New Forms of Urban Governance in India: Shifts, Models, Networks and Contestations

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Edited by: I.S. A. Baud & J. de Wit

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    List of Tables

    • 2.1 State-appointed Agencies Involved in Urban Management 53
    • 4.1 Composition of the Surveyed Wards Committees in the Selected Cities 92
    • 4.2 Members' Profile in the Surveyed Wards Committees 95
    • 6.1 Wards, RWAs and Federations in Municipalities in Peri-Urban Chennai 159
    • 6.2 Multi-Actor Arrangements and Partnering Process: Underground Drainage and Sewerage Systems (UGDS) in Alandur and Pallavaram 165
    • 7.1 Delhi's Legal Framework and Public Policies with Regard to National Policies and Events 184
    • 7.2 Major Public Institutions Providing Services in Delhi 209
    • 8.1 Comparison of the ALM, SAP and HSP Programmes in Mumbai 223
    • 8.2 SWOT Analysis of the Programmes in Mumbai 228
    • 9.1 Status of SRS Proposals and their Completion 250
    • 10.1 Statement Showing the Performance of the e-Seva Department, October 2002 258
    • 10.2 Different Categories of Seats in the 2002 Municipal Elections 273
    • 11.1 Variations in People's Perceptions of Development Priorities 306
    • 12.1 Evolution in the Number and the Population of Jhuggi-Jhompri Clusters–Squatter Settlements–in Delhi from 1951 to 2001 322
    • 12.2 Relocation of Squatter Families in the National Capital Territory of Delhi (since the inception of the current resettlement scheme, that is 1 April 1990) 324
    • 13.1 Example of Matulya Mills and Kamala Mills 350
    • 13.2 Modifications in Land Available for Housing and Open Spaces before and after the Modification of DCR 58 354

    List of Figures

    • 5.1 Administrative Wards of Mumbai 119
    • 5.2 Changes in the MCGM Structure with the Formation of Wards Committees 121
    • 5.3 Relationships between NGOs, Government and Private Sector 128
    • 5.4 Policy-making, Implementation and Influence 134
    • 6.1 Chennai Agglomeration Area, Indicating Alandur and Pallavaram 158
    • 6.2 Institutional Framework for Sewerage System Investment in Chennai Agglomeration 163
    • 8.1 Map of Mumbai Showing Administrative Wards 215
    • 10.1 Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad Wards and Ward Committees, 2002 Elections 271
    • 10.2 Different Categories of Seats in the Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad, 2002 Elections 272
    • 10.3 Political Representation in the Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad, 2002 Elections 274
    • 11.1 Constituents of Kolkata Metropolitan Planning Area 297
    • 11.2 Constituents of Kolkata Metropolitan Planning Committee 301
    • 11.3 Stages in the Preparation of Ward Level Plans/Projects 304
    • 11.4 Projects Implemented in Ruling and Opposition Party Wards in Kollam 307
    • 11.5 Governance and People's Participation in Delhi 308
    • 12.1 Squatter Settlements and Resettlement Colonies in Delhi Urban Agglomeration (1990) 316
    • 12.2 Location of Resettlement Colonies in the National Capital Territory of Delhi (2007) 325

    List of Abbreviations

    AGMAnnual General Meeting
    AGNIAction for Good Governance and Networking in India
    AIILSGAll India Institute of Local Self-Government
    ALMAdvanced Locality Management
    AMCAdditional Municipal Commissioner
    BARCBhabha Atomic Research Centre
    BCsBackward Classes
    BCBorough Committee
    BITBombay Improvements Trust
    BJPBharatiya Janata Party
    BPLBelow Poverty Level
    CAAConstitutional Amendment Act
    CBOCommunity-Based Organization
    CCSCentre for Civil Society
    CDSCommunity Development Society
    CESCCalcutta Electricity Supply Corporation
    MAAMulti-Actor Arrangement
    MBTMajlis Bachao Tehreek party
    MCDMunicipal Corporation of Delhi
    TMCTrinamul Congress
    TNPCBTamil Nadu Pollution Control Board
    TNUDFTamil Nadu Urban Development Fund
    TUFIDCOTamil Nadu Urban Finance and Infrastructure Development Corporation
    TOITimes of India
    TNWADTamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board
    UCDUrban Community Development Department
    ULBUrban Local Body
    UNDPUnited Nations Development Program
    VAMBAYValmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana
    VTCVoluntary Technical Committee
    WCWards Committee
    WDRWorld Development Report
    YUVAYouth for Unity and Voluntary Action

    Acknowledgements

    This book is one of the products of a research project on ‘New Forms of Governance in Indian Mega-Cities: Decentralization, Financial Management and Partnerships in Urban Environmental Services’ carried out by a team of Indian and Dutch researchers, led by Prof. Amitabh Kundu of the Jawaharlal Nehru University, Prof. I.S.A. Baud of the University of Amsterdam and Dr Joop de Wit of the Institute of Social Studies in The Hague. The project was carried out between 2003 and 2006 as part of the long-term Indo–Dutch Research Programme IDPAD (Indo–Dutch Research Programme on Alternatives in Development).

    The editors would like to gratefully acknowledge the willingness of the authors to contribute to the present book and for the effective and pleasant cooperation during the process of re-writing and editing. Carrying out the research and the publishing of this book was made possible through the financial support of the IDPAD Research Programme (partly funded by NWO-WOTRO). The programme provided support for the conferences, fieldwork and the different studies, the outcomes of which are incorporated in this book. We are very grateful to the Dutch Coordinator Dr C. Govers and Dr (Mrs.) S. Dutta, the Indian IDPAD Coordinator based at the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR), who generously gave their time and energy.

    The project was developed as a network of researchers, practitioners and policymakers. We would like to acknowledge the important role the discussions within the network have played in our understanding of the issues covered here. Specifically, we would like to thank our local coordinators, R. Dhanalakshmi in Chennai, N. Nainan in Mumbai and Dr N. Sridharan in New Delhi for their contributions and the facilitating and coordinating roles. Finally, we would like to acknowledge the assistance and support of many more people and institutions in Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai than we can mention here. But we need to single out and mention specifically some persons and institutes which provided support and hosted conferences and seminars as part of the research project, such as Professor A. Pethe and his department at the University of Mumbai, Dr A. Bhide and her department and colleagues at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences and Professor Dr P. Appasamy at the Madras School of Economics. Finally, the team of the Delhi based Centre de Sciences Humaines (CSH) team under the guidance of Dr V. Dupont as well as the EADI Working Group on Urban Governance formed a source of inspiration and collaboration and an important complementary network to our urban governance research network.

    I.S.A.Baud
    J.de Wit
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    About the Editors and Contributors

    The Editors

    I.S.A. Baud is Professor of International Development Studies, heading the programme of Livelihoods, Environment and Governance at the University of Amsterdam and vice-president of European Association of Development Institutes (EADI). Her main interests focus on urban environmental management, civil society and new governance networks. Her recent publications include Solid Waste Management and Recycling: Actors, Partnerships and Policies in Hyderabad, India and Nairobi, Kenya (co-edited by Johan Post and Christine Furedy), by Kluwer (now Springer), an article on research partnerships entitled ‘The role of research and knowledge generation in collective action and urban governance: How can researchers act as catalysts?’ (with M.A. Hordijk) in Habitat International (2005) and the article ‘Learning from the South; Placing Governance in International Development Studies’.

    J. de Wit is an anthropologist teaching Public Policy and Development Management at the Institute of Social Studies, The Netherlands. He has been and is engaged in various capacity building programmes in India, Namibia and Vietnam. His recent publications include various articles on his key interests— urban poverty alleviation, decentralization, (local) governance and community dynamics. The publications include Initial Assessment of Decentralisation in India: Administrative and Political Dimensions (Gamsberg McMillan, 2003); Supporting Decentralised Urban Governance: Training Women Municipal Councillors in Mumbai, India (with B. Holzner, ISS, 2003) and The Rise and Decline of an Urban Poverty Unit in the Dutch Ministry of Development Cooperation (Ashgate, 2002).

    The Contributors

    A. Adarkar is an architect in Mumbai with his own company. He graduated in 1971 from Sir J. J. College of Architecture, Bombay University. He has long studied various aspects of urban development, environment and sustainable development in Mumbai, writing columns for the media and engaging in regional urban issues. He is founder of the Mumbai Study Group, a forum to promote multi-disciplinary dialogue on urban issues. Since 2006, he is Joint Director of the Academy of Architecture and Director of a post-graduate course in Urban Studies in the Rachana Sansad Institute.

    A. Bhide is a staff member in the Department of Urban and Rural Community Development at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Mumbai and is associated with the Committee for the Right to Housing. Her main interests include urban poverty, housing and urban development programmes. Her recent publications include an article on ‘Slum Sanitation Programme in Mumbai’ in the International Social Science Journal.

    A. Ghosh is the Head of Urban Studies in the Institute of Social Sciences, Eastern Regional Centre, Kolkata. She has worked on several research programmes on urban governance issues. Her recent publications include Democratization in Progress: Women and Local Politics in Urban India (co-authored); Urban Environment Management: Local Government and Community Action (ed); Mega-city Governance in South Asia—A Comparative Study (co-authored); Plague in Surat–Crisis in Urban Governance (co-authored); Basic Services for the Urban Poor–A Study of Baroda, Bhilwara, Sambalpur and Siliguri (co-authored).

    I. Milbert is Professor of Urban Law and Development at the Institute of Urban and Environmental Development in Geneva, Switzerland. She has a background in law and political science, and has written extensively on her research carried out in Indian cities.

    L. Kennedy was a research fellow at the CNRS (the French National Centre for Scientific Research), posted at ADES in Bordeaux, France until recently and is now based in Delhi. Her research interests include policy dynamics in India's federal system, local production systems and the impact of decentralization on urban dynamics. She has published articles in World Development and La Revue Tiers Monde and co-edited a volume for the UNESCO-MOST programme comparing spatial dynamics of industrialization in Asia (2002). Her latest publication is the chapter ‘The Political Determinants of Reform Packaging: Contrasting Responses to Economic Liberalization in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu’ in Jenkins, R. (ed.), Regional Reflections: Comparing Politics Across India's States, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2004.

    M. Mitra did her Masters in Geography from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. She was attached to the Centre for Urban Economic Studies, Kolkata for a long time. At present, she is a Researcher in the Institute of Social Sciences, Eastern Regional Centre, Kolkata. She is one of the co-authors of the book, Mega City Governance in South Asia: A Comparative Study published in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    M. Pinto was Professor of Public Administration, in Bombay University. Her research interests have ranged widely, including higher education, urban development and city governance. She has written a widely acclaimed book Metropolitan City Governance in India, and her most recent publication is entitled Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai and Ward Administration (with D.A. Pinto) by Konark.

    N. Nainan is a PhD scholar with the University of Amsterdam. Her research focuses on Mumbai, particularly on changing relationships between key actors in the last decade and its impact on urban development. She has studied the implementation of the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act. Her main interests include community organization, civil society and housing. She is also currently facilitating action research with NGO–CBO members of Wards Committees in Mumbai.

    N. Sridharan is Associate Professor at the School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi. His current research interests include globalization, urban governance, urban land markets and infrastructure. He is interested in participatory planning processes and changing patterns of land use in Indian cities. Some of his recent publications are Marginalization, Segregation and Persistence: An Analysis of the Spatial Dimensions of Infrastructure Access by the Urban Poor, Emerging Models of Urban Governance in India, and Land Markets in Agra Metropolis.

    R. Dhanalakshmi is an independent social science researcher based in Chennai with a background in social work. She has worked in several Indo–Dutch Social Science Research projects, on urban environmental management, and gender and labour market issues. Her recent publications include the article ‘Multi-actor arrangements in Urban Environmental Services: New forms of Governance in Indian Mega-cities’ (co-authored with Isa Baud) in a special issue on peri-urban India in Cities.

    S. Redkar has worked as Officer on Special Duty with the Mumbai Municipal Corporation for the last 20 years in Mumbai. She was worked in various departments, such as the School, Slum Improvement Department and Solid Waste Management Department. She specialized in Urban Community Development work. Currently she is involved in implementing the Slum Sanitation programme funded by the World Bank, where her main work is ensuring that people participate in the city of Mumbai.

    S. Palnitkar is Director of the All-India Institute of Local Government, Mumbai. Her interests include local government, the role of councillors and building capacity of local administrations.

    U. Ramanathan writes and speaks on legal issues. She has published extensively on the relationship between law and poverty, the judicial process, shelter and housing, displacement and rehabilitation, mass disasters, accidents, injuries and compensation, the law of torts, industrial risk, institutionalization and custodial justice, the law relating to labour, the death penalty, the International Criminal Court, images of women in the legal arena, gender bias in law, prostitution, child labour and the environment. In 2001, she prepared a report entitled ‘Human Rights Mapping: Issues, Responses and Conflicts’, after a study of 10 states in India. She is currently Honorary Fellow at the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies in Delhi, working on a Casebook on Economic and Social Rights which is a collaborative, five-country study. She is also putting together a Reader on the Death Penalty and is researching on the relationship between law and natural disaster in the Tsunami affected areas of Tamil Nadu in South India.

    V. Dupont is a senior research fellow in economic-demography from the (French) Institute of Research for Development (IRD, Paris), and until recently Director of the Centre de Sciences Humaines in New Delhi. She is also an associated member of the Centre for Indian and South Asian Studies (CEIAS, Paris). Her research interests include the analysis of urbanization process and population mobility, with a focus on the interrelationships between residential practices, urban policies and transformations of metropolitan territories. Apart from various contributions to collective books, her recent publications include Delhi: Urban Space and Human Destinies edited with Emma Tarlo and Denis Vidal (Delhi, Manohar-CSH, 2000) and ‘Socio-spatial differentiation and Residential Segregation in Delhi: a Question of Scale?’ in Geoforum (2004) and a special issue on peri-urban India in Cities.


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