Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Neuropsychological Approach
Publication Year: 2018
This edited book is a comprehensive presentation of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) through a neuropsychological framework and the various empirical researches carried out in this domain. The book evaluates whether the information from different research perspectives can form a strong basis for improving the available treatment options for OCD as well as devising newer and better therapy strategies. It thoroughly discusses the various neuropsychological assessment tools that can be used to study the different dimensions of OCD in terms of symptom severity, beliefs, personality and cognition, including executive functions. The book provides guidelines to enhance the skills necessary for developing clinical acumen. The distorted beliefs and functioning, familial factors and scope for inheriting the disorder and obsessive–compulsive spectrum are also described in detail. The book ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Introduction: The Research Journey
- Chapter 1: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Functional Overview
- Chapter 2: History Taking, Mental Status Examination and Assessment
- Chapter 3: Study of Attention in OCD in Comparison with Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease
- Chapter 4: Obsessive Personality Traits, Metacognitive Beliefs and Executive Functions in Patients with OCD
- Chapter 5: Search for an Endophenotypic Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
- Chapter 6: Impulsivity Versus Compulsivity: Personality Predisposition and Executive Functioning in OCD, OCSD and BPD
- Chapter 7: Slowness in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Study
- Chapter 8: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Psychoanalytic and Neuropsychological Interface
First published in 2018 by
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Copyright © Pritha Mukhopadhyay and Sreemoyee Tarafder, 2018
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Mukhopadhyay, Pritha, editor. | Tarafder, Sreemoyee, editor.
Title: Obsessive compulsive disorder: a neuropsychological approach / edited by Pritha Mukhopadhyay, Sreemoyee Tarafder.
Description: New Delhi, India: SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd; Thousand Oaks, California, USA: SAGE Publications Inc., 2018. | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2018022459 | ISBN 9789352807314 (hardcover: alk. paper) | ISBN 9789352807321 (e pub 2.0) | ISBN 9789352807338 (e book)
Subjects: LCSH: Obsessive compulsive disorder.
Classification: LCC RC533 .O26427 2018 | DDC 616.85/227—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018022459
ISBN: 978-93-528-0731-4 (HB)
SAGE Team: Abhijit Baroi, Guneet Kaur Gulati, Shobana Paul and Ritu Chopra
Published by Vivek Mehra for SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, typeset in 10.5/13 pt Sabon by Zaza Eunice, Hosur, Tamil Nadu, India and printed at Chaman Enterprises, New Delhi.
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List of Tables[Page ix]
- 2.1 Mental Status Examination (MSE) 65
- 3.1 Socio-demographic and Clinical Characteristics of the Two Clinical Groups: OCD and IPD 93
- 3.2 Performance of OCD Group and Their Matched Community Controls (CCG1) on Measures of Selective and Sustained Attention 94
- 3.3 Performance of IPD Group and Their Matched Community Controls on Measures of Selective and Sustained Attention 95
- 4.1 Metacognition Schema 112
- 4.2 Socio-demographic Details of the OCD and the FDR Groups Along with Their Respective Control Groups 117
- 4.3 Comparison Between OCD and the Peer CG on BDI, LOI and MCQ by Unpaired t-test with Mean (M), SD, t-test Values and Corresponding Level of Significance 118
- 4.4 Comparison Between OCD and the Control Group (CG) on NEO-Five Factor Inventory by Unpaired t-test with Mean (M), Standard Deviations (SD), t-test Values and Corresponding Level of Significance 120
- 4.5 Comparison Between OCD and the Peer Control Group (CG) on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test by Unpaired t-test with Mean (M), Standard Deviations (SD), t-test Values and Corresponding Level of Significance 122
- 4.6 Comparison Between OCD and the CG on COWAT and Animal Naming Test by Unpaired t-test with M, SD, t-test Values and Corresponding Level of Significance 123 [Page x]
- 4.7 Comparison Between OCD and the CG on Arithmetic, Letter Number Sequencing (LNS) and Digit Span That Provides the Working Memory Index (WAIS-III), the N-Back (Verbal) Test by Unpaired t-test with M, SD, t-test Values and Corresponding Level of Significance 124
- 4.8 Comparison Between OCD and the Control Group (CG) on Symbol Search and Coding That Provides the Processing Speed Index (WAIS-III) by Unpaired t-test with Mean (M), Standard Deviations (SD), t-test Values and Corresponding Level of Significance 125
- 4.9 Comparison Between OCD and the Control Group (CG) on Various Measures of Tower of London Test by Unpaired t-test with Mean (M), Standard Deviations (SD), t-test Values and Corresponding Level of Significance 126
- 4.10 Results of SMRA Showing the Variables Contributing Significantly to OC Symptoms (as Assessed on LOI) in OCD Group 129
- 5.1 Brief Summary of Impairments in Executive Functions Reported Among the FDRs by Earlier Researchers 152
- 5.2 Socio-demographic Details of the Participants 157
- 5.3 Mean (M), Standard Deviations (SD), t-test Values with Corresponding Level of Significance of the Findings Obtained by OCD, Control Group (CG), FDR and FCG on Beck Depression Inventory, Leyton Obsession Inventory, Metacognition Questionnaire, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Processing Speed Index, Working Memory Index (on WAIS-III) and Tower of London Test 158 [Page xi]
- 5.4 Criterion Measures and Test Variables and Correlated Variables for OCD and FDR 161
- 6.1 Correlation Table 183
- 6.2 Mean (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) of OCD, OCSD, BPD and CG on BDI and NEO-Five Factor Inventory Along with Mean Difference (Mann-Whitney U Test) Comparing OCD with OCSD, BPD and CG 185
- 6.3 NEO Style Analysis of the Three Study Groups, Namely, OCD, OCSD and BPD, Based on the Big Five Constellation Using NEO-FFI 186
- 6.4 Mean (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) of OCD, OCSD, BPD and CG on Variables of WCST Along with Mean Difference (Mann-Whitney U Test) Comparing OCD with OCSD, BPD and CG, Respectively 187
- 7.1 Mean, SD and t-values Showing Significance of Differences Between the OCD, Depression and Control Groups 216
- 7.2 Results of Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis (SMRA) Showing Impact on the DV Domains by the Predictors in the OCD Group 218 [Page xii]
List of Figures[Page xiii]
- 1.1 Model Describing the Formation of Compulsive Washing Behaviour in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 39
- 3.1 Comparison Between OCD and IPD on Attentional Tasks 97
- 4.1 Comparative Performance of the Two Groups on BDI and LOI Indicated by Mean Obtained by the OCD and CG 119
- 4.2 Comparative Performance of the Two Groups on NEO Five Factor Inventory 121
- 5.1 Endophenotypic Model of OCD 167
- 6.1 Different Mechanisms Present in the Disorders (OCD, OCSD and BPD) That Differ in Overt Expression 193
- 6.2 Orderliness in OCD and OCSD Versus Randomness in BPD 197
- 7.1 Causal Factors for Perseveration and Slowness 207
- 8.1 Parallel Between the Freudian Premise and the Neuropsychological Understanding of OCD 233 [Page xiv]
List of Abbreviations[Page xv]
audiovisual display time reproducer
body dysmorphic disorder
Beck Depression Inventory
Bender Gestalt Test
borderline personality disorder
cognitive behaviour therapy
community control group
Controlled Oral Word Association Test
Centre with Potential for Excellence in Particular Area
deep brain stimulation
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Epidemiologic Catchment Area
executive functions[Page xvi]
Edinburgh Handedness Inventory
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
exposure and response prevention
follicle stimulating hormone
failure to maintain set
General Health Questionnaire
galvanic skin response
Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression
International Classification of Disorders
Iowa Gambling Task
idiopathic Parkinson's disease
International Personality Disorder Examination
internal working model
Letter Number Sequencing
Leyton Obsessional Inventory
major depressive disorder
Mini-Mental State Examination
magnetic resonance imaging
mental status examination
National Association of Psychology
NEO Five Factor Inventory
NEO Personality Inventory[Page xvii]
number of categories completed
Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire
obsessive compulsive disorder
obsessive compulsive personality disorder
obsessive compulsive personality traits
obsessive compulsive spectrum disorder
percent conceptual level response
percent nonperseverative error
percent perseverative error
percent perseverative response
Processing Speed Index
Standardized Assessment of Personality Abbreviated Scale
structural equation modelling
Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis
Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
Self-regulatory Executive Function
serotonin reuptake inhibitors
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
Serial Subtraction Test
trials to complete first category
Temperament and Character Inventory[Page xviii]
TOL – DX
Tower of London Drexel University
Wecshler Adult Intelligence Scale-III
Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
World Health Organization
Working Memory Index
Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale
Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Symptom Checklist
For more than a century psychologists have been trying to understand OCD in terms of its diagnosis, aetiology and prognosis. It was since the case history of ‘Rat Man’ was reported by Freud in 1909 that OCD has remained a fertile area of research in clinical psychology. The Rat Man was indeed a lawyer fantasizing about being tormented by rats. The lawyer was very fearful that terrible things may happen to his father and his lady friend. Freud personally treated him regularly for three months and sporadically afterwards, using his method of psychoanalysis. The lawyer had partial relief but was never cured completely. Research in the area of OCD has come a long way from the days of Freud, who incidentally was the contemporary of Girindra Shekhar Bose, the first psychoanalyst in India. OCD is now taken as a spectrum of neuropsychological disorders treated by a combination of psychotherapy, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and pharmacological drugs. There is a vast body of knowledge today about the role of cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuit. Hollander (2013) while bringing out DSM-V expanded the scope of OCD as a spectrum of disorders, introducing the continuum of ‘compulsive-impulsive’ along which the disorders vary. Impulsivity implied deficient mental control and premature act at one end of the continuum, the other being rigidity and over-control. A term ‘obsessive compulsive spectrum disorder’ was introduced to cover a wide range of OCDs. That has given research a new direction in this area. But even today it is looked upon as a mysterious disease, and we have a long way to go in deciphering the origins and true character of this disorder. It is still considered, as in Freudian days, that OCD can be managed by psychotherapy and drugs, but there is no cure.[Page xx]
The present book on OCD, edited by Professor Pritha Mukhopadhyay and Dr Sreemoyee Tarafder, is a comprehensive work comprising a series of studies. Professor Mukhopadhyay set up a neuropsychological laboratory in the Psychology Department of University of Calcutta in 2000, and the present book is the culmination of this team's research on OCD in the last 15 years. She and her students conducted a series of studies over this long period and have come out with salient findings on obsessive compulsive behaviour. This work has set a new direction and approach in the study of OCD. The implications of her findings are worth considering for the management of this disorder. In seven chapters of this book, the editors have examined OCD patients from psychological, physiological and neurological perspectives. The book also focuses on the prognosis and other ramifications of OCD.
As many aetiological studies show, OCD is on rise in India. It should be noted that most of the aetiological studies are conducted in urban areas and few in rural areas. The reported studies are mostly clinical observation rather than demographic surveys. A gross estimation shows that around 2% to 3% of the population suffers from OCD in India, which includes both mild and severe cases. OCD often manifests in late adolescence, and the disorder continues for lifetime with intermittent remission. In recent decades, OCD has been on the rise, and we are still in the process of understanding its prognosis and various ramifications. One of the reasons for lack of reliable data about OCD is its overlap with obsessive compulsive personality, obsessive compulsive spectrum and related symptoms. Another difficulty is that children with OCD often hide their symptoms and are shy of talking about it. This leads to delay in diagnosis of the disorder.
OCD is a chronic disorder and can only have symptomatic relief. Obsession implies repetition of the same thought, imagery or idea for long period of time and compulsion is repetition of some action over and over again. It becomes a disorder when [Page xxi]patients have no control on their thinking and behaviour, and suffers distressing anxiety. Some of the important manifestations of obsession are fear of causing harm to someone else, fear of harm inflicted to self, fear of contamination, need for symmetry or exactness, sexual and religious fixation, fear of behaving unacceptably and anxiety of making a mistake. The consequent compulsive behaviour may be cleaning, hand washing, checking, ordering and arranging, hoarding, asking for reassurance and mental acts such as counting, silent word repetition and rumination. It is a mentally disabling condition, varying from person to person and severity varying even within the same person at different times. In most severe condition, it may completely take over the thinking faculty and activities, such as in case of a possessed person. As a mental health disorder, it should be understood that there is no treatment of the disease, only symptomatic relief is possible.
It is characteristic of OCD that it often gets associated with other disorders such as depression, suicidal tendencies, eating disorders (such as bulimia), anxiety attack and sexual perversions. Then the situation becomes even more complicated and threatening. According to WHO, suicide will be the number one killer disease by 2030, and OCD will play an important contributory role in that. Containing OCD becomes all the more urgent in such cases. Children with autism have greater probability of developing OCD.
The main thesis of the work reported in this book is that repetitive thinking along with associated faulty neural network leads to multiple cognitive deficits. It contends that there is a symbiotic connection between brain and behaviour. Neurological dysfunctioning is both cause and consequence of OCD. It is reported that OCD patients are slow in responding to conflicting and noncon-flicting situations. They follow their internal rule—disregarding external instructions—and this choice does not arouse any guilt. Information processing speed is found to be the potent predictor of severity of the disorder. Higher-order cognitive activities [Page xxii]such as planning, intention, coordination and integration (called executive functions) are severely impaired in the condition of OCD. These and other findings reported in this book render it a valuable contribution in the field of OCD.Retd Professor of Psychology, University of Allahabad
Acknowledgements[Page xxiii]Pritha Mukhopadhyay
Throughout my life, I have acknowledged to myself that the only best friend of my life is my mom. My mother, Mrs Pranati Mukherji, who is no more with me, but is always there. It is she who made me what I am today. But for the first time in my life I am formally acknowledging, ‘Mom, I have no words to express the insight, love and support you've given me’.
My sincere gratitude to my department, the Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta, for providing me with all the facilities to carry out my research work with my students and research scholars. I am thankful to Centre with Potential for Excellence in Particular Area (CPEPA) for providing me with the infrastructure to do the research and also with an academic impetus to disseminate knowledge in a greater sphere by providing a peaceful ambience.
I have no words to express my thanks to Professor Ajit Dalai who has given me inspiration and guidance from the time I communicated to him about this attempt to write a book based on our own research. I am thankful to all the doctors, Professor Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Dr Jai Ranjan Ram, Dr Satyajit Ash and Dr Abhijit Hazra, who have sent patients to us and helped us as and when necessary. We continuously felt their support throughout the course of our work. I am delighted to mention that my students and research scholars—Ms Ananya Mondal, Ms Piya Saha, Ms Ayoleena Ray, Mr Kaustav Manna and Ms Doyel Ghosh—helped me at every step in making tables, formatting texts, charting graphs and correcting typographic errors.
To Sreemoyee, I will just say that the comfort of cognitive symbiosis that you have provided to me cannot be expressed [Page xxiv]in words—if I would start a thought, you'd finish it for me and that is perhaps the reason why we worked so well together. I am thankful to all the authors who have contributed to the book— Mrs Suvosree Bhattacharya, Dr Sujata Das, Professor Shyamal Kumar Das, Dr Dinaz Bilimoria, Ms Parmeet Soni and Mrs Nilanjana Chatterjee. Without their contribution and cooperation, the book would not have been possible. I extend my thanks to the editorial and production teams of SAGE India for their continuous guidance and monitoring for publication of the book.
This work could not be made complete with all the workload I have to undertake as academic and administrative responsibilities of the department and the university. But I am ever so grateful to my husband, Professor S. K. Ghoshal, who always stands beside me in any of my academic endeavours and helps me to improve my knowledge at every step. My daughter, Ms Sayari Ghoshal, her concern for me, her tolerance and her ability to never place her need before mine and always smiling. I do not know how to say my thanks to her.Sreemoyee Tarafder
An absence that makes its presence felt at every juncture of my life is that of my mother. When I graduated from college, my mother had gifted me a book, and on its inside cover she had written words of encouragement for me that I cherish till date. When our book is being published, she is not around to hold it in her hands, but I know what she would have said, and I know what I would have felt. So, to begin with, I thank her—my mother, Sanghamitra Tarafder—a woman of immense wisdom and empathy who taught me all about unconditional love and instilled in me the love for academia. This is your dream, Maa.
I know that this book would not have been possible without the driving force of my supervisor and mentor Professor Pritha Mukhopadhyay. The book is the result of her tireless efforts and rigour that made all of us put in our best. She is my co-editor for [Page xxv]the book, and I feel honoured to share the title credits with her. I remain ‘limbically yours, Mamie’. It was good to work at the CPEPA lab over endless cups of tea and food (being supplied by Ananya and Pia), interspersed by some invigorating conversations with Ma'am, her students and scholars.
I have received a lot of help from Dr Dinaz Jeejeebhoy—my co-author and guardian angel. Rupam Banerjee, Navnita Bose, Priyanka Roy, Parmeet Soni, Suvosree Bhattacharya—I really appreciate their inputs and comments at various stages of the work. Had it not been for Professor Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Dr Jai Ranjan Ram, Dr Satyajit Ash and my teachers—Professor P. K. Chattopadhyay, Debabrata Biswas, late Saugato Basu, Professor Nilanjana Sanyal, Prasanta Kr. Roy among others—I would have perhaps not acquired an insightful understanding of OCD.
I thank my inner circle of love—DJLPS (my soul sisters Dona Pal, Jayshree Sarda, ‘Lalti’, Priyanka Bhattacharyya and Priyanka Thapar)—for keeping the dream alive in me. My friends kept me afloat through difficult times and the last two years have not been easy; hence, a big thanks to ‘Mangsho-Mishti-More’, Trina, Srinayana, Priyanka, Pushpita, Sayantan, Souvik, Anuttama and Jhuma for your hand-holding. I am also indebted to my workplace—West Bengal State University, the Honb'le Vice Chancellor Prof. Basab Chaudhuri and all my departmental colleagues for ensuring that I could devote time to the book. My students at WBSU are my source of sustenance, they provide me with immense joy and satisfaction. I feel humbled by the love that they shower on me and they must be thanked for keeping my spirits high. My friends from work— ‘Mureer Tin’, especially Dr Kausik Bandyopadhyay, needs special mention for guiding me about the publication process. I am especially thankful to Abhijit Baroi, Guneet Kaur Gulati and team SAGE for beautifully guiding us all through the journey.
Words cannot express the admiration that I feel for my father Sri Apurba Kumar Tarafder, who always inspires me with his infectious workaholism. And my family—brother Abhishek, his [Page xxvi]wife Gargi, niece Aritri, uncle Sameer Mitra and father-in-law, Sri Aditya Kr Chatterjee—for providing the holding environment.
I thank my husband, Dr Siddhartha Chattopadhyay, for being my cherished friend and for making the frame of my life so beautiful with his steady and nurturing presence, encouraging me to become the best that I can be.
About the Editors and Contributors[Page 238]Editors
Pritha Mukhopadhyay is Professor at the Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta. She has been a brilliant and meritorious student right from the beginning of her student life. She was awarded national scholarship by the Government of India for her performance at higher secondary and graduation examinations. She was the recipient of the gold medal at the postgraduation level at the Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta in 1980. She went on to join the Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta as a lecturer in 1986. She was awarded her doctoral degree in 1991. For her postdoctoral work, she received the J. William Fulbright Scholarship and visited the School of Medicine at Temple University, USA in 1994. She is an avid researcher and her primary interests lie in the areas of psychophysiology and neuropsychology. She is the Coordinator of the UGC-funded Centre with Potential for Excellence in Particular Area, University of Calcutta, since 2011, and is carrying out cutting-edge work at her laboratory there with quantitative electroencephalogram and brain training programmes. She has received several research projects awarded by University Grants Commission, Indian Council of Social Science Research, All India Council for Technical Education and Department of Science & Technology. She has around 60 journal publications to her credit, both at national and international levels, and has authored 10 book chapters in various publications. She lives in Kolkata with her husband and daughter and loves reading books and travelling. Former head of the Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta, she is widely acclaimed and respected for her academic and administrative brilliance.
[Page 239]Sreemoyee Tarafder is at present an Assistant Professor and Coordinator of the Department of Psychology, West Bengal State University, Barasat. A promising student of psychology right from her undergraduate days, she is a gold medalist in MPhil in Clinical Psychology from the University of Calcutta where she also received the G. G. Prabhu Award for topping her class. She completed her PhD from University of Calcutta, under Prof. Pritha Mukhopadhyay and was felicitated with the Durganand Sinha Memorial Award for her doctoral work on OCD from the National Association of Psychology (NAOP). She is also a corporate trainer and a consultant clinical psychologist who is specialized in areas related to personality disorders and anxiety disorders with specific expertise in OCD. She has established scientific liaisons with University of Haifa, Israel, BRAC University and Dhaka University in Bangladesh and University of Bath, UK. She has published around 20 papers in journals of national and international repute. She is a known face on mass media and frequently appears for mental health-related shows on regional and national channels of television and radio to promote awareness of mental health at community level. She lives in Kolkata with her husband and family, and apart from her passion for films, art, theatre and dance, she loves travelling, reading and socializing.Contributors
Suvosree Bhattacharya MPhil (Clinical Psychology) is clinical psychologist and Assistant Professor at the Department of Applied Psychology, The Neotia University, Kolkata. She obtained her MPhil in Medical and Social Psychology from Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi, in 2006. After obtaining her MPhil, she worked at the Memory Disorder Research Group, Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark, and at the Goodwill Industries of East Texas (USA) as a counsellor and workforce development trainer in the workforce development (WFD) department. After she returned to India, she worked as clinical psychologist at the Department of Clinical [Page 240]Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, IPGMER, Kolkata. She also has wide teaching experience, having taught as a visiting faculty at the Department of Psychology, West Bengal State University and Department of Applied Psychology, University of Calcutta. She knows Danish and Japanese languages, and learning new languages is her passion.
Nilanjana Chatterjee is a school psychologist and refers to herself as a health and wellness teacher at South Point High School. She obtained her master's degree from the Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta. She is also associated with different organizations as a psychologist and trainer. She is an avid photographer, with a keen interest for photography and travelling.
Sujata Das is consultant neuropsychologist at Fortis Hospital, Kolkata. She obtained her doctoral degree in 2009, having studied cognitive functions in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), paranoid schizophrenia and idiopathic Parkinson's disease. She is a sincere researcher and practitioner, with over 15 publications in peer-reviewed journals, both national and international. She was associated with the Department of Psychology, West Bengal State University, as a visiting faculty, teaching courses on biopsychol-ogy and cognitive studies. She loves to read and travel and has a special interest in folk music, especially baul gaan.
Shyamal Kumar Das MBBS, MD, DM, is professor and head of the Department of Neurology, Bangur Institute of Neurosciences, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education & Research (IPGMER), Kolkata. He is a renowned researcher with over 150 international and national publications in indexed journals. He received a movement disorder fellowship from University of Calgary, Canada. He specializes in neurodegenerative disorders, clinical sciences, neurogenetics, neuromedicine and neurophysi-ology. He has undertaken significant research projects related to dementia and dystonia. He is known for his avid interest in research and academic rigour.
[Page 241]Dinaz R. Jeejeebhoy MPhil (Clinical Psychology), PhD, is Assistant Professor, Loreto College, Kolkata, and also a practising clinical psychologist. She has been a meritorious student all through her academic career. She was awarded with the national scholarship for achievement at BSc level by the University of Calcutta to pursue MSc in psychology for the batch 2003–2005. She was the recipient of the Debarpita Mukhopadhyay Book Prize for 2003 (for topping BSc examination) and the Dr G. Bose Memorial Prize for 2002 (for topping BSc Part I examination), awarded by the Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta. She has presented a number of papers at seminars and conferences and was recently awarded the S. C. Gupta Best Paper Award in 2015 by the Indian Association of Clinical Psychology for her work on borderline personality disorder. She is actively involved with an NGO that works for the upliftment of women and children. An avid sportswoman, she continues to play basketball at the club level and trains guides and bulbuls.
Parmeet Kaur Soni MSc, MPhil (Clinical Psychology), is consultant clinical psychologist at Mental Health Foundation, Kolkata. She is a registered clinical psychologist, qualified in 2010, and has been working in mental health and research settings since 2012. She works mainly with children, adolescents and young adults in the area of emotional and behavioural disorders and has extensive experience in conducting psychodiagnostic assessments and providing psychotherapy using evidence-based methods. She provides parent training as well as works in liaison with schools to recommend viable management solutions for children. She has a special interest in clinical training and supervision, participating in clinical-based research, and in the area of substance abuse disorders and dual diagnosis in adolescents and young adults.