1997). The coproduction of chip and society. Unpublished manuscript, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Krug, K. (1999). A hypermediated ethnography of organizational change: Conversations in the Museum of Anthropology. Interdisciplinary PhD dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Kunda, G. (1992). Engineering culture: Control and commitment in a high-tech corporation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Kunda, G. (1996). Scenes from a marriage: Work and family in corporate drama. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Meetings, Cincinnati, OH.
    Kunda, G., & Van Maanen, J. (1999). Changing scripts at work: Managers and professionals. Annals of the American Academy, 561, 64–80.
    Kymlicka, W. (1995). Multicultural citizenship: A liberal theory of minority rights. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Larsen, J., & Schultz, M. (1990). Artifacts in a bureaucratic monastery. In P.Gagliardi (Ed.), Symbols and artifacts: Views of the corporate landscape (pp. 282–302). Berlin: de Gruyter.
    Latour, B. (1987). Science in action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Law, J. (1994). Organizing modernity. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Lawrence, P., & Lorsch, J. (1967). Organization and environment: Managing differentiation and integration. Boston: Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Administration.
    Letiche, H. (1991). Postmodernism goes practical. Paper presented at the International Conference on Organizational Symbolism and Corporate Culture, Copenhagen.
    Levitt, B., & Nass, C. (1989). The lid on the garbage can: Institutional constraints on decision making in the technical core of college-text publishers. Administrative Science Quarterly, 34, 190–207.
    Lincoln, J., & Kahlberg, A. (1985). Work organization and workforce commitment: A study of plants and employees in the U.S. and Japan. American Sociological Review, 50, 738–760.
    Linstead, S. (1991). The text of culture: Implications of post-modern thought for the analysis of culture in organizations. Paper presented at the European Group for Organizational Studies conference, Vienna.
    Linstead, S. (1993). From postmodern anthropology to deconstructive ethnography. Human Relations, 46, 97–120.
    Linstead, S., & Grafton-Small, R. (1991). No visible means of support: Ethnography and the end of deconstruction. Paper presented at the International Conference on Organizational Symbolism and Corporate Culture, Copenhagen.
    Louis, M. (1983). Sourcing workplace cultures: Why, when, and how? In R.Kilmann (Ed.), Managing corporate cultures (pp. 126–136). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Louis, M. (1985). An investigator's guide to workplace culture. In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Louis, C.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Organizational culture (pp. 73–94). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Lucas, R. (1987). Political-cultural analysis of organizations. Academy of Management Review, 12, 144–156.
    Lundberg, C. (in press). Working with cultures in organizations: A social rules perspective. In C.Cooper, S.Cartwright, & C.Early (Eds.), Handbook of organization culture (and climate). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Lyotard, J.F. (1984). The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge (G. Bennington & B. Massumi, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Mahoney, M. (1977). Publication prejudices: An experimental study of confirmatory bias on the peer review system. Cognitive Theory and Research, 1, 161–175.
    Malinowski, B. (1961). Argonauts of the Western Pacific. New York: E. P. Dutton. (Original work published 1922)
    March, J., & Olsen, J. (Eds.). (1976). Ambiguity and choice in organizations. Bergen, Norway: Universitetsforlagert.
    Marcus, G., & Fischer, M. (1999). Anthropology as cultural critique: An experimental moment in the human sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1986)
    Markus, H., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.
    Markus, H., & Kitayama, S. (1994). A collective fear of the collective: Implications for the selves and theories of selves. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 568–579.
    Marshall, J. (1984). Women managers: Travelers in a male world. London: Wiley.
    Martin, J. (1982). Stories and scripts in organizational settings. In A.Hastorf & A.Isen (Eds.), Cognitive social psychology (pp. 255–305). London: Routledge.
    Martin, J. (1990a). Deconstructing organizational taboos: The suppression of gender conflict in organizations. Organizational Science, 1, 339–359.
    Martin, J. (1990b). Breaking up the mono-method monopolies in organizational research. In J.Hassard & D.Pym (Eds.), Theory and philosophy of organizations (pp. 30–43). London: Routledge.
    Martin, J. (1992a). Cultures in organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Martin, J. (1992b). Escaping the inherent conservatism of empirical organizational research. In R.Stablein & P.Frost (Eds.), Doing exemplary research (pp. 233–239). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Martin, J. (1994). The organization of exclusion: The institutionalization of sex inequality, gendered faculty jobs, and gendered knowledge in organizational theory and research. Organization, 1, 401–431.
    Martin, J. (1995). The style and structure of cultures in organizations: Three perspectives. Organizational Science, 6, 230–232.
    Martin, J. (in press). Swimming against the tide: Aligning values and work. In R.Stablein & P.Frost (Eds.), Renewing research practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Martin, J., Brickman, P., & Murray, A. (1984). A moral outrage and pragmatism: Explanations for collective action. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 20, 484–496.
    Martin, J., & Casscells, A. (1985). Companies where women succeed or fail. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
    Martin, J., Feldman, M., Hatch, M., & Sitkin, S. (1983). The uniqueness paradox in organizational stories. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 438–453.
    Martin, J., & Frost, P. (1996). The organizational culture war games: A struggle for intellectual dominance. In S.Clegg, C.Hardy, & W.Nord (Eds.), Handbook of organization studies (pp. 599–621). London: Sage.
    Martin, J., & Harder, J. (1994). Bread and roses: Justice and the distribution of financial and socio-emotional rewards in organizations. Social Justice Research, 7, 241–264.
    Martin, J., & Knopoff, K. (1997). The gendered implications of apparently gender-neutral organizational theory: Re-reading Weber. In A.Larson & E.Freeman (Eds.), Ruffin lecture series. Vol. 3: Business ethics and women's studies (pp. 30–49). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Martin, J., Knopoff, K., & Beckman, C. (1998). An alternative to bureaucratic impersonality and emotional labor: Bounded emotionality at The Body Shop. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43, 429–469.
    Martin, J., & Meyerson, D. (1988). Organizational culture and the denial, channeling and acknowledgment of ambiguity. In L.Pondy, R.Boland, Jr., & H.Thomas (Eds.), Managing ambiguity and change (pp. 93–125). New York: John Wiley.
    Martin, J., & Meyerson, D. (1997). Executive women at http://Link.Com [A set of eight teaching cases, with instructor's notes]. Boston: Harvard University Press.
    Martin, J., & Meyerson, D. (1998). Women and power: Conformity, resistance, and disorganized co-action. In R.Kramer & M.Neale (Eds.), Power and influence in organizations (pp. 311–348). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Martin, J., & Powers, M. (1983). Truth or corporate propaganda: The value of a good war story. In L.Pondy, P.Frost, G.Morgan, & T.Dandridge (Eds.), Organizational symbolism. Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Martin, J., & Siehl, C. (1983). Organizational culture and counterculture: An uneasy symbiosis. Organizational Dynamics, 12, 52–64.
    Martin, J., Sitkin, S., & Boehm, M. (1985). Founders and the elusiveness of a cultural legacy. In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Louis, C.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Organizational culture (pp. 99–124). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Martin, J., Su, S., & Beckman, C. (1997). Enacting shared values—Myth or reality? A context-specific values audit. Manuscript in preparation.
    Maslach, C. (1974). Social and personal bases of individuation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 411–425.
    McCaskey, M. (1988). The challenge of managing ambiguity and change. In L.Pondy, R.Boland, Jr., & H.Thomas (Eds.), Managing ambiguity and change (pp. 1–18). New York: John Wiley.
    McDonald, P. (1991). The Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee: Developing organizational culture in the short run. In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Louis, C.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 26–38). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    McGovern, P., & Hope-Hailey, V. (1997). Inside Hewlett-Packard: Corporate culture and bureaucratic control. In S.Sackmann (Ed.), Cultural complexity in organizations (pp. 187–206). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    McGrath, J. (1982). Dilemmatics: The study of research choices. In J.McGrath, J.Martin, & R.Kulka (Eds.), Judgment calls in research: An unorthodox view of the research process (pp. 69–102). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    McGrath, J., Martin, J., & Kulka, R. (1982). Judgment calls in research: An unorthodox view of the research process. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Meyer, A. (1982). Adapting to environmental jolts. Administrative Science Quarterly, 27, 515–537.
    Meyer, J., & Rowan, B. (1977). Institutionalized organizations: Formal structures as a myth and ceremony. American Journal of Sociology, 83, 340–363.
    Meyerson, D. (1991a). “Normal” ambiguity? A glimpse of an occupational culture. In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Louis, C.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 131–144). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Meyerson, D. (1991b). Acknowledging and uncovering ambiguities in cultures. In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Louis, C.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 254–270). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Meyerson, D. (1994). Interpretations of stress in institutions: The cultural production of ambiguity and burnout. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39, 628–653.
    Meyerson, D., & Kolb, D. (in press). Moving out of the “armchair”: Developing a framework to bridge the gap between feminist theory and practice. Organization.
    Meyerson, D., & Martin, J. (1987). Cultural change: An integration of three different views. Journal of Management Studies, 24, 623–647.
    Meyerson, D., & Scully, M. (1995). Tempered radicalism and the politics of ambivalence and change. Organizational Science, 6, 565–600.
    Miller, D., & Friesen, P. (1983). Successful and unsuccessful phases of the corporate life cycle. Organization Studies, 4, 339–356.
    Mills, A. (1988). Organization, gender, and culture. Organization Studies, 9, 351–370.
    Mills, A. (1995). Man/aging subjectivity, silencing diversity: Organizational imagery in the airline industry. The case of British Airways. Organization, 2, 243–269.
    Mills, A. (1997). Practice makes perfect: Corporate practices, bureaucratization and the idealized gendered self. Administrative Studies, 4, 272–288.
    Mills, A., & Hatfield, J. (1997). Air Canada vs. Canadian: Competition and merger in the framing of airline culture. Studies in Culture, Organizations and Societies, 4(1), 1–32.
    Moi, T. (1985). Sexual/textual politics: Feminist literary theory. London: Methuen.
    Morgan, G. (Ed.). (1983). Beyond method. London: Sage.
    Morgan, G., & Ramirez, R. (1984). Action learning: A holographic metaphor for guiding social change. Human Relations, 37, 1–28.
    Morley, D. (1992). Television, audiences, and cultural studies. London: Routledge.
    Morrill, C., & Fine, G. (1997). Ethnographic contributions to organizational sociology. Sociological Methods & Research, 25, 424–451.
    Morris, M., Leung, K., Ames, D., & Lickel, B. (1999). Views from inside and outside: Integrating emic and etic insights about culture and justice judgment. Academy of Management Review, 24, 781–796.
    Morris, M., & Peng, K. (1994). Culture and cause: American and Chinese attributions for social physical events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 949–971.
    Mumby, D. (1987). The political function of narrative in organizations. Communication Monographs, 54, 113–127.
    Mumby, D. (1988). Communication and power in organizations: Discourse, ideology and domination. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Mumby, D. (1994). Cultures in organizations: Three perspectives, by Joanne Martin. Academy of Management Review, 19, 156–159.
    Mumby, D., & Putnam, L. (1992). The politics of emotion: A feminist reading of bounded rationality. Academy of Management Review, 17, 465–486.
    Nakane, C. (1970). Japanese society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Nkomo, S. (1992). The emperor has no clothes: Rewriting “race in organizations.” Academy of Management Review, 17, 487–513.
    Nord, W., & Connell, A. (1996). The bloodless coup: The infiltration of organization science by uncertainty and values. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 32, 407–427.
    Nord, W., & Connell, A. (1998). Criteria for good theory in organization studies 2000 A.D. Unpublished manuscript, University of South Florida, Tampa.
    Okin, S. (1989). Justice, gender, and the family. New York: Basic Books.
    Okin, S. (1995). Gender and relativism in recent historical scholarship. New Zealand Journal of History, 29, 211–225.
    Okin, S. (1996). Is multiculturalism bad for women?Boston Review, 22, 25–40.
    Olsen, F. (1983). The family and the market: A study of ideology and legal reform. Harvard Law Review, 96, 1497–1578.
    O'Reilly, C. (1989). Corporations, culture, and commitment: Motivation and social control in organizations. In M.Tushman, C.O'Reilly, & D.Nadler (Eds.), Management of organizations: Strategies, tactics, and analyses (pp. 285–303). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    O'Reilly, C., Chatman, J., & Caldwell, D. (1991). People and organizational culture: A profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 487–516.
    O'Reilly, C., & Tushman, M. (1997). Winning through innovation: A practical guide to leading organizational change and renewal. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Ott, I. (1989). The organizational culture perspective. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Ouchi, W. (1981). Theory Z: How American business can meet the Japanese challenge. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Ouchi, W., & Jaeger, A. (1978). Type Z organization: Stability in the midst of mobility. Academy of Management Review, 3, 305–314.
    Ouchi, W., & Wilkins, A. (1985). Organizational culture. Annual Review of Sociology, 11, 457–483.
    Ozick, C. (1996). Fame and folly. New York: Knopf.
    Pascale, R., & Athos, A. (1981). The art of Japanese management: Applications for American executives. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Passaro, J. (1997). “You can't take the subway to the field” “Village” epistemologies in the global village. In A.Gupta & J.Ferguson (Eds.), Anthropological locations (pp. 147–162). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Pedersen, J., & Dobbin, F. (1997). Constructing organizations: Neo-institutionalism and organizational culture (Papers in Organization No. 21). Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School, Institute of Organization and Industrial Sociology.
    Perlow, L. (1997). Finding time: How corporations, individuals, and families can benefit from new work practices. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Perrow, C. (1984). Normal accidents. New York: Basic Books.
    Peters, T., & Waterman, R. (1982). In search of excellence: Lessons from America's best-run companies. New York: Harper & Row.
    Pettigrew, A. (1979). On studying organizational culture. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 570–581.
    Pettigrew, A. (1985a). Examining change in the long-term context of culture and politics. In J.Pennings & Associates (Eds.), Organizational strategy and change (pp. 269–318). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Pettigrew, A. (1985b). The awakening giant: Continuity and change in ICI. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Pfeffer, J. (1992). Managing with power: Politics and influence in organizations. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Pfeffer, J. (1993). Barriers to the advance of organizational science: Paradigm development as a dependent variable. Academy of Management Review, 17, 599–620.
    Podsakoff, P., & Dalton, D. (1987). Research methodology in organizational studies. Journal of Management, 13, 419–441.
    Pondy, L., Frost, P., Morgan, G., & Dandridge, T. (Eds.). (1983). Organizational symbolism. Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Porras, J. (1987). Stream analysis: A powerful way to diagnose and manage organizational change. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Porras, I., & Collins, J. (1994). Built to last. New York: HarperBusiness.
    Pratt, M. (1986). Fieldwork in common places. In J.Clifford & G.Marcus (Eds.), Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography (pp. 35–37). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Putnam, L. (1996). Situating the author and the text. Journal of Management Inquiry, 5, 382–386.
    Pye, L. (1991). The state and the individual: An overview interpretation. China Quarterly, 127, 443–446.
    Rafaeli, A., & Sutton, R. (1987). Expression of emotion as part of the work role. Academy of Management Review, 12, 23–37.
    Ramirez, R. (1987). An aesthetic theory of social organization. Dragon, 2, 51–63.
    Reed, M. (1985). Redirections in organizational analysis. London: Tavistock.
    Reed, M. (1990). From paradigms to images: The paradigm warrior turns postmodern guru. Personnel Review, 19, 35–40.
    Reed, M. (1996). Organizational theorizing: A historically contested terrain. In S.Clegg, C.Hardy, & W.Nord (Eds.), Handbook of organization studies (pp. 31–56). London: Sage.
    Rifkin, C. (1985). Rituals in organizations. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
    Riley, P. (1983). A structurationist account of political cultures. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 414–437.
    Risberg, A. (1999). Ambiguities thereafter. Lund, Sweden: Lund University Press.
    Roberts, K., & Boyacigiller, N. (1984). Cross-national organizational research: The grasp of the blind men. In B.Staw & L.Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 6, pp. 423–475). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Roberts, K., Rousseau, D., & LaPorte, T. (1994). The cultures of high reliability: Quantitative and qualitative assessment aboard nuclear powered aircraft carriers. Journal of High Technology Management, 5, 141–161.
    Rodgers, W. (1969). Think. New York: Stein & Day.
    Rofel, L. (1989). Eating out of one big pot: Hegemony and resistance in a Chinese factory. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
    Rohlene, T. (1974). For harmony and strength: Japanese white-collar organizations in anthropological perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Rosaldo, M., & Lamphere, L. (Eds.). (1974). Woman, culture, andsociety. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Rosaldo, R. (1989). Culture & truth: The remaking of social analysis. Boston: Beacon.
    Rosen, M. (1985). Breakfast at Spiro's: Dramaturgy and dominance. Journal of Management, 11, 31–48.
    Rosen, M. (1991). Breakfast at Spiro's: Dramaturgy and dominance. In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Louis, C.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 77–89). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Rourke, F. (1972). Bureaucracy and foreign policy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Rousseau, D. (1990a). Assessing organizational culture: The case for multiple methods. In B.Schneider (Ed.), Frontiers of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 153–192). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Rousseau, D. (1990b). Normative beliefs in high and low fund raising organizations. Group and Organization Studies, 15, 448–460.
    Runkel, P., & McGrath, J. (1972). Research on human behavior: A systematic guide to method. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Rusted, B. (1987). “It's not called show art “Aesthetic decisions as organizational practice. Dragon, 2, 127–136.
    Sabelis, I. (1996). Temporal paradoxes: Working with cultural diversity in organizations. In W.Koot, I.Sabelis, & S.Ybema (Eds.), Contradictions in context (pp. 171–192). Amsterdam: VU University Press.
    Sabrosky, A., Thompson, J., & McPherson, K. (1982). Organized anarchies: Military bureaucracy in the 1980s. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 18, 137–153.
    Sackmann, S. (Ed.). (1997). Cultural complexity in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Sahlins, M. (1985). Islands of history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Sahlins, M. (1995). How “natives” think about Captain Cook, for example. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Said, E. (1989). Representing the colonized: Anthropology's interlocutors. Critical Inquiry, 15, 205–225.
    Sales, A., & Mirvis, P. (1984). When cultures collide: Issues of acquisition. In J.Kimberly & R.Quinn (Eds.), Managing organizational transition (pp. 107–133). Homewood, IL: Irwin.
    Sathe, V. (1985). Culture and related corporate realities: Text, cases, and readings on organizational entry, establishment, and change. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
    Schall, M. (1983). A communication rules approach to organizational culture. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 557–581.
    Schank, R., & Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, plans, and knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Schein, E. (1978). Career dynamics: Matching individual and organizational needs. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Schein, E. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Schein, E. (1987). The clinical perspective in field work. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Schein, E. (1991a). The role of the founder in the creation of organizational culture. In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Louis, C.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 14–25). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Schein, E. (1991b). What is culture? In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Louis, C.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 243–253). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Schein, E. (1996). Three cultures of management: The key to organizational learning. Sloan Management Review, 38, 9–21.
    Schein, E. (1999). The corporate culture survival guide: Sense & nonsense about culture change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Schein, L. (1998). The other goes to market: Gender, sexuality, and unruliness in post-Mao China. In M.Diamond (Ed.), Women and revolution: Global expressions (pp. 363–393). Amsterdam: Kluwer.
    Schneider, B. (Ed.). (1990). Organizational climate and culture. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Schneider, S., & Barsoux, J. (1997). Managing across cultures. New York: Prentice Hall.
    Schultz, M. (1991). Transitions between symbolic domains in organizations. Organization Studies, 12, 489–506.
    Schultz, M. (1992). Postmodern pictures of culture. International Studies of Management & Organization, 22, 15–35.
    Schultz, M. (1995). On studying organizational cultures: Diagnosis and understanding. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    Schultz, M., & Hatch, M. (1996). Living with multiple paradigms: The case of paradigm interplay in organizational culture studies. Academy of Management Review, 21, 529–557.
    Schwartz, H., & Davis, S. (1981). Matching corporate culture and business strategy. Organizational Dynamics, 10, 30–48.
    Sebag, L. (1964). Marxisme et structuralisme. Paris: Payot.
    Selznick, P. (1957). Leadership and administration. Evanston, IL: Row & Peterson.
    Sergiovanni, T., & Corbally, J. (Eds.). (1984). Leadership and organizational culture. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Sewell, G., & Wilkinson, B. (1992). Someone to watch over me: Surveillance, discipline, and the just-in-time labour process. Sociology, 26, 271–289.
    Sewell, G., & Wilkinson, B. (1998). Empowerment or emasculation: Shop floor surveillance in a total quality organisation. In P.Blyton & P.Turnbull (Eds.), Reassessing human resource management (pp. 97–115). London: Sage.
    Shallenberger, D. (1994). Professional and openly gay: A narrative study of the experience. Journal of Management Inquiry, 3, 119–142.
    Sharpe, D. (1997). Managerial control strategies and subcultural processes: On the shop floor in a Japanese manufacturing organization in the United Kingdom. In S.Sackmann (Ed.), Cultural complexity in organizations (pp. 228–251). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Shenkar, O., & von Glinow, M. (1994). Paradoxes of organizational theory and research: Using the case of China to illustrate national contingency. Management Science, 40, 56–71.
    Shrivastava, P. (1994). Greening business: Towards sustainable corporations. Cincinnati, OH: Thompson Executive Press.
    Shriver, S. (1986). The vision. In M.Viorst (Ed.), Making a difference: The Peace Corps at twenty five (pp. 15–29). New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
    Shweder, R. (1991). Thinking through cultures: Expeditions in cultural psychology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Siehl, C. (1984). Cultural sleight-of-hand: The illusion of consistency. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
    Siehl, C., & Martin, J. (1984). The role of symbolic management: How can managers effectively transmit organizational culture? In J.Hunt, D.Hosking, C.Schriesheim, & R.Stewart (Eds.), Leaders and managers: International perspectives on managerial behavior and leadership (Vol. 7, pp. 227–239). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
    Siehl, C., & Martin, J. (1988). Measuring organizational culture: Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. In M.Jones, M.Moore, & R.Snyder (Eds.), Inside organizations: Understandingthe human dimension (pp. 79–104). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Siehl, C., & Martin, J. (1990). Organizational culture: A key to financial performance? In B.Schneider (Ed.), Organizational climate and culture (pp. 241–281). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Silverman, D. (1970). The theory of organizations. New York: Basic Books.
    Sims, H., & Gioia, D. (1986). The thinking organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Smircich, L. (1983a). Concepts of culture and organizational analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 339–358.
    Smircich, L. (1983b). Organizations as shared meanings. In L.Pondy, P.Frost, G.Morgan, & T.Dandridge (Eds.), Organizational symbolism (pp. 55–65). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Smircich, L., & Calás, M. (1987). Organizational culture: A critical assessment. In F.Jablin, L.Putnam, K.Roberts, & L.Porter (Eds.), Handbook of organizational communication (pp. 228–263). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Smircich, L., Calás, M., & Morgan, G. (Eds.). (1992). Theory development forum [Special issue]. Academy of Management Review, 17.
    Smircich, L., & Morgan, G. (1982). Leadership: The management of meaning. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 18, 257–273.
    Smith, V. (1993). Cultures in organizations: Three perspectives by Joanne Martin. Contemporary Sociology, 22, 418–421.
    Snyder, C., & Fromkin, H. (1980). Uniqueness: The human pursuit of difference. New York: Plenum.
    Spivak, G. (1988). Can the subaltern speak? In C.Nelson & L.Grossberg (Eds.), Marxism and the interpretation of culture (pp. 271–313). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Sproull, L. (1981). Beliefs in organizations. In P.Nystrom & W.Starbuck (Eds.), Handbook of organizational design: Vol. 2. Remodeling organizations and their environments (pp. 203–244). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Stablein, R. (1996). Data in organization studies. In S.Clegg, C.Hardy, & W.Nord (Eds.), Handbook of organization studies (pp. 509–525). London: Sage.
    Stablein, R., & Nord, W. (1985). Practical and emancipatory interests in organizational symbolism: A review and evaluation. Journal of Management, 11, 13–28.
    Starbuck, W. (1983). Organizations as action generators. American Sociological Review, 48, 91–102.
    Starbuck, W. (2000). Taking stock of the publication process. Paper presented at the ASAC-IFSAM 2000 conference, July 8–11, Montreal.
    Stephenson, W. (1953). The study of behavior: Q-technique and its methodology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Stevenson, W., & Bartunek, J. (1996). Power, interaction, position, and the generation of cultural agreement in organizations. Human Relations, 49, 75–104.
    Strati, A. (1992). Aesthetic understanding of organizational life. Academy of Management Review, 17, 568–581.
    Strati, A. (1999). Organization and aesthetics. London: Sage.
    Strober, M. (1990). Human capital theory: Implications for HR managers. Industrial Relations, 29, 214–239.
    Sunesson, S. (1985). Outside the goal paradigm: Power and structured patterns of non-rationality. Organization Studies, 6, 229–246.
    Sutton, R. (1994). The virtues of closet qualitative research. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
    Swidler, A. (1986). A culture in action: Symbols and strategies. American Sociological Review, 51, 237–286.
    Takashi, S. (1997). Organizational culture and innovation: Theoretical modeling and statistical testing. Journal of Economics, 62, 27–67.
    Tedlock, B. (1991). From participation observation to observation of participation: The emergence of narrative ethnography. Journal of Anthropological Research, 47, 69–94.
    Tobias, A. (1976). Fire and ice. New York: William Morrow.
    Tom, A. (1986). To make a life for myself: An ethnography of a job training program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
    Torbert, W. (1976). Creating a community of inquiry. London: Wiley.
    Townley, B. (1993). Foucault, power/knowledge, and its relevance for human resource management. Academy of Management Review, 18, 518–545.
    Triandis, H. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychological Review, 90, 506–520.
    Trice, H., & Beyer, J. (1984). Studying organizational cultures through rites and ceremonials. Academy of Management Review, 9, 653–669.
    Trice, H., & Beyer, J. (1985). Using six organizational rites to change cultures. In R.Kilmann, M.Saxton, & R.Serpa (Eds.), Gaining control of the corporate culture (pp. 370–399). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Trice, H., & Beyer, J. (1993). The cultures of work organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Tulin, M. (1997). Talking organization: Possibilities for conversation analysis in organizational behavior research. Journal of Management Inquiry, 6, 101–119.
    Turner, B. (1971). Exploring the industrial subculture. London: Macmillan.
    Turner, B. (1986). Sociological aspects of organizational symbolism. Organizational Studies, 7, 101–115.
    Turner, B. (1990). The rise of organizational symbolism. In J.Hassard & D.Pym (Eds.), The theory and philosophy of organizations: Critical issues and new perspectives (pp. 83–96). London: Routledge.
    Turner, V. (1969). The ritual process: Structure and anti-structure. Chicago: Aldine.
    Tushman, M., & Romanelli, E. (1985). Organizational evolution: A metamorphosis model of convergence and reorientation. In L.Cummings & B.Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 7, pp. 171–222). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Tyler, S. (1986). Post-modern ethnography: From document of the occult to occult document. In J.Clifford & C.Marcus (Eds.), Writing culture (pp. 122–140). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    U.S. General Accounting Office. (1992). Organizational culture: Techniques companies use to perpetuate or change beliefs and values (GAO/NSLAD-91-105). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Uttal, B. (1983, October 17). The corporate culture vultures. Fortune, 180, 66–72.
    Van de Ven, A. (1997). The buzzing, blooming, confusing world of organization and management theory: A view from Lake Wobegon University. Paper presented at the Academy of Management conference, Boston.
    Van Maanen, J. (1976). Breaking-in: Socialization to work. In R.Dubin (Ed.), Handbook of work, organization, and society (pp. 67–130). Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Van Maanen, J. (Ed.). (1979). Qualitative methodology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Van Maanen, J. (1986). Power in the bottle. In S.Srivasta (Ed.), Executive power. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Van Maanen, J. (1988). Tales of the field: On writing ethnography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Van Maanen, J. (1991). The smile factory: Work at Disneyland. In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Louis, C.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 58–76). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Van Maanen, J. (1995a). Style as theory. Organizational Science, 1, 133–143.
    Van Maanen, J. (1995b). Fear and loathing in organization studies. Organization Science, 6, 687–692.
    Van Maanen, J. (1996). On the matter of voice. Journal of Management Inquiry, 5, 375–381.
    Van Maanen, J., & Barley, S. (1984). Occupational communities: Culture and control in organizations. In B.Staw & L.Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 6, pp. 287–366). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Van Maanen, J., & Barley, S. (1985). Cultural organization: Fragments of a theory. In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Louis, C.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Organizational culture (pp. 31–54). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Van Maanen, J., Dabbs, J., Jr., & Faulkner, R. (1982). Varieties of qualitative research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Van Maanen, J., & Kunda, G. (1989). “Real feelings”: Emotional expression and organizational culture. In L.Cummings & B.Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 11, pp. 43–103). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    van Marrewijk, A. (1996). The paradox of dependency: Cross-cultural relations of three Dutch development organizations and their Bolivian counterparts. In W.Root, I.Sabelis, & S.Ybema (Eds.), Contradictions in context (pp. 113–131). Amsterdam: VU University Press.
    van Reine, P. (1996). Globalization and the local development of models for management and organization: The periphery talks back. In W.Koot, I.Sabelis, & S.Ybema (Eds.), Contradictions in context (pp. 87–111). Amsterdam: VU University Press.
    Weaver, G., & Gioia, D. (1994). Paradigms lost: Incommensurability vs. structurationist inquiry. Organization Studies, 15, 565–589.
    Webb, E., Campbell, D., Schwartz, R., & Sechrest, L. (1972). Unobtrusive measures: Non-reactive research in the social sciences. Skokie, IL: Rand McNally. (Original work published 1966)
    Weedon, C. (1987). Feminist practice and post-structuralist theory. Cambridge, UK: Basil Blackwell.
    Weick, K. (1979). The social psychology of organizing. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Weick, K. (1983). Contradictions in a community of scholars: The cohesion-accuracy tradeoff. Review of Higher Education, 6, 253–267.
    Weick, K. (1991). The vulnerable system: An analysis of the Tenerife air disaster. In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Louis, C.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 117–130). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Weick, K. (1999). Theory construction as disciplined reflexivity: Tradeoffs in the 90s. Academy of Management Review, 24, 797–806.
    Wels, H. (1996). Strategy as paradox and paradox as strategy. Images of and paradoxes in Chinese culture: Expatriate managers in Sino-Western joint ventures. In W.Koot, I.Sabelis, & S.Ybema (Eds.), Contradictions in context (pp. 113–131). Amsterdam: VU University Press.
    Westra, A. (1996). Between contrariness and complaisance: The paradox of power—About tools of upward influence in the Netherlands. In W.Koot, I.Sabelis, & S.Ybema (Eds.), Contradictions in context (pp. 151–169). Amsterdam: VU University Press.
    Whetten, D. (2001). Hybrids as a special case of organizational identity. Unpublished manuscript, Brigham Young University, Marriott School, Provo, UT.
    Whitehead, A. (1985). Science and the modern world. London: Free Association Books. (Original work published 1926)
    Who's excellent now? (1984, November 5). Business Week, 76–88.
    Whyte, W. (1991). Street corner society: Excerpts from the appendix to the 1955 edition. In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Louis, C.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 173–191). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Wilkins, A. (1979). Organizational stories as an expression of management philosophy: Implications for social control in organizations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
    Willis, P. (1981). Learning to labour. London: Routledge Kegan Paul. (Original work published 1977)
    Willmott, H. (1987). Studying managerial work: A critique and a proposal. Journal of Management Studies, 24, 248–270.
    Willmott, H. (1990). Strength is ignorance, slavery is freedom: Managing culture in modern organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 30, 515–552.
    Willmott, H. (1994). Theorizing human agency: Responding to the crises of (post)-modernity. In J.Hassard & M.Parker (Eds.), Towards a new theory of organizations. London: Routledge.
    Willmott, H., & Knights, D. (1995). Culture and control in a life insurance company. Studies in Culture, Organizations and Societies, 1, 1–18.
    Wright, J. (1979). On a clear day you can see General Motors. Grosse Point, MI: Wright.
    Wuthnow, R., Hunter, J., Bergesen, A., & Kurzweil, E. (1984). Cultural analysis. Boston: Routledge Kegan Paul.
    Xenikou, A., & Furnham, A. (1996). A correlational and factor analytic study of four questionnaire measures of organizational behavior. Human Relations, 49, 349–371.
    Yanagisako, S. (2000). Capital and kinship: An ethnography of Italian family capitalism. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
    Yarmey, A., & Yarmey, M. (1997). Eyewitness recall and duration estimates in field settings. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 330–344.
    Ybema, S. (1996). The duck-billed platypus in the theory and analysis of organizations: Combinations of consensus and dissensus. In W.Koot, I.Sabelis, & S.Ybema (Eds.), Contradictions in context (pp. 39–61). Amsterdam: VU University Press.
    Ybema, S. (1997). Telling tales: Contrasts and commonalities within the organization of an amusement park-confronting and combining different perspectives. In S.Sackmann (Ed.), Cultural complexity in organizations (pp. 160–186). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Yeatman, A. (1994). Postmodern revisionings of the political. London: Routledge.
    Young, E. (1989). On the naming of the rose: Interests and multiple meanings as elements of organizational culture. Organization Studies, 10, 187–206.
    Young, E. (1991). On the naming of the rose: Interests and multiple meanings as elements of organizational culture. In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Louis, C.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 90–103). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Zimbardo, P. (1969). The human choice: Individuation, reason, and order versus deindividuation, impulse and chaos. In W.Arnold & D.Levine (Eds.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 237–308). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
    Zucker, L. (1977). The role of institutionalization in cultural persistence. American Sociological Review, 42, 726–743.

    Name Index

    About the Author

    Joanne Martin is the Fred H. Merrill Professor of Organizational Behavior at the Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, where she also holds a courtesy appointment in the Department of Sociology. She received a PhD in social psychology from Harvard University. She has served in various positions, including as a member of the Board of Governors of the Academy of Management. In August 2000, she received the Academy's Distinguished Educator of the Year award. She also serves on the board of directors of Consulting Psychologist Press and on various advisory boards. She is author of more than 60 articles and five books, including Cultures in Organizations: Three Perspectives (1992) and Refraining Organizational Culture (coedited with P. Frost, L. Moore, M. Louis, & C. Lundberg; Sage, 1991). Her current research interests include both culture and gender.

    • Loading...
Back to Top