Nonverbal Communication: Science and Applications
Publication Year: 2013
Leading Scholars Blend Cutting-Edge Science with Practical Experience to Reveal Evidence-Based Best Practices
Edited by three leading authorities on nonverbal behavior, this book examines state-of-the-art research and knowledge regarding nonverbal behavior and applies that scientific knowledge to a broad range of fields. The editors present a true scientist–practitioner model, blending cutting-edge behavioral science with real-world practical experience, thus making this text the first of its kind to merge theoretical and practical worlds. This book is a valuable resource for students and professionals as it explores the science behind the practice and reveals how other professionals have effectively incorporated nonverbal communication into their fields.
This book serves as an excellent text or supplement for courses/seminars in nonverbal behavior, nonverbal communication, human interaction, profiling, security management, and homeland security, ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: The Science of Nonverbal Behavior
- Chapter 1: Reading People: Introduction to the World of Nonverbal Behavior
- Chapter 2: Facial Expressions
- Chapter 3: The Voice
- Chapter 4: Body and Gestures
- Chapter 5: Cultural Influences on Nonverbal Behavior
- Chapter 6: Deception
Part II: Applying the Science of Nonverbal Behavior
- Chapter 7: Aviation Security and Nonverbal Behavior
- Chapter 8: A Cop's Nonverbal Journey: From Gut to Mind
- Chapter 9: Anomalies and Nonverbal Behavior
- Chapter 10: Understanding Body Language and the Polygraph
- Chapter 11: Nonverbal Behavior in the Courtroom
- Chapter 12: Persuasion, Negotiation, and the Law
- Chapter 13: Negotiation and Nonverbal Communication
- Chapter 14: Interpersonal Skills and Nonverbal Communication
- Chapter 15: Nonverbal Communication in Consumer Research
- Chapter 16: Nonverbal Communication in Medical Practice
- Chapter 17: Nonverbal Behavior and Psychiatric Observation
- Chapter 18: Synthesis and Conclusion
To our friend Maureen O'Sullivan, whose underappreciated scientific contributions were always informed by the real world, and whom we miss dearly.
Copyright © 2013 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Nonverbal communication: science and applications / editors, David R. Matsumoto, Mark G. Frank, Hyi Sung Hwang.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-9930-4 (pbk.: acid-free paper)
1. Body language. 2. Facial expression. 3. Nonverbal communication. I. Matsumoto, David Ricky. II. Frank, Mark G. III. Hwang, Hyi Sung.
BF637.N66N657 2013 302.2′22—dc23 2011041108
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
12 13 14 15 16 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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Who doesn't want to be able to read people better in order to understand their motivations and intentions, gain insight about an individual's personality or credibility, or get a glimpse at their mental and emotional states? Understanding nonverbal communication well can be one of the keys to gaining this edge. This is why scientists, practitioners, and laypersons have been interested in nonverbal communication for centuries. Recent years have especially witnessed a flurry of interest in the topic. Practitioners in fields as wide and varied as business, health care, the legal system, law enforcement, and intelligence and national security are interested in leveraging scientific knowledge about human behavior generated over the past several decades and transforming that knowledge into practical and concrete skills that can improve proficiency and performance in the office, clinic, interview room, or field. Recognizing the importance of nonverbal communication and being able to decipher nonverbal behaviors quickly, accurately, and reliably can make the difference in any interview, negotiation, interrogation, or surveillance—in short, any situation involving people.
Because of the great interest in this topic, over the years a number of books about nonverbal behaviors and communication have emerged. They have tended to fall into one of two categories. One consists of books written or edited by scientists for scientists. These tend to be scholarly précis of the field, written in academic jargon, and based heavily on scientific research. The other includes those written by practitioners—former law enforcement officers, businesspersons, or just interested individuals—who used nonverbal communication heavily in their professional careers. These “body language experts” provide readers with valuable tips on how to read people learned through their experience.[Page viii]
We saw that there was a gap between these two types of books. On the one hand, books based in science were excellent for their reviews of the scientific literature in summarizing research and for providing an agenda for future research. After all, much of the knowledge driving increased awareness of the importance of nonverbal communication comes from scientific research on nonverbal behavior during human interactions. Indeed, there is great value in providing the science to those in the applied world whose goals include accurate appraisals of other people's behavior. Books exclusively presenting science, however, were not good at answering the “so what?” question so often asked of basic research, and scientific findings were often left on the shelves of libraries in publications that did not often reach practitioner audiences who could actually use the information in their professional lives. Moreover, these scientific books usually consisted of reporting the results of research studies derived from controlled laboratory settings that were often too artificial to be considered relevant or useful to many practitioners.
On the other hand, books by practitioners were great because they were based in actual experience, so readers got a sense of what actually worked “out there in the real world.” But these books were not very good at bringing the vast research literature on nonverbal communication to bear on their experiences. Although they all wave their hands to the science, none of the books do justice to nor are they based in the considerable amount of scientific knowledge generated by empirical research over the past half century. Some outright misrepresent the science. Thus many in the academic community have been concerned that so-called knowledge of nonverbal communication has been applied too simplistically, erroneously, or even irresponsibly, and readers could never be sure of the degree to which the knowledge presented in these books was generalizable beyond the case examples presented.
This book's goal is to set the record straight by informing readers what is known and unknown so that practice can be appropriately evidence-based. The book cautions readers about glib overreading of nonverbal cues, thereby establishing the limits of what is currently known and can be applied with confidence. The book makes it clear that nonverbal cues mostly do not come with a dictionary and that context is extremely important in knowing what cues mean. Although academics are often, but not always, aware of these issues, the lay community and professional practitioners may not be, and clarifying this is one goal of the book.
This book bridges the gap between science and application by presenting chapters relevant to both and is the first of its kind in the literature. In Part I[Page ix]we provide five state-of-the-art reviews of the scientific knowledge in the literature concerning facial expressions, voice, body and gesture, cultural influences on nonverbal behavior, and deception. These reviews summarize years of research in these areas and bring to bear the most relevant information from these areas. Because the three of us are scientists actively engaged in scholarly research on these topics, the reviews are current and scientifically accurate. In Part II practitioners from a variety of fields—law enforcement, business, the courts and legal system, and health care professionals—describe how they have used nonverbal communication in their lines of work in order to improve their accuracy and proficiency. They describe not only how the knowledge has been used in practical, concrete terms; they also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the approach. Some of them offer suggestions or describe how they came around to understanding the power of nonverbal communication. Many describe specific case studies in which their knowledge, or lack of knowledge, of nonverbal communication helped or hindered their professional work. Additionally, most of the authors of the chapters in Part II were trained by us or our colleagues in learning to read nonverbal behavior in programs based on scientific research findings; thus they are particularly well positioned to speak about the utility of nonverbal communication science to applied settings.
This book is relevant to both scientists and practitioners. Scientists will resonate with the chapters in Part I and in Part II will be able to see how knowledge generated from scientific research is put into practice by people in widely divergent fields, answering the “so what?” question so often asked of academic researchers. Practitioners should enjoy seeing how knowledge of nonverbal behaviors is applied in so many areas in Part II, including case studies, but should also appreciate the summaries of the scientific literature presented in Part I so that they know which knowledge about nonverbal behaviors has been vetted scientifically. Both scientists and practitioners will enjoy seeing how the knowledge from scientific laboratory research has been vetted by real-world observations, particularly made by the sorts of experienced professionals who wrote chapters for Part II. This is directly consistent with our own personal scientific philosophy: we strongly believe that any research results observed in the controlled setting of a laboratory are not “real” insights into human beings unless we can see them in the uncontrolled, wild and wooly world outside the laboratory. Thus, this book is truly unique in bridging the gap between science and application, and it is the first to truly highlight the strength of evidence-based training—training that is based in cutting-edge behavioral science research but also vetted in the field.[Page x]Markets
Given the goals of the book just described, there are two primary markets for the book. One is for scientists—beginning and experienced—and students interested in the areas of nonverbal communication. They will learn state-of-the-art research relevant to the most important aspects of nonverbal communication and behavior in Part I and see how the knowledge is put to work by the practitioners in Part II. For students, the ability to see how academic research can have an impact in everyday life is an especially important message that is missing in much of contemporary academic curricula. The book is especially relevant for courses on nonverbal communication that exist in many universities today. Moreover, many of the situations or case studies in Part II can serve as an impetus to conduct research studies, to trigger new ideas, or to test or elaborate on the observations made by these experienced professionals.
The second market is for practitioners who want to leverage evidence-based information about nonverbal behaviors based on scientific research. These are individuals from any and all walks of life for whom observation of human behavior and face-to-face interactions is an important part of their professional activities. This could include physicians; therapists; counselors and others in the health care profession; law enforcement officers; individuals involved in intelligence or national security; lawyers, judges, and negotiators; and businesspersons. We hope they find the issues, case studies, and applications informative and useful, either through helping “speed up” their acquisition of knowledge, to suggest new approaches to old or new problems faced on the job, or also to know the limits of what this advanced knowledge of nonverbal communication can do. Moreover, it may also provide them with the foundation upon which to critically evaluate any new “secret” technology or approach based on nonverbal communication, to more quickly know if they are dealing with a legitimate scientist or a huckster.
We sincerely hope that by bridging the gap between science and application this book provides the platform by which scientists and practitioners have greater dialogues that can inform each other symbiotically. This will lead to better science concerning topics with real-world relevance and better practice that is informed by the available science.
There are so many people to thank who made this book possible. First of all we would like to extend our deep appreciation and gratitude to the contributors who gave their time and effort outside of their busy professional and personal lives to provide us with chapters. Their expertise gave this book a special meaning that readers will not find anywhere else, and the authors all went above and beyond the call of duty in not only drafting their chapters but working with us through a very detailed editing process that required revisions, sometimes multiple times, to get to the format that readers will enjoy. We also appreciate the courage they showed to describe sensitive topics, including their occasional failures, so that others can learn. We truly hope that readers will recognize the great insights and experiences the authors bring to the work, which certainly inspire us to do better science.
We also would like to thank all of the staff at SAGE, starting with Chris Cardone, the editor who acquired the work and has encouraged us throughout the process. Sarita Sarak provided excellent editorial assistance throughout the project, guiding us from the start to the finish. Mark Bast did a superlative job of copyediting our manuscripts.
Although there are many in our lives who contributed to the creation of our ideas and the conduct of our research, any mistakes that are in the book are only ours.
About the Editors[Page 317]
David Matsumoto received his B.A. from the University of Michigan in 1981 with high honors in psychology and Japanese. He subsequently earned his M.A. (1983) and Ph.D. (1986) in psychology from the University of California at Berkeley. He is currently professor of psychology and director of the Culture and Emotion Research Laboratory at San Francisco State University, where he has been since 1989. He is also director of Humintell, LLC, a company that provides research, consultation, and training on nonverbal behavioral analysis and cross-cultural adaptation. He has studied culture, emotion, social interaction, and communication for over 30 years. His books include well-known titles such as Culture and Psychology, the Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology, and Cross-Cultural Research Methods in Psychology. He is the recipient of many awards and honors in the field of psychology, including being named a G. Stanley Hall lecturer by the American Psychological Association. He is the series editor for Cambridge University Press' series on Culture and Psychology. He is also editor in chief for the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.
Mark G. Frank is a professor and director of the Communication Science Center at the University at Buffalo. He received his Ph.D. in social psychology from Cornell University in 1989, and afterward he received a National Research Service Award from the National Institute of Mental Health to do postdoctoral research with Paul Ekman in the Psychiatry Department at the University of California at San Francisco Medical School. He had previously been on the faculty in the School of Psychology at the University of New South Wales in Australia, as well as the Communication Department at Rutgers University in New Jersey. He has published numerous research papers on facial expressions, emotion, and interpersonal deception, with much of the work funded by the National Science Foundation, Homeland Security, and the Department of Defense. He is also the codeveloper of an [Page 318]automated computer system to read facial expressions. He has used these findings to lecture, consult with, and train virtually all US federal law enforcement/intelligence agencies, as well as local/state and select foreign agencies. He has also given workshops to US and foreign judges and magistrates. He has presented briefings to the National Academy of Sciences and the US Congress on deception and counterterrorism. Finally, his work has been featured in print and on radio and television, including Time magazine, the New York Times, CBS Evening News, CNN, Fox News Channel, National Public Radio, the Learning Channel, the Discovery Channel, Oprah, and so forth.
Hyi Sung Hwang received her M.A. from San Francisco State University and her Ph.D. from the Center for Psychological Studies of the Graduate School of Human Behavior, Berkeley, CA, 2009. She is a research scientist at Humintell, LLC, and visiting scholar at San Francisco State University. Her research interests are in emotion, nonverbal behaviors, and culture. She is an expert at the Facial Action Coding System and in the conduct of research examining facial expressions and other nonverbal behaviors. She is cocre-ator of many of the training tools used to teach law enforcement officers, national security personnel, and intelligence agents, as well as individuals in many other professions, how to recognize micro and subtle facial expressions of emotion. She has also coauthored numerous scientific articles and book chapters on nonverbal behavior, facial expressions, and culture and has made presentations of her research nationally and internationally.
About the Contributors[Page 319]
Daniel H. Baxter (Chapter 10) holds a master's degree in forensic psychology and was a police officer and detective for 14 years before becoming a Special Agent for the Department of Defense in 1987. He is currently a Technical Director for the polygraph and has been the principal investigator for several research projects involving deception detection. For the past 15 years, he has taught interviewing techniques to various national, federal, and state organizations.
Andrew Boughton (Chapter 13) is the managing partner at the Edge Negotiation Group. Prior to his consulting practice, he worked in the music industry.
Scott Brownell (Chapter 11) is a Circuit Judge, Twelfth Judicial Circuit, (1987 to date) in Bradenton, Florida. He holds a B.A. from Eckerd College (1971) and a J.D. from the University of Florida College of Law (1974). He has been a judicial education presenter at the National Judicial College, Reno, Nevada, and at judicial conferences in Florida, Georgia, Delaware, Ohio, Washington, Alaska, and Minnesota.
Joseph Ennett (Chapter 8) holds a bachelor of science degree from the American University and is currently retired from his career in law enforcement. He was a criminal investigator in the United States Army, a police officer in Virginia and Missouri, and is retired from 24 years as a Special Agent in the United States Treasury Department. He has instructed in the interviewing field for 16 years with an emphasis on nonverbal communication.
Clark Freshman (Chapter 12) is a tenured professor at University of California, Hastings College of Law, and teaches emotional intelligence, lie detection, emotion, and nonverbal communication worldwide to lawyers and negotiators. His past engagements include JAMS, the International Academy of Mediators, the Conference of Federal Administrative Law Judges, and [Page 320]Harvard Law School and Business School. He has also trained negotiators at hedge funds, private equity funds, consulting firms, and at open-enrollment events. His work on negotiation, emotion, and discrimination in law and psychology has appeared in law reviews at Harvard, Stanford, Cornell, and elsewhere and has been reproduced in three major textbooks on negotiation.
Darrin J. Griffin (Chapter 3) is indigenous to Austin, Texas, and is currently a doctoral student at the Department of Communication, University at Buffalo. His research in deceptive communication occurs at the intersection of psycho-linguistics and nonverbal behavior and is designed with the goal of providing practical knowledge utilized by those working in applied settings.
Nick R. Harrington (Chapter 15) is a Principal Scientist and expert in consumer psychology at the Procter & Gamble Company in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is the technical leader of P&G's breakthrough Biometrics Group, with corporate responsibility for applying principles from psychology and the neurosciences to better understand and predict consumer behavior globally. He completed his undergraduate degree from the University of Sussex, UK, and doctorate of philosophy from the University of York, UK, in experimental psychology, specializing in the fields of learning and memory. He worked as a postdoctoral scientist in the behavioral neuroscience division at Wyeth, Cerebrus, and Vernalis Pharmaceuticals before joining P&G. He teaches psychology and advanced biometrics within P&G and has published and presented externally. In 2010 he was awarded the Marketing Research Emerging Leader Award by the American Marketing Association in recognition of his pioneering work applying psychological principles to consumer research.
Steve Longford (Chapter 14) is a former Australian police officer who attained designations of detective, senior intelligence analyst, and behavioral analyst before his resignation in 2000. He became involved in the development and deployment of intelligence and investigative management software for a private Australian organization before setting up a company dedicated to training based on science and research. He has spent the last 8 years researching and developing programs revolving around human capability, capacity, and performance. He specializes in areas of nonverbal behavior, emotions, decision making, influence, and uncertainty.
Carl Joseph Maccario (Chapter 7) is a graduate of Suffolk University in Boston, Massachusetts. He received his bachelor of science in 1982. Prior to 9/11/01, he served in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Secretary of State's office as an investigator/auditor for the Securities Division. Subsequent [Page 321]to 9/11, he left his position with the state and began a career with Virgin Atlantic Airlines Security as a passenger profiler. While there, he received training in behavior pattern recognition, document ID verification, deception detection, and eliciting responses from an Israeli security firm hired by Virgin Atlantic. Shortly after the Congress created the Department of Homeland Security, he began his career with the federal government using his knowledge and security experience to help design, develop, and implement the first behavior screening program for a major international airport, one that is now being implemented in airports across the United States. During this development, he trained hundreds of security and law enforcement professionals in suspicious behavior detection, detecting deception, and eliciting responses.
Andreas Maroulis (Chapter 3) is a masters student at the Department of Communication, University at Buffalo. His research interests focus on the experimental design associated with studies in nonverbal expressions of emotion, behavior during deception and the application of both in real-world contexts.
Paul M. Moskal (Chapter 9) is a licensed attorney who has consulted in the legal, media, and security fields. He was a Special Agent with the FBI for 30 years where he worked in national and international venues on matters involving criminal violations and intelligence concerns. One of his most challenging roles was while holding the Chief Division Counsel for the Buffalo, New York, field office of the FBI. He is currently employed in the intelligence community.
Michael R. Privitera (Chapter 17) is an Associate Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) and directs the Psychiatric Consultation/Liaison Service, which services the medical/surgical/OB-GYN service patients. He also directs the Mood and Anxiety Disorder Clinic, which services the medical community and region with consultation on difficult-to-treat mood and anxiety disorders. Through the years he has acquired clinical and administrative experience, along with the following achievements: cochairing the Department of Psychiatry Workplace Violence (WPV) Committee, membership from the URMC Workplace Safety Committee, and completing a sabbatical focusing on WPV. He has assembled national and international interdisciplinary and interprofessional experts in the WPV field, which culminated in editing and writing for the book Workplace Violence in Mental and General Healthcare Settings (Jones & Bartlett, 2011). He has also given international presentations on interdisciplinary and interprofessional approaches to prevention and dealing urgently with WPV [Page 322]issues directly before, during, and directly after violent or potentially violent events.
Robert Sheeler (Chapter 16) is a family physician at Mayo Clinic with a wide range of interests. In addition to practicing primary care medicine, he is also a board certified headache specialist. He has been involved with medical publications and teaching at Mayo Medical School. The teaching aspects of his job and his interest in better outcomes as well as the nuances of patient care have led him to an interest in teaching communications to medical professionals. He also has strong interest and background in pharmacology and in various complementary and alternative medicine practices including teaching Taiji and Qigong.
Elena Svetieva (Chapter 6) is a doctoral student at the Department of Communication, University at Buffalo. A communication scholar with a background in psychology, she mainly studies interpersonal communication processes, including nonverbal behavior in deception, social rejection, and emotion expression.
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