New Horizons inMulticultural Counseling

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Gerald Monk, John Winslade & Stacey Sinclair

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  • Russell Young, 1956–2005

    Exemplary multicultural scholar, educator, and loved colleague

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    Foreword

    Kenneth J.Gergen

    Life in the helping professions has always been fraught with ambiguity. How are we to understand the strange and often self-defeating behavior in which people engage, what are the origins of untoward and irrational actions, how are we to sort people into tractable categories, what are the best forms of counseling or therapeutic practice, how can we assess the effects of our interventions, and what are the ethical and political implications of our engagement? For over a century, such issues have stimulated lively and sometimes rancorous debate. Only in periods of vast suppression do we seem to approach agreement on answers. For the most part, schools of thought have come and gone, and we seem no closer to the answers today than we were a century ago.

    In recent decades this search for clear answers has taken a different turn, at once liberating and perilous. In earlier years the search largely took place within the professional classes, and the grounds for debate were typically those furnished by the then-dominant conception of empirical science. Reason and evidence were the key players in the game. However, as the technologies of communication (e.g., television, mass publishing, talk radio, jet transportation, the Internet) became increasingly available to people, grassroots organization was facilitated. Multiple pockets of consciousness developed; groups of the like-minded sprang to political life. There were sharp differences among such groups in the way they understood the world and the values they placed on various outcomes. Further, for many of these groups the debates within the helping professions not only seemed obfuscating and irrelevant, but also were threatening to the very ways of life they so valued. Thus, the “helping” professions were variously excoriated for race, class, gender, and sexual preference biases. And, too, their assumptions and practices seemed wholly insensitive to the vast ethnic and cultural differences within a society.

    This fiercely pluralistic movement has been enormously liberating. It has placed in critical question long-standing traditions, given voice to myriad minorities, and set new agendas for how to think about and foster human well-being. The space of freedom has been substantially expanded. At the same time, these movements have fostered both fragmentation and alienation. There are strong tendencies of the enclaves, just as of the “old-stream,” to seek independence; each strives to set its own course for the future. Those outside an enclave are often viewed with suspicion or derision. There is a circulating logic that no group has the right to conceptualize those outside, to study them or offer entrapping practices of help. To extend such logic, we are all invited to live in isolation from each other.

    With the publication of the present volume, Gerald Monk, John Winslade, and Stacey Sinclair herald an entirely new era of thought and practice. They write from long experience in the roiling waters of multicultural counseling; they are not afraid to expose their passions and their shortcomings; they have stepped outside the domain of counseling in search of useful insights from other fields of study. And their conclusion is of enormous importance: it is not the clear and compelling answer for which we should be striving, but a continuing and ever-extended participation in dialogue. In effect, they render honor to the full panoply of traditions, values, and visions that now circulate globally, but invite an open and honest sharing. They soften the boundaries of separation and see within dialogue the possibilities for new, more fully informed, more thoroughly sensitive, and more broadly responsible ways of going on. In offering such visions to those entering the field of counseling today, they make a major contribution to a more viable tomorrow.

    This spirit of participatory inquiry is secreted into every corner of this work, from the personal openness of the initial prologue to a final chapter in which the reader is invited to join in thinking about the next steps. Traditional understandings are thrust into question at every turn; where clarity on matters of culture, race, ethnicity, identity, community, and competence once reigned, there is now careful and caring reflection. Nor are the authors satisfied by developing highly sophisticated and far-reaching accounts of the subject matter. They also invite readers into experiences that will enable them to add to the deliberation in their own terms. The chapters also bring a wealth of wide-ranging scholarship to bear on the topics they treat, thus adding depth and breadth to the discussions. Yet, and perhaps most salutary, they invite responses to their offerings from authors varying significantly in viewpoint.

    I am reminded here of a passage from the poet Rainer Maria Rilke's Letters to a Young Poet:

    I would like to beg you … to have patience with everything unresolved in your heart and to try to love the questions themselves as if they were locked rooms or books written in a very foreign language. Don't search for the answers, which could not be given to you now, because you would not be able to live them. And the point is to live everything. Live the questions now. Perhaps then, someday far in the future, you will gradually, without even noticing it, live your way into the answer.

    To be sure, it is most gratifying to me that the authors have made such excellent use of social constructionist ideas. Deliberations on social construction have absorbed my interests and enthusiasm for over 25 years. In many respects I believe that the same processes that gave rise to the multicultural movement—its liberating potentials as well as its tensions—also contributed to the expanding consciousness of construction. To the extent that any discourse, and its associated way of life, is dominant, there is little questioning of what is real, rational, or valuable. It was thus that in early periods of counseling psychology there was virtually unquestioned respect for observation, systematic evidence, coherent reasoning, and the value of using one's expertise to help others. However, as the many voices of difference found expression, the veil of the obvious began to fall. Behind the veil we began to discern the culturally and historically thrown condition of science, reason, and Western ethics. No longer was there an unquestionable authority. All traditions of interpretation could claim legitimacy.

    Yet, as the constructionist dialogues have developed, they have also opened a path to a new level of consciousness. As we have found in the field of counseling, plural legitimacies also lend themselves to plural claims of the real and the good. While social constructionist ideas are used to deconstruct the dominant discourse, they are infrequently turned upon oneself. Thus, we approach a war of all against all, only in this case it is war among traditions as opposed to individuals. Given the potential for any movement to expand globally and the simultaneous democratization of weaponry, we find ourselves approaching a radical condition of crisis. It is at this point that the pragmatic dimension of constructionism plays a prominent role, for we cease to order the world into ultimate goods and evils, locating fault and establishing institutions of censor and control. Rather, we simply ask, “Is this the kind of world we wish to create together?” And, if the answer is “No,” the invitation is given for a collaborative search into more viable futures. It is precisely here that one can discern the profound significance of this volume. In the case of counseling, the authors answer “No” to an embattled future. Thus, we find within these pages not simply a groundbreaking entry into the domain of multicultural counseling; rather, this volume gives rise to the kind of consciousness on which global well-being will ultimately depend.

    Kenneth J. Gergen, Ph.D., is a senior research professor at Swarthmore College and the director of the Taos Institute. He is widely known for his inquiries in social construction and contemporary cultural life. In addition to honorary degrees in the United States and Europe, he has received awards from the National Science Foundation, the Guggenheim Foundation, the Fulbright Foundation, and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Among his major works are Realities and Relationships, The Saturated Self, and An Invitation to Social Construction.

    Prologue

    I have had a burning desire to write this book for 20 years. It's taken 20 years because I didn't at first have the courage to write down the conversations, debates, conflicts, and challenges of a field that has been so fraught with accounts of disrespect, injustice, and misunderstanding. What has given me the strength, confidence, and encouragement to undertake this large project has been the major contributions of two of my wonderful friends and colleagues, who bring their ability to write with depth, complexity, and potency to this important subject of multicultural counseling. Together we have grappled with the big issues of advancing the state of multicultural counseling while staying focused on the question driving the movement: how do we all promote justice, respect, equity, and understanding in the counseling process among culturally diverse peoples?

    It's a risky business for a group of white authors to write on multiculturalism, inequity, and social justice. So much injustice has been perpetrated throughout the planet by white people and their ancestors, and thus it is easy for many communities across the globe to distrust white people's motives and agendas. Among many communities, there is a suspicion that white people, who appear to have been fused with the most negative aspects of dominant Western culture, have little to contribute to the question of how to address justice, and equity, understanding, and respect across diverse cultures. White people have been described as members of an oppressor group who have access to all kinds of privilege. From many perspectives, they are unqualified to speak about topics such as racism, oppression, and marginalization. Certainly the majority culture in the United States continues to grant privilege to white groups.

    Each of us (the authors) can identify aspects of our lives that have been both privileged and oppressive to others. Despite this history, we have a place to contribute to the conversation that relates to respect, understanding, and justice in the counseling encounter across diverse communities. While in terms of ethnicity we identify as white, or, in the case of John Winslade and me, as Pakeha (white New Zealanders), we hope that by the end of reading this book you, the reader, will experience our voice as that of a mix of multiple, salient identities that defy a stereotypical, univocal, unidimensional expression and that do not inevitably reproduce oppressive practice.

    Like my colleague John Winslade, I have lived for more than half of my life in the land referred to by Maori as Aotearoa (“The Land of the Long White Cloud”), otherwise known as New Zealand. Our third coauthor, Stacey Sinclair, spent her early life in Ypsilanti/Ann Arbor, Michigan, and most of her youth and adult life in Virginia Beach, Virginia.

    This book on multicultural counseling had its genesis in New Zealand, in the painful yet deeply insightful interactions I, as a Pakeha New Zealander, experienced with Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand.

    As a brand-new psychologist who had just graduated from New Zealand's esteemed University of Otago, I returned to my small hometown of Gisborne to begin work in my newly chosen field of counseling and psychological practice. I was to begin work in the Department of Education Psychological Services. The year was 1985. I was full of enthusiasm as a newly trained professional, ready to make an impact in my home community. I had been preparing to do this for five years.

    Gisborne, a very isolated community, had always struggled to provide an adequate range of medical and psychological services to its citizens. As I prepared for this new job, I felt I must first become acquainted with the services already provided so that I could work alongside my colleagues, who coordinated an appropriate delivery of services. One of my first ports of call was a meeting with Erana, a member of the Ngati Porou iwi (tribe) and a senior social worker in a large community agency that provided services to Maori families. I introduced myself and talked to her about how we might work together. In the first two minutes, her response to what I regarded as an appropriate professional interaction was shocking to the point that I am remembering it and writing about it 20 years later.

    Erana said, “I have no interest in working with you or the services that you think you could provide to our people.”

    “I am sorry,” I said, reeling with incredulity, “but I don't understand what you mean.”

    “I place no value on Pakeha institutions and the Pakeha knowledge you want to impose on Maori,” she said in a straightforward, unapologetic tone.

    Needless to say, it was a very short meeting, and I left feeling confused and upset. I asked myself, how can somebody dismiss and reject me and what I represent, without even knowing anything about me, just because of my ethnicity or my culture and professional background? This was the first time I had experienced such an encounter. I had a lot to learn. I was a 28-year-old man who had been raised in a white New Zealand middle class community and had never suffered rejection on the grounds of my cultural background and the stereotypical assumptions often associated with the people I identified with. In a country where the majority Pakeha culture was dominant in all major public and private institutions, it was rare to be singled out by a minority culture and challenged about anything. This was the first of a number of interactions where my ethnic background and what it represented was rejected and discounted.

    Fortunately, I soon realized that I was experiencing, on the smallest of scales, what it feels like to be rejected, devalued, and unappreciated because of one's ethnicity, gender, or class. In another interaction that occurred a few months later, I was told in public to shut up by a young community worker who was “sick of hearing from Pakeha males.” These small encounters were enormously impactful and began to require me to confront many issues. I found that I had to reevaluate what I was trained to do as a counselor and a psychologist.

    All through my training I had believed I was learning therapeutic and professional skills that would apply to all people. After all, I was trained in a scientist-practitioner model by the latest empirically tested psychological science, which was considered effective with all people independent of ethnicity, class, and gender. Now, on a regular basis I was being told by significant numbers of my community that they were not interested in what I had to offer or the knowledge I was trained in. What did it now mean for me, a Pakeha male professional trained in the Western counseling and psychological traditions, to work in my own community but be rejected by many members of the Maori community? I could have easily written off those Maori community members who said to me, “Thanks, but no thanks.” It is very easy to scapegoat members of a minority culture who don't like what is being offered to them from the majority culture. Embedded in this response would have been the arrogant implication that the dominant culture is better and more important than the minority culture. Of course, it was also the easy route to take to make myself feel better.

    However, after moving on from feeling sorry for myself, I became very interested in how we as Pakeha and Maori got to be in this place. I had lived in my hometown for most of my life. I had thought that I was particularly good at getting along with Maori and working together for the greater good of all of us. Some of my closest friends throughout my schooling had been Maori. In fact, the teacher I had loved most was Maori; Mr. Callaghan was very proud of his cultural history. I had often been singled out in our class plays to perform in the role of a Maori warrior in ancient tribal legends. Now I was feeling disconnected and estranged from Maori and finding that what I had to offer was not only of no value but also seen as harmful by some of the Maori mental health professionals in my own town. I made a commitment to conduct myself in a manner that would be perceived as respectful to Maori and to get to a better place.

    At around this time I was faced with other challenges unrelated to the conflicts between Pakeha and Maori. I attended a Family Therapy Conference in 1986 and was confronted and challenged because of my gender. Halfway through the conference, a woman stood up at the end of a plenary session and challenged all the men in the room to stand up and publicly take responsibility as men for the sexual and physically violent crimes being perpetrated by men against women in the community. Research was presented about the large numbers of men perpetrating crimes against women and children in families and the significant amount of sexual abuse being committed by male therapists toward their female clients. Sarah asked each man at the conference to take a stand against violence and sexual abuse and to pledge to work with men to eradicate violence from our communities. The response was overwhelming silence. Nobody moved or spoke for what seemed like hours, although it was probably a few minutes. Later in the conference, a number of women expressed their indignation over the men's failure to respond to the challenge to address abuses committed by male culture in the community. Interactions like this were to occur again and again in various professional gatherings during the latter part of the 1980s.

    At another Family Therapy Conference, a woman who identified as Samoan challenged all of the Pakeha and Palangi (Samoan for “whites”) to take responsibility for their abuse of indigenous peoples and their imposition of their colonizing therapies on indigenous peoples. These challenges were always painful, and many professionals who worked in the counseling and family therapy arena and were concerned about these serious social issues stopped attending the national and regional conferences because they were afraid of being attacked for their failure to adequately address patriarchal or racially prejudicial behavior. As a result, conference attendance declined, and in some instances national conferences were canceled for a period. A heightened level of concern about issues of racial hatred, colonization, and patriarchy surfaced in the professional community.

    In the early 1990s, the national counseling organization in New Zealand was split in two. Many people both within and outside of the counseling and psychotherapy community thought it necessary to separate services for Maori and Pakeha. Pakeha clients were encouraged to see Pakeha therapists and Maori clients were encouraged to see Maori therapists. It was believed that by separating out the ethnic groups, the dominating and colonizing therapies of the Pakeha would not be imposed upon Maori. Thus, Maori could receive services from Maori that would honor their traditions and unique culture and thus avoid being tainted by Pakeha practices.

    Men were encouraged to work with male counselors and women were encouraged to work with female counselors. It was believed that male counselors would be in a better position than female counselors to challenge patriarchal behavior and stop violence and abuse in their male clients. It was also believed that if male counselors were discouraged from working with female clients, they would avoid imposing their own patriarchal behavior on women. Thus, during the 1990s in New Zealand, it was common practice to separate groups around particular cultural markers with a view to avoiding prejudicial behaviors by therapists working with culturally different clients. This agenda included the promotion of gay counselors' working with gay clients to avoid the imposition of harmful heterosexual biases and abuses on the client by the counselor.

    During the 1990s, I also came to embrace this practice of separating groups around particular cultural markers because I couldn't see any other way to respect the concerns of many Maori and many women about the potential for therapeutic harm. As a result, I worked with men's groups to address sexual and physical violence. I actively discouraged Maori clients from seeing me and encouraged them to take referrals to a Maori counselor. When I became a counselor educator at a university in a neighboring town, I discouraged people who identified as Maori from participating in the training program because it was taught mainly by Pakeha and followed a mainstream counseling curriculum that many Maori deemed harmful. That is, I was concerned that the existing program was not catering to their needs and felt that they would benefit more from training with Maori counselor educators.

    For nearly 10 years I promoted the provision of separate services based on shared cultural markers or the shared salient identities of the clients or students. In New Zealand, because the more homogenous patterns in the population are made up of mainly four ethnic groups (Pakeha, Maori, Pacific Islander, and Asian), the majority being Pakeha and a sizable minority group being Maori, it seemed more possible to separate services for discrete groups. Now, more than 10 years later, I can see that we in New Zealand have made some progress in addressing serious social injustices in the delivery of counseling and psychological services in comparison to what was provided before the mid 1980s. However, there are still many difficulties that have not been resolved by separating services along these lines. In fact, I have serious misgivings about providing separate services by counselors and clients who share matching ethnic markers to resolve serious social injustices between different groups, whether the divisions are constructed along ethnic or gender lines or among other cultural groupings whose legitimate concerns need attention.

    One of the biggest problems that arise when we start thinking of people primarily as members of specific cultural groups is that we participate in forming unidimensional understandings of who they are as people. We also invite people to conform to a one-dimensional characterization. In fact, we all exhibit a complex array of multiple cultural identities or cultural markers. As we engage with a person's ethnicity, we are simultaneously engaging with him or her as a person who is a man or woman or transgender person, with a particular sexual orientation, social class, religious or nonreligious background, ability, or disability, of a particular age, rural or urban location, and so on. It is difficult to resolve inequity and injustice by believing we can match people on every cultural variable or cultural marker.

    The other problem underpinning any unidimensional characterization is that it fails to encompass the dynamic and fluid nature of power relations, and, in doing so, constrains options for change. Placing people in a fixed, one-dimensional characterization is usually predicated on an oppressor/oppressed binary, which conceives of power as a property inherent within categories of people rather than as a relational phenomenon. The deterministic and essentialist quality of these assumptions has the potential to evoke feelings of helplessness and reduce people's abilities to act. However, there is still a profound need to identify and understand systematic social processes at work in a community that become the source of abuse, disrespect, and hatred of people with certain cultural markings.

    This book is a genuine effort to expand on an alternative range of theoretical and therapeutic approaches to addressing social injustices without on the one hand resorting to Eurocentric models of practice (the ones that all the authors were trained in) or, on the other hand, creating separate and distinct classes of therapy that somehow match all of the complex, heterogeneous cultural markers experienced by clients. Rather, this book is an effort to provide resources for all of us to use to work respectfully with multiple cultural identities as well as to address systematic social inequities that people live with daily.

    While I have been writing about experiences that have taken place far, far away from most readers of this book, there are some very important parallels between what has taken place in New Zealand and what occurs in North America. Experience any multicultural class that is preparing counselors, psychiatrists, psychologists, marriage and family therapists, nurses, and medical doctors to work with diverse populations, and you will hear some version of the statements I have listed below:

    “We are all human beings. We all share essentially the same genetic makeup, so surely we can all benefit from the same well-proven methods to assist people.”

    “You are white and you will never understand the racism I've experienced and can never really understand what it's like to be me.”

    “You are from a dominant culture and you don't know what it's like to be oppressed. I would never seek counseling from you or people like you.

    “I wish I had a culture. Yours is so beautiful and rich, I feel as if I would really benefit from being a person like you.”

    “I'm color-blind. We're all human beings and that's the shared basis that we need to work from.”

    “You can't help but be racist and you have to acknowledge that.”

    “I think we are all one people. We're all American here, aren't we? Don't we all believe in essentially the same things?”

    There are many such dividing statements made by participants in North American classrooms and on the street that suggest, “We can be understood only by people of our own kind.” These statements are often sincere attempts to manage the difficult challenges we all face in working with, living alongside, and counseling others. Some comments strike me as very naive. Others seem hopeless or pessimistic. But what we believe about one another is not something that we have invented on our own. Each of these statements comes from an elaborate history of thought arising from experiences that often reach back in time well beyond the age of the student who is uttering them. It is through understanding our genealogies and our multiple and diverse histories that we will come to more fully understand what is going on now as we begin our steps into the 21st century.

    “History,” wrote Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., “haunts even generations who refuse to [acknowledge it]. Rhythms, patterns, continuities, drift out of time long forgotten to mould the present and to color the shape of things to come.”

    GeraldMonk, May 2007

    Preface

    Some might say that this is a contentious book—that is, that we, the authors, are seeking to contend. We are conscious that not everyone will always agree with our contentions. We maintain a hope, however, that any field of inquiry will resemble a respectful conversation among a range of contending voices. There are indeed many books currently being published about multicultural counseling. This is a positive development, given that the issues of responding to difference across a range of domains are critical to modern life. But it does raise the question, why yet another book?

    To answer this question, we need to be up front about our purposes in writing this text. We have a number of specific goals that we are trying to achieve in this book. We shall outline these here, now, so that they are transparent and so that you can measure your reading of the book against these goals rather than against some other idea of what a book like this should be.

    First, we have aimed to write a book that will be of use to students and faculty instructors in a multicultural counseling class. That has been the primary audience we have kept in mind while writing. We hope, too, that others in the field of general helping relations—for example, students of psychology and social work—will find this work of value. We also hope that this book will stimulate interest among practitioners of counseling.

    We have been conscious of the requirements of the American Counseling Association's multicultural counseling competencies in the writing of this text. Alongside a discussion of these competencies, our aim has been to introduce some new material into the discourse of multicultural counseling, or at least to gather a number of ideas together from various sources for increased consideration in relation to multicultural practice. This is not because we do not support the multicultural counseling competencies as they exist. Rather, we believe there are a few gaps in them that deserve attention and we want to contribute to the development of this field. We shall go on now to explain the particular intentions we have held to in writing this text.

    We have sought to avoid what some multicultural counseling texts offer in the way of a kind of cookbook of suggestions for counselors in working with persons from specific cultural groups. Usually these groups appear to correspond with the United States census divisions. If you are looking for chapters discussing the traditional ethnic and other identity groups, you will be disappointed. For our purposes, descriptive accounts of group identity have not been helpful to us in conceptualizing multicultural counseling.

    What we have done is address what we see as some of the most important domains of cultural influence while seeking to avoid normalizing descriptions within those domains. One book can't do everything. Because our focus has been on the complexity of identity issues and the epistemological underpinnings of the multicultural perspective, we have not been able to adequately address all of the multicultural domains that you might be looking for. For example, you will find very little discussion on the specific counseling needs of ethnic groups, only a modest account (in Chapter 12) of the counseling needs of lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender persons, and passing allusions to rather than full discussion of the cultural influences of disability, religion, and spirituality or of the cultural experience of the elderly. Fortunately, there are numerous publications that address the discrete needs of identity groups. Recent publications that address some of these issues include the following:

    Atkinson, D. R., & Hackett, G. (Eds.). (2004). Counseling diverse populations (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Baruth, L. G., & Manning, M. L. (2007). Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy: A lifespan perspective (
    4th ed.
    ). Columbus, OH: Prentice Hall.
    Brammer, R. (2004). Diversity in counseling. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
    Harper, F. D., & McFadden, J. (2003). Culture and counseling: New approaches. Boston: Pearson Education.
    Rabin, C. L. (2005). Understanding gender and culture in the helping process: Practitioners' narratives from global perspectives. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
    Robinson, T. L. (2005). The convergence of race, ethnicity, and gender: Multiple identities in counseling. Columbus, OH: Prentice Hall.
    Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2007). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (
    5th ed.
    ). New York: Wiley.

    We have taken a different aim. Our task has been to articulate some conceptual tools for counselors and students to think with as they make sense of their own experience and the experiences of the clients who seek their help. We consider one of the primary functions of a textbook to be the provocation and stimulation of thought. You may not always agree with our arguments in this book. That is okay. We expect that. But we would invite you to at least consider the ideas we present and to work at articulating your own conceptual framework for working in a multicultural way. We take the multicultural movement seriously enough to believe that it should provoke substantial rethinking of many of the commonly accepted assumptions in the counseling field. Therefore, we invite you to adopt a questioning stance in relation to accepted knowledge and to test it against criteria that place cultural difference at the forefront of your thinking.

    Some may argue (we have heard these arguments expressed to us) that we should not focus so much on the “intellectual” issues of culture but should promote the more humanistic concept of “awareness” in this text. We are not persuaded by these arguments. It is not that we are opposed to the idea of awareness. It is just that awareness can only exist within a framework of assumptions about people and about life. There is no such thing as pure awareness, only awareness that is located in culture and discourse and history. We think that students should engage in understanding and sometimes questioning these background assumptions in the process of developing awareness of cultural relations. We prefer not to patronize students by suggesting that they are not capable of such thought.

    Our intention, therefore, has been to contribute a problematizing element to the conversation on these issues. To problematize means to take a step back from something that seems familiar and taken for granted and to render it an object worthy of thinking more about (Marshall, 2007). In the process, as we contemplate the difficulties that can be noticed in relation to this concept, the subject matter might become less certain and less familiar. Rather than just asking students or practitioners to, say, be more aware of their own race or culture, we want to ask them to step back and think carefully about some of the problems associated with the conventional concepts of race and culture and to understand these concepts as contestable ideas rather than hard realities, ideas produced through a history riven with power relations. Many texts start with defining the terms of race and culture and so on. We want to encourage a discussion about how these terms get to be so defined, on the grounds that the control of definitions is in itself a basis for power. We trust that the opening up of these terms for searching discussion will also open up new forms of practice.

    For these reasons, we have endeavored in this book to bring work on the assumptions and experience of culture and cultural difference from several other fields to bear upon the field of multicultural counseling. For example, we have sought to draw from the recent developments in the field of cultural studies. We have also consciously drawn upon the literature of postcolonial studies and critical race theory. We've used material based in the philosophy of culture and in postmodern social theory. Others in the field of multicultural counseling have dipped into these sources, of course, but not all texts in this field have used them as fully as we have sought to do here. Our aim has been to translate promising ideas into readable and practical form and to suggest ways that they can enhance the practice of counseling so that multicultural counseling becomes not just an add-on to the field but a force that propels it forward into new vistas.

    To be more specific, we need to mention some guiding principles we've drawn from these literatures that we believe can benefit the field of multicultural counseling. All texts are written from a philosophical perspective; ours is no different. Sometimes this isn't mentioned because it's assumed that everyone will share the same perspective. Sometimes, too, confusion results when people talk across different assumptions without being transparent about where they're coming from. We want to avoid that. So let's declare our preference for thinking about counseling and multicultural practice from a social constructionist perspective. In Chapter 1, we outline what we mean by that. We have not written this book from a humanistic perspective, or from a structuralist perspective. We certainly have respect for the vast majority of counselors who hold to one or the other of these frameworks of assumption. But, like them, we have our own biases. We would prefer that you know this from the start.

    One of our premises as social constructionists is that essentialist ideas about culture should be eschewed. We explain what we mean by this in Chapter 2. Because essentialist thinking about meanings, about personhood, about groups of people, and about culture itself is so familiar in our patterns of thought and in our ways of speaking, essentialism is hard to step out of. Nevertheless, we believe that new possibilities open up when we do so. We have therefore aimed to write about cultural issues using language and concepts that are as nonessentialist as possible.

    Some may find this effort Eurocentric. They are, in a sense, right. Essentialist thinking has dominated the modern world from its origins in European culture. Even the word “culture” is itself a European concept, as is the word “race.” Indigenous cultures around the world have nurtured very different ways of thinking. Our intention in questioning essentialist assumptions in multicultural counseling is partly to make room for other ways of making sense of life to be granted legitimacy. Even when we're not speaking about different cultural frameworks of thought, we would like you to remember that this is our intention.

    Another premise we hold is that cultural relations in the modern world are not just constructed out of contemporary thinking. They have a history and they developed in a social context. We have therefore placed considerable emphasis in this text on locating concepts of culture in context, rather than implying that they exist in the present in some kind of temporal suspension. People do not hold to cultural stereotypes because, for example, they have independently developed faulty thinking in their heads. They do so because they are the products of a history that has produced these stereotypes and passed them down through the generations. We think it's important to make that history explicit without turning this book into a history text. We work with the assumption that locating concepts in history helps deconstruct some of their taken-for-granted authority.

    Another way we seek to avoid essentialist thinking lies in how we write about racism, sexism, homophobia, and other ideological issues. We don't believe that these ideologies are essential to any person's existence. Therefore, we have sought to avoid the common practice of assigning their origins to the hearts of persons. We do not believe that people are racist, for example, in the core of their being. Rather, we assume that racism is a social construct that existed long before any individual who now utters its lines. It has been passed on through social discourse and may have achieved a degree of influence over a person's heart and mind. But we shall avoid talking about any individual as a racist person, a sexist person, and so on. Such discipline is based on our philosophical standpoint, and we ask that you consider it. In this discipline, we draw from Michael White's (1989) aphorism: “The person is not the problem; the problem is the problem” (p. 7).

    A by-product of this assumption is that we are doubtful about classroom practices that seek to make students more aware of, for example, their own racism or sexism. We would invite students to step out of the racist or sexist ideas that may have affected them, rather than to step further into them. We are more interested, therefore, in exercises that help students deconstruct the work done by powerful ideologies, including in their own thinking, to produce life experiences of privilege and disadvantage.

    While it may be a risky business for a group of white authors to write on multiculturalism, inequity, and social justice, silence about these issues can be criticized as well. We believe that we have a responsibility to address these issues and not remain silent about them. We prefer to engage with the issues and to join the conversation about them rather than retreat. Our aim in this book and in other contexts is certainly not to upstage people from a range of cultural positions but to work in partnership with those who have not been exposed to privilege.

    The book begins in Chapter 1 by raising some questions about the concept of culture. Many texts on multiculturalism simply define culture and move on. We think it is important for a book on multiculturalism to take the concept of culture seriously. We begin, therefore, with a problematizing discussion in which we briefly trace the genealogy of the concept of culture and also note the genealogy of the uses to which this concept has been put in the therapeutic literature. In Chapter 2 we introduce many aspects of added complexity that we believe need to be taken into account in relation to culture. In particular, we argue for a focus on the multiplicity of cultural influences rather than an essentializing of singular cultural belonging. Here we explain the usefulness of considering cultural narratives that run through our lives rather than focusing on simple identities. In Chapter 3 we move to a focus on the major social divisions that were created by the processes of Western colonization of most of the earth's land surface and the psychological effects of this process that are still being worked out. We take a historical perspective here in order to signify that the cultural relations that exist today do so because of a particular history rather than just because of current policies and practices. The historical and genealogical focus continues in Chapter 4, where we pay particular attention to the concept of race. Our focus on these topics before all others signifies the centrality in the modern world of the forms of social organization that have been built on concepts of race through the colonizing practices that assumed these concepts.

    Chapters 5 through 8 are more general. They lay out some theoretical and epistemological emphases that we want to make use of through the rest of the book. In Chapter 5 we explore the usefulness to multicultural counseling of the concepts of discourse, deconstruction, and positioning. Drawn from poststructuralism and used extensively in cultural studies, these concepts are, we believe, useful for counselors to master in order to speak in fresh ways about cultural identity influences. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 all address power relations, highlighting and teasing out three different ways of thinking about power. Chapter 6 explains the liberal humanist approach that emphasizes personal power, Chapter 7 explains a structuralist approach to power, and Chapter 8 develops the poststructuralist (largely Foucauldian) analytic of power. We advocate that the multicultural counseling field take the latter approach much more seriously than it has done so far.

    In Chapter 9, we pick up the subject of gender as a domain of cultural experience. This chapter traces some of the different approaches to thinking about gender, again with something of a historical emphasis, and includes a consideration of both women's and men's enculturation into gendered narratives.

    Chapters 10 through 12 address the processes of cultural identity formation. We believe this to be a crucial consideration for counselors because it is the material that counselors and clients are dealing with on a daily basis. Our aim in these chapters is to do justice to the complexities of identity formation in the face of the array of swirling forces at work in the modern world. Chapter 10 investigates the effects of globalization on personal lives, Chapter 11 addresses the multiplicity of cultural influences in personal life, and Chapter 12 investigates some models of cultural identity development, such as racial identity development, immigrant acculturation, and LGBT identity development, particularly in relation to the coming out process.

    In Chapter 13, we consider the community contexts in which individuals are developing their personal identity. Here we pose the question, just what kind of community can we imagine that multicultural counseling might contribute to? We use Charles Taylor's concept of social imaginaries and explore the shifts away from the melting pot idea to a range of possible alternatives.

    The next three chapters pick up particular domains of cultural experience. In Chapter 14, we return to the question of racism. It is such a central and such a damaging ideological formation that we felt this book deserved another chapter devoted to how counselors might think about and respond to expressions of racism. In Chapter 15, we explore social class issues and the positioning of people in places of economic privilege or disadvantage. We investigate how personal stories are formed in relation to socioeconomic cultural formations and the degree of access these formations give people to the “American dream” or its equivalent in other countries. Chapter 16 looks at the cultural context of schooling. It addresses the functions of cultural reproduction that take place in schools as a hidden curriculum alongside the overt aims of education, then invites counselors to consider how they might work with young people to develop their lives and their education in the context of these powerful processes of cultural reproduction.

    Chapter 17 brings us to the American Counseling Association's multicultural competencies. In this chapter, we support the intention behind the development of these competencies and also raise some questions about them, especially with regard to the gaps we would like to see addressed, given the perspectives we have already covered in this book.

    Finally, in Chapter 18 we bring together the themes we have been pursuing in the previous chapters in a final series of statements about what we see on the horizon for multicultural counseling.

    This book has been more than two and a half years in the writing and many more years in gestation. We are grateful to many people who have contributed to it along the way. We have deliberately sought to include a range of voices by taking special care to give space to a richly diverse group of writers. These writers include experts and teachers in the field of multicultural counseling as well as students of these subjects. We have invited them all to contribute their ideas on multicultural counseling in North America (and in other homelands) and to include their reflections on the nature of culture, identity, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, class, geographic location, disability, religion, and numerous other salient cultural markers. Our goal has been to create a polyphonic range of responses that represents the complexity and multiplicity of perspectives we have been at pains to explain. We trust that the result of this process is that the book has something of the dialogic quality of a conversation rather than of a monologue.

    Each chapter ends with a reflection on the content of the chapter by an author who we deem has a perspective to offer on its content. You may recognize some of these authors as established and well-known writers in the multicultural field. Others represent the new generation of teachers of multicultural counseling. When we approached these people to ask them to write their reflections, we specified two things. One was that they need not agree with our perspective but might take issue with it wherever they saw fit. We hope that the differences expressed here will provide readers with stimulation to their own thinking as they work at creating their own perspectives. We also asked the writers to include a story illustrating the impact of the issues in the chapter on their own or others' lives. We are grateful to those who so willingly contributed their reflections to this book, and we acknowledge their thoughtfulness and integrity in doing so.

    Our students have also contributed many stories to this book. We acknowledge the richness and poignancy of these stories and the freshness and complexity of lived experience that they exemplify. They serve as valuable illustrations of the ideas we have sought to represent. We acknowledge the contributions of the following people: Sara Ackelson, Lorena Arias, Jason Carney, Abbie Castel, Danielle Castillo, Heather Conley-Higgins, Natasha Crawford, Mark Darby, Joyce K. Everett, Esmelda Gonzalez, Maiko Ikeda, Ryan Jackson, Sarah Johnson, Mikela Jones, Andy Kim, Mayra Lorenzo, Monica Loyce, Homero Magaña, Sarah Mamaril, Jesus Miranda, Courtnay Oatts Mohammed, Fredy Moreno, Mandana Najimi, Rieko Onuma, Elynn Oropilla, Lorena Ortega, Florence Park, Michael Perales, An Pham, Hien Pham, Stephanie Picon, Belen Robles, Deborah Ann Samson, Randy Tone, Deanna Toombs, Jaime Tran, Grace Tsai, Mary Suzette Tuason, Tristan Turk, Lucille Vail, Calix Vu-Bui, Michelle Wiese, and Daphne Zacky.

    A number of people read and commented on drafts of many chapters in the book, helping us to revaluate many small and not-so-small issues as we wrote. Some were particularly helpful in asking us to adopt a less strident tone in certain places; we shall leave it to you to judge how well we took their advice. We are grateful to the following people for their comments and suggestions: Fred Bemak, Edward Delgado-Romero, Changming Duan, Brenda Ingram, Richard Lee, Paul Pedersen, Sue Strong, and Allen Wilcoxon.

    Collecting background material and locating textual sources is detailed and sometimes tedious work, and we are grateful to the following people for their assistance in bringing the book together: Krystal Colwell, Mia Hardy, Michael Jabbra, Larissa Jefferson-Allen, and Tracy Shelton.

    Those at Sage Publications who have stayed with us through the course of producing this book also deserve our acknowledgment and gratitude. We are particularly grateful to Art Pomponio for seeing value in our proposal for this book and for helping us initiate the project. We appreciate Kassie Graves's editorial guidance and her patience and encouragement along the way. We thank Veronica Novak for her hard work in getting the book into production. We would also like to thank Rachel Keith for her meticulous copyediting and helpful additions.

    Our universities have provided both general and specific assistance for the completion of this project. In particular, San Diego State University's College of Education and Department of Counseling and School Psychology have given generous research support to Gerald Monk over the last two years. California State University, San Bernardino, through a faculty research leave program, provided John Winslade with one-quarter relief from teaching, which enabled him to concentrate on the latter stages of writing and revision in the spring of 2007.

    On a more personal level, Lorraine Hedtke has participated in many discussions about the content and detail of the book and has contributed many specific suggestions for inclusion in the text. She has read draft material with a sharp eye and commented helpfully on it. She has also contributed many aspects of less tangible support, particularly for John Winslade, by way of generous encouragement and her belief that the project was worthwhile. Such encouragement has been necessary at times when the project has felt bogged down. It is fitting that she be acknowledged here for helping to make this book happen.

    Gerald Monk, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Counseling and School Psychology at San Diego State University and teaches in the Marriage and Family Therapy Program. He teaches multicultural counseling classes at the graduate level. Gerald is a practicing marriage and family therapist in California and a mediator and trainer in collaborative divorce practices and health care. Gerald worked as a psychologist and counselor educator in New Zealand for 15 years before moving to the United States in 2000. He has a long-standing commitment to working with the bicultural issues that have arisen from the abuses of Maori by the colonizing practices of Pakeha in Aotearoa over the last 250 years. He has participated in extensive bicultural programs in New Zealand and introduced many students to working with indigenous healing practices on marae, the sacred ground of the Maori.

    Gerald has a strong interest in promoting constructionist theories in counseling and family systems work. He is well known for his contributions to developing and expanding the applications of narrative therapy in New Zealand and in North America. Gerald has published numerous articles and coauthored four books on the subject of narrative therapy and narrative mediation. His main professional commitment lies in the development and application of narrative mediation in health care and community-based contexts. Gerald has taught numerous workshops on this subject in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Austria, Iceland, Cyprus, Mexico, Denmark, Israel, Russia, and across the United States. Recently, he was the recipient of a Fred J. Hansen grant for peace studies to conduct bicommunal workshops in the buffer zone in Nicosia, Cyprus.

    John Winslade, Ph.D., is a professor at California State University, San Bernardino, where he is the coordinator of the Educational Counseling Program. He also teaches part time at the University of Waikato in New Zealand, where he was previously the director of counselor education. He is a New Zealander of Pakeha ancestry, and he conceives of Pakeha culture not just as an expression of white, British, or European heritage, but also as being about living in relation to Maori and Pacific cultural narratives in Aotearoa.

    His academic work has focused mainly on the application of social constructionist and narrative ideas to the fields of counseling and conflict resolution. His interest in these ideas lies not just in their novel modes of practice but also in their potential for helping people articulate responses to new developments in our conditions of life in the 21st century. He believes that counseling and psychology need to adapt to current cultural shifts, rather than continuing to repeat older solutions. In addition to numerous articles, John has coauthored four books on narrative counseling and mediation and one on narrative grief counseling.

    John has a strong interest in conflict resolution and peace building in personal, organizational, and community contexts. He has taught workshops on narrative counseling and mediation in the United States, Canada, Britain, Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, Cyprus, and Israel. In the last two years, through the sponsorship of the Fred J. Hansen Institute for World Peace, he has been involved in bicommunal peace building work in Cyprus.

    Stacey L. Sinclair, Ph.D., is director of the University Honors Program at San Diego State University and teaches in the Department of Counseling and School Psychology at San Diego State University. She is a nationally certified counselor and trained mediator. Her research and scholarship concentrate on social constructionist theory, discursive psychology, postmodern feminism, and conflict resolution. She has published numerous journal articles and book chapters on the application of postmodern epistemology in counseling and marriage and family therapy, and she regularly presents her work at the national and international level. Her primary teaching focus lies in the area of cultural studies and grounding culture in political, economic, and social contexts. Stacey has developed an undergraduate curriculum centered around popular culture for the Department of Counseling and School Psychology. This curriculum starts from the premise that popular culture, far from being a frivolous or debased alternative to “high” or “real” culture, is in fact an important site of popular expression, social construction, and cultural conflict and thus deserves critical attention. Stacey's teaching pays special attention to the ways popular culture affects individuals' daily lives, producing a range of physical, social, and emotional consequences.

    Stacey also has a strong background in developing and conducting a range of study-abroad programs for undergraduate and graduate students. Recently, she developed and taught study-abroad courses on conflict resolution in Estonia and Cyprus. Her conflict resolution work has included facilitating bicommunal peace building workshops with Turkish and Greek Cypriots in Nicosia, Cyprus, between 2005 and 2007 and in San Diego in 2006.

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