New Horizons inMulticultural Counseling


Gerald Monk, John Winslade & Stacey Sinclair

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Russell Young, 1956–2005

    Exemplary multicultural scholar, educator, and loved colleague


    View Copyright Page


    Kenneth J.Gergen

    Life in the helping professions has always been fraught with ambiguity. How are we to understand the strange and often self-defeating behavior in which people engage, what are the origins of untoward and irrational actions, how are we to sort people into tractable categories, what are the best forms of counseling or therapeutic practice, how can we assess the effects of our interventions, and what are the ethical and political implications of our engagement? For over a century, such issues have stimulated lively and sometimes rancorous debate. Only in periods of vast suppression do we seem to approach agreement on answers. For the most part, schools of thought have come and gone, and we seem no closer to the answers today than we were a century ago.

    In recent decades this search for clear answers has taken a different turn, at once liberating and perilous. In earlier years the search largely took place within the professional classes, and the grounds for debate were typically those furnished by the then-dominant conception of empirical science. Reason and evidence were the key players in the game. However, as the technologies of communication (e.g., television, mass publishing, talk radio, jet transportation, the Internet) became increasingly available to people, grassroots organization was facilitated. Multiple pockets of consciousness developed; groups of the like-minded sprang to political life. There were sharp differences among such groups in the way they understood the world and the values they placed on various outcomes. Further, for many of these groups the debates within the helping professions not only seemed obfuscating and irrelevant, but also were threatening to the very ways of life they so valued. Thus, the “helping” professions were variously excoriated for race, class, gender, and sexual preference biases. And, too, their assumptions and practices seemed wholly insensitive to the vast ethnic and cultural differences within a society.

    This fiercely pluralistic movement has been enormously liberating. It has placed in critical question long-standing traditions, given voice to myriad minorities, and set new agendas for how to think about and foster human well-being. The space of freedom has been substantially expanded. At the same time, these movements have fostered both fragmentation and alienation. There are strong tendencies of the enclaves, just as of the “old-stream,” to seek independence; each strives to set its own course for the future. Those outside an enclave are often viewed with suspicion or derision. There is a circulating logic that no group has the right to conceptualize those outside, to study them or offer entrapping practices of help. To extend such logic, we are all invited to live in isolation from each other.

    With the publication of the present volume, Gerald Monk, John Winslade, and Stacey Sinclair herald an entirely new era of thought and practice. They write from long experience in the roiling waters of multicultural counseling; they are not afraid to expose their passions and their shortcomings; they have stepped outside the domain of counseling in search of useful insights from other fields of study. And their conclusion is of enormous importance: it is not the clear and compelling answer for which we should be striving, but a continuing and ever-extended participation in dialogue. In effect, they render honor to the full panoply of traditions, values, and visions that now circulate globally, but invite an open and honest sharing. They soften the boundaries of separation and see within dialogue the possibilities for new, more fully informed, more thoroughly sensitive, and more broadly responsible ways of going on. In offering such visions to those entering the field of counseling today, they make a major contribution to a more viable tomorrow.

    This spirit of participatory inquiry is secreted into every corner of this work, from the personal openness of the initial prologue to a final chapter in which the reader is invited to join in thinking about the next steps. Traditional understandings are thrust into question at every turn; where clarity on matters of culture, race, ethnicity, identity, community, and competence once reigned, there is now careful and caring reflection. Nor are the authors satisfied by developing highly sophisticated and far-reaching accounts of the subject matter. They also invite readers into experiences that will enable them to add to the deliberation in their own terms. The chapters also bring a wealth of wide-ranging scholarship to bear on the topics they treat, thus adding depth and breadth to the discussions. Yet, and perhaps most salutary, they invite responses to their offerings from authors varying significantly in viewpoint.

    I am reminded here of a passage from the poet Rainer Maria Rilke's Letters to a Young Poet:

    I would like to beg you … to have patience with everything unresolved in your heart and to try to love the questions themselves as if they were locked rooms or books written in a very foreign language. Don't search for the answers, which could not be given to you now, because you would not be able to live them. And the point is to live everything. Live the questions now. Perhaps then, someday far in the future, you will gradually, without even noticing it, live your way into the answer.

    To be sure, it is most gratifying to me that the authors have made such excellent use of social constructionist ideas. Deliberations on social construction have absorbed my interests and enthusiasm for over 25 years. In many respects I believe that the same processes that gave rise to the multicultural movement—its liberating potentials as well as its tensions—also contributed to the expanding consciousness of construction. To the extent that any discourse, and its associated way of life, is dominant, there is little questioning of what is real, rational, or valuable. It was thus that in early periods of counseling psychology there was virtually unquestioned respect for observation, systematic evidence, coherent reasoning, and the value of using one's expertise to help others. However, as the many voices of difference found expression, the veil of the obvious began to fall. Behind the veil we began to discern the culturally and historically thrown condition of science, reason, and Western ethics. No longer was there an unquestionable authority. All traditions of interpretation could claim legitimacy.

    Yet, as the constructionist dialogues have developed, they have also opened a path to a new level of consciousness. As we have found in the field of counseling, plural legitimacies also lend themselves to plural claims of the real and the good. While social constructionist ideas are used to deconstruct the dominant discourse, they are infrequently turned upon oneself. Thus, we approach a war of all against all, only in this case it is war among traditions as opposed to individuals. Given the potential for any movement to expand globally and the simultaneous democratization of weaponry, we find ourselves approaching a radical condition of crisis. It is at this point that the pragmatic dimension of constructionism plays a prominent role, for we cease to order the world into ultimate goods and evils, locating fault and establishing institutions of censor and control. Rather, we simply ask, “Is this the kind of world we wish to create together?” And, if the answer is “No,” the invitation is given for a collaborative search into more viable futures. It is precisely here that one can discern the profound significance of this volume. In the case of counseling, the authors answer “No” to an embattled future. Thus, we find within these pages not simply a groundbreaking entry into the domain of multicultural counseling; rather, this volume gives rise to the kind of consciousness on which global well-being will ultimately depend.

    Kenneth J. Gergen, Ph.D., is a senior research professor at Swarthmore College and the director of the Taos Institute. He is widely known for his inquiries in social construction and contemporary cultural life. In addition to honorary degrees in the United States and Europe, he has received awards from the National Science Foundation, the Guggenheim Foundation, the Fulbright Foundation, and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Among his major works are Realities and Relationships, The Saturated Self, and An Invitation to Social Construction.


    I have had a burning desire to write this book for 20 years. It's taken 20 years because I didn't at first have the courage to write down the conversations, debates, conflicts, and challenges of a field that has been so fraught with accounts of disrespect, injustice, and misunderstanding. What has given me the strength, confidence, and encouragement to undertake this large project has been the major contributions of two of my wonderful friends and colleagues, who bring their ability to write with depth, complexity, and potency to this important subject of multicultural counseling. Together we have grappled with the big issues of advancing the state of multicultural counseling while staying focused on the question driving the movement: how do we all promote justice, respect, equity, and understanding in the counseling process among culturally diverse peoples?

    It's a risky business for a group of white authors to write on multiculturalism, inequity, and social justice. So much injustice has been perpetrated throughout the planet by white people and their ancestors, and thus it is easy for many communities across the globe to distrust white people's motives and agendas. Among many communities, there is a suspicion that white people, who appear to have been fused with the most negative aspects of dominant Western culture, have little to contribute to the question of how to address justice, and equity, understanding, and respect across diverse cultures. White people have been described as members of an oppressor group who have access to all kinds of privilege. From many perspectives, they are unqualified to speak about topics such as racism, oppression, and marginalization. Certainly the majority culture in the United States continues to grant privilege to white groups.

    Each of us (the authors) can identify aspects of our lives that have been both privileged and oppressive to others. Despite this history, we have a place to contribute to the conversation that relates to respect, understanding, and justice in the counseling encounter across diverse communities. While in terms of ethnicity we identify as white, or, in the case of John Winslade and me, as Pakeha (white New Zealanders), we hope that by the end of reading this book you, the reader, will experience our voice as that of a mix of multiple, salient identities that defy a stereotypical, univocal, unidimensional expression and that do not inevitably reproduce oppressive practice.

    Like my colleague John Winslade, I have lived for more than half of my life in the land referred to by Maori as Aotearoa (“The Land of the Long White Cloud”), otherwise known as New Zealand. Our third coauthor, Stacey Sinclair, spent her early life in Ypsilanti/Ann Arbor, Michigan, and most of her youth and adult life in Virginia Beach, Virginia.

    This book on multicultural counseling had its genesis in New Zealand, in the painful yet deeply insightful interactions I, as a Pakeha New Zealander, experienced with Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand.

    As a brand-new psychologist who had just graduated from New Zealand's esteemed University of Otago, I returned to my small hometown of Gisborne to begin work in my newly chosen field of counseling and psychological practice. I was to begin work in the Department of Education Psychological Services. The year was 1985. I was full of enthusiasm as a newly trained professional, ready to make an impact in my home community. I had been preparing to do this for five years.

    Gisborne, a very isolated community, had always struggled to provide an adequate range of medical and psychological services to its citizens. As I prepared for this new job, I felt I must first become acquainted with the services already provided so that I could work alongside my colleagues, who coordinated an appropriate delivery of services. One of my first ports of call was a meeting with Erana, a member of the Ngati Porou iwi (tribe) and a senior social worker in a large community agency that provided services to Maori families. I introduced myself and talked to her about how we might work together. In the first two minutes, her response to what I regarded as an appropriate professional interaction was shocking to the point that I am remembering it and writing about it 20 years later.

    Erana said, “I have no interest in working with you or the services that you think you could provide to our people.”

    “I am sorry,” I said, reeling with incredulity, “but I don't understand what you mean.”

    “I place no value on Pakeha institutions and the Pakeha knowledge you want to impose on Maori,” she said in a straightforward, unapologetic tone.

    Needless to say, it was a very short meeting, and I left feeling confused and upset. I asked myself, how can somebody dismiss and reject me and what I represent, without even knowing anything about me, just because of my ethnicity or my culture and professional background? This was the first time I had experienced such an encounter. I had a lot to learn. I was a 28-year-old man who had been raised in a white New Zealand middle class community and had never suffered rejection on the grounds of my cultural background and the stereotypical assumptions often associated with the people I identified with. In a country where the majority Pakeha culture was dominant in all major public and private institutions, it was rare to be singled out by a minority culture and challenged about anything. This was the first of a number of interactions where my ethnic background and what it represented was rejected and discounted.

    Fortunately, I soon realized that I was experiencing, on the smallest of scales, what it feels like to be rejected, devalued, and unappreciated because of one's ethnicity, gender, or class. In another interaction that occurred a few months later, I was told in public to shut up by a young community worker who was “sick of hearing from Pakeha males.” These small encounters were enormously impactful and began to require me to confront many issues. I found that I had to reevaluate what I was trained to do as a counselor and a psychologist.

    All through my training I had believed I was learning therapeutic and professional skills that would apply to all people. After all, I was trained in a scientist-practitioner model by the latest empirically tested psychological science, which was considered effective with all people independent of ethnicity, class, and gender. Now, on a regular basis I was being told by significant numbers of my community that they were not interested in what I had to offer or the knowledge I was trained in. What did it now mean for me, a Pakeha male professional trained in the Western counseling and psychological traditions, to work in my own community but be rejected by many members of the Maori community? I could have easily written off those Maori community members who said to me, “Thanks, but no thanks.” It is very easy to scapegoat members of a minority culture who don't like what is being offered to them from the majority culture. Embedded in this response would have been the arrogant implication that the dominant culture is better and more important than the minority culture. Of course, it was also the easy route to take to make myself feel better.

    However, after moving on from feeling sorry for myself, I became very interested in how we as Pakeha and Maori got to be in this place. I had lived in my hometown for most of my life. I had thought that I was particularly good at getting along with Maori and working together for the greater good of all of us. Some of my closest friends throughout my schooling had been Maori. In fact, the teacher I had loved most was Maori; Mr. Callaghan was very proud of his cultural history. I had often been singled out in our class plays to perform in the role of a Maori warrior in ancient tribal legends. Now I was feeling disconnected and estranged from Maori and finding that what I had to offer was not only of no value but also seen as harmful by some of the Maori mental health professionals in my own town. I made a commitment to conduct myself in a manner that would be perceived as respectful to Maori and to get to a better place.

    At around this time I was faced with other challenges unrelated to the conflicts between Pakeha and Maori. I attended a Family Therapy Conference in 1986 and was confronted and challenged because of my gender. Halfway through the conference, a woman stood up at the end of a plenary session and challenged all the men in the room to stand up and publicly take responsibility as men for the sexual and physically violent crimes being perpetrated by men against women in the community. Research was presented about the large numbers of men perpetrating crimes against women and children in families and the significant amount of sexual abuse being committed by male therapists toward their female clients. Sarah asked each man at the conference to take a stand against violence and sexual abuse and to pledge to work with men to eradicate violence from our communities. The response was overwhelming silence. Nobody moved or spoke for what seemed like hours, although it was probably a few minutes. Later in the conference, a number of women expressed their indignation over the men's failure to respond to the challenge to address abuses committed by male culture in the community. Interactions like this were to occur again and again in various professional gatherings during the latter part of the 1980s.

    At another Family Therapy Conference, a woman who identified as Samoan challenged all of the Pakeha and Palangi (Samoan for “whites”) to take responsibility for their abuse of indigenous peoples and their imposition of their colonizing therapies on indigenous peoples. These challenges were always painful, and many professionals who worked in the counseling and family therapy arena and were concerned about these serious social issues stopped attending the national and regional conferences because they were afraid of being attacked for their failure to adequately address patriarchal or racially prejudicial behavior. As a result, conference attendance declined, and in some instances national conferences were canceled for a period. A heightened level of concern about issues of racial hatred, colonization, and patriarchy surfaced in the professional community.

    In the early 1990s, the national counseling organization in New Zealand was split in two. Many people both within and outside of the counseling and psychotherapy community thought it necessary to separate services for Maori and Pakeha. Pakeha clients were encouraged to see Pakeha therapists and Maori clients were encouraged to see Maori therapists. It was believed that by separating out the ethnic groups, the dominating and colonizing therapies of the Pakeha would not be imposed upon Maori. Thus, Maori could receive services from Maori that would honor their traditions and unique culture and thus avoid being tainted by Pakeha practices.

    Men were encouraged to work with male counselors and women were encouraged to work with female counselors. It was believed that male counselors would be in a better position than female counselors to challenge patriarchal behavior and stop violence and abuse in their male clients. It was also believed that if male counselors were discouraged from working with female clients, they would avoid imposing their own patriarchal behavior on women. Thus, during the 1990s in New Zealand, it was common practice to separate groups around particular cultural markers with a view to avoiding prejudicial behaviors by therapists working with culturally different clients. This agenda included the promotion of gay counselors' working with gay clients to avoid the imposition of harmful heterosexual biases and abuses on the client by the counselor.

    During the 1990s, I also came to embrace this practice of separating groups around particular cultural markers because I couldn't see any other way to respect the concerns of many Maori and many women about the potential for therapeutic harm. As a result, I worked with men's groups to address sexual and physical violence. I actively discouraged Maori clients from seeing me and encouraged them to take referrals to a Maori counselor. When I became a counselor educator at a university in a neighboring town, I discouraged people who identified as Maori from participating in the training program because it was taught mainly by Pakeha and followed a mainstream counseling curriculum that many Maori deemed harmful. That is, I was concerned that the existing program was not catering to their needs and felt that they would benefit more from training with Maori counselor educators.

    For nearly 10 years I promoted the provision of separate services based on shared cultural markers or the shared salient identities of the clients or students. In New Zealand, because the more homogenous patterns in the population are made up of mainly four ethnic groups (Pakeha, Maori, Pacific Islander, and Asian), the majority being Pakeha and a sizable minority group being Maori, it seemed more possible to separate services for discrete groups. Now, more than 10 years later, I can see that we in New Zealand have made some progress in addressing serious social injustices in the delivery of counseling and psychological services in comparison to what was provided before the mid 1980s. However, there are still many difficulties that have not been resolved by separating services along these lines. In fact, I have serious misgivings about providing separate services by counselors and clients who share matching ethnic markers to resolve serious social injustices between different groups, whether the divisions are constructed along ethnic or gender lines or among other cultural groupings whose legitimate concerns need attention.

    One of the biggest problems that arise when we start thinking of people primarily as members of specific cultural groups is that we participate in forming unidimensional understandings of who they are as people. We also invite people to conform to a one-dimensional characterization. In fact, we all exhibit a complex array of multiple cultural identities or cultural markers. As we engage with a person's ethnicity, we are simultaneously engaging with him or her as a person who is a man or woman or transgender person, with a particular sexual orientation, social class, religious or nonreligious background, ability, or disability, of a particular age, rural or urban location, and so on. It is difficult to resolve inequity and injustice by believing we can match people on every cultural variable or cultural marker.

    The other problem underpinning any unidimensional characterization is that it fails to encompass the dynamic and fluid nature of power relations, and, in doing so, constrains options for change. Placing people in a fixed, one-dimensional characterization is usually predicated on an oppressor/oppressed binary, which conceives of power as a property inherent within categories of people rather than as a relational phenomenon. The deterministic and essentialist quality of these assumptions has the potential to evoke feelings of helplessness and reduce people's abilities to act. However, there is still a profound need to identify and understand systematic social processes at work in a community that become the source of abuse, disrespect, and hatred of people with certain cultural markings.

    This book is a genuine effort to expand on an alternative range of theoretical and therapeutic approaches to addressing social injustices without on the one hand resorting to Eurocentric models of practice (the ones that all the authors were trained in) or, on the other hand, creating separate and distinct classes of therapy that somehow match all of the complex, heterogeneous cultural markers experienced by clients. Rather, this book is an effort to provide resources for all of us to use to work respectfully with multiple cultural identities as well as to address systematic social inequities that people live with daily.

    While I have been writing about experiences that have taken place far, far away from most readers of this book, there are some very important parallels between what has taken place in New Zealand and what occurs in North America. Experience any multicultural class that is preparing counselors, psychiatrists, psychologists, marriage and family therapists, nurses, and medical doctors to work with diverse populations, and you will hear some version of the statements I have listed below:

    “We are all human beings. We all share essentially the same genetic makeup, so surely we can all benefit from the same well-proven methods to assist people.”

    “You are white and you will never understand the racism I've experienced and can never really understand what it's like to be me.”

    “You are from a dominant culture and you don't know what it's like to be oppressed. I would never seek counseling from you or people like you.

    “I wish I had a culture. Yours is so beautiful and rich, I feel as if I would really benefit from being a person like you.”

    “I'm color-blind. We're all human beings and that's the shared basis that we need to work from.”

    “You can't help but be racist and you have to acknowledge that.”

    “I think we are all one people. We're all American here, aren't we? Don't we all believe in essentially the same things?”

    There are many such dividing statements made by participants in North American classrooms and on the street that suggest, “We can be understood only by people of our own kind.” These statements are often sincere attempts to manage the difficult challenges we all face in working with, living alongside, and counseling others. Some comments strike me as very naive. Others seem hopeless or pessimistic. But what we believe about one another is not something that we have invented on our own. Each of these statements comes from an elaborate history of thought arising from experiences that often reach back in time well beyond the age of the student who is uttering them. It is through understanding our genealogies and our multiple and diverse histories that we will come to more fully understand what is going on now as we begin our steps into the 21st century.

    “History,” wrote Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., “haunts even generations who refuse to [acknowledge it]. Rhythms, patterns, continuities, drift out of time long forgotten to mould the present and to color the shape of things to come.”

    GeraldMonk, May 2007


    Some might say that this is a contentious book—that is, that we, the authors, are seeking to contend. We are conscious that not everyone will always agree with our contentions. We maintain a hope, however, that any field of inquiry will resemble a respectful conversation among a range of contending voices. There are indeed many books currently being published about multicultural counseling. This is a positive development, given that the issues of responding to difference across a range of domains are critical to modern life. But it does raise the question, why yet another book?

    To answer this question, we need to be up front about our purposes in writing this text. We have a number of specific goals that we are trying to achieve in this book. We shall outline these here, now, so that they are transparent and so that you can measure your reading of the book against these goals rather than against some other idea of what a book like this should be.

    First, we have aimed to write a book that will be of use to students and faculty instructors in a multicultural counseling class. That has been the primary audience we have kept in mind while writing. We hope, too, that others in the field of general helping relations—for example, students of psychology and social work—will find this work of value. We also hope that this book will stimulate interest among practitioners of counseling.

    We have been conscious of the requirements of the American Counseling Association's multicultural counseling competencies in the writing of this text. Alongside a discussion of these competencies, our aim has been to introduce some new material into the discourse of multicultural counseling, or at least to gather a number of ideas together from various sources for increased consideration in relation to multicultural practice. This is not because we do not support the multicultural counseling competencies as they exist. Rather, we believe there are a few gaps in them that deserve attention and we want to contribute to the development of this field. We shall go on now to explain the particular intentions we have held to in writing this text.

    We have sought to avoid what some multicultural counseling texts offer in the way of a kind of cookbook of suggestions for counselors in working with persons from specific cultural groups. Usually these groups appear to correspond with the United States census divisions. If you are looking for chapters discussing the traditional ethnic and other identity groups, you will be disappointed. For our purposes, descriptive accounts of group identity have not been helpful to us in conceptualizing multicultural counseling.

    What we have done is address what we see as some of the most important domains of cultural influence while seeking to avoid normalizing descriptions within those domains. One book can't do everything. Because our focus has been on the complexity of identity issues and the epistemological underpinnings of the multicultural perspective, we have not been able to adequately address all of the multicultural domains that you might be looking for. For example, you will find very little discussion on the specific counseling needs of ethnic groups, only a modest account (in Chapter 12) of the counseling needs of lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender persons, and passing allusions to rather than full discussion of the cultural influences of disability, religion, and spirituality or of the cultural experience of the elderly. Fortunately, there are numerous publications that address the discrete needs of identity groups. Recent publications that address some of these issues include the following:

    Atkinson, D. R., & Hackett, G. (Eds.). (2004). Counseling diverse populations (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Baruth, L. G., & Manning, M. L. (2007). Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy: A lifespan perspective (
    4th ed.
    ). Columbus, OH: Prentice Hall.
    Brammer, R. (2004). Diversity in counseling. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Harper, F. D., & McFadden, J. (2003). Culture and counseling: New approaches. Boston: Pearson Education.
    Rabin, C. L. (2005). Understanding gender and culture in the helping process: Practitioners' narratives from global perspectives. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
    Robinson, T. L. (2005). The convergence of race, ethnicity, and gender: Multiple identities in counseling. Columbus, OH: Prentice Hall.
    Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2007). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (
    5th ed.
    ). New York: Wiley.

    We have taken a different aim. Our task has been to articulate some conceptual tools for counselors and students to think with as they make sense of their own experience and the experiences of the clients who seek their help. We consider one of the primary functions of a textbook to be the provocation and stimulation of thought. You may not always agree with our arguments in this book. That is okay. We expect that. But we would invite you to at least consider the ideas we present and to work at articulating your own conceptual framework for working in a multicultural way. We take the multicultural movement seriously enough to believe that it should provoke substantial rethinking of many of the commonly accepted assumptions in the counseling field. Therefore, we invite you to adopt a questioning stance in relation to accepted knowledge and to test it against criteria that place cultural difference at the forefront of your thinking.

    Some may argue (we have heard these arguments expressed to us) that we should not focus so much on the “intellectual” issues of culture but should promote the more humanistic concept of “awareness” in this text. We are not persuaded by these arguments. It is not that we are opposed to the idea of awareness. It is just that awareness can only exist within a framework of assumptions about people and about life. There is no such thing as pure awareness, only awareness that is located in culture and discourse and history. We think that students should engage in understanding and sometimes questioning these background assumptions in the process of developing awareness of cultural relations. We prefer not to patronize students by suggesting that they are not capable of such thought.

    Our intention, therefore, has been to contribute a problematizing element to the conversation on these issues. To problematize means to take a step back from something that seems familiar and taken for granted and to render it an object worthy of thinking more about (Marshall, 2007). In the process, as we contemplate the difficulties that can be noticed in relation to this concept, the subject matter might become less certain and less familiar. Rather than just asking students or practitioners to, say, be more aware of their own race or culture, we want to ask them to step back and think carefully about some of the problems associated with the conventional concepts of race and culture and to understand these concepts as contestable ideas rather than hard realities, ideas produced through a history riven with power relations. Many texts start with defining the terms of race and culture and so on. We want to encourage a discussion about how these terms get to be so defined, on the grounds that the control of definitions is in itself a basis for power. We trust that the opening up of these terms for searching discussion will also open up new forms of practice.

    For these reasons, we have endeavored in this book to bring work on the assumptions and experience of culture and cultural difference from several other fields to bear upon the field of multicultural counseling. For example, we have sought to draw from the recent developments in the field of cultural studies. We have also consciously drawn upon the literature of postcolonial studies and critical race theory. We've used material based in the philosophy of culture and in postmodern social theory. Others in the field of multicultural counseling have dipped into these sources, of course, but not all texts in this field have used them as fully as we have sought to do here. Our aim has been to translate promising ideas into readable and practical form and to suggest ways that they can enhance the practice of counseling so that multicultural counseling becomes not just an add-on to the field but a force that propels it forward into new vistas.

    To be more specific, we need to mention some guiding principles we've drawn from these literatures that we believe can benefit the field of multicultural counseling. All texts are written from a philosophical perspective; ours is no different. Sometimes this isn't mentioned because it's assumed that everyone will share the same perspective. Sometimes, too, confusion results when people talk across different assumptions without being transparent about where they're coming from. We want to avoid that. So let's declare our preference for thinking about counseling and multicultural practice from a social constructionist perspective. In Chapter 1, we outline what we mean by that. We have not written this book from a humanistic perspective, or from a structuralist perspective. We certainly have respect for the vast majority of counselors who hold to one or the other of these frameworks of assumption. But, like them, we have our own biases. We would prefer that you know this from the start.

    One of our premises as social constructionists is that essentialist ideas about culture should be eschewed. We explain what we mean by this in Chapter 2. Because essentialist thinking about meanings, about personhood, about groups of people, and about culture itself is so familiar in our patterns of thought and in our ways of speaking, essentialism is hard to step out of. Nevertheless, we believe that new possibilities open up when we do so. We have therefore aimed to write about cultural issues using language and concepts that are as nonessentialist as possible.

    Some may find this effort Eurocentric. They are, in a sense, right. Essentialist thinking has dominated the modern world from its origins in European culture. Even the word “culture” is itself a European concept, as is the word “race.” Indigenous cultures around the world have nurtured very different ways of thinking. Our intention in questioning essentialist assumptions in multicultural counseling is partly to make room for other ways of making sense of life to be granted legitimacy. Even when we're not speaking about different cultural frameworks of thought, we would like you to remember that this is our intention.

    Another premise we hold is that cultural relations in the modern world are not just constructed out of contemporary thinking. They have a history and they developed in a social context. We have therefore placed considerable emphasis in this text on locating concepts of culture in context, rather than implying that they exist in the present in some kind of temporal suspension. People do not hold to cultural stereotypes because, for example, they have independently developed faulty thinking in their heads. They do so because they are the products of a history that has produced these stereotypes and passed them down through the generations. We think it's important to make that history explicit without turning this book into a history text. We work with the assumption that locating concepts in history helps deconstruct some of their taken-for-granted authority.

    Another way we seek to avoid essentialist thinking lies in how we write about racism, sexism, homophobia, and other ideological issues. We don't believe that these ideologies are essential to any person's existence. Therefore, we have sought to avoid the common practice of assigning their origins to the hearts of persons. We do not believe that people are racist, for example, in the core of their being. Rather, we assume that racism is a social construct that existed long before any individual who now utters its lines. It has been passed on through social discourse and may have achieved a degree of influence over a person's heart and mind. But we shall avoid talking about any individual as a racist person, a sexist person, and so on. Such discipline is based on our philosophical standpoint, and we ask that you consider it. In this discipline, we draw from Michael White's (1989) aphorism: “The person is not the problem; the problem is the problem” (p. 7).

    A by-product of this assumption is that we are doubtful about classroom practices that seek to make students more aware of, for example, their own racism or sexism. We would invite students to step out of the racist or sexist ideas that may have affected them, rather than to step further into them. We are more interested, therefore, in exercises that help students deconstruct the work done by powerful ideologies, including in their own thinking, to produce life experiences of privilege and disadvantage.

    While it may be a risky business for a group of white authors to write on multiculturalism, inequity, and social justice, silence about these issues can be criticized as well. We believe that we have a responsibility to address these issues and not remain silent about them. We prefer to engage with the issues and to join the conversation about them rather than retreat. Our aim in this book and in other contexts is certainly not to upstage people from a range of cultural positions but to work in partnership with those who have not been exposed to privilege.

    The book begins in Chapter 1 by raising some questions about the concept of culture. Many texts on multiculturalism simply define culture and move on. We think it is important for a book on multiculturalism to take the concept of culture seriously. We begin, therefore, with a problematizing discussion in which we briefly trace the genealogy of the concept of culture and also note the genealogy of the uses to which this concept has been put in the therapeutic literature. In Chapter 2 we introduce many aspects of added complexity that we believe need to be taken into account in relation to culture. In particular, we argue for a focus on the multiplicity of cultural influences rather than an essentializing of singular cultural belonging. Here we explain the usefulness of considering cultural narratives that run through our lives rather than focusing on simple identities. In Chapter 3 we move to a focus on the major social divisions that were created by the processes of Western colonization of most of the earth's land surface and the psychological effects of this process that are still being worked out. We take a historical perspective here in order to signify that the cultural relations that exist today do so because of a particular history rather than just because of current policies and practices. The historical and genealogical focus continues in Chapter 4, where we pay particular attention to the concept of race. Our focus on these topics before all others signifies the centrality in the modern world of the forms of social organization that have been built on concepts of race through the colonizing practices that assumed these concepts.

    Chapters 5 through 8 are more general. They lay out some theoretical and epistemological emphases that we want to make use of through the rest of the book. In Chapter 5 we explore the usefulness to multicultural counseling of the concepts of discourse, deconstruction, and positioning. Drawn from poststructuralism and used extensively in cultural studies, these concepts are, we believe, useful for counselors to master in order to speak in fresh ways about cultural identity influences. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 all address power relations, highlighting and teasing out three different ways of thinking about power. Chapter 6 explains the liberal humanist approach that emphasizes personal power, Chapter 7 explains a structuralist approach to power, and Chapter 8 develops the poststructuralist (largely Foucauldian) analytic of power. We advocate that the multicultural counseling field take the latter approach much more seriously than it has done so far.

    In Chapter 9, we pick up the subject of gender as a domain of cultural experience. This chapter traces some of the different approaches to thinking about gender, again with something of a historical emphasis, and includes a consideration of both women's and men's enculturation into gendered narratives.

    Chapters 10 through 12 address the processes of cultural identity formation. We believe this to be a crucial consideration for counselors because it is the material that counselors and clients are dealing with on a daily basis. Our aim in these chapters is to do justice to the complexities of identity formation in the face of the array of swirling forces at work in the modern world. Chapter 10 investigates the effects of globalization on personal lives, Chapter 11 addresses the multiplicity of cultural influences in personal life, and Chapter 12 investigates some models of cultural identity development, such as racial identity development, immigrant acculturation, and LGBT identity development, particularly in relation to the coming out process.

    In Chapter 13, we consider the community contexts in which individuals are developing their personal identity. Here we pose the question, just what kind of community can we imagine that multicultural counseling might contribute to? We use Charles Taylor's concept of social imaginaries and explore the shifts away from the melting pot idea to a range of possible alternatives.

    The next three chapters pick up particular domains of cultural experience. In Chapter 14, we return to the question of racism. It is such a central and such a damaging ideological formation that we felt this book deserved another chapter devoted to how counselors might think about and respond to expressions of racism. In Chapter 15, we explore social class issues and the positioning of people in places of economic privilege or disadvantage. We investigate how personal stories are formed in relation to socioeconomic cultural formations and the degree of access these formations give people to the “American dream” or its equivalent in other countries. Chapter 16 looks at the cultural context of schooling. It addresses the functions of cultural reproduction that take place in schools as a hidden curriculum alongside the overt aims of education, then invites counselors to consider how they might work with young people to develop their lives and their education in the context of these powerful processes of cultural reproduction.

    Chapter 17 brings us to the American Counseling Association's multicultural competencies. In this chapter, we support the intention behind the development of these competencies and also raise some questions about them, especially with regard to the gaps we would like to see addressed, given the perspectives we have already covered in this book.

    Finally, in Chapter 18 we bring together the themes we have been pursuing in the previous chapters in a final series of statements about what we see on the horizon for multicultural counseling.

    This book has been more than two and a half years in the writing and many more years in gestation. We are grateful to many people who have contributed to it along the way. We have deliberately sought to include a range of voices by taking special care to give space to a richly diverse group of writers. These writers include experts and teachers in the field of multicultural counseling as well as students of these subjects. We have invited them all to contribute their ideas on multicultural counseling in North America (and in other homelands) and to include their reflections on the nature of culture, identity, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, class, geographic location, disability, religion, and numerous other salient cultural markers. Our goal has been to create a polyphonic range of responses that represents the complexity and multiplicity of perspectives we have been at pains to explain. We trust that the result of this process is that the book has something of the dialogic quality of a conversation rather than of a monologue.

    Each chapter ends with a reflection on the content of the chapter by an author who we deem has a perspective to offer on its content. You may recognize some of these authors as established and well-known writers in the multicultural field. Others represent the new generation of teachers of multicultural counseling. When we approached these people to ask them to write their reflections, we specified two things. One was that they need not agree with our perspective but might take issue with it wherever they saw fit. We hope that the differences expressed here will provide readers with stimulation to their own thinking as they work at creating their own perspectives. We also asked the writers to include a story illustrating the impact of the issues in the chapter on their own or others' lives. We are grateful to those who so willingly contributed their reflections to this book, and we acknowledge their thoughtfulness and integrity in doing so.

    Our students have also contributed many stories to this book. We acknowledge the richness and poignancy of these stories and the freshness and complexity of lived experience that they exemplify. They serve as valuable illustrations of the ideas we have sought to represent. We acknowledge the contributions of the following people: Sara Ackelson, Lorena Arias, Jason Carney, Abbie Castel, Danielle Castillo, Heather Conley-Higgins, Natasha Crawford, Mark Darby, Joyce K. Everett, Esmelda Gonzalez, Maiko Ikeda, Ryan Jackson, Sarah Johnson, Mikela Jones, Andy Kim, Mayra Lorenzo, Monica Loyce, Homero Magaña, Sarah Mamaril, Jesus Miranda, Courtnay Oatts Mohammed, Fredy Moreno, Mandana Najimi, Rieko Onuma, Elynn Oropilla, Lorena Ortega, Florence Park, Michael Perales, An Pham, Hien Pham, Stephanie Picon, Belen Robles, Deborah Ann Samson, Randy Tone, Deanna Toombs, Jaime Tran, Grace Tsai, Mary Suzette Tuason, Tristan Turk, Lucille Vail, Calix Vu-Bui, Michelle Wiese, and Daphne Zacky.

    A number of people read and commented on drafts of many chapters in the book, helping us to revaluate many small and not-so-small issues as we wrote. Some were particularly helpful in asking us to adopt a less strident tone in certain places; we shall leave it to you to judge how well we took their advice. We are grateful to the following people for their comments and suggestions: Fred Bemak, Edward Delgado-Romero, Changming Duan, Brenda Ingram, Richard Lee, Paul Pedersen, Sue Strong, and Allen Wilcoxon.

    Collecting background material and locating textual sources is detailed and sometimes tedious work, and we are grateful to the following people for their assistance in bringing the book together: Krystal Colwell, Mia Hardy, Michael Jabbra, Larissa Jefferson-Allen, and Tracy Shelton.

    Those at Sage Publications who have stayed with us through the course of producing this book also deserve our acknowledgment and gratitude. We are particularly grateful to Art Pomponio for seeing value in our proposal for this book and for helping us initiate the project. We appreciate Kassie Graves's editorial guidance and her patience and encouragement along the way. We thank Veronica Novak for her hard work in getting the book into production. We would also like to thank Rachel Keith for her meticulous copyediting and helpful additions.

    Our universities have provided both general and specific assistance for the completion of this project. In particular, San Diego State University's College of Education and Department of Counseling and School Psychology have given generous research support to Gerald Monk over the last two years. California State University, San Bernardino, through a faculty research leave program, provided John Winslade with one-quarter relief from teaching, which enabled him to concentrate on the latter stages of writing and revision in the spring of 2007.

    On a more personal level, Lorraine Hedtke has participated in many discussions about the content and detail of the book and has contributed many specific suggestions for inclusion in the text. She has read draft material with a sharp eye and commented helpfully on it. She has also contributed many aspects of less tangible support, particularly for John Winslade, by way of generous encouragement and her belief that the project was worthwhile. Such encouragement has been necessary at times when the project has felt bogged down. It is fitting that she be acknowledged here for helping to make this book happen.

    Gerald Monk, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Counseling and School Psychology at San Diego State University and teaches in the Marriage and Family Therapy Program. He teaches multicultural counseling classes at the graduate level. Gerald is a practicing marriage and family therapist in California and a mediator and trainer in collaborative divorce practices and health care. Gerald worked as a psychologist and counselor educator in New Zealand for 15 years before moving to the United States in 2000. He has a long-standing commitment to working with the bicultural issues that have arisen from the abuses of Maori by the colonizing practices of Pakeha in Aotearoa over the last 250 years. He has participated in extensive bicultural programs in New Zealand and introduced many students to working with indigenous healing practices on marae, the sacred ground of the Maori.

    Gerald has a strong interest in promoting constructionist theories in counseling and family systems work. He is well known for his contributions to developing and expanding the applications of narrative therapy in New Zealand and in North America. Gerald has published numerous articles and coauthored four books on the subject of narrative therapy and narrative mediation. His main professional commitment lies in the development and application of narrative mediation in health care and community-based contexts. Gerald has taught numerous workshops on this subject in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Austria, Iceland, Cyprus, Mexico, Denmark, Israel, Russia, and across the United States. Recently, he was the recipient of a Fred J. Hansen grant for peace studies to conduct bicommunal workshops in the buffer zone in Nicosia, Cyprus.

    John Winslade, Ph.D., is a professor at California State University, San Bernardino, where he is the coordinator of the Educational Counseling Program. He also teaches part time at the University of Waikato in New Zealand, where he was previously the director of counselor education. He is a New Zealander of Pakeha ancestry, and he conceives of Pakeha culture not just as an expression of white, British, or European heritage, but also as being about living in relation to Maori and Pacific cultural narratives in Aotearoa.

    His academic work has focused mainly on the application of social constructionist and narrative ideas to the fields of counseling and conflict resolution. His interest in these ideas lies not just in their novel modes of practice but also in their potential for helping people articulate responses to new developments in our conditions of life in the 21st century. He believes that counseling and psychology need to adapt to current cultural shifts, rather than continuing to repeat older solutions. In addition to numerous articles, John has coauthored four books on narrative counseling and mediation and one on narrative grief counseling.

    John has a strong interest in conflict resolution and peace building in personal, organizational, and community contexts. He has taught workshops on narrative counseling and mediation in the United States, Canada, Britain, Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, Cyprus, and Israel. In the last two years, through the sponsorship of the Fred J. Hansen Institute for World Peace, he has been involved in bicommunal peace building work in Cyprus.

    Stacey L. Sinclair, Ph.D., is director of the University Honors Program at San Diego State University and teaches in the Department of Counseling and School Psychology at San Diego State University. She is a nationally certified counselor and trained mediator. Her research and scholarship concentrate on social constructionist theory, discursive psychology, postmodern feminism, and conflict resolution. She has published numerous journal articles and book chapters on the application of postmodern epistemology in counseling and marriage and family therapy, and she regularly presents her work at the national and international level. Her primary teaching focus lies in the area of cultural studies and grounding culture in political, economic, and social contexts. Stacey has developed an undergraduate curriculum centered around popular culture for the Department of Counseling and School Psychology. This curriculum starts from the premise that popular culture, far from being a frivolous or debased alternative to “high” or “real” culture, is in fact an important site of popular expression, social construction, and cultural conflict and thus deserves critical attention. Stacey's teaching pays special attention to the ways popular culture affects individuals' daily lives, producing a range of physical, social, and emotional consequences.

    Stacey also has a strong background in developing and conducting a range of study-abroad programs for undergraduate and graduate students. Recently, she developed and taught study-abroad courses on conflict resolution in Estonia and Cyprus. Her conflict resolution work has included facilitating bicommunal peace building workshops with Turkish and Greek Cypriots in Nicosia, Cyprus, between 2005 and 2007 and in San Diego in 2006.

  • References

    Abrams, L., & Trusty, J. (2004). African Americans' racial identity and socially desirable responding: An empirical model. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82(3), 365–374.
    Adams, J. T. (1931). The epic of America. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Adler, J. (2005, August 29). In search of the spiritual. Newsweek (U.S. ed.), p. 46.
    Adorno, T., Aron, B., Levinson, M., & Morrow, W. (1950). The authoritarian personality: Studies in prejudice. New York: Norton.
    Agronick, G., O'Donnell, L., Stueve, A., Doval, A., Duran, R., & Vargo, S. (2004). Sexual behaviors and risks among bisexually and gay–identified young Latino men. AIDS and Behavior, 8(2), 185–197.
    Ahmad, S., Waller, G., & Verduyn, C. (1997). Eating attitudes and body satisfaction among Asian and Caucasian adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 17(5), 461–470.
    Akan, G. E., & Grilo, C. M. (1995). Sociocultural influences on eating attitudes and behaviors, body image, and psychological functioning: A comparison of African-American, Asian-American, and Caucasian college women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 18(2), 181–187.;2-M
    Alexander, M. G., & Fisher, T. D. (2003). Truth and consequences: Using the bogus pipeline to examine sex differences in self-reported sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 27–35.
    Alinsky, S. D. (1969). Reveille for radicals. New York: Vintage Books.
    Allen, L. (2003). Girls want sex, boys want love: Resisting dominant discourses of (hetero)sexuality. Sexualities, 6(2), 215–236.
    Almeida, R., Woods, R., Messineo, T., & Font, R. (1998). The cultural context model: An overview. In M.McGoldrick (Ed.), Revisioning family therapy. New York: Guilford Press.
    Altabe, M. (1998). Ethnicity and body image: Quantitative and qualitative analysis. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 23(2), 153–159.;2-J
    American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (
    3rd ed.
    , revised). Washington, DC: Author.
    American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (
    4th ed.
    , text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
    American Psychological Association. (2002). American psychological association guidelines on multicultural education training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychology. Retrieved from
    American Psychological Association. (2007). Affirmative action: Who benefits? Retrieved August 13, 2007, from
    American School Counseling Association. (2003). American School Counselor Association national model: A framework for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: Author.
    American School Counseling Association. (2005). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs (
    2nd ed.
    ). Retrieved January 1, 2007, from
    Anderson, B. (2000). America's salad bowl: An agricultural history of the Salinas Valley. Monterey, CA: Monterey County Historical Society.
    Anderson, H., & Goolishian, H. (1992). The client is the expert: A not-knowing approach to therapy. In S.McNamee & K. J.Gergen (Eds.), Therapy as social construction (pp. 25–39). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Anderson, S. K., & Middleton, V. A. (2005). Explorations in privilege, oppression and diversity. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Anderson, W. (2001). All connected now: Life in the first global civilization. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Anyon, J. (1980). Social class and the hidden curriculum of work. Journal of Education, 162(1), 67–92.
    Anyon, J. (2005). Social class and school knowledge. In E. R.Brown & K. J.Saltman (Eds.), The critical middle school reader (pp. 409–418). New York: Routledge.
    Appiah, K. A. (2005). The ethics of identity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Archer, J. (1996). Sex differences in social behavior: Are the social role and evolutionary explanations compatible?American Psychologist, 51, 909–917.
    Archer, J., & Lloyd, B. (2002). Sex and gender (
    2nd ed.
    ). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Arnold, M. (1865). Essays in criticism. New York: Macmillan.
    Arnold, M. (1869). Culture and anarchy: An essay in political criticism. New York: Macmillan.
    Arthur, N. (1998). Counsellor education for diversity: Where do we go from here?Canadian Journal of Counselling, 32(1), 88–103.
    Arredondo, P., & Arciniega, G. M. (2001). Strategies and techniques for counselor training based on the multicultural counseling competencies. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 29(4), 263–273.
    Arredondo, P., Toporek, R., & Brown, S. K. (1996). Operationalization of the multicultural counseling competencies. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 24(1), 42–78.
    Arts, L., & Kamalipour, Y. R. (2003). The globalization of corporate media hegemony. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Ashcroft, B., & Ahluwalia, P. (2001). Edward Said. London: Routledge.
    Association for Counselor Education and Supervision. (1993). Ethical guidelines for counseling supervisors. Retrieved from
    Association of Multicultural Counseling and Development. (1996). Standards for multicultural assessment. Association for Assessment in Counseling. Retrieved from
    Atkinson, D. R., & Hackett, G. (Eds.). (2004). Counseling diverse populations (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Atkinson, D. R., Morten, G., & Sue, D. W. (Eds.). (1989). Counseling American minorities: A cross-cultural perspective (
    3rd ed.
    ). Dubuque, IA: Brown.
    Atkinson, D. R., Morten, G., & Sue, D. W. (Eds.). (1993). Counseling American minorities (
    4th ed.
    ). Dubuque, IA: Brown.
    Atkinson, D. R., Morten, G., & Sue, D. W. (Eds.). (1998). Counseling American minorities (
    5th ed.
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Austin, J. L. (1962). How to do things with words (J. O.Urmson, Ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Avis, J. M. (1987). Deepening awareness: A private study guide to feminism and family therapy. Journal of Psychotherapy and the Family, 3, 15–46.
    Avis, J. M. (1996). Deconstructing gender in family therapy. In F.Piercy, D.Sprenkle, J.Wetchler, & Associates, Family therapy sourcebook (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 220–255). New York: Guilford Press.
    Axelson, J. A. (1994). Counseling and development in a multicultural society. Monterey, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Bakhtin, M. (1986). Speech genres and other late essays (C.Emerson & M.Holquist, Eds.; V. W.McGee, Trans.). Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Bakhtin, M. M. (1981). The dialogic imagination (C.Emerson & M.Holquist, Trans.). Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Baldwin, E., Longhurst, B., McCracken, S., Ogborn, M., & Smith, G. (2000). Introducing cultural studies. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
    Ballou, M., & Gabalac, N. W. (1985). A feminist position on mental health. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Bancroft, J. (2002). Biological factors in human sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 39 (1), 15–21.
    Bandura, A. (1971). Psychological modeling: Conflicting theories. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.
    Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Barnes, P., & Lightsey, O. (2005). Perceived racist discrimination, coping stress, and life satisfaction. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 33, 48–61.
    Barrett, M., & Phillips, A. (Eds.). (1992). Destabilizing theory: Contemporary feminist debates. London: Polity Press.
    Bartky, S. L. (1988). Foucault, femininity, and the modernization of patriarchal power. In I.Diamond & L.Quinby (Eds.), Feminism and Foucault: Reflections on resistance (pp. 61–86). Boston: Northeastern University Press.
    Baruth, L. G., & Manning, M. L. (2007). Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy: A lifespan perspective (
    4th ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
    Battiste, M. (Ed.). (2000). Reclaiming indigenous voice and vision. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: UBC Press.
    Beals, K., & Peplau, L. (2005). Identity support, identity devaluation, and well-being among lesbians. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29, 140–148.
    Bell, C. C., & Mehta, H. (1980). The misdiagnosis of black patients with manic depressive illness. Journal of the National Medical Association, 72, 141–145.
    Bell, D. A. (2000). After we're gone: Prudent speculations on America in a post-racial epoch. In R.Delgado & J.Stefancic (Eds.), Critical race theory: The cutting edge (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 2–8), Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Benedict, R. (1945). Race and racism. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Benedict, R. (1959). Race: Science and politics. New York: Viking Press.
    Benhabib, S. (2002). The claims of culture: Equality and diversity in the global era. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Benshoff, H. M., & Griffin, S. (2004). America on film: Representing race, class, gender, and sexuality at the movies. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Beren, S. E., Hayden, H. A., Wilfley, D. E., & Striegel-Moore, R. H. (1997). Body dissatisfaction among lesbian college students: The conflict of straddling mainstream and lesbian cultures. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21(3), 431–445.
    Berger, J. (1972). Ways of seeing. London: Penguin Books.
    Bergeron, S. M., & Senn, C. Y. (1998). Body image and sociocultural norms: A comparison of heterosexual and lesbian women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22(3), 385–401.
    Berliner, D. C. (2005). The near impossibility of testing for teacher quality. Journal of Teacher Education, 56(3), 205–213.
    Berliner, D. C., & Biddle, B. J. (1995). The manufactured crisis: Myths, fraud, and the attack on America's public schools. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Bernard, J. (1969). Functions and limitations in counseling and psychotherapy. In D.Hansen (Ed.), Explorations in sociology and counseling (pp. 369–378). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Berne, E. (1973). Games people play. New York: Ballantine Books.
    Bernstein, R. (1983). Beyond objectivism and relativism: Science, hermeneutics, and praxis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Berry, J. W. (1980). Acculturation as varieties of adaptation. In A.Padilla (Ed.), Acculturation: Theory, models and some new findings (pp. 9–25). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Berry, J. W. (2001). A psychology of immigration. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 615–631.
    Betancourt, H., & López, S. R. (1995). The study of culture ethnicity and race in American psychology. In N.Goldberger & J.Veroff (Eds.), Culture and psychology (pp. 87–107). New York: New York University Press.
    Betcher, R. W., & Pollack, W. S. (1993). In a time of fallen heroes: The re-creation of masculinity. New York: Atheneum.
    Bigby, J. (Ed.). (2003). Cross-cultural medicine. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians.
    Billinger, M. S. (2007). Another look at ethnicity as a biological concept: Moving anthropology beyond the race concept. Critique of Anthropology, 27(5), 5–35.
    Birman, D. (1994). Acculturation and human diversity in a multicultural society. In E.Trickett, R.Watts, & D.Birman (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 261–284). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Bishaw, A., & Stern, S. (2006). Evaluation of poverty estimates: A comparison of the American Community Survey and the Current Population Survey. Retrieved July 11, 2007, from
    Blanchett, W., Brantlinger, E., & Shealey, M. (2005). Brown 50 years later—exclusion, segregation, and inclusion. Remedial and Special Education, 26(2), 66–69.
    Blazina, C., & Watkins, C. E., Jr. (1996). Masculine gender role conflict: Effects on college men's psychological well-being, chemical substance usage, and attitudes toward help-seeking. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 461–465.
    Bly, R. (1990). Iron John: A book about men. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Bodenhorn, N. (2005). American School Counselor Association Ethical Code changes relevant to family work. Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 13(3), 316–320.
    Bordo, S. (1993). Unbearable weight: Feminism, Western culture, and the body. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Borradori, G. (2003). Philosophy in a time of terror: Dialogues with Jürgen Habermas and Jacques Derrida. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J.-C. (1977). Reproduction in education, society and culture. London: SAGE.
    Bowles, S., & Gintis, H. (1976). Schooling in capitalist America: Educational reform and the contradiction of economic life. New York: Basic Books.
    Bowles, S., & Gintis, H. (2005). Schooling in capitalist America. In E. R.Brown & K. J.Saltman (Eds.), The critical middle school reader (pp. 197–202). New York: Routledge.
    Bowling, D., & Hoffman, D. A. (2003). Bringing peace into the room: How the personal qualities of the mediator impact the process of conflict resolution. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Brammer, R. (2004). Diversity in counseling. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Braun, V., Gavey, N., & McPhillips, K. (2003). The “fair deal”? Unpacking accounts of reciprocity in heterosex. Sexualities, 6(2), 237–261.
    Brooks, G. R., & Good, G. E. (2001). Introduction. In G. R.Brooks & G. E.Good (Eds.), The new handbook of psychotherapy and counseling with men (Vol. 1, pp. 3–21). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Brouwers, M. (1990). Treatment of body image dissatisfaction among women with bulimia nervosa. Journal of Counseling & Development, 69(2), 144–147.
    Brown, D., & Trusty, J. (2005). School counselors, comprehensive school counseling programs, and academic achievement: Are school counselors promising more than they can deliver?Professional School Counseling, 9(1), 1–8.
    Brown, L. S. (1995). Lesbian identities: Concepts and issues. In A.D'Augelli & C.Patterson (Eds.), Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities over the lifespan (pp. 3–23). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Browning, C., Reynolds, A. L., & Dworkin, S. H. (1998). Affirmative psychotherapy for lesbian women. In D. R.Atkinson & G.Hackett (Eds.), Counseling diverse populations (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 317–334). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
    Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Bruner, J. (1996). The culture of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Brunner, J. J. (1998). Globalización cultural y postmodernidad [Cultural and postmodern globalization]. Santiago, Chile: Fondo de Cultural Economica.
    Buber, M. (1978). Between man and man. New York: Macmillan.
    Burman, E. (1994). Deconstructing developmental psychology. London: Routledge.
    Burr, V. (1995). An introduction to social constructionism. New York: Routledge.
    Burr, V. (2003). Social constructionism (
    2nd ed.
    ). London: Psychology Press.
    Buss, A. R. (1979). A dialectical psychology. New York: Irvington.
    Buss, D. M. (1995). Psychological sex differences: Origins through sexual selection. American Psychologist, 50, 164–168.
    Buss, D. M. (2000). The evolution of happiness. American Psychologist, 55, 15–23.
    Butler, B., & Petrulis, J. (1999). Some further observations concerning Sir Cyril Burt. British Journal of Psychology, 90(1), 155–160.
    Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge.
    Butler, J. (1992). Contingent foundations: Feminism and the question of postmodernism. In J.Butler & J. W.Scott (Eds.), Feminists theorise the political (pp. 3–21). London: Routledge.
    Calvert, S. (1994, March). Psychology and a feminist practice: Opponents or complements?Bulletin of the New Zealand Psychological Society, 80, 21–23.
    Campo-Flores, A., & Fineman, H. (2005, May 30). A Latin power surge. Newsweek (U.S. ed.), p. 24.
    Camus, A. (1937). L'envers et l'endroit [Betwixt and between]. Paris: Gallimard.
    Caramel, L., & Laronche, M. (2000). We must fight for cultural diversity. Le Monde.
    Carlson, K. (2004, January). Test scores by race and ethnicity. Phi Delta Kappan, pp. 379–380.
    Carter, R. T. (1990). Does race or racial identity attitudes influence the counseling process in black and white dyads? In J.Helms (Ed.), Black and white racial identity: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 145–164). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Carter, R. T. (1990b). The relationship between racism and racial identity among white Americans: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Counseling & Development, 69, 46–50.
    Carter, R. T. (1995). The influence of race and racial identity in psychotherapy: Toward a racially inclusive model. New York: Wiley.
    Carter, R. T. (Ed.). (2004). Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling: Training and practice (Vol. 2). New York: Wiley.
    Carter, R. T., Helms, J. E., & Juby, H. L. (2004). The relationship between racism and racial identity for white Americans: A profile analysis. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32(1), 2–17.
    Cash, T. F., & Henry, P. E. (1995). Women's body images: The results of a national survey in the U.S.A. Sex Roles, 33(1–2), 19–28.
    Cass, V. C. (1979). Homosexual identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4(3), 219–235.
    Castellano, M. B. (2002). Aboriginal family trends: Extended families, nuclear families, families of the heart. Retrieved July 10, 2007, from
    Cavanaugh, C. J., & Lemberg, R. (1999). What we know about eating disorders: Facts and statistics. In R.Lemberg (with L.Cohn; ed.), Eating disorders: A reference sourcebook (pp. 7–12). Phoenix, AZ: Oryx.
    Cejka, M. A., & Eagly, A. H. (1999). Gender-stereotypic images of occupations correspond to sex segregation of employment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 413–423.
    Challenging disabling practices: Talking about issues of disability. (1997). Dulwich Centre Newsletter, 4.
    Chan, J. M., & Ma, E. (2002). Transculturating modernity: A reinterpretation of cultural globalization. In J. M.Chan & B. T.McIntyre (Eds.), In search of boundaries: Communication, nation-states and cultural identities (pp. 3–18). Westport, CT: Ablex.
    Chan, J. M., & McIntyre, B. T. (Eds.). (2002). In search of boundaries: Communication, nation-states, and cultural identities. Westport, CT: Ablex.
    Chaplin, J. (1988). Feminist counselling in action. London: SAGE.
    Chasin, R., Herzig, M., Roth, S., Chasin, L., Becker, C., & Stains, R. (1996). From diatribe to dialogue on divisive public issues: Approaches drawn from family therapy. Mediation Quarterly, 13(4), 323–344.
    Chernin, K. (1981). The obsession: Reflections on the tyranny of slenderness. New York: Harper & Row.
    Chesler, P. (1972). Women and madness. New York: Doubleday.
    Chomsky, N. (1966). Topics in the theory of generative grammar. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton.
    Chomsky, N. (2003). Hegemony or survival: America's quest for global dominance. New York: Henry Holt.
    Chouliaraki, L., & Fairclough, N. (1999). Language and power in Bourdieu: On Hasan's “The disempowerment game.”. Linguistics and Education, 10(4), 399–409.
    Chubbuck, S. (2004). Whiteness enacted, whiteness disrupted. The complexity of personal congruence. American Educational Research Journal, 41(2), 301–333.
    Chung, R. (2005). Women, human rights, and counseling: Crossing international boundaries. Journal of Counseling & Development, 83, 262–268.
    Chung, R., Bemak, F., & Wong, S. (2000). Vietnamese refugees' level of distress, social support, and acculturation: Implications for mental health counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 22, 150–161.
    Cleary, L. M., & Peacock, T. D. (1998). Collected wisdom: American Indian education. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Clifford, J. (1986). Introduction: Partial truths. In J.Clifford & G. E.Marcus (Eds.), Writing cultures: The poetics and politics of writing ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Coe, M. D. (1996). Mexico: From the Olmecs to the Aztecs. New York: Thames & Hudson.
    Coleman, E. (1982). Developmental stages of the coming out process. Journal of Homosexuality, 7, 31–43.
    Collins, P. H. (1990). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. Boston: Unwin Hyman.
    Comas-Diaz, L., & Greene, B. (Eds.). (1994). Women of color: Integrating ethnic and gender identities in psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press.
    Comstock, D. (Ed.). (2005). Diversity and development: Critical contexts that shape our lives and relationships. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Connell, R. W. (1995). Masculinities. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Constantine, M. G., & Sue, D. W. (Eds.). (2005). Strategies for building multicultural competence in mental health and educational settings. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    Cook, N. D. (1981). Demographic collapse, Indian Peru, 1520–1620. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Coontz, S. (2005). Marriage, a history: From obedience to intimacy, or How love conquered marriage. New York: Viking Press.
    Corey, G. (2008). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (
    8th ed.
    ). Belmont, CA: Thomson Learning.
    Corey, G., Corey, M. S., Callanan, P., & Russell, J. M. (2003). Group techniques (
    3rd ed.
    ). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Cornell, S., & Hartmann, D. (1998). Ethnicity and race: Making identities in a changing world. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Cortina, L., & Wasti, A. (2005). Profiles in coping: Response to sexual harassment across persons, organizations, and cultures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(1), 182–192.
    Couldry, N. (2000). Inside culture: Re-imagining the method of cultural studies. London: SAGE.
    Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Education Programs. (2001). Council for Accreditation of Counseling Standards. Alexandria, VA: CACREP. Retrieved from
    Cournoyer, R. J., & Mahalik, J. R. (1995). Cross-sectional study of gender role conflict examining college-aged and middle-aged men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42(1), 11–19.
    Courtenay, W. H. (2000). Constructions of masculinity and their influence on men's well-being: A theory of gender and health. Social Science & Medicine, 50, 1385–1401.
    Crabtree, R. D., & Malhotra, S. (2003). Media hegemony and the commercialization of television in India: Implications to social class and development communication. In L.Artz & Y. R.Kamalipour (Eds.), The globalization of corporate media hegemony (pp. 213–228) New York: State University of New York Press.
    Crawford, J., Kippax, S., & Waldby, C. (1994). Women's sex talk and men's sex talk: Different worlds. Feminism & Psychology, 4, 571–587.
    Croninger, R. G., & Lee, V. E. (2001). Social capital and dropping out of high school: Benefits to at-risk students of teachers' support and guidance. Teachers College Record, 103(4), 548–581.
    Crosby, F., Iyer, A., Clayton, S., & Downing, R. (2003). Affirmative action: Psychological data and the policy debates. American Psychologist, 58(2), 93–115.
    Crose, R., Nicholas, D. R., Gobble, D. C., & Frank, B. (1992). Gender and wellness: A multidimensional systems model for counselling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 71, 149–156.
    Cross, W. E. (1971). The Negro to Black conversion experience: Toward a psychology of Black liberation. Black World, 20(9), 13–27.
    Cross, W. E. (1978). The Thomas and Cross models of psychological nigrescence. Journal of Black Psychology, 5(1), 3–19.
    Cross, W. E. (1991). Shades of black: Diversity in African American identity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Crossley, N. (2003). From reproduction to transformation: Social movement fields and the radical habitus. Theory, Culture & Society, 20(6), 43–68.
    Croteau, J., Lark, J., Lidderdale, M., & Chung, B. (Eds.). (2005). Deconstructing heterosexism in the counseling professions: A narrative approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Curthoys, A. (1988). What is the socialism in socialist feminism?Australian Feminist Studies, 6, 17–24.
    Curtin, P. D. (Ed.). (1971). Imperialism. New York: Walker.
    Cushman, P. (1990). Why the self is empty: Toward a historically situated psychology. American Psychologist, 45(5), 599–611.
    Cushman, P. (1995). On tapestries and entanglements: A response to commentary on constructing the self, constructing America. Psychohistory Review, 24(1), 77–98.
    Cushner, K., & Brislin, R. (Eds.). (1994). Improving intercultural interactions: Modules for cross-cultural training programs (Vol. 2). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Dana, R. H. (1998). Understanding cultural identity in intervention and assessment. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    D'Andrea, M. (2000). Postmodernism, constructivism, and multiculturalism: Three forces reshaping and expanding our thoughts about counseling. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 22, 1–17.
    D'Andrea, M., & Daniels, J. (2001). RESPECTFUL counseling. In D.Pope-Davis & H.Coleman (Eds.), The intersection of race, class, and gender in multicultural counseling (pp. 417–466). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Daniels, J. (2007). Feminist counseling and therapy. In A. E.Ivey, M.D'Andrea, M. B.Ivey, & L.Simek-Morgan (Eds.), Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: A multicultural perspective (
    6th ed.
    , pp. 321–358). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Daniels, J., & D'Andrea, M. (1996). Implications for ameliorating ethnocentrism in counseling. In D. W.Sue, A. E., Ivey, & P. D.Pedersen (Eds.), A theory of multicultural counseling and therapy (pp. 157–173). Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Daniluk, J. C., Stein, M., & Bockus, D. (1995). The ethics of inclusion: Gender as a critical component of counselor training. Counselor Education and Supervision, 34(4), 294–307.
    Das, A. K. (1995). Rethinking multicultural counseling: Implications for counselor education. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74(1), 45–52.
    D'Augelli, A. (1994). Identity development and sexual orientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development. In E.Trickett, R.Watts, & D.Birman (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 312–333). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Davies, B. (1990). The problem of desire. Social Problems, 37(4), 501–516.
    Davies, B. (1993). Shards of glass: Children reading and writing beyond gendered identities. St. Leonards, New South Wales, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
    Davies, B., & Harré, R. (1990). Positioning: The discursive production of selves. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 20(1), 43–63.
    Davies, N. (1995). The Incas. Niwot: University Press of Colorado.
    Davis, F. J. (1991). Who is black? One nation's definition. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Davis, K. (2006). A girl like me [Motion picture]. (Available at
    Deadly disparities. (2000, September 17). New York Times, p. 18.
    Dean, M. (1999). Governmentality: Power and rule in modern society. London: SAGE.
    De Jong, P., & Berg, I. K. (2002). Interviewing for solutions (
    2nd ed.
    ). Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    de Lauretis, T. (Ed.). (1986). Feminist studies, critical studies. Bloomington: Indiana Universitiy Press.
    Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (1983). On the line. New York: Semiotext(e).
    Delgado, R., & Stefancic, J. (Eds.). (2000). Critical race theory: The cutting edge (
    2nd ed.
    ). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Delucia-Waack, J. L., & Donigian, J. (2004). The practice of multicultural group work. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Denborough, D. (Ed.). (2002). Queer counseling and narrative practice. Adelaide, South Australia: Dulwich Centre.
    Deng, F. M. (1997). Ethnicity: An African predicament. Brookings Review, 15(3), 28–31.
    DePoy, E., & Gilson, S. F. (2004). Rethinking disability: Principles for professional and social change. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Dericco, J., & Sciarra, D. (2005). The immersion experience in multicultural counselor training: Confronting covert racism. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 33, 2–8.
    Derrida, J. (1976). Of grammatology (G. C.Spivak, Trans.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Derrida, J. (1978). Writing and difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Derrida, J. (1994, Autumn). The deconstruction of actuality: An interview with Jacques Derrida. Radical Philosophy, 68, pp. 28–41.
    Derrida, J., & Roudinesco, E. (2004). For what tomorrow: A dialogue (J.Fort, Trans.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Dial M for Mujahideen. (2006, May 18). Economist, p. 45.
    Diamond, I., & Quinby, L. (Eds.). (1988). Feminism and Foucault: Reflections on resistance. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
    Diamond, J. (1999). Guns, germs and steel: The fates of human societies. New York: Norton.
    Dienhart, A. (2001). Engaging men in family therapy: Does the gender of the therapist make a difference?Journal of Family Therapy, 23, 21–45.
    Diller, J. V. (2004). Cultural diversity: A primer for the human services (
    2nd ed.
    ). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Diller, J. V. (2007). Cultural diversity: A primer for the human services (
    3rd ed.
    ). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Dillon, S. (2006, November 20). Schools slow in closing the gaps between races. New York Times (late ed., East Coast), p. A1.
    Dominguez, V. R. (1986). White by definition: Social classification in Creole Louisiana. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Dovidio, J., & Esses, V. (2001). Immigrants and immigration: Advancing the psychological perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 375–387.
    Downing, N. E., & Roush, K. L. (1985). From passive acceptance to active commitment: A model of feminist identity development for women. Counseling Psychologist, 13(4), 695–709.
    Drewery, W. (1986). The challenge of feminism and the practice of counselling. New Zealand Counselling and Guidance Association Journal, 8(1), 18–28.
    Drewery, W. (2005). Why we should watch what we say: Position calls, everyday speech and the production of relational subjectivity. Theory & Psychology, 15(3), 305–324.
    Drewery, W., & Monk, G. (1994). Some reflections on the therapeutic power of poststructuralism. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 17(4), 303–313.
    Drewery, W., Winslade, J., & Monk, G. (2000). Resisting the dominating story: Toward a deeper understanding of narrative therapy. In R.Neimeyer & J.Raskin (Eds.), Constructions of disorder: Meaning-making frameworks for psychotherapy (pp. 243–264). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Dumas, J. E., Rollock, D., Prinz, R. J., Hops, H., & Blechman, E. A. (1999). Cultural sensitivity: Problems and solutions in applied and preventive intervention. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 8(3), 175–196.
    Duran, E. (2006). Healing the soul wound: Counseling with American Indians and other native peoples. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Duran, E., & Duran, B. (1995). Native American post colonial psychology. Albany: State University of New York.
    Durie, M. H. (1989). A move that's well overdue: Shaping counselling to meet the needs of Maori people. New Zealand Counselling and Guidance Association Journal, 11(1), 13–23.
    Durning, A. T. (1992). How much is enough? The consumer society and the future of the earth. New York: Norton.
    Dworkin, S. (1984). Traditionally defined client, meet feminist therapist: Feminist therapy as attitude change. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 62, 301–305.
    Eagly, A. H., & Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: Evolved dispositions versus social roles. American Psychologist, 54, 408–423.
    Ehrenreich, B., & English, D. (1979). For her own good: 50 years of the experts' advice to women. New York: Doubleday.
    Eko, L. (2003). Globalization and the mass media in Africa. In L.Artz & Y. R.Kamalipour (Eds.), The globalization of corporate media hegemony. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Eliot, T. S. (1949). Notes towards the definition of culture. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
    Ellis, A. (1961). A guide to rational living. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Ellis, A. (1985). The case against religion: A psychotherapist's view and the case against religiosity. Austin, TX: American Atheist Press.
    Emmons, L. (1992). Dieting and purging behavior in black and white high school students. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 92(3), 306–312.
    Enns, C. Z. (1993). Twenty years of feminist counseling and therapy: From naming biases to implementing multifaceted practice. Counseling Psychologist, 21(1), 3–87.
    Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.
    Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
    Entwhistle, H. (2000). Educating multicultural citizens: Melting pot or mosaic. International Journal of Social Education, 14(2), 1–15.
    Escoffier, J. (1991). The limits of multiculturalism. Socialist Review, 21(3–4), 61–73.
    Evans, K., Kincade, E., Marbley, A., & Seem, S. (2005). Feminism and feminist therapy: Lessons from the past and for the future. Journal of Counseling & Development, 83, 269–277.
    Fadiman, A. (1998). The spirit catches you and you fall down: A Hmong child, her American doctors, and the collision of two cultures. New York: Noonday Press.
    Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and social change. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
    Falco, K. L. (1991). Psychotherapy with lesbian clients: Theory into practice. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Falicov, C. J. (1998). Latino families in therapy. New York: Guilford Press.
    Fall, K., Levitov, J., Anderson, L., & Clay, H. (2005). African-Americans' perceptions of mental health professions. International Journal of the Advancement of Counseling, 27(1), 47–56.
    Faludi, S. (1999). Stiffed: The betrayal of American men. New York: Morrow.
    Fanon, F. (1963). The wretched of the earth. New York: Grove Press.
    Fassinger, R. (1998). Lesbian, gay and bisexual identity and student development theory. In R.Sanlo (Ed.), Working with lesbian, gay and transgender college students: A handbook for faculty and administrators (pp. 13–22). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Fay, B. (1987). Critical social science: Liberation and its limits. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
    Feingold, A., & Mazzella, R. (1998). Gender differences in body image are increasing. Psychological Science, 9(3), 190–195.
    Ferdman, B. M., & Gallegos, P. I. (2001). Latinos and racial identity development. In C. L.Wijeyesinghe & B. W.Jackson III (Eds.), New perspectives on racial identity development: A theoretical and practical anthology (pp. 32–66). New York: New York University Press.
    Ferree, M. M., Lorber, J., & Hess, B. B. (Eds.). (1999). Revisioning gender. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
    Fier, E., & Ramsey, M. (2005). Ethical challenges in the teaching of multicultural course work. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 33, 94–107.
    Fingerhut, A., Peplau, L., & Ghavami, N. (2005). A dual framework for understanding lesbian experience. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29, 129–139.
    Fischer, A. R., & Good, G. E. (1997). Masculine gender roles, recognition of emotions, and interpersonal intimacy. Psychotherapy, 34, 160–170.
    Fisher, P., & Maloney, T. (1994). Beliefs, assumptions and practices of two feminist therapists. Bulletin of the New Zealand Psychological Society, 80, 17–20.
    Flax, J. (1990). Postmodernism and gender relations in feminist theory. In L. J.Nicholson (Ed.), Feminism/postmodernism (pp. 39–62). New York: Routledge.
    Flax, J. (1992). The end of innocence. In J.Butler & J. W.Scott (Eds.), Feminists theorise the political (pp. 445–463). London: Routledge.
    Fletcher, J. (2001, March). When a million isn't enough. Wall Street Journal, pp. W1, W14.
    Flores, R., Tschann, J., Marin, B., & Pantoja, P. (2004). Marital conflict and acculturation among Mexican American husbands and wives. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(1), 39–52.
    Fordham, S., & Ogbu, J. U. (1986). Black students' school success: Coping with the “burden of acting white.”. Urban Review, 13(3), 17–206.
    Foster, G. A. (2005). Social mobility in film and popular culture. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
    Foucault, M. (1969). The archaeology of knowledge (A. M. S.Smith, Trans.) London: Tavistock.
    Foucault, M. (1972). The order of things: An archaeology of the human sciences (A. M. S.Smith, Trans.). New York: Pantheon. (Original work published 1966)
    Foucault, M. (1978). The history of sexuality: An introduction (Vol. 1; R.Hurley, Trans.). New York: Vintage Books.
    Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings. New York: Pantheon Books.
    Foucault, M. (1983). This is not a pipe (J.Harkness, Trans.). Berkeley: University of California Press. (Original work published 1973)
    Foucault, M. (2000). Power: Essential works of Foucault, 1954–1984 (Vol. 3; J.Faubion, Ed.; R.Hurley, Trans.). New York: New Press.
    Foucault, M. (2005). The hermeneutics of the subject: Lectures at the College de France (F.Gros, F.Ewald, & A.Fontana, Eds.; G.Burchell, Trans.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Fowers, B. J., & Davidov, B. J. (2006). The virtue of multiculturalism: Personal transformation, character, and openness to the other. American Psychologist, 61(6), 581–594.
    Fox, R. C. (1995). Bisexual identities. In A. R.D'Augelli & C. J.Patterson, Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities over the lifespan: Psychological perspectives (pp. 48–86). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Fraga, D., Atkinson, D., & Wampold, B. (2004). Ethnic group preferences for multicultural counseling competencies. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(1), 53–65.
    Frankenberg, R. (1993). White women, race matters: The social construction of whiteness. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Freiberg, P., & Sleek, S. (1999). New techniques help men uncover their hidden emotions. Monitor on Psychology, 30, 28.
    Freire, P. (1976). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books.
    Freud, S. (1938). The basic writings of Sigmund Freud (A.Brill, Ed. & Trans.) New York: Modern Library.
    Friedman, T. L. (2005). The world is flat: A brief history of the twenty-first century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
    Fuertas, J. (2004). Supervision in bilingual counseling: Service delivery, training, and research considerations. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32(2), 84–94.
    Fuertes, J. N., Mueller, L. N., Chauhan, R. V., Walker, J. A., & Ladany, N. (2002). An investigation of European American therapists' approach to counseling African American clients. Counseling Psychologist, 30, 763–788.
    Fukuyama, M. A., & Sevig, T. D. (1999). Integrating spirituality into multicultural counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Fuss, D. (1989). Essentially speaking: Feminism, nature and difference. London: Routledge.
    Garbarino, J., & Bedard, C. (2001). Parents under siege. New York: Free Press.
    Garner, D. M., Garfinkel, P. E., & Schwartz, D. (1980). Cultural expectations of thinness in women. Psychological Reports, 47(2), 483–491.
    Garrett, M., & Barrett, B. (2003). Two spirit: Counseling Native American gay, lesbian, and bisexual people. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 31, 131–142.
    Gavey, N. (1996). Women's desire and sexual violence discourse. In S.Wilkinson (Ed.), Feminist social psychologies: International perspectives (pp. 51–65). Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    Gavey, N., & McPhillips, K. (1999). Subject to romance: Heterosexual passivity as an obstacle to women initiating condom use. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 23, 349–367.
    Geertz, C. (1983). Local knowledge: Further essays in interpretive anthropology. New York: Basic Books.
    Geertz, C. (1995). After the fact. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Geertz, C. (2000). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.
    Gelso, C., & Fretz, B. (2001). Counseling psychology (
    2nd ed.
    ). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt.
    Gergen, K. (1991). The saturated self: Dilemmas of identity in contemporary life. New York: Basic Books.
    Gergen, K. J. (1994). Reality and relationships: Soundings in social construction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Gergen, K. J. (1999). An invitation to social construction. London: SAGE.
    Gergen, K. J., & Davis, K. (Eds.). (1985). The social construction of the person. New York: Springer.
    Gibson, M., Ladd, A., Davey, B., & McEveety, S. (Producers), Gibson, M. (Director), & Wallace, R. (Writer). (1995). Braveheart [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.
    Gilbert, L. A. (1980). Feminist therapy. In N. A.Brodsky & R. T.Hare-Mustin (Eds.), Women in psychotherapy (pp. 245–265). New York: Guilford Press.
    Gilden, J. (2005). As the number of fliers soars, expansion efforts are underway. Retrieved July 10, 2007, from,1,29058.story
    Giroux, H. A. (2002). Breaking into the movies: Film and the culture of politics. Malden: MA: Blackwell.
    Glazer, N., & Moynihan, D. P. (1970). Beyond the melting pot (
    2nd ed.
    ). Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Goh, M. (2005). Cultural competence and master therapists: An inextricable relationship. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 27, 71–82.
    Goldberg, D. T. (1993). Racist culture: Philosophy and the politics of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    Goldner, V. (1985). Feminism and family therapy. Family Process, 24, 31–47.
    Goldstein, J. R. (1999). Kinship networks that cross racial lines: The exception or the rule?Demography, 36(3), 399–407.
    Gonsiorek, J. C., & Rudolph, J. R. (1991). Homosexual identity: Coming out and other developmental events. In J. C.Gonsiorek & J. D.Weinrich (Eds.), Homosexuality: Research implications for public policy (pp. 161–176). Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.
    Gonzalez, G. M. (1997). The emergence of Chicanos in the twenty-first century: Implications for counseling, research, and policy. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 25, 94–106.
    Good, G. E., Dell, D. M., & Mintz, L. B. (1989). Male role and gender role conflict: Relations to help seeking in men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 295–300.
    Good, G. E., Gilbert, L. A., & Scher, M. (1990). Gender aware therapy: A synthesis of feminist therapy and knowledge about gender. Journal of Counseling & Development, 68, 376–380.
    Good, G. E., & Sherrod, N. B. (2001). Men's problems and effective treatments: Theory and empirical support. In G. R.Brooks & G. E.Good (Eds.), The new handbook of psychotherapy and counseling with men (Vol. 1, pp. 22–40). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Good, G. E., & Wood, P. K. (1995). Male gender role conflict, depression, and help seeking: Do college men face double jeopardy?Journal of Counseling & Development, 74, 70–75.
    Goodman, N. (1978). Ways of worldmaking. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.
    Goodwin, G. C. (1977). Cherokees in transition: A study of changing culture and environment prior to 1775. Chicago: University of Chicago, Department of Geography.
    Gore, J. (1992). What we can do for you! What can “we” do for “you”? Struggling over empowerment in critical and feminist pedagogy. In C.Luke & J.Gore (Eds.), Feminisms and critical pedagogy (pp. 54–73). New York: Routledge.
    Gorospe, J. (2007, March). Deadly silent: Filipino American adolescents and emotional disturbance. Paper presented at the annual conference of the National Association of School Psychologists, New York.
    Gossett, T. F. (1963). The history of an idea in America. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist University Press.
    Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the prison notebooks. New York: International.
    Granello, D. H., & Beamish, P. M. (1998). Reconceptualizing codependency in women: A sense of connectedness, not pathology. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 20(4), 344–358.
    Grant, M. (1921). The passing of the great race. New York: Scribner.
    Gray, J. (1992). Men are from Mars, women are from Venus. New York: HarperCollins.
    Green, R. (1998). Race and the field of family therapy. In M.McGoldrick (Ed.), Re-visioning family therapy: Race, culture, and gender in clinical practice (pp. 93–110). New York: Guilford Press.
    Green, R. G., Kiernan-Stern, M., Bailey, K., Chambers, K., Claridge, R., Jones, G., et al. (2005). The multicultural counseling inventory: A measure for evaluating social work student and practitioner self-perceptions of their multicultural competencies. Journal of Social Work Education, 41, 191–208.
    Green, T. (2005). Multicultural counseling lecture series. Unpublished PowerPoint presentation, Department of Counseling and School Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA.
    Greenspan, M. (1983). A new approach to women and therapy. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Gremillion, H. (2003). Feeding anorexia. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Grimshaw, J. (1986). Philosophy and feminist thinking. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Grossberg, L., Nelson, C., & Treichler, P. (1992). Cultural studies. New York: Routledge.
    Guadalupe, K. L., & Lum, D. (2005). Multidimensional contextual practice: Diversity and transcendence. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Guay, A. T. (2001). Advances in the management of androgen deficiency in women. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, 1, 32–38.
    Guilfoyle, M. (2005). From therapeutic power to resistance? Therapy and cultural hegemony. Theory & Psychology, 15(1), 101–124.
    Gunew, S. (1993). Feminism and the politics of irreducible differences: Multiculturalism/ethnicity/race. In S.Gunew & A.Yeatman (Eds.), Feminism and the politics of difference (pp. 1–19). St. Leonards, New South Wales, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
    Gurian, M. (1999). A fine young man: What parents and educators can do to shape adolescent boys into exceptional men. New York: Tarcher.
    Gysbers, N. C. (2001). Guidance and counseling in the 21st century: Remember the past into the future. Professional School Counseling, 5(2), 96–105.
    Hacker, A. (1995, November 19). The rich: Who they are. New York Times Magazine, pp. 70–71.
    Hacking, I. (1999). The social construction of what?Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Hagan, W. T. (1993). American Indians (
    3rd ed.
    ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Haley, A. (1976). Roots: The saga of an American family. New York: Doubleday.
    Hall, S. (2000). Foreword. In D. A.Yon, Elusive culture: Schooling, race & identity in global times (pp. ix–xii). Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Hall, S. (2005). From representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices. In E. R.Brown & K. J.Saltman (Eds.), The critical middle school reader (pp. 409–418). New York: Routledge.
    Ham, M. D. (1993). Empathy. In J. L.Ching, J. H.Liem, M. D.Ham, & G. K.Hong (Eds.), Transference and empathy in Asian-American psychotherapy: Cultural values and treatment needs (pp. 35–62). Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Hammond, A. (2005). Pop culture Arab world! Media, arts, and lifestyle. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
    Hammoud-Beckett, S. (2007). Azima ila Hayati—an invitation in to my life: Narrative conversations about sexual identity. International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work, 2007(1), 29–39.
    Haraway, D. (1990). A manifesto in cyborgs: Science, technology and socialist feminism in the 1980s. In L.Nicholson (Ed.), Feminism/postmodernism (pp. 190–233). London: Routledge.
    Hare-Mustin, R. T. (1987). The problem of gender in family therapy theory. Family Process, 26, 15–27.
    Hare-Mustin, R. T. (1994). Discourses in the mirrored room: A postmodern analysis of therapy. Family Process, 33, 19–34.
    Hare-Mustin, R. T., & Marecek, J. (1994a). Asking the right questions: Feminist psychology and sex differences. Feminism & Psychology, 4, 531–537.
    Hare-Mustin, R. T., & Marecek, J. (1994). Feminism & postmodernism: Dilemmas and points of resistance. Dulwich Centre Newsletter, 4, 13–19.
    Harkless, L., & Fowers, B. (2005). Similarities and differences in relational boundaries among heterosexuals, gay men, and lesbians. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29, 167–176.
    Harley, D. A., Jolivette, K., McCormick, K., & Tice, K. (2002). Race, class and gender: A constellation of positionalities with implications for counseling. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 30(4), 216–238.
    Harper, F. D., & McFadden, J. (2003). Culture and counseling: New approaches. Boston: Pearson Education.
    Harper, G., Jernewall, N., & Zea, M. (2004). Giving voice to emerging science and theory for lesbian, gay, and bisexual people of color. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3), 187–199.
    Hart, P. J., & Jacobi, M. (1992). From gatekeeper to advocate: Transforming the role of the school counselor. New York: College Entrance Examination Board.
    Hartigan, J., Jr. (1997). Name calling: Objectifying “poor whites” and “white trash” in Detroit. In M.Wray & A.Newitz (Eds.), White trash: Race and class in America (pp. 41–56). New York: Routledge.
    Harvey, D. (1989). The condition of postmodernity. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Hatch, T. (2006). Today's school counselor. School Counselor, 44(2), 28–34.
    Hatch, T., & Bowers, J. (2002). A block to build on. ASCA School Counselor, 39(5), 12–17.
    Hatch, T., Holland, L., & Meyers, P. (2004). When it's time to change. School Counselor, 41(3), 18–23.
    Hawton, K. (2005). Introduction and overview. In K.Hawton (Ed.), Prevention and treatment of suicidal behavior: From science to practice (pp. 1–10). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Hays, D. G., & Chang, C. Y. (2003). White privilege, oppression, and racial identity development: Implications for supervision. Counselor Education and Supervision, 43(2), 134–145.
    Hays, D. G., Chang, C. Y., & Dean, J. K. (2004). White counselors' conceptualization of privilege and oppression: Implications for counselor training. Counselor Education and Supervision, 43, 242–257.
    Hechter, M. (1975). Internal colonialism: The Celtic fringe in British national development, 1536–1966. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Heder, D. (Ed.). (2004). Class and news. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Heesacker, M., & Prichard, S. (1992). In a different voice, revisited: Men, women, and emotion. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 14, 274–290.
    Heesacker, M., Wester, S. R., Vogel, D. L., Wentzel, J. T., Mejia-Millan, C. M., & Goodholm, C. R., Jr. (1999). Gender-based emotional stereotyping. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46(4), 483–495.
    Heffernan, K. (1996). Eating disorders and weight concern among lesbians. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 19(2), 127–138.;2-P
    Heinberg, L. J. (1996). Theories of body image disturbance: Perceptual, developmental, and sociocultural factors. In J. K.Thompson (Ed.), Body image, eating disorders, and obesity: An integrative guide for assessment and treatment (pp. 27–47). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Helfland, J., & Lippin, L. (2001). Understanding whiteness/unraveling racism: Tools for the journey. Cincinnati, OH: Thomson Learning Custom Publishing.
    Helms, J. E. (1990a). Black and white racial identity: Theory, research and practice. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Helms, J. E. (1990b, August). Black and white racial theory and professional inter-racial collaboration. In J. G.Ponterotto (Chair), The white-American researcher in multi-cultural counseling: Significance and challenges. Symposium conducted at the 98th annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Boston.
    Helms, J. E. (1994). The conceptualization of racial identity and other “racial” constructs. In E.Trickett, R.Watts, & D.Birman (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 261–284). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Helms, J. E., & Cook, D. A. (1999). Using race and culture in counseling and psychotherapy: Theory and process. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Hemming, J. (1970). The conquest of the Incas (
    1st American ed.
    ). New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.
    Henriques, J., Hollway, W., Urwin, C., Venn, C., & Walkerdine, V. (1984). Changing the subject: Psychology, social regulation, and subjectivity. London: Methuen.
    Henry, W. A., III. (1994). In defense of elitism. New York: Doubleday.
    Henze, R., Lucas, T., & Scott, B. (1998). Dancing with the monster: Teachers discuss racism, power, and white privilege. Urban Review, 30(3), 187–210.
    Hernandez, P., Almedia, R., & Dolan-Del Vecchio, K. (2005). Critical consciousness, accountability, and empowerment: Key processes for helping families heal. Family Process, 44(1), 105–119.
    Herzog, D. B., Newman, K. L., Yeh, C. J., & Warshaw, M. (1992). Body image satisfaction in homosexual and heterosexual women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11(4), 391–396.;2-F
    Hesse-Biber, S., Clayton-Matthews, A., & Downey, J. A. (1987). The differential importance of weight and body image among college men and women. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 113(4), 509–528.
    Hickson, J., & Kriegler, S. (1996). Multicultural counseling in a divided and traumatized society: The meaning of childhood and adolescence in South Africa. Westport: Greenwood Press.
    Hindmarsh, J. H. (1987). Letting gender secrets out of the bag. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 8(4), 205–211.
    Hindmarsh, J. H. (1993). Alternative family therapy discourses: It is time to reflect (critically). Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 5(2), 5–28.
    Hitler, A. (1923). Mein kampf [My struggle]. Munchen, Germany: Zentralverlag der NSDAP.
    Hochschild, A. R. (1997). The time bind: When work becomes home and home becomes work. New York: Metropolitan Books.
    Hoffman, R. (2004). Conceptualizing heterosexual identity development: Issues and challenges. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82(3), 375–380.
    Hogan, M. (2007). The four skills of cultural diversity competence: A process for understanding and practice (
    3rd ed.
    ). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Hollinger, D. (1995). Postethnic America: Beyond multiculturalism. New York: Basic Books.
    Holt, D. B. (1997). Poststructuralist lifestyle analysis: Conceptualizing the social patterning of consumption in postmodernity. Journal of Consumer Research, 23(4), 326–350.
    Hong, G. K., & Ham, M. D. C. (2001). Psychotherapy and counseling with Asian American clients. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    hooks, b. (1991). Yearning: Race, gender and cultural politics. London: Turnaround.
    hooks, b. (1995). Killing race: Ending racism. New York: Henry Holt.
    hooks, b. (2000). Where we stand: Class matters. New York: Routledge.
    Hornblower, M. (1997, June 9). Great expectations. Time International, pp. 54–62.
    Horsman, R. (1981). Race and manifest destiny: The origins of American racial Anglo-Saxonism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Hoshmand, L. T. (Ed.). (2005). Culture, psychotherapy, and counseling: Critical and integrative perspectives. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
    Hoshmand, L. T., & Polkinghorne, D. E. (1992). Redefining the science-practice relationship in professional training. American Psychologist, 47(1), 55–66.
    Howard, J. A., & Hollander, J. (1997). Gendered situations, gendered selves: A gender lens on social psychology. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
    Hsu, C. (2007, January 4). Many still left behind: Student scores rise yet test gaps persist. San Bernardino, p. 1.
    Huntington, S. P. (2004). Who are we? The challenges to America's national identity. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Hwang, W., Chun, C., Takeuchi, D., Myers, H., & Siddarth, P. (2005). Age of the first onset of major depression in Chinese Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 11(1), 16–27.
    Ibrahim, F. A. (1991). Contribution of cultural world view to generic counseling and development. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70(1), 13–19.
    Iceland, J. (2004). Beyond black and white metropolitan residential segregation in multiethnic America. Social Science Research, 33, 248–271.
    Inclan, J., & Ferran, E. (1990). Poverty, politics, and family therapy: A role for systems theory. In M.Mirkin (Ed.), The social and political contexts of family therapy. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Inequality and the American dream. (2006, June 15). Economist, p. 28.
    Israel, T., & Selvidge, M. (2003). Contributions of multicultural counseling to counselor competence with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 31, 84–98.
    Ivey, A. E. (1986). Developmental therapy: Theory into practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Ivey, A. E. (1993). On the need for reconstruction of our present practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Counseling Psychologist, 21(2), 225–228.
    Ivey, A. E., D'Andrea, M., Ivey, M. B., & Simek-Morgan, L. (2006). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: A multicultural perspective (
    6th ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Ivey, A. E., Ivey, M. B., & Simek-Morgan, L. (1993). Counseling and psychotherapy: A multicultural perspective (
    3rd ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Iyer, A., Leach, C., & Crosby, F. (2003). White guilt and racial compensation: The benefits and limits of self-focus. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(1), 117–129.
    Jackson, P. W. (1968). Life in classrooms. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Jackson, R. L. (1999). White space, white privilege: Mapping discursive inquiry onto the self. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 85(1), 38–54.
    James, W. (1981). The principles of psychology, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Originally published 1890)
    Jeffries, J. P. (1869). The natural history of the human races. New York: Edward O. Jenkins.
    Jencks, C. (1992). The postmodern reader. London: Academy Editors.
    Jenkins, A. (1990). Invitations to responsibility. Adelaide, South Australia: Dulwich Centre.
    Jenkins, A. H. (2001). Humanistic psychology and multiculturalism: A review and reflection. In K. J.Schneider, J. F. T.Bugental, & J. F.Pierson (Eds.), The handbook of humanistic psychology: Leading edges in theory, research, and practice (pp. 37–45). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Jenkins, R. (2003). Rethinking ethnicity: Identity categorization and power. In J.Stone & R.Dennis (Eds.), Race and ethnicity: Comparative and theoretical approaches (pp. 59–71). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Jensen, R. (2004). Homecoming: The relevance of radical feminism for gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 47(3–4), 75–81.
    Jhally, S. (1998). Advertising and the end of the world [Video documentary]. Northampton, MA: Media Education Foundation.
    Johnson, A. G. (2005). The gender knot: Unraveling our patriarchal legacy (Rev. ed.). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Johnson, G., Gershon, S., & Hekimian, L. J. (1968). Controlled evaluation of lithium and chlorpromazine in the treatment of manic states: An interim report. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 9(6), 563–573.
    Johnson, N. G. (2001). Women helping men: Strengths of and barriers to women working with men clients. In G. R.Brooks & G. E.Good (Eds.), The new handbook of psychotherapy and counseling with men (Vol. 1, pp. 696–718). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Jolliff, D. L., & Horne, A. M. (1996). Group counseling for middle-class men. In M. P.Andronico (Ed.), Men in groups (pp. 51–68). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Jones, A., & Guy, C. (1992). Radical feminism in New Zealand: From Piha to Newtown. In R.Duplessis, P.Bunkle, K.Irwin, A.Laurie, & S.Middleton (Eds.), Feminist voices: Women's studies texts for Aotearoa/New Zealand (pp. 300–316). Auckland, New Zealand: Oxford University Press.
    Jones, A., & Seagull, A. A. (1977). Dimensions of the relationship between the black client and the white therapist. American Psychologist, 32(10), 850–855.
    Jones, C. P. (2000). Levels of racism: The theoretical framework and a gardener's tale. American Journal of Public health, 90(8), 1212–1215.
    Jones, E. E. (1985). Psychotherapy and counseling with black clients. In P.Pedersen (Ed.), Handbook for cross-cultural counseling and therapy (pp. 173–179). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Jones, S. R., & McEwen, M. K. (2000). A conceptual model of multiple dimensions of identity. Journal of College Student Development, 41(4), 405–414.
    Julia, M. (Ed.). (2000). Constructing gender: Multicultural perspectives in working with women. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Jung, C. (1983). Jung: Selected writings (A.Storr, Ed.). London: Fontana.
    Kahn, A. S., & Yoder, J. D. (1989). The psychology of women and conservatism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 13, 417–432.
    Khan, J. A., & Khan, P. (2003). Advancement of women: A Bahá'í perspective. Wilmette, IL: Bahá'í Publishing Trust
    Kamalipour, Y. R., & Rampal, K. R. (Eds.). (2001). Media, sex, violence, and drugs in the global village. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Karpman, S. (1968). Script drama analysis. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, 7(26), 39–43.
    Kasser, T., & Kanner, A. D. (Eds.). (2004). Psychology and consumer culture: The struggle for a good life in a materialistic world. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (2001). Be careful what you wish for: Optimal functioning and the relative attainment of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. In P.Schmuck & K.Sheldon (Eds.), Life goals and well-being. Gottingen: Hogrefe.
    Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M., Couchman, C. E., & Sheldon, K. M. (2004). Materialistic values: Their causes and consequences. In T.Kasser & A. D.Kanner (Eds.), Psychology and consumer culture: The struggle for a good life in a materialistic world (pp. 11–28). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Katz, J. H. (1985). The socio-political nature of counseling. Counseling Psychologist, 13(4), 615–624.
    Kendall, P. (2006). Worldwide cellular user forecasts, 2005–2010. Retrieved August 15, 2007, from
    Kim, B., Ng, G., & Ahn, A. (2005). Effects of client expectation for counseling success, client-counselor worldview match, and client adherence to Asian and European American cultural values on counseling process with Asian Americans. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(1), 67–76.
    Kim, B., & Omizo, M. (2005). Asian and European American cultural values, collective self-esteem, acculturative stress, cognitive flexibility, and general self-efficacy among Asian American college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3), 412–419.
    Kim, C. (2004). Imagining race and nation in multiculturalist America. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 27(6), 987–1005.
    Kim, E. Y.-K., Bean, R. A., & Harper, J. M. (2004). Do general treatment guidelines for Asian American families have applications to specific ethnic groups? The case of culturally-competent therapy with Korean Americans. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 30(3), 359–374.
    Kimmel, D., & Yi, H. (2004). Characteristics of gay, lesbian, and bisexual Asians, Asian Americans, and immigrants from Asia to the USA. Journal of Homosexuality, 47(2), 143–171.
    Kimmel, M., & Levine, M. (1989). Men and AIDS. In M.Kimmel & M.Messner (Eds.), Men's lives (pp. 344–354). New York: Macmillan.
    King, J. C. (1981). The biology of race. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    King, J. E. (1991). Dysconscious racism: Ideology, identity, and the miseducation of teachers. Journal of Negro Education, 60(2), 133–146.
    King, M. (2003). The Penguin history of New Zealand. Auckland, New Zealand: Penguin Books.
    Kitaoka, S. (2005). Multicultural counseling competencies: Lessons from assessment. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 33(1), 37–47.
    Klein, M. A. (1998). Slavery and colonial rule in French West Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Kliman, J. (1998). Social class as a relationship. In M.McGoldrick (Ed.), Re-visioning family therapy: Race, culture, and gender in clinical practice (pp. 50–61). New York: Guilford Press.
    Knox, S., Burkard, A. W., Johnson, A. J., Suzuki, L. A., & Ponterotto, J. G. (2003). African American and European American therapists' experiences of addressing race in cross-racial psychotherapy dyads. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50(4), 466–481.
    Kocarek, C. E., Talbot, D., Batka, M., & Anderson, M. Z. (2001). Reliability and validity of three measures of multicultural competency. Journal of Counseling & Development, 79(4), 486–496.
    Kohn, M. (1989). Class and conformity: A study in values. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Kottak, C. P., & Kozaitis, K. A. (2003). On being different: Diversity and multiculturalism in the North American mainstream (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Kottler, J. A. (1999). Exploring and treating acquisitive desire. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Kottler, J., Montgomery, M., & Shepard, D. (2004), Acquisitive desire: Assessment and treatment. In T.Kasser & A. D.Kanner (Eds.), Psychology and consumer culture: The struggle for a good life in a materialistic world (pp. 149–168). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Kozol, J. (1992). Savage inequalities: Children in America's schools. New York: Harper.
    Kroeber, A. L., & Kluckhohn, C. (1952). Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum of Harvard University.
    Kupers, T. A. (1999). Prison madness: The mental health crisis behind bars and what we must do about it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Lacan, J. (1977). Ecrits: A selection (A.Sheridan, Trans.). New York: Norton. (Original work published 1966)
    Langston, D. (1992). Tired of playing Monopoly? In M. L.Andersen & P. H.Collins (Eds.), Race, class, and gender: An anthology (pp. 110–120). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Larner, W. (1993). Changing contexts: Globalisation, migration and feminism in New Zealand. In S.Gunew & A.Yeatman (Eds.), Feminism and the politics of difference (pp. 85–102). St. Leonards, New South Wales, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
    Larner, W. (1995). Theorising “difference” in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Gender, Place and Culture, 2(2), 77–191
    Larsson, C. B. (1997). Masculinities: A social constructionist perspective (Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology, Boston). Dissertation Abstracts International, 58, 5B.
    Lather, P. (1992). Post-critical pedagogues: A feminist reading. In J.Gore & C.Luke (Eds.), Feminisms and critical pedagogy (pp. 120–137). New York: Routledge.
    Lawrence, V. J. (1997). Multiculturalism, diversity, cultural pluralism … “Tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.”. Journal of Black Studies, 27(3), 318–333.
    Lawson–Te Aho, K. (1993). The socially constructed nature of psychology and the abnormalisation of Maori. New Zealand Psychological Society Bulletin, 76, 25–26.
    Lax, W. D. (1989). Postmodern thinking in a clinical practice. In J.Shotter & K. J.Gergen (Eds.), Texts of identity (pp. 69–85). London: SAGE.
    Leahy, T. (1994). Taking up a position: Discourses of femininity and adolescence in the context of man/girl relationships. Gender & Society, 8, 48–72.
    Lears, T. J. (1985). The concept of cultural hegemony: Problems and possibilities. American Historical Review, 90(3), 567–593.
    Lee, C. C. (1996). MCT theory and implications for indigenous healing. In D. W.Sue, A.Ivey, & P.Pedersen, A theory of multicultural counseling and therapy (pp. 86–98). Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Lee, C.C. (Ed.). (1997). Multicultural issues in counseling: New approaches to diversity (
    2nd ed.
    ). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
    Lee, L. J. (2004). Taking off the mask: Breaking the silence—the art of naming racism in the therapy room. In M.Rastogi & E.Wieling (Eds.), Voices of color: First-person accounts of ethnic minority therapists (pp. 91–115). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Lee, R. (2005). Resilience against discrimination: Ethnic identity and other-group orientation as protective factors for Korean Americans. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(1), 36–44.
    Lee, R., & Su, J. Y. (2005). Coping with intergenerational family conflict among Asian American college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3), 389–399.
    Leiblum, S. R. (2002). Reconsidering gender differences in sexual desire: An update. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 17, 57–68.
    Lemelle, A., & Battle, J. (2004). Black masculinity matters in attitudes toward gay males. Journal of Homosexuality, 47(1), 39–51.
    Lepore, J. (1998). The name of war: King Philip's war and the origins of American identity. New York: Knopf.
    Lerner, H. G. (1987). Is family systems theory really systemic? A feminist communication. Journal of Psychotherapy and the Family, 3, 47–63.
    Levine, R. (1997). A geography of time: The temporal misadventures of a social psychologist. New York: Basic Books.
    Lévi-Strauss, C. (1967). Structural anthropology. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.
    Lévi-Strauss, C. (1969). The elementary structures of kinship. Boston: Beacon Press.
    Lévi-Strauss, C. (2001). Race, history and culture. UNESCO Courier, 54(12), 6–9.
    Lewis, J. A., Lewis, M. D., Daniels, J. A., & D'Andrea, M. J. (2003). Community counseling: Empowerment strategies for a diverse society (
    3rd ed.
    ). Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Lews, G. (2004). Were American Indians the victims of genocide?Commentary, 118(2), 55–64.
    Linehan, C., & McCarthy, J. (2001). Reviewing the “community of practice” metaphor: An analysis of control relations in a primary school classroom. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 8(2), 129–147.
    Liu, W. M., Ali, S. R., Soleck, G., Hopps, J., Dunston, K., & Pickett, T. (2004). Using social class in counseling psychology. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(1), pp. 3–18.
    Liu, W. M., & Pope-Davis, D. B. (2003). Moving from diversity to multiculturalism: Exploring power and its implications for multicultural competence. In D. B.Pope-Davis, H. L. K.Coleman, W. M.Liu, & R. L.Toporek (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural competencies in counseling and psychology (pp. 90–102). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Liu, W. M., Soleck, G., Hopps, J., Dunston, K., & Pickett, T., Jr. (2004). A new framework to understand social class in counseling: The social class worldview model and modern classism theory. Journal of Multicultural Counseling, 32(2), 95–122.
    Locke, D. C. (1990). A not so provincial view of multi-cultural counseling. Counselor Education and Supervision, 30(1), 18–25.
    Locke, J. (1960). Two treatises on government. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Lokken, J., & Twohey, D. (2004). American Indian perspectives of Euro-American counseling behavior. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32, 320–331.
    Lopez, I. F. H. (2000). Institutional racism: Judicial conduct and a new theory of racial discrimination. Yale Law Journal, 109(8), 1717–1884.
    Lorber, J., & Farrell, S. A. (1991). The social construction of gender. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.
    Lott, B. (2002). Cognitive and behavioral distancing from the poor. American Psychologist, 57(2), 100–110.
    Lucal, B. (1996). Oppression and privilege: Toward a relational conceptualization of race. Teaching Sociology, 24, 245–255.
    Luke, A. (1999). The jig is up: An alternative history of psychology or why current concepts of identity and development are part of the problem rather than part of the solution. In J.Winslade (Ed.), Proceedings of the New Zealand Association of Counsellors Conference 1999 (pp. 26–34). Hamilton, New Zealand: New Zealand Association of Counsellors.
    Lum, D. (2000). Social work practice and people of color: A process-stage approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Lum, D. (Ed.). (2007). Culturally competent practice: A framework for understanding diverse groups and justice issues (
    3rd ed.
    ). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Lutz, C. A. (1982). The domain of emotion words on Ifaluk. American Ethnologist, 9(1), 113–128.
    Lutz, C. A. (1988). Unnatural emotions: Everyday sentiments on a micronesian atoll and their challenge to western theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Lutz, C. A. (1990). Morality, domination and understandings of “justifiable anger” among the Ifaluk. In G. R.Semin & K. J.Gergen (Eds.), Everyday understanding: Social and scientific implications (pp. 204–226). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Lyness, K. S., & Thompson, D. E. (2000). Climbing the corporate ladder: Do female and male executives follow the same route?Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(1), 86–101.
    Lyotard, J. F. (1984). The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge (G.Bennington & B.Massumi, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. (Original work published in 1979)
    Lyotard, J. F. (1993). The postmodern explained: Correspondence, 1982–1985 (J.Pefanis & M.Thomas, Eds.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Maalouf, A. (2000). On identity. London: Routledge.
    Magdoff, H. (1978). Imperialism: From the colonial age to the present. New York: Monthly Review Press.
    Mahalik, J. R., Good, G. E., & Englar-Carlson, M. (2003). Masculinity scripts, presenting concerns, and help seeking: Implications for practice and training. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34, 123–131.
    Maisel, R., Epston, D., & Borden, A. (2004). Biting the hand that starves you: Inspiring resistance to anorexia/bulimia. New York: Norton.
    Maker, A. H. (2004). Post 9/11: Combating racism in the sanctity of healing. In M.Rastogi & E.Wieling (Eds.), Voices of color: First-person accounts of ethnic minority therapists (pp. 155–168). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of ego identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 551–558.
    Marcia, J. E. (1980). Ego identity status, formal operations, and moral development. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 9, 87–99.
    Marecek, J. (1995). Gender, politics and psychologies of ways of knowing. American Psychologist, 50(3), 162–163.
    Marshall, B. L. (1994). Engendering modernity: Feminism, social theory and social change. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
    Marshall, J. D. (2007). Michel Foucault: Educational research as problematisation. In M. A.Peters & A. C.Besley (Eds.), Why Foucault? New directions in educational research (pp. 15–28). New York: Peter Lang.
    Martinez, E. (2001). Latino politics: Seeing more than black & white. Retrieved from
    Martinez, E. (2007). Seeing more than Black and White: Latinos, racism, and the cultural divides. In M. L.Andersen & P. H.Collins (Eds.), Race, class, and gender: An anthology (
    6th ed.
    , pp. 105–111). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
    Marx, K. (1932). Capital, the communist manifesto and other writings by Karl Marx (M.Eastman, Ed.). New York: Modern Library.
    Maslow, A. H. (1956). Self-actualizing people: A study of psychological health. In C. E.Moustakas (Ed.), The self (pp. 160–194). New York: Harper Colophon.
    Masson, J. M. (1984). The assault on truth: Freud's suppression of the seduction theory. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
    Mathews, G. (2000). Global culture/individual identity: Searching for home in the cultural supermarket. New York: Routledge.
    Mbeki, T. (2007). Freedom from racism—a fundamental human right. ANC Today, 7(10), 1–10. Retrieved March 23, 2007, from
    McAuliffe, G. (2007). Culturally alert counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    McCarn, S. R., & Fassinger, R. E. (1996). Revisioning sexual minority identity formation: A new model of lesbian identity and its implications for counseling and research. Counseling Psychologist, 24, 508–534.
    McCarthy, J., & Holliday, E. L. (2004). Help-seeking and counseling within a traditional male gender role: An examination from a multicultural perspective. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82, 25–30.
    McGoldrick, M. (1998). Re-visioning family therapy: Race, culture, and gender in clinical practice. New York: Guilford Press.
    McGoldrick, M., & Giordano, J. (1996). Overview: Ethnicity and family therapy. In M.McGoldrick, J. K.Pearce, & J.Giordano (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (pp. 1–27). New York: Guilford Press.
    McGoldrick, M., Giordano, J., & Garcia-Preto, N. (2005). Ethnicity and family therapy (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: Guilford Press.
    McHoskey, J. W. (1999). Machiavellianism, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals, and social interest: A self-determination theory analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 23, 267–283.
    McIntosh, P. (1989, July/August). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. Peace and Freedom, pp. 10–12.
    McKinley, N. M. (1998). Gender differences in undergraduates' body esteem: The mediating effect of objectified consciousness and actual/ideal weight discrepancy. Sex Roles, 39(1–2), 113–123.
    McKinley, N. M. (1999). Women and objectified body consciousness: Mothers' and daughters' body experience in cultural, developmental, and familial context. Developmental Psychology, 35(3), 760–769.
    McKinley, N. M. (2000). Constructing and deconstructing the body: A review of recent body images videos. Feminist Collections: A Quarterly of Women's Studies Resources, 21, 5–7.
    McKinley, N. M., & Hyde, J. S. (1996). The Objectified Body Consciousness Scale: Development and Validation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20(2), 181–215.
    McKinnon, J. (2003). The black population in the United States: March 2002. Retrieved July 10, 2007, from
    McKinnon, L., & Miller, D. (1987). The epistemology and the Milan approach: Feminist and socio-political considerations. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 13(2), 139–155.
    McLaren, P. (1994). Critical pedagogy and predatory culture: Oppositional politics in a postmodern era. New York: Routledge.
    McLaren, P. (2005). Critical pedagogy and the social construction of knowledge. In E. R.Brown & K. J.Saltman (Eds.), The critical middle school reader (pp. 409–418). New York: Routledge.
    McNamee, S., & Gergen, K. J. (1992). Therapy as social construction. London: SAGE.
    McNamee, S., & Gergen, K. J. (1999). Resources for sustainable dialogue. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    McNamee, S. J., & Miller, R. K., Jr. (2004). The meritocracy myth. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    McNay, L. (1992). Foucault and feminism: Power, gender, and the self. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
    Meichenbaum, D., & Gilmore, J. B. (1984). The nature of unconscious processes: A cognitive-behavioral perspective. In D.Meichenbaum & K.Bowers (Eds.), The unconscious reconsidered (pp. 273–298). New York: Wiley.
    Mellin, L. M., Irwin, C. E., & Scully, S. (1992). Prevalence of disordered eating in girls: A survey of middle class children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 92, 851–853.
    Memmi, A. (1967). The coloniser and the colonised. Boston: Beacon Press.
    Messner, M. A. (1998). The limits of “the male sex role”: An analysis of the men's liberation and men's rights movements' discourse. Gender & Society, 12(3), 255–276.
    Meth, R. L. (1990). The road to masculinity. In R. L.Meth & R. S.Pasick (Eds.), Men and therapy: The challenge of change (pp. 3–34). New York: Guilford Press.
    Meth, R. L., & Pasick, R. S. (Eds.). (1990). Men in therapy: The challenge of change. New York: Guilford Press.
    Middleton, R. A., Flowers, C., & Zawaiza, T. (1996). Multiculturalism, affirmative action, and Section 21 of the 1992 Rehabilitation Act Amendments: Fact or fiction?Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 40(1), 11–31.
    Middleton, R. A., Stadler, H. A., & Simpson, C. (2005). Mental health practitioners: The relationship between white racial identity attitudes and self-reported multicultural counseling competencies. Journal of Counseling & Development, 83(4), 444–456.
    Midgett, T. E., & Meggert, S. S. (1991). Multicultural counseling instruction: A challenge for faculties in the 21st century. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70, 136–141.
    Mintz, L. B., & Betz, N. E. (1986). Sex differences in the nature, realism, and correlates of body image. Sex Roles, 15(3–4), 185–195.
    Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and family therapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Mio, J. S., & Awakuni, G. I. (2000). Resistance to multiculturalism: Issues and interventions. Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel.
    Mock, K. (1997). 25 years of multiculturalism—past, present, and future, part 1. Canadian Social Studies, 31, 123–127.
    Monk, G. (1998). Developing a social justice agenda for counsellor education in New Zealand: A social constructionist perspective. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
    Monk, G., Winslade, J., Crocket, K., & Epston, D. (Eds.). (1997). Narrative therapy in practice: The archaeology of hope. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Montagu, A. (1962). The concept of race. American Anthropologist, 65(5), 919–928.
    Moore, D., & Leafgren, F. (Eds.). (1990). Problem-solving strategies and interventions for men in conflict. Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling and Development.
    Moradi, B. (2005). Advancing womanist identity development: Where we are and where we must go. Counseling Psychologist, 33(2), 225–253.
    Morales, E. S. (1989). Ethnic minority families and minority gays and lesbians. Marriage & Family Review, 14(3–4), 217–239.
    Morial, M. H. (2006). Achievement gap between white and black students seems to be widening even as scores rise. Washington Informer, 43(7), 18.
    Morson, G. S., & Emerson, C. (1990). Mikhail Bakhtin: Creation of a prosaics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Mosher, D. L. (1991). Macho men, machismo, and sexuality. Annual Review of Sex Research, 2, 199–247.
    Mouffe, C. (1992). Feminism, citizenship and radical democratic politics. In. J.Butler & J. W.Scott (Eds.), Feminists theorise the political (pp. 369–384). London: Routledge.
    Moy, S. (1992). A culturally sensitive, psychoeducational model for understanding and treating Asian-American clients. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 11(4), 358–367.
    Munley, P., Lidderdale, M., Thiagarajan, M., & Null, U. (2004). Identity development and multicultural competency. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32, 283–295.
    Murphy-Shigematsu, S. (2002). Multicultural encounters: Case narratives from a counseling practice. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Myers, D. G., & Diener, E. (1996, May). The pursuit of happiness. Scientific American, pp. 10–19.
    Nadal, K. (2004). Filipino American identity development model. Journal of Multicultural Counseling, 32(1), 45–62.
    Narayan, U. (2000). Essence of culture and a sense of history: A feminist critique of cultural essentialism. In U.Narayan & S.Harding (Eds.), Decentering the center: Philosophy for a multicultural, postcolonial & feminist world (pp. 80–100). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    National Career Development Association. (1997). Career counseling competencies (Rev. ed.). Columbus, OH: Author.
    Neimeyer, R. A. (1998). Social constructionism in the counseling context. Psychology Quarterly, 11(2), 135–149.
    Nelson, M. L., & Holloway, E. L. (1990). Relation of gender to power and involvement in supervision. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37, 473–481.
    Newitz, A., & Wray, M. (1997). What is “white trash”? Stereotypes and economic conditions of poor whites in the U.S. In M.Hill (Ed.), Whiteness: A critical reader (pp. 168–186). New York: New York University Press.
    Nghe, L., Mahalik, J. R., & Lowe, S. (2003). Influences on Vietnamese men: Traditional gender roles, the refugee experience, acculturation, and racism in the United States. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 31(4), 245–261.
    Nichols, M. P., & Schwartz, R. C. (1998). Family therapy: Concepts and methods (
    4th ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Nieto, S. (2000). Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: Longman.
    Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1998). Abnormal psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
    Noll, S. M. (1966). Correlational and experimental tests of body shame as a mediator. (Doctoral dissertation, Duke University, Durham, NC). Dissertation Abstracts International, 57, 09B. (UMI No. 9704732)
    Nutt, R. (1991). Ethical principles for gender-fair family therapy. Family Psychologist, 7(3), 32–33.
    Nylund, D. (2006). Critical multiculturalism, whiteness, and social work: Towards a more radical view of cultural competence. Journal of Progressive Human Services, 17(2), 27–42.
    Obama, B. (2006). The audacity of hope: Thoughts on reclaiming the American dream. New York: Crown.
    Offen, K. (1988). Defining feminism: A comparative historical approach. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 14, 119–157.
    Ohlson, T. H. (1993). The Treaty of Waitangi and bicultural issues for psychologists. New Zealand Psychological Society Bulletin, 76, 8–9.
    Okin, S. M. (1999). Is multiculturalism bad for women? In J.Cohen, M.Howard, & M.Nussbaum (Eds.), Is multiculturalism bad for women? (pp. 9–24). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Olssen, M. (1991). Producing the truth about people. In J.Morss & T.Linzey (Eds.), Growing up: The politics of human learning (pp. 188–209). Auckland, New Zealand: Longman Paul.
    O'Neill, J. M. (1990). Assessing men's gender role conflict. In D.Moore & F.Leafgren (Eds.), Problem-solving strategies and interventions for men in conflict (pp. 23–38). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
    Orange, C. (1987). The Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington, New Zealand: Allen & Unwin.
    Orlinsky, D. E., & Howard, K. L. (1980). Gender and psychotherapeutic outcome. In A. M.Brodsky & R. T.Hare-Mustin (Eds.), Women and psychotherapy (pp. 3–34). New York: Guilford Press.
    Paltoo, D., & Chu, K. (2004). Patterns in cancer incidence among American Indians/Alaska natives, United States, 1992–1999. Public Health Reports, 119(4), 443–449.
    Parham, T. A. (Ed.). (2002). Counseling persons of African descent: Raising the bar of practitioner competence. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Parham, T. A., & Helms, J. E. (1981). The influence of black students' racial identity attitudes on preferences for counselor's race. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32, 431–440.
    Parker, I. (1992). Discourse dynamics: Critical analyses for social and individual psychology. London: Routledge.
    Parker, R. G., & Gagnon, J. H. (1995). Conceiving sexuality: Approaches to sex research in a postmodern world. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: State University of Rio de Janeiro.
    Parker, W. M. (1998). Consciousness-raising: A primer for multicultural counseling (
    2nd ed.
    ). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Parks, C., Hughes, T., & Matthews, A. (2004). Race/ethnicity and sexual orientation: Intersecting identities. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3), 241–254.
    Patterson, C. H. (1996). Multicultural counseling: From diversity to universality. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74, 227–231.
    Payne, R. K. (2005). A framework for understanding poverty (
    4th ed.
    ). Highlands, TX: Aha! Process.
    Pedersen, P. (1993). The multicultural dilemma of white cross-cultural researchers. Counseling Psychologist, 21(2), 229–232.
    Pedersen, P. (1995). The five stages of culture shock: Critical incidents around the world. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Pedersen, P. B. (1976). The field of intercultural counseling. In P. B.Pedersen, W. J.Lonner, & J. G.Draguns (Eds.), Counseling across cultures (pp. 17–41). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
    Pedersen, P. B. (1991). Multiculturalism as a generic approach to counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70(1), 6–12.
    Pedersen, P. (Ed.). (1999). Multiculturism as a fourth force. Philadephia: Brunner/Mazel.
    Pedersen, P. B., & Carey, J. C. (Eds.). (2003). Multicultural counseling in schools: A practical handbook (
    2nd ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Pedersen, P. B., Draguns, J. G., Lonner, W. J., & Trimble, J. E. (Eds.). (1989). Counseling across cultures (
    3rd ed.
    ). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
    Pence, E. (1993). Education groups for men who batter: The Duluth model. New York: Springer.
    Pennachio, D. (2004). Caring for your Filipino, Southeastern Asian, and Indian patients: More than half of Asian Americans say their doctors don't understand their cultures: Sensitivity to diversity is essential for good patient care. Medical Economics, 81(2), 36–42.
    Perkins, J. (2004). Confessions of an economic hit man. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
    Perls, F. (1972). Four lectures. In J.Fagan & I.Shepherd (Eds.), Gestalt therapy now. London: Penguin Books.
    Perls, F. (1973). The Gestalt approach & eye witness to therapy. Palo Alto, CA: Science & Behavior Books.
    Perry, P. (2002). Shades of white: White kids and racial identities in high school. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Peters, M. A., & Besley, A. C. T. (2006). Building knowledge cultures. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Petras, J. (1993). Cultural imperialism in the late 20th century. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 23, 139–148.
    Phan, L., Rivera, E., & Roberts-Wilbur, J. (2005). Understanding Vietnamese refugee womens' identity development from a sociopolitical and historical perspective. Journal of Counseling & Development, 83, 305–312.
    Phillips, U. B. (1968). The slave economy of the old south. In E. D.Genovese (Ed.), Selected essays in economic and social history (p. 269). Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
    Philpot, C. L. (2001). Family therapy for men. In G. R.Brooks & G. E.Good (Eds.), The new handbook of psychotherapy and counseling with men (Vol. 1, pp. 622–638). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Phinney, J. (1989). Stages of ethnic identity development in minority group adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 9(1–2), 34–49.
    Phinney, J. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499–514.
    Plath, S. (1963). The bell jar. London: Heinmann.
    Pleck, J. H. (1981). The myth of masculinity. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Pleck, J. H. (1987). The myth of masculinity (
    3rd ed.
    ). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Pleck, J. H. (1995). The gender role strain paradigm: An update. In R. F.Levant & W. S.Pollack (Eds.), A new psychology of men (pp. 11–32). New York: Basic Books.
    Poindexter-Cameron, J. M., & Robinson, T. L. (1997). Relationships among racial identity attitudes, womanist identity attitudes, and self esteem in African American college women. Journal of College Student Development, 38, 288–296.
    Pole, N., Best, S., Metzler, T., & Marmar, C. (2005). Why are Hispanics at greater risk of PTSD?Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 11(2), 144–161.
    Polkinghorne, D. E. (2004). Practice and the human sciences: The case for a judgment-based practice of care. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Pollack, W. S. (1998). Real boys: Rescuing our sons from the myths of boyhood. New York: Basic Books.
    Ponterotto, J. G. (1988). Racial consciousness development among white counselor trainees: A stage model. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 16, 146–156.
    Ponterotto, J. G., Casas, J. M., Suzuki, L. A., & Alexander, C. M. (Eds.). (1995). Handbook of multicultural counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Ponterotto, J. G., & Pedersen, P. B. (1993). Preventing prejudice: A guide for counselors and educators. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.
    Pope, N. (1995). The “salad bowl” is big enough for us all: An argument for the inclusion of lesbians and gay men in any definition of multiculturalism. Journal of Counseling & Development, 73(3), 301–304.
    Pope-Davis, D. B., & Coleman, H. L. (Eds.). (2001). The intersection of race, class, and gender in multicultural counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Popham, J. (2004). America's “failing” schools: How parents & teachers can cope with No Child Left Behind. New York: Routledge/Falmer.
    Poster, M. (1989). Critical theory and poststructuralism: In search of a context. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Poston, W. C. (1990). The biracial identity development model: A needed addition. Journal of Counseling & Development, 69(2), 152–155.
    Potter, J., & Wetherell, M. (1987). Discourse and social psychology: Beyond attitudes and behaviour. London: SAGE.
    Potts, A. (1998). The science/fiction of sex: John Gray's Mars and Venus in the bedroom. Sexualities, 1(2), 153–173.
    Prey, L., & Roysircar, G. (2005). Effects of acculturaltion and worldview for white American, South American, South Asian, and Southeast Asian students. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 26(3), 229–248.
    Price, C., Raymond, J., & Zissu, A. (2005, September 27). Viva Botox!Health, p. 27.
    Pride, R. A., & Woodard, J. D. (1985). The burden of busing: The politics of desegregation in Nashville, Tennessee. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
    Rabin, C. L. (2005). Understanding gender and culture in the helping process: Practitioners' narratives from global perspectives. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
    Rabinowitz, F. E., & Cochran, S. V. (2002). Deepening psychotherapy with men. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Radina, M., & Barber, C. (2004). Utilization of formal support among Hispanic Americans caring for aging parents. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 43(2–3), 5–23.
    Rahman, O., & Rollock, D. (2004). Acculturation, competence, and mental health among South Asian students in the United States. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32, 130–142.
    Rawlings, E. I., & Carter, D. K. (1977). Feminist and non-sexist psychotherapy. In E. I.Rawlings & D. K.Carter (Eds.), Psychotherapy for women (pp. 49–76). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Real, T. (1995). Fathering our sons; refathering ourselves: Some thoughts on transforming masculine identities. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 7(1–2), 27–44.
    Rector, R., Johnson, K. A., & Fagan, P. F. (2001). Understanding differences in black and white child poverty rates (Heritage Center for Data Analysis Report No. CDA01–04). Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation.
    Reed, I. (1989). America's “black only” ethnicity. In W.Sollors (Ed.), The invention of ethnicity (pp. 226–229). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Report to the president from the President's Commission on Mental Health (Vol. 1; Stock No. 040–000–00390–8). (1978). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    Reynolds, A. L., & Constantine, M. G. (2004). Feminism and multiculturalism: Parallels and intersections. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32, 346–357.
    Reynolds, S. (2005) Learning is a verb: Psychology for teaching and learning (
    2nd ed.
    ). Scottsdale, AZ: Holcomb Hathaway.
    Ricciuti, H. (2004). Single parenthood, achievement, and problem behavior in white, black, and Hispanic children. Journal of Educational Research, 97(4), 196–206.
    Richardson, F. C., & Zeddies, T. J. (2001). Individualism and modern psychotherapy. In. B. D.Slife, R. N.Williams, & S. H.Barlow (Eds.), Critical issues in psychotherapy: Translating new ideas into practice (pp. 147–164). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Ridley, C. R. (2005). Overcoming unintentional racism in counseling and therapy: A practitioner's guide to intentional intervention (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Ridley, C. R., Baker, D. M., & Hill, C. L. (2001). Critical issues concerning cultural competence. Counseling Psychologist, 29(6), 822–832.
    Ridley, C. R., Mendoza, D. W., & Kanitz, B. E. (1994). Multicultural training: Reexamination, operationalization, and integration. Counseling Psychologist, 22(2), 227–289.
    Rigazio-DiGilio, S. A., Anderson, S. A., & Kunkler, K. P. (1995). Gender-aware supervision in marriage and family counseling and therapy: How far have we actually come?Counselor Education and Supervision, 34(4), 344–355.
    Rigazio-DiGilio, S. A., Ivey, A. E., Kunkler-Peck, K. P., & Grady, L. T. (2005). Community genograms: Using individual, family, and cultural narratives with clients. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Rigazio-DiGilio, S. A., Ivey, A. E., & Locke, D. C. (1997). Continuing the postmodern dialogue: Enhancing and contextualizing multiple voices. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 19, 233–255.
    Ringel, S. (2005). Therapeutic dilemmas in cross-cultural practice with Asian American adolescents. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 22(1), 57–69.
    Robertson, J. M. (2001). Counseling men in college settings. In G. R.Brooks & G. E.Good (Eds.), The new handbook of psychotherapy and counseling with men (Vol. 1, pp. 146–169). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Robertson, J. M., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1990). The (mis)treatment of men: Effects of client gender role and life-style on diagnosis and attribution of pathology. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37, 3–9.
    Robertson, J. M., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1992). Overcoming the masculine mystique: Preferences for alternative forms of therapy among men who avoid counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39, 240–246.
    Robinson, J. D., & James, L. C. (Eds.). (2003). Diversity in human interactions: The tapestry of America. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Robinson, T. L. (1999). The intersections of dominant discourses across race, gender, and other identities. Journal of Counseling & Development, 77(1), 73–79.
    Robinson, T. L. (2005). The convergence of race, ethnicity, and gender: Multiple identities in counseling (
    2nd ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Robinson, T. L., & Howard-Hamilton, M. F. (2000). The convergence of race, ethnicity, and gender: Multiple identities in counseling. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Rodgers, M. E. (2005). Mencken: The American iconoclast: The life and times of the bad boy of Baltimore. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Rodin, J., Silberstein, L., & Striegel-Moore, R. (1985). Women and weight: A normative discontent. In T. B.Sonderegger (Ed.), Psychology and gender: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (pp. 267–307). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
    Rogers, C. (1967). Toward a modern approach to values: The valuing process in the mature person. In C.Rogers & B.Stevens (Eds.), Person to person: The problem of being human: A new trend in psychology (pp. 13–28). Lafayette, CA: Real People Press.
    Rogers, C. (1970). On encounter groups. New York: Harper & Row.
    Rogers, C. R. (1973). Carl Rogers on encounter groups. New York: Harper & Row.
    Rogers, M. F. (1999). Barbie culture. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Root, M. P. P. (2003). Bill of rights for racially mixed people. In Root, M. P. P., & Kelly, M. (Eds.), The multiracial child resource book: Living complex identities. Seattle, WA: Mavin Foundation.
    Rosaldo, R. (1993). Culture and truth: The remaking of social analysis. Boston: Beacon Press.
    Rosaldo, R. (1994). Cultural citizenship and educational democracy. Cultural Anthropology, 9(3), 402–411.
    Rose, N. (1985). The psychological complex: Psychology, politics and society in England, 1869–1939. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Rose, N. (1990). Governing the soul: The shaping of the private self. London: Routledge
    Rose, N. (1999). Powers of freedom: Reframing political thought. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Rosenthal, D. (2004). Effects of client race on clinical judgment of practicing European American vocational rehabilitation counselors. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 47(3), 131–141.
    Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80(1), 1–28.
    Rowan, J. (1997). Healing the male psyche: Therapy as initiation. New York: Routledge.
    Roy, A. (2004). An ordinary person's guide to empire. Cambridge, MA: South End Press.
    Rumbaut, R. (2003). Assimilation and its discontents. In J.Stone & R.Dennis (Eds.), Race and ethnicity: Comparative and theoretical approaches (pp. 237–259). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Russell, G. L., Fujino, D. C., Sue, S., Cheung, M.-K., & Snowden, L. R. (1996). The effects of therapist-client ethnic match in the assessment of mental health functioning. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 27(5), 598–615.
    Russell, M. N. (1984). Skills in counseling women. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Sabnani, H. B., Ponterotto, J. G., & Borodovsky, L. G. (1991). White racial identity development and cross-cultural counselor training. Counseling Psychologist, 19(1), 76–102.
    Sadeghi, M., Fischer, J., & House, S. (2003). Ethical dilemmas in multicultural counseling. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 31(3), 179–191.
    Said, E. W. (1976). Interview. Diacritics, 6(3), 30–47.
    Said, E. W. (1993). Culture and imperialism. New York: Vintage Books.
    Said, E. W. (1994). Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books. (Originally published 1978)
    Said, E. W. (1994). The pen and the sword: Conversations with David Baramian. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press.
    Samantrai, K. (2004). Culturally competent public child welfare practice. Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Sampson, E. (1989). The deconstruction of the self. In J.Shotter & K. J.Gergen (Eds.), Texts of identity (pp. 1–19). London: SAGE.
    Sanchez, D., & Crocker, J. (2005). How investment in gender ideals affects well-being: The role of external contingencies of self-worth. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29, 63–77.
    Santiago-Rivera, A. L., Arredondo, P., & Gallardo-Cooper, M. (Eds.). (2002). Counseling Latinos and la familia: A practical guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Sarason, I. G., & Sarason, B. R. (2002). From mental health research data. In J.Archer & B.Lloyd (Eds.), Sex and gender. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
    Saussure, F. de. (1986). Course in general linguistics (R.Harris, Ed. & Trans.). Peru, IL: Open Court. (Original work published 1972)
    Savage, T., Harley, D., & Nowak, T. (2005). Applying social empowerment strategies as tools for self-advocacy in counseling lesbian and gay male clients. Journal of Counseling & Development, 83, 131–137.
    Savickas, M. (1992, August). Innovations in counseling for career development. In L. J.Richmond (Chair), New perspectives on counseling for the 21st century. Symposium conducted at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Schlesinger, A. M. (1991). The disuniting of America: Reflections on a multicultural society. New York: Norton.
    Schofield, W. (1964). Psychotherapy: The purchase of friendship. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Schutz, A. (1976). Collected papers II: Studies in social theory. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.
    Schwarzbaum, S. (2004). Low-income Latinos and dropout: Strategies to prevent dropout. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32, 296–306.
    Scitovsky, T. (1976). The joyless economy: An inquiry into human satisfaction and consumer dissatisfaction. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Scollon, C., Deiner, E., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2004). Emotions across cultures and methods. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35(3), 304–326.
    Scott, A. (Ed.). (1997). The limits of globalization. London: Routledge.
    Scott-Clark, C., & Levy, A. (2003, June 14). Fast forward into trouble. Guardian Weekend, pp. 14–20.
    Scott, S., & Morgan, D. (Eds.). (1993). Body matters: Essays on the sociology of the body. Washington, DC: Falmer Press.
    Seidman, S. (1994). The postmodern turn: New perspectives on social theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Selden, S. (1999). Inheriting shame: The story of eugenics and racism in America. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Sengupta, S. (1996). Understanding consumption related values from advertising: A content analysis of television commercials from India and the United States. Gazette: The International Journal of Communication Studies, 57, 81–96.
    Sengupta, S. (2001, July 8). How many poor children is too many?New York Times, pp. 4–3.
    Shay, J. J. (1996). “Okay, I'm here, but I'm not talking!” Psychotherapy with the reluctant male. Psychotherapy, 33, 503–513.
    Sheldon, K. M., & McGregor, H. (2000). Extrinsic value orientation and the “tragedy of the commons”. Journal of Personality, 68, 383–411.
    Shome, R. (1996). Race and popular cinema: The rhetorical strategies of whiteness in “City of Joy.”. Communication Quarterly, 44(4), 502–518.
    Shotter, J. (1990). Getting in touch: The metamethodology of a postmodern science of mental life. Humanistic Psychologist, 18, 7–22.
    Shotter, J., & Gergen, K. J. (1989). Texts of identity. London: SAGE.
    Shultz, E. B., & Tougias, M. J. (1999). King Philip's war: The history and legacy of America's forgotten war. Woodstock, VT: Countryman Press.
    Silberstein, L. R., Striegel-Moore, R. H., Timko, C., & Rodin, J. (1988). Behavioral and psychological implications of body dissatisfaction: Do men and women differ?Sex Roles, 19(3–4), 219–232.
    Silverstein, B., Perdue, L., Peterson, B., & Kelly, E. (1986). The role of the mass media in promoting a thin standard of bodily attractiveness for women. Sex Roles, 14, 519–532.
    Silverstein, S. (2005, January 31). Racial issues lose urgency, study finds. Los Angeles Times, p. B.
    Sinclair, S. L. (2007). Back in the mirrored room: The enduring relevance of discursive practice. Journal of Family Therapy, 29(2), 147–168.
    Sinclair, S. L., & Monk, G. (2004). Moving beyond the blame game: Toward a discursive approach to negotiating conflict within couple relationships. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 30(3), 335–347.
    Sink, C. A. (2002). In search of the profession's finest hour: A critique of four views of 21st century school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 5(3), 156–163.
    Skinner, B. F. (1968). The technology of teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Slattery, J. M. (2004). Counseling diverse clients: Bringing context into therapy. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Smart, D. W., & Smart, J. F. (1997). DSM-IV and culturally sensitive diagnosis: Some observations for counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 75(5), 392–398.
    Smith, G. H. (1992, November). Tane-nui-a-Rangi's legacy, propping up the sky: Kaupapa Maori as resistance and intervention. Paper presented at the joint conference of the New Zealand Association of Research in Education and the Australian Association of Research in Education, Geelong, Australia.
    Smith, L. T. (2001). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. New York: Zed Books.
    Smith-Adcock, S., Rogers-Huilman, B., & Choate, L. H. (2004). Feminist teaching in counselor education: Promoting multicultural understanding. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32, 402–413.
    Snyder, B. (1973) The hidden curriculum. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Somé, M. (1998). The healing wisdom of Africa: Finding life purpose through nature, ritual and community. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam.
    Sophie, J. (1985–1986). A critical examination of stage theories of lesbian identity development. Journal of Homosexuality, 12(1), 39–51.
    Sowell, T. (1994). Race and culture: A world view. New York: Basic Books.
    Sowell, T. (1998). Conquests and cultures: An international history. New York: Basic Books.
    Spence, J. T. (1995). Achievement American style: The rewards and costs of individualism. American Psychologist, 40, 1285–1295.
    Spickard, P. R. (1992). The illogic of American racial categories. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 12–23). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Spickard, P. R., & Fong, R. (1995). Pacific Islander Americans and multiethnicity: A vision of America's future?Social Forces, 73(4), 1365–1383.
    Spitzack, C. (1990). Confessing excess: Women and the politics of body reduction. New York: State University of New York Press.
    Stam, H. J. (Ed.). (1998). The body and psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Steele, C. M. (1992, April). Race and the schooling of black Americans. Atlantic Monthly, pp. 68–78.
    Steele, I. K. (1994). Warpaths: Invasions of North America. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Steele, S. (1990). The content of our character: A new vision of race in America. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Steele, S. (2006). White guilt: How blacks and whites together destroyed the promise of the civil rights era. New York: HarperCollins.
    Steinem, G. (1992). Revolution from within: A book of self-esteem. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Stewart, A. J., & Lykes, M. B. (Eds.). (1985). Gender and personality: Current perspectives on theory and research. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Stiglitz, J. (2003). Globalization and its discontents. New York: Norton.
    Stone, J. (2003). Max Weber on race, ethnicity and nationalism. In J.Stone & R.Dennis (Eds.), Race and ethnicity: Comparative and theoretical approaches (pp. 28–42). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Stone, S., & Han, M. (2005). Perceived school environments, perceived discrimination, and school performance among children of Mexican immigrants. Children and Youth Services Review, 27(1), 51–66.
    Story, M., French, S. A., Resnick, M. D., & Blum, R. W. (1995). Ethnic/racial and socioeconomic differences in dieting behaviors and body image perceptions in adolescents. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 18(2), 173–179.;2-Q
    Straubhaar, J., & La Pastina, A. (2003). Television and hegemony in Brazil. In L.Artz & Y. R.Kamalipour (Eds.), The globalization of corporate media hegemony (pp. 151–160). New York: State University of New York Press.
    Striegel-Moore, R. H., Silberstein, L. R., & Rodin, J. (1986). Toward an understanding of risk factors for bulimia. American Psychologist, 41(3), 246–263.
    Strong, S. M., Williamson, D. A., Netemeyer, R. G., & Geer, J. H. (2000). Eating disorder symptoms and concerns about body differ as a function of gender and sexual orientation. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(2), 240–255.
    Strong, T., & Paré, D. A. (2004). Striving for perspicuity. In T.Strong & D. A.Paré (Eds.), Furthering talk: Innovations in the discursive therapies (pp. 1–14). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
    Stuart, B. (1997). Sentencing circles: Making “real differences.” In J.Macfarlane (Ed.), Rethinking disputes: The mediation alternative (pp. 201–232). London: Cavendish.
    Sue, D. W. (1993). Confronting ourselves: The white and racial/ethnic-minority research. Counseling Psychologist, 21(2), 244–249.
    Sue, D. W. (2001). Multidimensional facets of cultural competence. Counseling Psychologist, 29, 790–821.
    Sue, D. W. (2003). Overcoming our racism: The journey to liberation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Sue, D. W., Arredondo, P., & McDavis, R. J. (1992). Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70, 477–486.
    Sue, D. W., Bernier, J. E., Durran, A., Feinberg, L., Pedersen, P., Smith, E. J., et al. (1982). Position paper: Cross-cultural counseling competencies. Counseling Psychologist, 10(2), 45–52.
    Sue, D. W., Bingham, R. P., Porche-Burke, L., & Vasquez, M. (1999). The diversification of psychology. A multicultural revolution. American Psychologist, 54(12), 1061–1069.
    Sue, D. W., Bucceri, J., Lin, A. I., Nadal, K., & Torino, G. (2007). Racial microaggressions and the Asian American experience. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 1(13), 72–81.
    Sue, D. W., Carter, R., Casas, J. M., Fouad, N., Ivey, A., Jensen, M., et al. (1998). Multicultural counseling competencies: Individual and organizational development. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Sue, D. W., Ivey, A., & Pedersen, P. (1996). A theory of multicultural counseling and therapy. Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (1981). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice. New York: Wiley.
    Sue, D.W., & Sue, D. (1990). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Wiley.
    Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (1999). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: Wiley.
    Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2003). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (
    4th ed.
    ). New York: Wiley.
    Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2007). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (
    5th ed.
    ). New York: Wiley.
    Suzuki, L. A., Ponterotto, J. G., & Meller, P. J. (2001). Multicultural assessment: Trends and directions revisited. In L. A.Suzuki, J. G.Ponterotto, & P. J.Meller (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural assessment: Clinical, psychological, and educational applications (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 569–574). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Swartz, D. L. (2003). From correspondence to contradiction and change: Schooling in capitalist America revisited. Sociological Forum, 18(1), 167–186.
    Szasz, T. (1974). The myth of mental illness. New York: Harper & Row.
    Szymanski, D. (2005). Heterosexism and sexism as correlates of psychological distress in lesbians. Journal of Counseling & Development, 83, 355–360.
    Tamesese, K., & Waldegrave, C. (1993). Cultural and gender accountability in the “just therapy” approach. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 5(2), 29–45.
    Tannen, D. (1991). You just don't understand: Women and men in conversation. New York: Ballantine.
    Tatum, B. V. (1997). “Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?” And other conversations about race. New York: Basic Books.
    Tatum, B. V. (1999). Color blind or color conscious?School Administrator, 56(6), 28–30.
    Tatum, B. V. (2003). “Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?” And other conversations about race (Rev. ed.). New York: Basic Books.
    Taylor, C. (2004). Modern social imaginaries. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Taylor, J., Gilligan, C., & Sullivan, A. (1995). Between voice and silence: Women and girls, race and relationship. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Taylor, M. (1991). How psychoanalytic thinking lost its way in the hands of men: The case for feminist psychotherapy. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 19(1), 93–103.
    Taylor, M. (1994). Gender and power in counselling and supervision. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 22(3), 319–326.
    Teasley, M. L. (2005). Perceived levels of cultural competence through social work education and professional development for urban school social workers. Journal of Social Work Education, 41, 85–98.
    Thernstrom, S., & Thernstrom, A. (1997). America in black and white. One nation, indivisible. New York: Touchstone.
    Thomason, T. C. (1991). Counseling Native Americans: An introduction for non–Native American counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 69(4), 321–327.
    Thompson, J. K., Heinberg, L. J., Altabe, M., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting beauty: Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Tocqueville, A. (1945). Democracy in America (Vol. 1). New York: Vintage Books.
    Todosijevic, J., Rothblum, E., & Solomon, S. (2005). Relationship satisfaction, affectivity, and gay-specific stressors in same-sex couples joined in civil union. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29, 158–166.
    Toperak, R., Ortaga-Villalobos, L., & Pope-Davis, D. B. (2004). Critical incidents in multicultural supervision: Exploring supervisees' and supervisors' experience. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32(2), 66–83.
    Torres, L., & Rollock, D. (2004). Acculturation stress among Hispanics: The role of acculturation, coping, and intercultural competence. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32(3), 155–167.
    Townsend, K., & McWhirter, B. (2005). Connectedness: A review of the literature with implication for counseling, assessment, and research. Journal of Counseling & Development, 83, 191–201.
    Toynbee, A. J. (1987). A study of history: Abridgement of Volumes I–VI (Abridged by I.Dolutsky). London: Oxford University Press.
    Treadgold, R. (1983). Two issues in the counselling of women. New Zealand Counselling and Guidance Association Journal, 5, 23–29.
    Troiden, R. R. (1988). Gay and lesbian identity: A sociological analysis. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Troiden, R. R. (1989). The formation of homosexual identities. Journal of Homosexuality, 17(1–2), 43–73.
    Troiden, R.R. (1993). The formation of homosexual identities. In L.Garnets & D.Kimmel (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on lesbian and gay male experiences (pp. 191–217). New York: Columbia University Press.
    Trusty, J., & Brown, D. (2005). Advocacy competencies for professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 8(3), 259–265.
    Trusty, J., Looby, E. J., & Sandhu, D. S. (Eds.). (2002). Multicultural counseling: Context, theory and practice, and competence. New York: Nova Science.
    Tse-Tung, M. (1967). The united front in cultural work. In Selected works of Mao Tse-Tung (Vol. 3, p. 235). Peking, China: Foreign Languages Press. (Original work published 1944)
    Tucker, R. C. (1978). The Marx-Engels readers (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Norton.
    Tuckwell, G. (2002). Racial identity, white counsellors and therapists. Buckingham, UK, Open University Press.
    Turner, T. (1993). Anthropology and multiculturalism: What is anthropology that multiculturalists should be mindful of it?Cultural Anthropology, 8(4), 411–429.
    Twenge, J. (2001). Changes in women's assertiveness in response to status and roles: A cross-temporal meta-analysis, 1931–1993. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(1), 133–145.
    Twohey, D., & Volker, J. (1993). Listening to the voices of care and justice in counselor supervision. Counselor Education and Supervision, 32, 189–197.
    Tylor, E. (1871). Primitive culture. New York: Harper.
    Udelson, J. H. (1990). Dreamer of the ghetto: The life and works of Israel Zangwill. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
    United Nations, Population Division. (1999). World urbanization prospects: The 1999 revision. Retreived July 11, 2007, from
    United Nations, Population Division. (2004). World population prospects: The 2004 revision. Retrieved July 11, 2007, from
    United States Department of Commerce. (2004). U.S. Census Bureau News. Retrieved from
    Vacc, N., DeVaneyS., & Wittmer, J. (1995). Experiencing and counseling multicultural and diverse populations. Philadelphia: Accelerated Development.
    Valery, P. (1919). The crisis of the mind. In D.Folliot & J.Mathews (Eds.), The collected works of Paul Valery (Vol. 10, pp. 23–36). New York: Bollingen.
    Valsiner, J. (2000). Culture and human development: An introduction. London: SAGE.
    Van Wormer, K. S., Wells, J., & Boes, M. (2000). Social work with lesbians, gays, and bisexuals: A strengths perspective. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Varenne, H. (2003). On internationalizing counseling psychology: A view from cultural anthropology. Counseling Psychologist, 31(4), 404–411.
    Vera, E. M., & Shin, R. Q. (2006). Promoting strengths in a socially toxic world: Supporting resiliency with systemic interventions. Counseling Psychologist, 34(1), 80–89.
    Vessey, J. T., & Howard, K. I. (1993). Who seeks psychotherapy?Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 30, 546–553.
    Viano, E. C. (1992). The news media and crime victims: The right to know versus the right to privacy. In E. C.Viano (Ed.), Critical issues in victimology: International perspectives (pp. 24–34). New York: Springer.
    Vicario, B., Liddle, B., & Luzzo, D. (2005). The role of values in understanding attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 49(1), 145–159.
    Vontress, C. E. (1988). An existential approach to cross-cultural counseling. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 16, 73–83.
    Wagner, R. (1981). The invention of culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Wahoo, E., & Olson, L. (2004). Intimate partner violence and sexual assault in Native American communities. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 5(4), 353–366.
    Waldegrave, C. T. (1985). Mono-cultural, mono-class, and so called non-political family therapy. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 6(4), 197–200.
    Waldegrave, C. T. (1990). Just therapy. Dulwich Centre Newsletter, 1, 6–47.
    Waldegrave, C. T. (1992). Psychology, politics and the loss of the welfare state. New Zealand Psychological Society Bulletin, 74, 14–21.
    Waldegrave, C. T. (1994). A conversation with Kiwi Tamasese and Charles Waldegrave. Dulwich Centre Newsletter, 1, 20–27.
    Waldegrave, C., Tamasese, K., Tuhaka, F., & Campbell, W. (2003). Just therapy: A journey. Adelaide, South Australia: Dulwich Centre.
    Walkerdine, V. (1988). The mastery of reason: Cognitive development and the production of rationality. London: Routledge.
    Walter, J. L., & Peller, J. E. (2000). Recreating brief therapy: Preferences and possibilities. New York: Norton.
    Want, V., Parham, T., & Baker, R. (2004). African American students' ratings of Caucasian and African American counselors varying in racial consciousness. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(2), 123–136.
    Waterhouse, R. (1993). The inverted gaze. In S.Scott & D.Morgan (Eds.), Body matters (pp. 105–121). Washington, DC: Falmer Press.
    Weedon, C. (1987). Feminist practice and poststructuralist theory. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Weinrach, S. G., & Thomas, K. R. (1998). Diversity-sensitive counseling today: A postmodern clash of values. Journal of Counseling & Development, 76(2), 115–122.
    Wellman, D. (1977). Portraits of white racism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Wester, S. R., Vogel, D. L., & Archer, J., Jr. (2004). Male restricted emotionality and counseling supervision. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82, 91–98.
    Wetherell, M., & Potter, J. (1992). Mapping the language of racism: Discourse and the legitimation of exploitation. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Whaley, A. L. (2001). Cultural mistrust of white mental health clinicians among African Americans with severe mental illness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 71(2), 252–256.
    Whelehan, I. (1995). Modern feminist thought: From the second wave to “post-feminism.”New York: New York University Press.
    White, M. (1989). The externalisation of the problem and the re-authoring of relationships. In M.White, Selected papers. Adelaide, South Australia: Dulwich Centre.
    White, M. (1992). Deconstruction and therapy. In D.Epston & M.White (Eds.), Experience, contradiction, narrative, and imagination (pp. 109–152). Adelaide, South Australia: Dulwich Centre.
    White, M. (2002). Addressing personal failure. International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work, 2002(3), 33–76.
    White, M., & Epston, D. (1990). Narrative means to therapeutic ends. New York: Norton.
    Wijeyesinghe, C., Griffin, P., & Love, B. (1997). Racism curriculum design. In M.Adams, L. A.Bell, & P.Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice: A sourcebook (pp. 82–109). New York: Routledge.
    Wilcox, D. W., & Forrest, L. (1992). The problems of men and counseling: Gender bias or gender truth?Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 14, 291–304.
    Williams, D. M. (1999). Hardiness, John Henryism and the stress-illness link among low socioeconomic status women (African-Americans). Dissertation Abstracts International, 60, 6B.
    Williams, R. (1958). Culture and society, 1780–1950. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Willig, C. (2001). Introducing qualitative research in psychology: Adventures in theory and method. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
    Winslade, J. (2005). Utilising discursive positioning in counseling. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 33(3), 351–364.
    Winslade, J., & Monk, G. (1999). Narrative counseling in schools: Powerful & brief. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
    Winslade, J., & Monk, G. (2007). Narrative counseling in schools: Powerful and brief (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
    Winslade, J., Monk, G., & Drewery, W. (1997). Sharpening the critical edge: A social constructionist approach in counselor education. In T. L.Sexton & B. L.Griffin (Eds.), Constructivist thinking in counseling practice, research, and training (pp. 228–248). New York: Teachers College Press.
    Wise, T. (2005). White like me: Reflections on race from a privileged son. New York: Soft Skull Press.
    Wiseman, C. V., Gray, J. J., Mosimann, J. E., & Ahrens, A. H. (1992). Cultural expectations of thinness in women: An update. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11(1), 85–89.;2-T
    Wolf, E. R. (1989). Europe and the people without history. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Wolff, E. (2003). The wealth divide: The growing gap in the United States between the rich and the rest. Multinational Monitor, 24(5), 11–15.
    Woodhouse, S. (2002). The historical development of affirmative action: An aggregated analysis. Western Journal of Black Studies, 26(3), 155–158.
    Wooley, S. C., & Wooley, O. W. (1984, February). Feeling fat in a thin society. Glamour, pp. 198–252.
    Wrenn, C. G. (1962). The culturally encapsulated counselor. Havard Educational Review, 32, 444–449.
    Wyche, K. F. (2001). Sociocultural issues in counseling for women of color. In R. K.Unger (Ed.), Handbook of the psychology of women and gender (pp. 330–340). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
    Wyche, K. F. (2006). Healthy environments for youth and families. In J.Worell & C. D.Goodheart (Eds.), Handbook of girls' and women's psychological health: Gender and well-being across the lifespan (pp. 218–228). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Yakushko, O., & Chronister, K. (2005). Immigrant women and counseling: The invisible others. Journal of Counseling & Development, (83), 292–298.
    Yang, D. (1991). Generational conflict among the Hmong in the United States. Hmong Forum, 2, 35–38.
    Yeatman, A. (1993). Voice and representation and the politics of difference. In S.Gunew & A.Yeatman (Eds.), Feminism and the politics of difference (pp. 85–102). Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
    Yeh, C. (2003). Age, acculturation, cultural adjustment, and mental health symptoms of Chinese, Korean, and Japanese immigrant youth. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9(1), 34–48.
    Yon, D. A. (2000). Elusive culture: Schooling, race, and identity in global times. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Yoon, S. (2005). The characteristics and needs of Asian American grandparent caregivers: A study of Chinese American and Korean American grandparents in New York City. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 44(3–4), 75–94.
    Zinn, H. (2003). A people's history of the United States: 1492–present. New York: HarperCollins.
    Zuckerman, M. (1990). Some dubious premises in research and theory on racial differences: Scientific, social, and ethical issues. American Psychologist, 45, 1927–1303.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website