New Approches to Rhetoric

Books

Edited by: Patricia A. Sullivan & Steven R. Goldzwig

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    To Ray for his ongoing love and support To Judi, Claire, and David, whose love and support sustain all my scholarly efforts

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Acknowledgments

    We thank the contributors for their generosity and for their patience. We are deeply appreciative of the vital scholarly dialogue that made this volume possible. We are indebted to Todd Armstrong for believing in this collection. We also wish to thank the reviewers of this project:

    Sonja Foss, University of Colorado at Denver David Henry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas Robert L. Ivie, Indiana University Janice Rushing, University of Arkansas at Fayetteville

    Preface

    The purpose of this collection is to provide fresh perspectives on the study of rhetoric for the twenty-first century. Although traditional approaches (e.g., neo-Aristotelian) to the study of rhetoric have utility for the twenty-first century, communication in a complex, mass-mediated postmodern age calls for new critical approaches. As professors, we struggle to help our students understand traditional critical approaches as well as cultural and ideological approaches that will help them “make sense” of communication in a complicated world.

    This collection invites students to join rhetorical theorists and critics in an ongoing dialogue concerning what it means to study communication in a postmodern world. As rhetoricians struggle to articulate critical approaches to account for discourse in a multicultural world, they question the assumptions guiding their research. In a special issue of the Southern Communication Journal in 1998, scholars offered perspectives on the shape that the study of rhetoric would take in the twenty-first century. Raymie McKerrow argued that “Western Rhetoric, as currently fashioned via a male dominant language, is virtually incapable of being the ‘site’ from which to appraise rhetorics within a diverse world” (p. 315). John Angus Campbell urged scholars to recognize the legacy of neoclassical rhetoric as they seek critical perspectives for the twenty-first century. He suggested we return to our historical roots and recognize an important connection between neoclassical rhetoric and contemporary rhetorics. Neoclassical rhetoric shares with postmodern and deconstructionist rhetorics a recognition of “the importance of grounding theory in local conditions and is wary of the potential tyranny of universalizing perspectives” (p. 291).

    Other scholars have addressed possibilities for bridging the “old” and “new” rhetorics in acknowledgment of conditions in a postmodern world. In responding to the fragmentation of culture, Michael Calvin McGee (1990) argued that rhetoricians “make discourses from scraps and pieces of evidence” (p. 279). Maurice Charland's (1987, 1991) work has examined ways in which audiences rather than rhetors are responsible for creating discourses. In the early 1990s, Martha Solomon (1993), in an article published in Communication Monographs, speculated on the direction of rhetorical studies for the twenty-first century and proposed “continuing this process of questioning our taken-for-granteds and expanding our views of rhetorical processes” (p. 67).

    A number of scholars have asked what it means to study rhetoric in an increasingly diverse world. Dana Cloud and Celeste Condit debated the roles of the ideal and the material in human communication. In Critical Studies in Mass Communication, Cloud (1997) and Condit (1997) expressed different philosophies concerning the limits of communication in bringing about social change. In a special issue of Communication Studies published in 1996 on “Theorizing Communication From Marginalized Perspectives,” guest editors Sonja Foss and Eileen Berlin Ray suggested they strived to “advocate theoretic pluralism and an appreciation for different theorizing and methods that expand our explanatory lenses rather than constrain us by the myopia of dogmatic theory” (p. 253). Laura Gray-Rosendale and Sibylle Gruber (2001), editors of Alternative Rhetorics: Challenges to the Rhetorical Tradition, “emphasize multiplicity and fragmentation within and between different rhetorics and different traditions” (p. 5).

    In identifying threads in contemporary approaches to analysis, and what he described as “the tangle of rhetorical culture,” Dale Cyphert (2001), in a Quarterly Journal of Speech article, claimed that the study of rhetoric is undergoing profound changes. He summarized the ferment in approaches to rhetorical criticism as follows:

    The transcultural questions implied in our current threads of theory suggest the study of rhetoric is undergoing a more profound change—a paradigm shift, perhaps—that dissociates the study of rhetorical cultures from the normative presumptions of Western rhetorical tradition. (p. 390)

    As we move into the twenty-first century, then, rhetoricians explore possibilities for bridging rhetorical studies of the past with rhetorical studies of the future. The essays in this collection offer guidance for professors who are attempting to address this paradigm shift in rhetorical studies. The essays challenge and expand the definitions, approaches, and assumptions governing rhetorical scholarship, but they do not reach consensus. The collection is divided into three parts: Part I: Rhetorics, Ethics, and Values; Part II: Rhetorics, Institutions, and Contexts; and Part III: Rhetorics, Cultures, and Ideologies. Each part begins with a brief introduction designed to frame discussion for students. Readers who are familiar with the critical approaches represented in each section may choose to bypass the introductions. Following Part III, Barry Brummett provides a response to all the essays in the collection. Professor Brummett highlights a key thread in the assumptions that have prompted these essays.

  • References

    Abramson, D., Aldrich, J., & Rohde, D. (1999). Change and continuity in the 1996 and 1998 elections. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.
    Achenbach, J.(1993, November 12). Disney in the dell. Washington Post, pp. C1, C3.
    Adair, G. (1981). Vietnam on film: From “The Green Berets” to “Apocalypse Now.”New York: Proteus.
    Adair, G. (1989). Hollywood's Vietnam: From “The Green Berets” to “Full Metal Jacket.”London: Heinemann.
    Adler, R.(1968a, June 20). Screen: “Green Berets” as viewed by John Wayne. New York Times, p. 49.
    Adler, R.(1968b, June 30). The absolute end of the “romance” of war. New York Times, pp. D1, D10.
    Allen, T. W. (1994). The invention of the white race. London: Verso.
    Almond, G. A.(1991, September). Capitalism and democracy. Political Science and Politics, 24, 467–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/420091
    Anderegg, M.(1991a). Hollywood and Vietnam: John Wayne and Jane Fonda as discourse. In M.Anderegg (Ed.), Inventing Vietnam: The war in film and television(pp. 15–32). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Anderegg, M.(1991b). Introduction. In M.Anderegg (Ed.), Inventing Vietnam: The war in film and television(pp. 1–14). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Anderson, M.(1998, March 29). Trapped inside James Baldwin. New York Times. Retrieved June 18, 2001, from http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/03/29/reviews/980329.29anderst.html.
    Appiah, A. (1986). The uncompleted argument: DuBois and the illusion of race. In H. L.Gates, Jr. (Ed.), Writing and difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Arendt, H. (1993). Between past and future. New York: Penguin.
    Aristotle. (1991). On rhetoric: A theory of civic discourse (G. A.Kennedy, Trans.). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Armada, B. J. (1998). Memorial agon: An interpretive tour of the National Civil Rights Museum. Southern Communication Journal, 63, 235–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10417949809373096
    Askew, R. (1972). Text of Gov. Askew's keynote address. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 30, 1747–1749.
    Auchincloss, E., & Lynch, N. (1989). Disturber of the peace: James Baldwin—An interview. In F.Standley & L.Pratt (Eds.), Conversations with James Baldwin(p. 80). Jackson: University of Mississippi Press. (Original interview conducted 1969)
    Aufderheide, P. (1990). Seeing through movies. New York: Pantheon.
    Aune, J. (1994). Rhetoric and Marxism. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Aune, J. A. (2001). Selling the free market: The rhetoric of economic correctness. New York: Guilford.
    Auster, A., & Quart, L. (1979). Hollywood and Vietnam: The triumph of the will. Cineaste, 9, 4–9.
    Auster, A., & Quart, L. (1988). How the war was remembered: Hollywood and Vietnam. New York: Praeger.
    Ayres, B. D., Jr.(1994, February 22). Disney drums its fingers as Virginia debates the worth of a theme park. New York Times, p. A17.
    Bailey, C. W.(1994, December). How Washington insiders ambushed Mickey Mouse. Washington Monthly, 26, 10–14. (WilsonSelectPlus. OCLC First Search: Full Text. 1/18/03)
    Baker, H. (1976). Baker's address. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 30, 2310–2312.
    Baker, P.(1994a, February 11). Panel slaps Disney with ticket tax. Washington Post, pp. D1, D5.
    Baker, P.(1994b, March 10). Allen offers new deal on Disney. Washington Post, pp. A1, A32.
    Bakhtin, M. M. (1986). Speech genres and other late essays (V. W.McGee, Trans.). Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Baldwin, J. (1984). Notes of a native son. Boston: Beacon.
    Baldwin, J. (1985). The price of the ticket. New York: St. Martin's.
    Baldwin, J.(1993a). Another country. New York: Vintage.
    Baldwin, J.(1993b). The fire next time. New York: Vintage.
    Baldwin, J.(1993c). Nobody knows my name. New York: Vintage.
    Baldwin, J. (1995). Going to meet the man. New York: Vintage.
    Balfour, L. (1999). Finding the words: Baldwin, race consciousness, and democratic theory. In D.McBride (Ed.), James Baldwin now(pp. 75–99). New York: New York University Press.
    Baraka, A.(1987, December 20). James Baldwin: His voice remembered; We carry him as us. New York Times, p. 27.
    Baranczak, S. (1994). Introduction. In W.Gombrowicz (Ed.), Trans-Atlantyk (C.French & N.Karsov, Trans.) (pp. ix–xxi). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Barbour, A. G. (1974). John Wayne: A Pyramid illustrated history of the movies. New York: Pyramid.
    Barker, J. (1999). The discipline of teams: Participation and unobtrusive control. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Barnet, R. J. (1990). The rocket's red glare: When America goes to war, the presidents and the people. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Barthel, J.(1967, December 24). John Wayne, superhawk. New York Times Magazine, 4, 22, 29–30.
    Bass, J. D., & Cherwitz, R. (1978). Imperial mission and manifest destiny. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 43, 213–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10417947809372382
    Baudrillard, J. (1983). In the shadow of silent majorities. New York: Semiotext(e).
    Bayh, E. (1996). We have an obligation. Vital Speeches of the Day, LXII, 715–716.
    Beck, P. A. (1997). Party politics in America. New York: Longman.
    Bellah, R. (1970). Beyond belief: Essays on religion in a post-traditional world. New York: Harper & Row.
    Bellah, R., Madsen, R., Sullivan, W., Swidler, A., & Tipton, S. (1985). Habits of the heart: Individualism and commitment in American life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Bennett, W. L. (1996). The governing crisis: Media, money, and marketing in American politics. New York: St. Martin's.
    Benoit, W. L. (2000). Beyond genre theory: The genesis of rhetorical action. Communication Monographs, 67, 178–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637750009376503
    Benson, T. (1974). Rhetoric and autobiography: The case of Malcolm X. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 60, 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637409383202
    Bentley, E. (1971). The political theater of John Wayne. Performance, 1, 154–159.
    Bercovitch, S. (1978). The American Jeremiad. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Berg, R. (1986). Losing Vietnam: Covering the war in an age of technology. Cultural Critique, 3, 92–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1354168
    Berry, M. (1999). Color codes: Moving beyond Clinton's race initiative means facing black-white reality and building bridges. Emerge, 10, 55.
    Berryman, C. (1999). Critical mirrors: Theories of autobiography. Mosaic: A Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature, 32, 71–84. Retrieved July 6, 2000, from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?TS=9628954.
    Bhabha, H. (1994). The location of culture. New York: Routledge.
    Bitzer, L. (1968). The rhetorical situation. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 1, 1–14.
    Bjorkland, C. (1998). Interpreting the self: Two hundred years of American autobiography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Black, E. (1970). The second persona. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 56, 109–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637009382992
    Blair, C. (1999). Contemporary U.S. memorial sites as exemplars of rhetoric's materiality. In J.Selzer & S.Crowley (Eds.), Rhetorical bodies(pp. 16–57). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Blair, C., Jeppeson, M. S., & Pucci, E., Jr. (1991). Public memorializing in postmodernity: The Vietnam Veteran's Memorial as prototype. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 77, 263–287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639109383960
    Blair, C., & Michel, N. (2000). Reproducing civil rights tactics: The rhetorical performances of the Civil Rights Memorial. Rhetoric Society Quarterly, 30, 31–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02773940009391174
    Bolick, C.(1993, April 30). Clinton's quota queen. Wall Street Journal, p. A12.
    Bowers, D. (1998). When outsiders encounter insiders in speaking: Oppressed collectives on the defensive. In J.Martin, T.Nakayama, & L.Flores (Eds.), Readings in cultural contexts(pp. 186–193). New York: Mayfield.
    Bowers, J. W., Ochs, D., & Jensen, R. L. (1993). Rhetoric of agitation and control. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.
    Bradley, P.(1994, May 12). Prominent historians join Disney foes. Richmond Times-Dispatch, pp. B1, B6.
    Bradsher, K.(1998, July 13). High-level talks collapse in General Motors strike. New York Times
    [Late edition]
    , p. A10.
    Brecher, J. (1997). Strike!Boston: South End.
    Breed, W. (1960). Social control in the newsroom. In W.Schramm (Ed.), Mass communications(pp. 178–194). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Briffault, R. (1995). Lani Guinier and the dilemmas of American democracy. Columbia Law Review, 95, 418–472. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1123234
    Brodki, B., & Schenck, C. (1988). Introduction. In B.Brodki & C.Schenck (Eds.), Life/lines: Theorizing women's autobiography. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Brooke, E. (1972). Keynote speech. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 30, 2172.
    Brooks, R. L. (Ed.). (1999). When sorry isn't enough: The controversy over apologies and reparations for human injustice. New York: New York University Press.
    Brophy, A. L. (2000). Reconstructing the dreamland: Contemplating civil rights actions and reparations for the Tulsa race riot of 1921. Preliminary draft of a report to the Tulsa Race Riot Commission. Retrieved January 22, 2001, from http://www.okcu.edu/law/P-Broph.HTM.
    Brower, V.(2002, December 2). HapMap to provide directions, signposts of worst human ills. Biotechnology Newswatch, 10.
    Buchanan, P.(1991, December 8). This week with David Brinkley [Interview]. New York: American Broadcasting Company.
    Bullis, C. A., & Tompkins, P. K. (1989). The forest ranger revisited. Communication Monographs, 56, 287–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758909390266
    Burke, K. (1962). A rhetoric of religion. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Burke, K. (1966). Language as symbolic action. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Burke, K.(1969a). A grammar of motives. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Original work published 1950)
    Burke, K.(1969b). Rhetoric of motives. Berkeley: University of California. (Original work published 1950)
    Burnham, W. D.(2000, April 17). Whole lotta shakin' going' on. The Nation, 11–13.
    Burns, J. M., & Sorensen, G. (1999). Dead center: Clinton-Gore leadership and the perils of moderation. New York: Scribner.
    Butler, D.(1995, October 5). Genetic diversity proposal fails to impress international ethics panel. Nature, 377, 373.
    Call in the troops: It's war! (1994, June). News From the War Zone, 1(3), 3.
    Calloway-Thomas, C., Cooper, P., & Blake, C. (1999). Intercultural communication: Roots and routes. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Campbell, A. E. (1986). The paradox of imperialism: The American case. In W. J.Mommsen & J.Osterhammel (Eds.), Imperialism and after: Continuities and discontinuities(pp. 34–40). London: Allen & Unwin.
    Campbell, J. A. (1998). Rhetorical theory in the twenty-first century: A neo-classical perspective. Southern Communication Journal, 63, 291–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10417949809373103
    Campbell, K. K., & Jamieson, K. H. (Eds.). (1978a). Form and genre: Shaping rhetorical action. Falls Church, VA: Speech Communication Association.
    Campbell, K. K., & Jamieson, K. H.(1978b). Form and genre in rhetorical criticism: An introduction. In K. K.Campbell & K. H.Jamieson (Eds.), Form and genre: Shaping rhetorical action(pp. 9–32). Falls Church, VA: Speech Communication Association.
    Campbell, K. K., & Jamieson, K. H. (1990). Deeds done in words: The genres of governance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Campbell, K. K., & Jamieson, K. H. (1995). Form and genre in rhetorical criticism: An introduction. In C.Burgchardt (Ed.), Readings in rhetorical criticism(pp. 394–411). State College, PA: Strata.
    Cañas, K. (2002). Barbara Jordan, Shirley Chisholm, and Lani Guinier. Crafting identification through the rhetorical interbraiding of value. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Utah, Provo.
    Carpenter, R. H. (1990). America's tragic metaphor: Our twentieth-century combatants as frontiersmen. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 76, 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639009383897
    Carpozi, G. (1979). The John Wayne story. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House.
    Carter, R. (1993). Thirty five years later. New perspectives on Brown. In H.Hill & J.Jones (Eds.), Race in America: The struggle for equality(pp. 83–96). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Cassidy, J.(2000, February 7). The price prophet. New Yorker, 44–51.
    Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (2000). Genes, peoples, and languages (M.Seielstad, Trans.). New York: North Point Press.
    Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Bodmer, W., & Dausset, J. (1997). Support for Genetic Diversity Project. Nature, 390, 221.
    Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Wilson, A. C., Cantor, C. R., Cook-Deegan, R. M., & King, M. C.(1991, October). Call for a worldwide survey of human genetic diversity: A vanishing opportunity for the Human Genome Project. Genomics, 11, 490–491. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0888-7543%2891%2990169-F
    Central Australian Aboriginal Congress. (1994, April). The vampire project: An aboriginal perspective on genome diversity research. Search, 25(3), 88–90.
    Charland, M. (1987). Constitutive rhetoric: The case of the Peuple Quebecois. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 73, 133–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335638709383799
    Charland, M. (1991). Finding a horizon and telos: The challenge to critical rhetoric. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 77, 71–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639109383944
    Chatterjee, S., Conway, P., Dalziel, P., Eichbaum, C., Harris, M., Philpott, B., & Shaw, R. (1999). The new politics: A third way for New Zealand. Palmerston North, NZ: Dunmore.
    Chelala, C.(1991, May 24). Clinton apologizes to the survivors of Tuskegee. Lancet, 15, 29.
    Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (1998). Foundations of intercultural communication. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Cheney, G. (1995). Democracy in the workplace: Theory and practice from the perspective of communication. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 23, 167–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00909889509365424
    Cheney, G. (1997). The many meanings of “solidarity”: The negotiation of values in the Mondragón Worker Cooperative Complex under pressure. In B. D.Sypher (Ed.), Case studies in organizational communication 2(pp. 68–83). New York: Guilford.
    Cheney, G. (1999). Values at work: Employee participation meets market pressure at Mondragón. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Cheney, G., & Christensen, L. T. (2001). Identity at issue: Linkages between internal and external organizational communication. In F. M.Jablin & L. L.Putnam (Eds.), The new handbook of organizational communication(pp. 231–269). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Cheney, G., & Frenette, G. (1993). Persuasion and organization: Values, logics, and accounts in contemporary corporate public discourse. In C.Conrad (Ed.), The ethical nexus(pp. 49–73). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Cheney, G., Straub, J., Speirs, L., Stohl, C., DeGooyer, D., Whalen, S., Garvin-Doxs, K., & Carlone, D. (1998). Democracy, participation, and communication at work: A multi-disciplinary review. In M. E.Roloff (Ed.), Communication Yearbook, 21. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Christensen, L. T. (1997). Marketing as auto-communication. Consumption, Markets and Culture, 1(2), 1–31.
    Christensen, L. T., & Cheney, G. (2000). Self-absorption and self-seduction in the corporate identity game. In M.Schultz, M. J.Hatch, & M. H.Larsen (Eds.), The expressive organization(pp. 246–270). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Clark, C., & O'Donnell, J. (Eds.). (1999). Becoming and unbecoming white. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
    Clark, D. L. (1957). Rhetoric in Greco-Roman education. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Clifford, J. (1992). Traveling cultures. In L.Grossberg, C.Nelson, & P.Treichler (Eds.), Cultural studies(pp. 96–112). New York: Routledge.
    Clinton, W. J.(1997).Remarks by the president in apology for study done in Tuskegee. White house: Office of the Press Secretary. May 16, 1997 Retrieved April 20, 2001, from http://www.pub.whitehouse.gov/uri-res/l2R?urn:pdi://oma.eop.gov.us/1997/5/16/11.text.1.
    Cloud, D. (1994). The materiality of discourse as oxymoron: A challenge to critical rhetoric. Western Journal of Communication, 58, 141–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570319409374493
    Cloud, D.(1996, November). Fighting for words: The limits of symbolic power in the Staley lockout, 1993–1996. Paper presented at the annual conference of the National Communication Association, San Diego.
    Cloud, D. (1997). Concordance, complexity, and conservatism: Rejoinder to Condit. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 14, 193–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039709367007
    Cloud, D. (2001). Laboring under the sign of the new. Management Communication Quarterly, 15, 268–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0893318901152006
    Cohen, B.(1996, May 2). Population groups can hold critical clues. Nature, 381, 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/381012a0
    Cohn, D., & Fears, D.(2001, March 13). Multiracial growth seen in census. Washington Post, p. A01.
    Collier & Thomas (1988). Cultural identity. In Y. Y.Kim & W. B.Gudykunst (Eds.), Theories in intercultural communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Concurrent resolution. (1997, June 12). Congressional Record. Retrieved February 25, 2000, from http://rs9.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c105:H.+Con.+Res.+96.
    Condit, C. (1997). Clouding the issues: The ideal and the material in human communication. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 14, 197–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039709367008
    Condit, C., & Lucaites, J. (1993). Crafting equality: America's Anglo-African word. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Connor, S.(2001, September 10). How accusations of racism ended the plan to map the genetic diversity of mankind. The Independent, 3.
    Conrad, C. (2002). Notes on the Enron case. Unpublished manuscript, Texas A&M University, College Station.
    Conrad, C., & Poole, M. S. (Eds.). (1997). Communication in the age of the disposable worker [Special issue]. Communication Research, 24.
    Conrad, J. (1988). Heart of darkness (R.Kimbrough, Ed.). New York: Norton.
    Cook, P. (1968). Film reviews: The Green Berets. Films in Review, 29, 453–454.
    Cooper, M.(1996, April 8). Harley-riding, picket-walking socialism haunts Decatur. Nation, 21.
    Cooren, F.(1998, May 20). Personal communication with the author.
    Cooren, F. (2000). The organizing property of communication. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
    Corn, D. (1993). Sinking Guinier. The Nation, 256, 855–856.
    Corporate greed and wimpy labor leaders team up to defeat Staley workers. (1996, January). News From the War Zone, 3(1), 1.
    Coulmas, F. (1992). Language and economy. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Cox, H.(1999, March). The market as God: Living in the new dispensation. Atlantic Monthly, 18–23.
    Craypo, C., & Nissen, B. (1993). Grand designs: The impact of corporate strategies on workers, unions, and communities. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.
    Crenshaw, C. (1997). Resisting whiteness' rhetorical silence. Western Journal of Communication, 61, 253–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570319709374577
    Crenshaw, C. (1998). Colorblind rhetoric. Southern Communication Journal, 63, 244–256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10417949809373097
    Crigger, B. J.(1995, January/February). The vampire project. Hastings Center Report, 25, 2.
    Crisis in Decatur. (1994). New York: Corporate Campaign.
    Cronen, V. E., Chen, V., & Pearce, W. B. (1988). Coordinated management of meaning. In Y. Y.Kim & W. B.Gudykunst (Eds.), Theories in intercultural communication(pp. 66–98). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Crouse, T. (1973). The boys on the bus. New York: Ballantine.
    Cui, G., van den Berg, S., & Jiang, Y. (1998). Cross-cultural adaptation and ethnic communication: Two structural equation models. Howard Journal of Communication, 9(1), 69–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/106461798247122
    Cuomo, M. (1984). Keynote address. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 42, 1781–1785.
    Cyphert, D. (2001). Ideology, knowledge, and text: Pulling at the knot in Ariadne's thread. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 87, 378–395. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335630109384347
    Dahler-Larsen, P. (1998). What 18 case studies of organizational culture tell us about counter-intentional effects of attempts to establish shared values in organizations. Current Topics in Management, 3, 151–173.
    Daly, H., & Cobb, J. B., Jr. (1994). For the common good
    (2nd ed.)
    . Boston: Beacon.
    Darsey, J. (1999). Baldwin's cosmopolitan loneliness. In D.McBride (Ed.), James Baldwin now(pp. 187–207). New York: New York University Press.
    Davis, J. W. (1983). National conventions in an age of party reform. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    de Certeau, M. (1984). The practice of everyday life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    de Rooy, P. (1990). Of monkeys, blacks, and proles: Ernst Haeckel's theory of recapitulation. In J.Breman, P.de Rooy, A.Stoler, & W. F.Wertheim (Eds.), Imperial monkey business: Racial superiority in social Darwinistic theory and colonial practice. Amsterdam: Vu University Press.
    Delgado, R., & Stefancic, J. (Eds.). (1997). Critical white studies: Looking behind the mirror. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Derber, C., & Schwartz, W. (1983). Toward a theory of worker participation. Sociological Inquiry, 53, 61–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1983.tb01166.x
    Derrida, J. (1976). Of grammatology (G. C.Spivak, Trans.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Desilet, G. (1999). Physics and language—Science and rhetoric: Reviewing parallel evolution of theory on motion and meaning in the aftermath of the Sokal hoax. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 85, 339–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639909384268
    Devine, J. M. (1995). Vietnam at 24 frames a second: A critical and thematic analysis of over 400 films about the Vietnam War. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
    Devreaux Butler, S. (1972). The apologia, 1971 genre. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 37, 287.
    Dewey, J. (1927). The public and its problems. Chicago: Swallow Press.
    Dickson, D.(1996, May 2). Whose genes are they anyway? Nature, 381, 11–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/381011a0
    Dievler, J. (1999). Sexual exiles: James Baldwin and Another Country. In D.McBride (Ed.), James Baldwin now(pp. 161–183). New York: New York University Press.
    Dionisopoulos, G. (1990). Images of the warrior returned: Vietnam veterans in popular American film. In R.Morris & P.Ehrenhaus (Eds.), Cultural legacy of Vietnam: Uses of the past in the present. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Dionisopoulos, G., & Goldzwig, S. (1992). The meaning of Vietnam: Political rhetoric as revisionist cultural history. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 78, 61–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639209383981
    Disney: More dueling statistics [Editorial]. (1994, January 23). Washington Post, p. C6.
    Disney: Now the real bargaining [Editorial]. (1994, March 8). Washington Post, p. A18.
    Dow, B. J. (1996). Prime-time feminism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Dow, B. J., & Tonn, M. B. (1993). “Feminine style” and political judgment in the rhetoric of Ann Richards. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 79, 286–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639309384036
    Dreier, P. (1998). There's no justice without economic justice: Shortcomings of Clinton's race initiative report. Social Policy, 41–48.
    D'Souza, D. (1995). The end of racism: Principles for a multiracial society. New York: Free Press.
    DuBois, W. E. B. (1990). The souls of black folk. New York: Vintage/Library of America. (Original work published 1903)
    Duff, D. (Ed.). (2000). Modern genre theory. Essex: Longman/Pearson.
    Dupee, F. W. (1986). James Baldwin and “the man.” In H.Bloom (Ed.), James Baldwin(pp. 11–15). New York: Chelsea House.
    Durkheim, E. (1933). The division of labor in society (G.Simpson, Trans.). New York: Free Press.
    Dutcher, P. N. (1976). The meaning of whiteness. In G. R.Bucher (Ed.), Straight/white/male(pp. 85–98). Philadelphia: Fortress.
    Dyer, R. (1988). White. Screen, 29, 44–65.
    Eakin, P. J. (1991). American autobiography: Retrospect and prospect. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Edelman, R.(1979, November). Viet vets talk about Nam films. Films in Review, 30, 539–542.
    Eisenberg, A.(1994/1995). The Millian thoughts of Lani Guinier. New York University Review of Law & Social Change, 21, 617–632.
    Eisenberg, E. (1984). Ambiguity as strategy in organizational communication. Communication Monographs, 51, 227–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758409390197
    Eisner, M., & Schwartz, T. (1998). Work in progress. New York: Random House.
    Entman, R. (1990). Modern racism and the image of blacks in local television news. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 7, 332–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039009360183
    Evanoff, T.(1998, July 29). Terms of settlement between General Motors, union leave future uncertain. Detroit Free Press, p. 6A.
    Evans, D. (1968). Keynote address. Vital Speeches of the Day, 34, 679–681.
    Ezekiel, R. S. (1995). The racist mind: Portraits of neo-Nazis and klansmen. New York: Viking.
    Fairhurst, G. T., Monroe Jordan, J., & Neuwirth, K. (1997). Why are we here? Managing the meaning of an organizational mission statement. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 25, 243–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00909889709365480
    Fanon, F. (1963). The wretched of the earth. New York: Grove Press.
    Far from Viet Nam and green berets. (1968, June 21). Time, p. 84.
    Farrell, T. B. (1978). Political conventions as legitimation ritual. Communication Monographs, 45, 293–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637757809375975
    Feagin, J. R., & Vera, H. (1995). White racism. New York: Routledge.
    Film maker opposes Civil War theme park. (1994, May 20). New York Times, p. A16.
    Flagg, B. (1993). I was blind, but now I see: White race consciousness and the requirements of discriminatory intent. Michigan Law Review, 91. Retrieved April 19, 2003, from Lexis Nexis.
    Flagg, B. J. (1998). Was blind, but now I see: White race consciousness in the law. New York: New York University Press.
    Fogerty, B.(2000, September 16). A clear view to a nation's promise: Martin Luther King Memorial design draws its strength from Tidal Basin site; Cityscape. Washington Post, p. C01.
    Fordney, C.(1994, November/December). Embattled ground. National Parks, 68, 26–31. (WilsonSelectPlus. OCLC FirstSearch: Full Text. 1/18/03)
    Foss, S.(1986, Spring). Ambiguity as persuasion: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Communication Quarterly, 34(3), 326–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463378609369643
    Foss, S. K., & Griffin, C. (1992). A feminist perspective on rhetorical theory: Toward a clarification of boundaries. Western Journal of Communication, 56, 330–349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570319209374422
    Foss, S. K., & Ray, E. B. (1996). Introduction: Theorizing communication from marginalized perspectives. Communication Studies, 47, 253–257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510979609368481
    Foucault, M. (1972). The archaeology of knowledge. New York: Pantheon.
    Foucault, M. (1978). The history of sexuality, Vol. 1 (T.Hurley, Trans.). New York: Vintage.
    Foucault, M. (1984). The Foucault reader (P.Rabinow, Ed.). New York: Pantheon.
    Frankenberg, R. (1993). White women. In R.Frankenburg (Ed.), Race matters: The social construction of whiteness. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Frankenberg, R. (Ed.). (1997). Displacing whiteness. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Freedman, A., & Medway, P. (1994). Locating genre studies: Antecedents and prospects. In A.Freedman & P.Medway (Eds.), Genre and the new rhetoric(pp. 1–20). New York: Routledge.
    Freedman, S. G.(1985, March 31). The war and the arts. New York Times, pp. 50–51, 54–57.
    Frey, L. R., Pearce, W., Pollock, M. A., Artz, L., & Murphy, B. O. (1996). Looking for justice in all the wrong places: On a communication approach to social justice. Communication Studies, 47, 110–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510979609368467
    Friedlaender, J. (1993). Update on the Human Genome Diversity Project. Evolutionary Anthropology, 2, 40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/evan.1360020202
    Friedman, M. (1962). Capitalism and freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Frye, M. (1983). On being white: Thinking toward a feminist understanding of race and race supremacy. In M.Frye (Ed.), The politics of reality: Essays in feminist theory(pp. 110–127). Trumansberg, NY: Crossing Feminist Series.
    Frye, N. (1957). Anatomy of criticism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Fulbright, J. W. (1970). The Pentagon propaganda machine. New York: Liveright.
    Gabriel, Y., & Lang, T. (1995). The unmanageable consumer. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446213049
    Gallagher, V. J.(1995, Winter). Remembering together: Rhetorical integration and the case of the Martin Luther King, Jr. memorial. Southern Communication Journal, 60(2), 109–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10417949509372968
    Gallagher, V. J. (1999). Memory and reconciliation in the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 2, 303–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/rap.2010.0067
    Gallois, C., Franklyn-Stokes, A., Giles, H., & Coupland, N. (1988). Communication accommodation in intercultural encounters. In Y. Y.Kim & W. B.Gudykunst (Eds.), Theories in intercultural communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Gandhi, L. (1998). Postcolonial theory: A critical introduction. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Gaonkar, D. P. (1997). The idea of rhetoric in the rhetoric of science. In A. G.Gross & W. M.Keith (Eds.), Rhetorical hermeneutics: Invention and interpretation in the age of science. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Gedye, R.(1999, September). Resistance to teamwork and customer service in a New Zealand public sector organization. Unpublished manuscript, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
    Gellman, B., & Lynch, C.(2000, February 26). Verdict renews city's divisions; minorities asking: What price safety? Washington Post, p. A1. Available: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?TS=9928742,2-3.
    Gibson-Graham, J.-K. (1996). The end of capitalism (as we knew it): A feminist critique of political economy. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    Giddens, A. (1979). Central problems in social theory. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Giddens, A. (1994). Beyond left and right: The future of radical politics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Giddens, A. (1998). The third way: The renewal of social democracy. Cambridge, UK/Malden, MA: Polity Press/Blackwell.
    Giles, H., Mulac, A., Bradac, J., & Johnson, P. (1987). Speech accommodation theory. In M.McLaughlin (Ed.), Communication yearbook (Vol. 10, pp. 13–48). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Gilliatt, P.(1968, July 6). The current cinema: Nanny run amok. New Yorker, pp. 44, 46–47.
    Giroux, H. A. (1997). Racial politics and the pedagogy of whiteness. In M.Hill (Ed.), Whiteness: A critical reader(pp. 294–315). New York: New York University Press.
    Gitlin, T. (1979). Prime time ideology: The hegemonic process in television entertainment. Social Problems, 26, 251–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1979.26.3.03a00020
    Glantz, L. H., Annas, G. J., Grodin, M. A., & Mariner, W. K. (1998). Research in developing countries: Taking “benefit” seriously. Hastings Center Report, 28, 39.
    Glendon, M. (1991). Rights talk: The impoverishment of political discourse. New York: Free Press.
    Glory. (1968, June 29). New Yorker, 24–27.
    Gold, R.(1967, November 1). Berets: Hawk-dove debate, Wayne hopes to avoid “politics.”Variety, 3, 22.
    Golden, J., & Rieke, R. (1971). The rhetoric of black Americans. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
    Goldsborough, J. O.(2003, January 16). A difference in culture, not politics. San Diego Union-Tribune, p. B13.
    Goldzwig, S. (1989). A social movement perspective on demagoguery: Achieving symbolic realignment. Communication Studies, 40, 202–228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510978909368272
    Goldzwig, S. R. (1998). Multiculturalism, rhetoric and the twenty-first century. Southern Communication Journal, 63, 273–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10417949809373102
    Goll, I. (1991). Environment, corporate ideology, and employee involvement programs. Industrial Relations, 30, 138–149.
    Goodman, E.(2000, June 29). A stunning achievement, filled with warnings. Boston Globe, p. A27.
    Gramm, P. (1992). Keynote address. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 50, 2548–2550.
    Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the prison notebooks (Q.Hoare & G. N.Smith, Trans.). Newark, NJ: New International. (Original work published 1936)
    Graves, D. (1992). Representing the race: Detroit's monument to Joe Louis. In H. F.Senie & S.Webster (Eds.), Critical issues in public art: Content, context, and controversy(pp. 215–227). New York: HarperCollins.
    Gray, H. (1989). Television, black Americans, and the American dream. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 6, 376–386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295038909366763
    Gray, J. (1998). False dawn: Delusions of global capitalism. New York: Free Press.
    Gray-Rosendale, L., & Gruber, S. (Eds.). (2001). Alternative rhetorics. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Green, H. (1990). On strike at Hormel. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Greene, R. W. (1998). Another materialism. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 15, 21–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039809367031
    Greenstone, J. D. (1993). The Lincoln persuasion: Remaking American liberalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Greider, W.(1997a). One world, ready or not: The manic logic of global capitalism. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Greider, W.(1997b). Planet of pirates: The manic logic of global capitalism. Utne Reader, 70ff.
    Gresson, A. (1995). The recovery of race in America. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Griffin, G. J. (1990). The rhetoric of form in conversion narratives. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 76, 152–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639009383911
    Guinier, L.(1993, November/December). A challenge to journalists on racial dialogue. Extra, 7–9.
    Guinier, L. (1994). The tyranny of the majority: Fundamental fairness in representative democracy. New York: Free Press.
    Guinier, L. (1998). Lift every voice: Turning a civil rights setback into a new vision of social justice. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Guinier, L., & Torres, G. (2003). The miner's canary. Yes! A journal of positive futures, 24, 28–31.
    Gupta, A., & Ferguson, J.(1997a). Beyond “culture”: Space, identity, and the politics of difference. In A.Gupta & J.Ferguson (Eds.), Culture, power, place: Explorations in critical anthropology(pp. 33–51). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Gupta, A., & Ferguson, J.(1997b). Culture, power, place: Ethnography at the end of an era. In A.Gupta & J.Ferguson (Eds.), Culture, power, place: Explorations in critical anthropology(pp. 1–29). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Gustainis, J. (1989). John F. Kennedy and the Green Berets: The rhetorical use of the hero myth. Communication Studies, 40, 41–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510978909368254
    Gutierrez, L. (1995). The new assault on immigrants. Social Policy, 25, 56–63.
    Gutin, J. C. (1994). End of the rainbow. Discover, 15, 70–75.
    Gutman, A., & Thompson, D. (1996). Democracy and disagreement. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Habermas, J. (1989). The public sphere: An encyclopedia article. In S. E.Bronner & D. M.Kellner (Eds.), Critical theory and society: A reader. New York: Routledge.
    Hacker, A. (1995). Two nations: Black and white, separate, hostile, unequal. New York: Ballantine.
    Hage, D., & Klauda, P. (1989). No retreat, no surrender: Labor's war at Hormel. New York: William Morrow.
    Halal, W. E. (1996). The new management: Democracy and enterprise are transforming organizations. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
    Hall, S. (1981). The whites of their eyes. In G.Bridges & R.Brunt (Eds.), Silver linings: Some strategies for the eighties(pp. 28–52). London: Lawrence & Wishart.
    Hall, T.(1997, June 17). Letter printed in race relations. Congressional Record. Available: http://rs9.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?r105:1:./temp/~r105zMc7qH:e4190.
    Hamilton, C. (2001). The Human Genome Diversity Project and the new biological imperialism. Santa Clara Law Review, 41, 619–643.
    Hariman, R. (1995). Political style: The artistry of power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Harris, C. I. (1993). Whiteness as property. Harvard Law Review, 106, 1707–1791. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1341787
    Harris, J. F.(1993, November 12). In Disney visit, Allen finds mutual attraction. Washington Post, p. A18.
    Harris, K., & Sanchez, J.(1994, September 29). Disney gives up plans for park at historic sight. Los Angeles Times, pp. A1, A30.
    Harry, D.(1995, March 14). The Human Genome Diversity Project: Implications for indigenous peoples [On-line]. Available: http://www.hartfordhwp.com/archives/41/024.html.
    Hart, R. P. (1987). The sound of leadership. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Hart, R. P. (1999). Seducing America: How television charms the modern voter. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Hart, R. P. (2000). Campaign talk: Why elections are good for us. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Harter, L. M., Stephens, R. J., & Japp, P. M. (2000). President Clinton's apology for the Tuskegee syphilis experiment: A narrative of remembrance, redefinition, and reconciliation. Howard Journal of Communications, 11, 19–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/106461700246698
    Harvey, D. (2000). Cosmopolitanism and the banality of geographical evils. Public Culture, 12, 529–564. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363-12-2-529
    Hasian, M. (1996). The rhetoric of eugenics in Anglo-American thought. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
    Hasian, M., & Flores, L. A. (1996). Children of the stones: The Intifada and the mythic creation of the Palestinian state. Southern Communication Journal, 62, 89–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10417949709373044
    Hasian, M., & Plec, E. (2002). The cultural, legal, and scientific problems of the Human Genome Diversity Project. Howard Journal of Communications, 13, 301–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10646170216118
    Hatfield, M. (1964). A program of faith. Vital Speeches of the Day, 30, 652–654.
    Hauser, G. (1999). Vernacular voices: The rhetoric of publics and public spheres. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
    Hawken, P. (1993). The ecology of commerce: A declaration of sustainability. New York: HarperCollins.
    Hawking, C. J.(1994, April). The battle of Decatur escalates. News From the War Zone, 1(2), 1, 4.
    Hecht, M. L., Jackson, R. L., & Ribeau, S. A. (2003). African American communication: Exploring identity and culture
    (2nd ed.)
    . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Hegde, R. S. (2001). Global makeovers and maneuvers: Barbie's presence in India. Feminist Media Studies, 1, 129–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680770120042918
    Heller, S.(1994, February 16). Disney recruits academic advisers to bring accuracy to new project. Chronicle of Higher Education, p. A10.
    Hellmann, J. (1986). American myth and the legacy of Vietnam. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Henry, D. (1988). The rhetorical dynamics of Mario Cuomo's 1984 keynote address: Situation, speaker, metaphor. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 53, 105–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10417948809372717
    Herr, M. (1977). Dispatches. New York: Knopf.
    Hidalgo-Serna, E. (1983). Ingenium and rhetoric in the work of Vives (L.Ballew & H.Wilson, Trans.). Philosophy and Rhetoric, 16, 228–241.
    Hill, M. (Ed.). (1997). Whiteness: A critical reader. New York: New York University Press.
    Hillstrom, K., & Hillstrom, L. C. (1998). The Vietnam experience: A concise encyclopedia of American literature, songs, and films. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Hilzenrath, D. S.(1993a, November 12). Disney's land of make-believe. Washington Post, pp. A1, A19.
    Hilzenrath, D. S.(1993b, November 28). Disney bargains for a big piece of Prince William's Tomorrowland. Washington Post, pp. B1, B3.
    Hirsch, E. D., Jr. (1987). Cultural literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Hoffman, E.(2000, July/August). Wanderers by choice. Utne Reader, 46–47.
    Hoffman, S. (1978). Primacy or world order: American foreign policy since the Cold War. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Hollihan, T. A. (1994). Evidencing moral claims: The activist rhetorical critic's first task. Western Journal of Communication, 58, 229–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570319409374497
    hooks, b. (1995). Killing rage: Ending racism. New York: Holt.
    Hsu, S. S.(1993a, November 12). Disney project runs into concern about traffic, pollution. Washington Post, p. A18.
    Hsu, S. S.(1993b, November 23). Preservation group objects to Disney plan. Washington Post, pp. E1, E5.
    Hsu, S. S.(1993c, December 21). Supporters of Disney park put together lobbying effort. Washington Post, p. C7.
    Hsu, S. S.(1994a, January 5). Disney to release specifics of development plans. Washington Post, pp. B1, B5.
    Hsu, S. S.(1994b, January 6). Disney's projections balloon. Washington Post, pp. A1, A10.
    Hsu, S. S.(1994c, January 20). Disney's calls leave some ears burning. Washington Post, pp. B1, B6.
    Hsu, S. S.(1994d, February 8). Could Disney become a drag? Washington Post, pp. B1, B4.
    Hsu, S. S.(1994e, March 7). Disney picks all-star team to lobby for theme park. Washington Post, p. D3.
    Hsu, S. S.(1994f, March 10). The ways of Disney. Washington Post, pp. VA1, VA3.
    Hsu, S. S.(1994g, March 23). Disney development called threat to Va. farmland. Washington Post, p. D3.
    Hsu, S. S.(1994h, April 14). Disney foes launch an “air” attack. Washington Post, pp. B1, B2.
    Hsu, S. S.(1994i, May 11). Historians, writers organize against Disney theme park. Washington Post, p. B7.
    Hughes, R. (1993). Culture of complaint: The fraying of America. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Huxley, T. (1893). Evolution and ethics. Popular Science, 44, 18–35, 178–191.
    Idea woman. (1993, June 14). New Yorker, 69, 4–5.
    Ignatiev, N. (1995). How the Irish became white. New York: Routledge.
    Ignatiev, N., & Garvey, J. (Eds.). (1996). Race traitor. New York: Routledge.
    Ingenium. (1907). In [Harpers'] A new Latin dictionary(pp. 905–906). New York: American Book.
    Ingenium. (1968). In Oxford Latin dictionary(p. 950). London: Oxford University Press.
    Inouye, D. K. (1968). Commitment. Vital Speeches of the Day, 34, 709–711.
    Iyer, P.(2000, July/August). Stranger in a strange land. Utne Reader, 43.
    Jackson, R. L.(1999a). The negotiation of cultural identity. Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Jackson, R. L.(1999b). White space, white privilege: Mapping discursive inquiry into the self. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 55(1), 1–17.
    Jackson, R. L.(2000a). Think about it! The question book for those curious about race and self-discovery. Lincoln, NE: Writers Club Press.
    Jackson, R. L.(2000b, February). So real illusions of black intellectualism: Exploring race, roles, and gender in the academy. Communication Theory, 10(1), 48–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2000.tb00178.x
    Jackson, R. L., Morrison, C. D., & Dangerfield, C. (2002). Exploring cultural contracts in the classroom and curriculum: Implications of identity negotiation and effects in communication curricula. In J.Trent (Ed.), Included in communication: Learning climates that cultivate racial and ethnic diversity(pp. 123–136). Washington, DC: National Communication Association/American Association of Higher Education.
    Jackson, R. L., & Simpson, K. (2003). White positionalities and cultural contracts: Critiquing entitlement, theorizing and exploring the negotiation of white identities. International and Intercultural Communication Annual, 26, 319–326.
    Jacobson, M. F. (1998). Whiteness of a different color: European immigrants and the alchemy of race. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    James, D. E. (1989). Allegories of cinema: American film in the sixties. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Jamieson, K. H. (1992). Dirty politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Jamieson, K. H., & Campbell, K. K. (1982). Rhetorical hybrids: Fusions of generic elements. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 68, 146–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335638209383600
    Jarosinski, E.(1994, February). Labor war zone in Illinois. Progressive, 30–33.
    Jayaraman, K. S.(1996, May 2). Gene-hunters home in on India. Nature, 381, 13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/381013a0
    John Wayne as the last action hero. (1969, August 8). Time, 53–56.
    Johnson, P. C. (1999). Reflections on critical white(ness) studies. In T. K.Nakayama & J. N.Martin (Eds.), Whiteness: The communication of identity(pp. 1–9). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Jones, G. (1986). Social hygiene in twentieth-century Britain. London: Croom Helm.
    Jones, J. H. (1993). Bad blood: The Tuskegee syphilis experiment
    (Expanded ed.)
    . New York: Free Press.
    Jordan, B. (1976). Keynote address. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 34, 1931–1932.
    Jordan, J. (2001). The invisible people: An unsolicited report on black rage. The Progressive, 65, 24–25.
    Judd, W. H. (1960). Best way to achieve good objectives and keep them. Vital Speeches of the Day, 36, 646–651.
    Juengst, E. J. (1996). Self-critical federal science? The ethics experiment within the U.S. Human Genome Project. Social Philosophy and Policy, 13, 63–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0265052500003460
    Kagan, R.(2002, June/July). Power and weakness. Policy Review, 113, 3–28.
    Kahn, P.(1994, November 4). Genetic Diversity Project tries again. Science, 266, 720. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.7973621
    Kammen, M. (1991). Mystic chords of memory: The transformation of tradition in American culture. New York: Knopf.
    Kammen, M. (1993). Mystic chords of memory: The transformation of tradition in American culture. New York: Vintage.
    Kean, T. H. (1988). Keynote address. Vital Speeches of the Day, 58, 7–10.
    Kevles, D. J. (1985). In the name of eugenics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Kincheloe, J. L., Steinberg, S. R., Rodriguez, N. M., & Chennault, R. E. (Eds.). (1991). White reign: Deploying whiteness in America. New York: St. Martin's.
    Klein, J.(1993, June 14). Principles or politics? Newsweek, 29.
    Klumpp, J. F., & Hollihan, T. A. (1989). Rhetorical criticism as moral action. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 75, 84–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335638909383863
    Knapp, M. L., & McCroskey, J. C. (1968). Communication research and the American labor union. Journal of Communication, 18, 160–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1968.tb00067.x
    Korten, D. C. (1999). The post-corporate world: Life after capitalism. San Francisco, CA/West Hartford, CT: Berrett-Koehler/Kumarian.
    Kotz, N., & Abramson, A. (1997). The battle to stop Disney's America. Cosmos. Retrieved January 18, 2003, from http://www.cosmos-club.org/journals/1997/disney.html.
    Kruse, N. W. (1981). The scope of apologetic discourse: Establishing generic parameters. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 46, 278–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10417948109372495
    Kuttner, R. (1997). Everything for sale: The virtues and limits of markets. New York: Knopf.
    Labor takes its lumps. (1996, March). Progressive, 8.
    Lane, D.(1994, August). A June 25th [anniversary rally] photo essay. News From the War Zone, 1(4), 3.
    Lane, R. E. (1991). The market experience. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625664
    Lane, R. E. (2000). The loss of happiness in market democracies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Larkin, T. J., & Larkin, S. (1994). Communicating change: How to win employee support for new directions. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Latour, B. (1993). We have never been modern. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Laufer, R., & Paradeise, C. (1990). Marketing democracy: Public opinion and media formation in democratic societies. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.
    Lazarre, J. (1996). Beyond the whiteness of whiteness. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Leff, L. (1993). From legal scholar to quota queen: What happens when politics pulls the press into the groves of academe? Columbia Journalism Review, 32, 36–41.
    Lehrman, S.(1996, May 2). Diversity project: Cavalli-Sforza answers his critics. Nature, 381, 14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/381014a0
    Leo, J.(1993, May 17). A controversial choice at Justice. U.S. News and World Report, 19.
    Leo, J.(1997, June 30). So who's sorry now? U.S. News and World Report, 17.
    Leonard, D. (1989). New tactics responsible for union victory. Labor Today, 28, 6–7.
    Lewyn, M. (1994). How radical is Lani Guinier? Boston University Law Review, 74, 927–951.
    Linenthal, E. T. (1995). Preserving memory: The struggle to create America's Holocaust Museum. New York: Viking/Penguin.
    Lipsitz, G. (1998). The possessive investment in whiteness: How white people profit from identity politics. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Lock, M. (1999). Genetic diversity and the politics of difference. Chicago-Kent Law Review, 75, 85.
    Lopez, I. F. H. (1996). White by law: The legal construction of race. New York: New York University Press.
    Lugar, R. (1972). Keynote address. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 30, 2172.
    Lyotard, J. (1991). The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Madden, R. L.(1969, June 27). John Wayne and the Army under fire. New York Times, p. 23.
    Mann, M. (1993). Sources of social power(Vol. 2). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511570902
    Mansfield, S.(1994, April 18). Eeeeek! A mouse! Step on it! Washington Post, pp. C1, C5.
    Marks, J. (1995). Human biodiversity: Genes, race, and history. New York: de Gruyter.
    Matthews, F. H. (1964). White community and “yellow peril.”Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 50, 612–633. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1916656
    Mathews, J.(1993, December 29). Disney in Virginia? Too early to decide [Opinion piece]. Washington Post, p. A19.
    Mayer, J. (1930). Eugenics in Roman Catholic literature. In Collected papers on eugenical sterilization in California. Pasadena, CA: Human Betterment Foundation.
    McBride, D. (1999). Introduction: “How much time do you want for your progress?” New approaches to James Baldwin. In D.McBride (Ed.), James Baldwin now(pp. 1–9). New York: New York University Press.
    McCall, J., & Stauffer, B. (1994). Christmas carols from the war zone [Audio recording]. Washington, DC: Labor Heritage Foundation.
    McCloskey, D. (1985). The rhetoric of economics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    McConahay, J. (1986). Modern racism, ambivalence, and the modern racism scale. In J.Dovidio & S.Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination and racism(pp. 91–126). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
    McConahay, J., & Hough, J. (1976). Symbolic racism. Journal of Social Issues, 32, 23–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1976.tb02493.x
    McCourt, F. (1996). Angela's ashes. New York: Scribner.
    McCourt, F. (1999). 'Tis: A memoir. New York: Scribner.
    McCroskey, J., & Richmond, V. (2000). Applying reciprocity and accommodation theories to supervisor/subordinate communication. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 28(3), 278–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00909880009365575
    McGee, M. C. (1975). In search of “the people”: A rhetorical alternative. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 61, 235–249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637509383289
    McGee, M. C. (1990). Text, context, and the fragmentation of contemporary culture. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 54, 274–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570319009374343
    McIntosh, P. (1992). White privilege (Working Paper No. 189). Wellesley MA: Wellesley College, Center for Research on Women.
    McKenzie, D. A. (1981). Statistics in Britain, 1865–1930: The social construction of scientific knowledge. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.
    McKeon, R. (1973). Creativity and the commonplace. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 6, 199–210.
    McKerrow, R. E. (1998). Corporeality and cultural rhetoric: A site for rhetoric's future. Southern Communication Journal, 63, 315–328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10417949809373105
    McMahon, E. (1997). How the Irish became white. American Historical Review, 102, 571–572. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2171025
    McPhail, M.(1994a). The politics of complicity: Second thoughts about the social construction of racial equality. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 80, 343–357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639409384079
    McPhail, M.(1994b). The rhetoric of racism. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    McPhail, M. (1998). From complicity to coherence: Rereading the rhetoric of afrocentricity. Western Journal of Communication, 62(2), 114–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570319809374602
    McPhail, M. (2002). The rhetoric of racism revisited: Reparations or separation? Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Melanson, R. A. (1983). Writing history and making policy: The Cold War, Vietnam and revisionism. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    Melanson, R. A., & Thompson, K. W. (1985). Foreign policy and domestic consensus. New York: University Press of America.
    Merelman, R. M. (1995). Representing black culture: Racial conflict and cultural politics in the United States. New York: Routledge.
    Merida, K.(1999, November 23). Did freedom alone pay a nation's debt? Washington Post. Online posting: BlackNews (blacknews@blacknews.net).
    Messengers of struggle. (1994, December). News From the War Zone, 1(5), 1.
    Miles, E. A. (1960). The keynote speech at national nominating conventions. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 46, 26–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335636009382388
    Miller, C. (1994). Rhetorical community: The cultural basis for genre. In A.Freedman & P.Medway (Eds.), Genre and the new rhetoric. London: Taylor & Francis.
    Miller, C. R. (1984). Genre as social action. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 70, 151–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335638409383686
    Miller, Z. (1992). Keynote address. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 50, 2116.
    Mitchell, W. J. T. (1994). The violence of public art: Do the Right Thing. In Picture theory: Essays in verbal and visual representation(p. 395). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Mohr, C.(1968, June 20). U.S. Special Forces: Real and on film. New York Times, p. 49.
    Molinari, S. (1996). A legacy of hope and opportunity. Vital Speeches of the Day, 62, 681–683.
    Montagu, A. (1967). Man's most dangerous myth: The fallacy of race. Cleveland, OH: Meridian.
    Moody, K. (1997). Workers in a lean world: Unions in the international economy. London: Verso.
    Moon, D. (1999). White enculturation and bourgeois ideology: The discursive production of “good (white) girls.” In T.Nakayama & J.Martin (Eds.), Whiteness: The communication of social identity(pp. 177–197). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Mooney, M. (1985). Vico in the tradition of rhetoric. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Moore, R. (1965). The green berets. New York: Crown.
    Moore-Gilbert, B. (1997). Postcolonial theory: Contexts, practices, politics. London: Verso.
    Morgenstern, J.(1968, July 1). Affirmative? Negative! Newsweek, 94.
    Morrison, T.(1987, December 20). James Baldwin: His voice remembered; Life in his language. New York Times,
    Late City Final Edition
    , Section 7, p. 27.
    Morson, G. S., & Emerson, C. (1990). Mikhail Bakhtin: Creation of a prosaics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Mouffe, C. (1992). Feminism, citizenship, and radical democratic politics. In J.Butler & J. M.Scott (Eds.), Feminists theorize the political. London: Routledge.
    Moye, M. A. (1993). Mondragón facing 1992: Adapting co-operative structures to meet the demands of a changing environment. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 14, 251–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143831X93142006
    Moyers, B.(1966, January 18). Unpublished letter from Bill Moyers to John Wayne. Lyndon B. Johnson Library and Museum, Austin, TX.
    Mulford, C. (1999). Figuring Benjamin Franklin in American cultural memory. New England Quarterly, 72, 415–443. Retrieved July 6, 2000, from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?TS=9629190. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/366890
    Murphy, J. M. (1998). Knowing the president: The dialogic evolution of the campaign history. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 84, 23–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639809384202
    Nakayama, T., & Martin, J. (Eds.). (1998). Whiteness: The communication of social identity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Nakayama, T. K., & Krizek, R. L. (1995). Whiteness: A strategic rhetoric. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 81, 291–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639509384117
    National Party Conventions 1831–1992 (1995). Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly.
    National Research Council. (1997). Evaluating human genetic diversity. Washington, DC: Academic Press.
    Newman, R. P. (1975). Lethal rhetoric: The selling of the China myths. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 61, 113–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637509383278
    Nimmo, D., & Combs, J. E. (1983). Mediated political realities. New York: Longman.
    Nimmo, D., & Combs, J. E. (1990). Mediated political realities
    (2nd ed.)
    . New York: Longman.
    Novick, M. (1995). White lies, white power: The fight against white supremacy and reactionary violence. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press.
    Nussbaum, M. (1996). For love of country: Debating the limits of patriotism. Boston: Beacon.
    Nussbaum, M. (1997). Kant and cosmopolitanism. In J.Bohman & M.Lutz-Bachmann (Eds.), Perpetual peace: Essays on Kant's cosmopolitan ideal(pp. 25–57). Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
    OCAW breaks BASF lockout. (1990). OCAW Reporter, 45, 11–12.
    Ochs, D. (1993). Consolatory rhetoric: Grief, symbol, and ritual in the Greco-Roman era. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
    Odum, M. E.(1993, December 15). Strong land-use laws are urged for Disney project. Washington Post, p. D4.
    Odum, M. E., & Hsu, S. S.(1993, December 2). Disney foes open campaign with little support in Haymarket. Washington Post, pp. D1–D2.
    Ono, K. A., & Sloop, J. M. (1995). The critique of vernacular discourse. Communication Monographs, 62, 19–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637759509376346
    Oravec, C. (1991). The ideological significance of discursive form: A response to Solomon and Perkins. Communication Studies, 42, 383–391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510979109368351
    Orbe, M. (1994). “Remember, it's always whites' ball”: Descriptions of African American male communication. Communication Quarterly, 42(3), 287–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463379409369935
    Ortega, K. P. (1984). Keynote address. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 42, 2118–2119.
    Osborn, M. (1986). Rhetorical depiction. In H. W.Simons & A. A.Aghazarian (Eds.), Form, genre, and the study of political discourse(pp. 79–107). Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
    Page, C.(2001, March 14). Piecing it all together: What the census should be asking about race, ethnicity. Chicago Tribune [On-line]. Available: http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/columnists/page.
    Page, S.(1997, June 16). Starting the national discussion. USA Today, p. A1.
    Palast, G. (2001). Florida's “disappeared voters”: Disfranchised by the GOP. The Nation, 272, 20–23.
    Paletz, D. L. (1999). The media in American politics: Contents and consequences. New York: Longman.
    Paperworkers for reform. (1996). Reform now! Paperworkers for Reform Newsletter, 1(2), 2.
    Parallax Pictures (Producer). (1997). The ad and the ego [Motion picture]. Berkeley: California Newsreel.
    Parker, M., & Slaughter, J. (1994). Working smart: A union guide to participation programs and reengineering. Detroit, MI: Labor Notes.
    Pastore, J. O. (1964). The democratic record. Vital Speeches of the Day, 30, 706–708.
    Patterson, L.(1995, January 19). Lessons from the war zone [Interview]. Socialist Worker, 6–7.
    Patterson, T. E. (1993). Out of order. New York: Knopf.
    Pennisi, E.(1997, October 24). NRC oks long-delayed survey of Human Genome Diversity. Science, 278, 568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.278.5338.568
    Perelman, C., & Olbrechts-Tyteca, L. (1969). The new rhetoric (J.Wilkinson & P.Weaver, Trans.). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
    Petit, C.(1998, February 19). Trying to study tribes while respecting their cultures. San Francisco Chronicle, p. A5.
    Pipes, D.(2002, November 12). Profs who hate America. New York Post. Retrieved January 15, 2003, from http://www.nypost.com.
    Pitts, M. R. (1984). Hollywood and American history: A filmography of over 250 motion pictures depicting U.S. history. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
    Plans unveiled for “Disney's America” near Washington, D.C. [News release]. (1993, November 11). Walt Disney Company, Orlando, FL. Retrieved January 18, 2003, from http://www.chotank.com/reledisn.html.
    Powell, C.(2000, August 15). Moral strength and educatuon: Address to the Republican National Convention, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, July 31, 2000. Vital Speeches of the Day, 66(21), 651–653.
    Press, A.(1996, August 12). Students and union organizing. Nation, 263, 3.
    Rachleff, P. (1993). Hard-pressed in the heartland: The Hormel strike and the future of the labor movement. Boston: South End.
    Radley, A. (1990). Artifacts, memory, and a sense of the past. In D.Middleton & D.Edwards (Eds.), Collective remembering(pp. 46–59). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Ranney, A. (1975). Curing the mischiefs of faction. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Reardon, J. (2001). The Human Genome Diversity Project: A case study in coproduction. Social Studies of Science, 31, 357–388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631201031003002
    reconciliation. Howard Journal of Communications, 11, 19–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/106461700246698
    Resnik, D. B. (1999). The Human Genome Diversity Project: Ethical problems and solutions. Politics and the Life Sciences, 18, 15–23.
    Rhodes, J. (1994). “Even my own mother couldn't recognize me”: Television news and public understanding. Federal Communication Law Journal, 47. Retrieved April 12, 2002, from http://law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v47/no1/jrhodes.html.
    Rice, D. (1992). The Rocky dilemma: Museums, monuments, and popular culture. In H. F.Senie & S.Webster (Eds.), Critical issues in public art: Content, context, and controversy(pp. 228–236). New York: HarperCollins.
    Rice, W.(1968, June 27). Wayne leads green berets into Vietnam. Washington Post. p. C17.
    Richards, A. (1988). Keynote address. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 50, 2061–2062.
    Ritter, K. (1980). American political rhetoric and the jeremiad tradition: Presidential nomination-acceptance addresses, 1960–1976. Central States Speech Journal, 31, 153–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510978009368054
    Road warriors: Burning rubber. (1995a, May). News From the War Zone, 2(2), 7.
    Road warriors: Burning rubber. (1995b, July). News From the War Zone, 2(4), 8.
    Roberts, R., & Olson, J. S. (1995). John Wayne: American. New York: Free Press.
    Robinson, R. (2000). The debt: What America owes to blacks. New York: Dutton Plume.
    Rochat, F.(2002, August). Common decency facing political mass violence: How did some people come to protect persecuted minorities during World War II. Paper presented at the University of Oslo Lecture Series on Genocide and Political Mass Violence in the 20th Century, Oslo, Norway.
    Roediger, D. R. (1991). The wages of whiteness. New York: Verso.
    Roediger, D. R. (1994). Towards the abolition of whiteness: Essays on race, politics, and working class history. New York: Verso.
    Rogers, W. W., Ward, R. D., Atkins, L. R., & Flynt, W. (1994). Alabama: The history of a Deep South state. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
    Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press.
    Roloff, M., & Cloven, D. (1990). The chilling effect in interpersonal relationships: The reluctance to speak one's mind. In D.Cahn (Ed.), Intimates in conflict: A communication perspective. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Rosenblatt, R. (1980). Black autobiography: Life as the death weapon. In J.Olney (Ed.), Autobiography: Essays theoretical and critical(pp. 169–180). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Rothschild-Whitt, J. (1979). The collectivist organization: An alternative to rational-bureaucratic models. American Sociological Review, 44, 509–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094585
    Rural Advancement Foundation International. (1996, March/April). New questions about management and exchange of human tissues at NIH [On-line]. Available http://www.rafi.ca/communique/fltxt/19962.html.
    Russakoff, D.(1993, December 12). Lani Guinier's is still alive and talking. Washington Post Magazine, 15–19, 32–35.
    Sacco, M.(1994, August). Police violence mars Staley lockout anniversary march. News From the War Zone, 1(4), 1.
    Said, E. (1979). Orientalism. New York: Vintage.
    Salopek, P.(1997, April 28). Genes offer sampling of hope and fear: Cures possible, but groups worry about exploitation. Chicago Tribune, p. I8.
    Samuel, T.(1997, May 21). Clinton tries to span nation's racial divide; Tuskegee is first step in his effort. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. 6C.
    Satow, R. L. (1975). Value-rational authority and professional organizations: Weber's missing type. Administrative Science Quarterly, 20, 526–531. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392020
    Sayre, R. F. (1964). The examined self: Benjamin Franklin, Henry Adams, Henry James. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Sayre, R. F. (1972). Autobiography and images of utopia. Salmagundi, 19, 18–37.
    Sayre, R. F. (1977). The proper study—Autobiographies in American studies. American Quarterly, 29, 241–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2712417
    Sayre, R. F. (1980). Autobiography and the making of America. In J.Olney (Ed.), Autobiography: Essays theoretical and critical(pp. 146–168). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Schein, E. H. (1961). Coercive persuasion. New York: Norton.
    Schenk, L. C. (2000). Review: Frank McCourt. 'Tis, 78, 604–605.
    Scheurer, T. E. (1981). Myth to madness: America, Vietnam and popular culture. Journal of American Culture, 4, 149–165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-734X.1981.0402_149.x
    Schickel, R.(1968, July 19). Duke talks through his green beret. Life, 8.
    Schlesinger, A., Jr. (1992). The disuniting of America: Reflections on a multicultural society. New York: Norton.
    Schmookler, A. B. (1993). The illusion of choice: How the market economy shapes our destiny. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Schudson, M. (1998). The good citizen. New York: Free Press.
    Schutz, A. (1967). The phenomenlogy of the social world. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
    Schwabe, K. (1986). The global role of the United States and its imperial consequences. In W. J.Mommsen & J.Osterhammel (Eds.), Imperialism and after: Continuities and discontinuities(pp. 41–48). London: Allen & Unwin.
    Searle, G. R. (1976). Eugenics and politics in Britain. Leyden, UK: Woordhoff. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-1539-4
    Sen, A. (1992). Inequality reexamined. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Serna, E. H. (1980). The philosophy of ingenium: Concept and ingenious method in Baltasar Gracián (O.Olson, Trans.). Philosophy and Rhetoric, 13, 244–263.
    Shepherd, D., Slatzer, R., & Grayson, D. (1985). Duke: The life and times of John Wayne. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Shipman, P. (1994). The evolution of racism. New York: Simon & Shuster.
    Shome, R.(1996a). Race and popular cinema: The rhetorical strategies of whiteness in City of Joy. Communication Quarterly, 44, 502–518. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463379609370035
    Shome, R.(1996b). Postcolonial interventions in the rhetorical canon: An “other” view. Communication Theory, 6, 40–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.1996.tb00119.x
    Shome, R. (1998). Caught in the term “post-colonial”: Why the “post-colonial” still matters. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 15, 204–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039809367043
    Shome, R. (1999). Whiteness and the politics of location: Postcolonial reflections. In T. K.Nakayama & J. N.Martin (Eds.), Whiteness: The communication of social identity(pp. 107–128). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Shome, R., & Hegde, R. S. (2002). Culture, communication, and the challenge of globalization. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 19, 172–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07393180216560
    Silbey, J. H. (1994). The rise and fall of American political parties 1790–1993. In L. S.Maisel (Ed.), The parties respond: Changes in American parties and campaigns(pp. 3–18). Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Simons, H. W. (1972). Persuasion in social conflicts: A critique of prevailing conceptions and a framework for future research. Speech Monographs, 39, 227–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637757209375763
    Simons, H. W., Mechling, E. W., & Schrier, H. (1984). The functions of human communication in mobilizing for action from the bottom up: The rhetoric of social movements. In C. C.Arnold & J. W.Bowers (Eds.), Handbook of rhetorical and communication theory(pp. 792–867). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Singletary, M., & Hsu, S. S.(1993, November 12). Disney says Va. park will be serious fun. Washington Post, pp. A1, A18.
    Sipress, D.(1999, November/December). Rancho. Il Wok de Paris, Tex-Mex Italian Asian French Cuisine. Utne Reader, 13.
    Sleeter, C. (1994). White racism. Multicultural Education, 39, 5–8.
    Sloan, G.(1993, November 12–14). History theme for Disney's D.C.-area park. USA Today, p. D1.
    Slotkin, R. (1992). Gunfighter nation: The myth of the frontier in twentieth-century America. New York: Atheneum.
    Smaglik, P.(2000, April 27). Genetic diversity project fights for its life. Nature, 404, 912. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35010224
    Smith, A. (1986). The wealth of nations. London: Penguin. (Original work published 1776)
    Smith, J. (1975). Looking away: Hollywood and Vietnam. New York: Scribner.
    Smith, L. D., & Nimmo, D. (1991). Cordial concurrence. Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Smith, T. (1986). American imperialism is anti-communism. In W. J.Mommsen & J.Osterhammel (Eds.), Imperialism and after: Continuities and discontinuities(pp. 41–48). London: Allen & Unwin.
    Solomon, M. (1991). Autobiography as rhetorical narrative: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Anna Howard Shaw as “new woman.”Communication Studies, 42, 354–370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510979109368349
    Solomon, M. (1993). The things we study: Texts and their interactions. Communication Monographs, 60, 62–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637759309376295
    Soros, G.(1997, February). The capitalist threat. Atlantic Monthly, 45–58.
    S.O.S.: Save our solidarity. (1995, August/September). News From the War Zone, 2(5), 3.
    Sowell, T. (1975). Race and economics. New York: McKay.
    Spark, A. (1984). The soldier at the heart of the war: The myth of the green beret in the popular culture of the Vietnam era. Journal of American Studies, 18, 29–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021875800018223
    Spivak, G. C. (1988). In other worlds: Essays in cultural politics. New York: Routledge.
    Spivak, G. C. (1999). A critique of postcolonial reason: Toward a history of the vanishing past. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Spretnak, C. (1999). The resurgence of the real: Body, nature, and place in a hypermodern world. New York: Routledge.
    Starling, K.(2001, April 22). From Raleigh to Selma: A pilgrimage into the past. News and Observer, pp. 1D, 4D.
    Stars: The Duke at 60. (1967, June 9). Time, 67.
    Steele, S. (1990). The content of our character: A new vision of race in America. New York: St. Martin's.
    Stevenson, J.(1995, December). James Baldwin: An appreciation. Boston Book Review. Retrieved June 18, 2001, from http://www.bookwire.com/bbr/interviews/baldwin.html.
    Steyn, M. (2001). “Whiteness just isn't what it used to be”: White identity in a changing South Africa. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Stoler, A. L. (1989). Making empire respectable: The politics of race and sexual morality in 20th-century colonial cultures. American Ethnography, 16, 634–660.
    Stoler, A. L. (1997). Race and the education of desire. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Stone, A. E. (1982). Autobiographical occasions and original acts: Versions of American identity from Henry Adams to Nate Shaw. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Suid, L. (1977). The making of The Green Berets. Journal of Popular Film, 5, 106–125.
    Suid, L. (1981). Hollywood and Vietnam. Journal of American Culture, 4, 136–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-734X.1981.0402_136.x
    Suit seeks billions in slave reparations. (2003, April 14). Available: http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/03/26/slavery.reparations.
    Suleiman, S. R. (1983). Authoritarian fictions: The ideological novel as a literary genre. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Supriya, K. E. (1996). Confessionals, testimonials: Women's speech in contexts of violence. Hypatia, 11, 92–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1527-2001.1996.tb01037.x
    Sustar, L.(1997, Summer). A new labor movement? International Socialist Review, 19–26.
    Taylor, P. L. (1994). The rhetorical construction of efficiency: Restructuring and industrial democracy in Mondragón, Spain. Sociological Forum, 9, 459–489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01466318
    Terkel, S. (1989). An interview with James Baldwin. In F.Standley & L.Pratt (Eds.), Conversations with James Baldwin(p. 15). Jackson: University of Mississippi Press. (Original interview conducted 1961)
    Interdisciplinary Study of Literature, 32, 71–84. Retrieved July 6, 2000, from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?TS=9628954.
    Thernstrom, A.(1993, June 14). Guinier miss. The New Republic, 16–19.
    Thomas, E. (1975). Editor's preface. In W.Rodney (Ed.), Groundings with my brothers. London: Bogle/L'Overture. (Original work published 1969)
    Thompson, W. N. (1979). Barbara Jordan's keynote address: Fulfilling dual and conflicting purposes. Central States Speech Journal, 30, 272–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510977909368020
    Thornton, A. P. (1977). Imperialism in the twentieth century. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Ting Toomey, S. (1999). Communicating across cultures. New York: Guilford.
    Tompkins, P. K., & Cheney, G. (1985). Communication and unobtrusive control in contemporary organizations. In R. D.McPhee & P. K.Tompkins (Eds.), Organizational communication: Traditional themes and new directions(pp. 179–210). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Toulmin, S. (1964). The uses of argument. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Tousignant, S., & Hsu, S. S.(1994, September 11). Speakers split evenly at Disney hearing; Prince William Commission delays decision. Washington Post, p. A1.
    Travis, M. A. (1998). Reading cultures: The construction of readers in the twentieth century. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
    Trent, J. S., & Friedenberg, R. V. (1991). Political campaign communication. Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Turner, R.(1993, November 12). Disney outlines plan for a theme park at site in Virginia. Wall Street Journal, pp. A2, A8.
    Tuttle, K.(2000, January 4). Martin Luther King Memorial approved: The National Capital Planning Commission announced. Speakin' Out News, 20(9), 1.
    Twomey, S.(1993, November 15). It's history Abe—Liven it up a bit. Washington Post, pp. D1, D7.
    Uchitelle, L.(1993, June 29). 800 workers locked out by Staley. New York Times, p. D6.
    Union rejects concessionary pact. (1995, July). News From the War Zone, 2(4), 1.
    Upton, D. (1999). Commemorating the Civil Rights movement. Design Book Review, 40, 23–33.
    Valenti, J.(1966, January 6). Unpublished memorandum from J. Valenti to President Lyndon B. Johnson. Lyndon B. Johnson Library and Museum, Austin, TX.
    van Dijk, T. (1987). Communicating racism: Ethnic prejudice in thought and talk. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    van Dijk, T. (1993). Elite discourse and racism. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Vartabedian, R. A. (1985). Nixon's Vietnam rhetoric: A case study of apologia as generic paradox. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 50, 366–381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10417948509372641
    Virginia approves Disney subsidies. (1994, March 13). New York Times
    (National ed.)
    , p. A27.
    Vlastos, S. (1991). America's “enemy”: The absent presence in revisionist Vietnam war history. In J. C.Rowe & R.Berg (Eds.), The Vietnam War and American culture(pp. 52–74). New York: Columbia University Press.
    Wakefield, D. (1968). Supernation at peace and war: Certain observations, depositions, testimonies, and graffiti gathered in a one-man fact-and-fantasy finding tour of the most powerful nation in the world. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Walker, D. (1965). David Walker's appeal, in four articles; Together with a preamble to the colored citizens of the world, but in particular, and very expressly, to those of the United States of America (C. M.Wiltse, Ed.). New York: Hill & Wang. (Original work published 1830)
    Wander, P. (1983). The ideological turn in rhetorical theory. Central States Speech Journal, 34, 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510978309368110
    Wander, P. (1996). Book review: Marxism, post-colonialism, and rhetorical contextualization. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 82, 402–426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639609384165
    Wander, P., Martin, J. N., & Nakayama, T. K. (1999). What do white people want to be called? A study of self-labels for white Americans. In T. K.Nakayama & J. N.Martin (Eds.), Whiteness: The communication of identity(pp. 27–50). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Ware, B. L., & Linkugel, W. A. (1973). They spoke in defense of themselves: On the generic criticism of apologia. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 59, 273–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637309383176
    Watson, T., Jr. (1963). A business and its beliefs: The ideas that helped build IBM. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Watts, D., & Lamb, G.(1995, July). Open letter to supporters of locked out Staley workers. News From the War Zone, 2(4), 4.
    Wayne, J.(1965, December 28). Unpublished letter from John Wayne to President Lyndon B. Johnson. Lyndon B. Johnson Library and Museum, Austin, TX.
    Wayne, J.(1966, February 18). Unpublished letter from John Wayne to Mr. Bill Moyers, Special Assistant to the President. Lyndon B. Johnson Library and Museum, Austin, TX.
    Wayne, J.(1971, May). Playboy interview: John Wayne with Richard W. Lewis, interviewer. Playboy, 75–76, 78, 80, 82, 84, 86, 90, 92.
    Weber, M. (1978). Economy and society (G.Roth & C.Wittich, Trans.). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Webster, D. (1989). On the compromise measures: The seventh of March speech. In J.Andrews & D.Zarefsky (Eds.), American voices: Significant speeches in American history, 1640–1945(p. 191). New York: Longman. (Original work published 1850)
    Webster, Y. (1992). The racialization of American. New York: St. Martin's.
    Weiler, A. H.(1969, January 3). John Wayne's “Green Berets” a box-office triumph. New York Times, p. 20.
    Weisberg, J.(1998, January 25). United shareholders of America. New York Times Magazine, pp. 29–31.
    Weissman, R.(1996, January/February). A bitter defeat at A. E. Staley. Multinational Monitor, 39–40.
    Werhane, P. H. (1991). Adam Smith and his legacy for modern capitalism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Wesseling, H. L. (1986). Imperialism and empire: An introduction. In W. J.Mommsen & J.Osterhammel (Eds.), Imperialism and after: Continuities and discontinuities(pp. 1–10). London: Allen & Unwin.
    West, C. (1993). Race matters. Boston: Beacon.
    White, D. M., & Averson, R. (1972). The celluloid weapon: Social comment and the American film. Boston: Beacon.
    White, H. C. (1981). Where do markets come from? American Journal of Sociology, 8, 517–547. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/227495
    White, J. B. (1985). Heracles' bow: Essays on the rhetoric and poetics of the law. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    White, T. H. (1961). The making of the president 1960. New York: Pocket Books.
    Whitt, L. A. (1998). Resisting value-bifurcation: Indigenist critiques of the Human Genome Diversity Project. In B.Bar On & A.Ferguson (Eds.), Daring to be good: Essays in feminist ethico-politics. New York: Routledge.
    Who was the enemy … the real Staley story. (1996, January). News From the War Zone, 3(1), 2.
    Wilkinson, A., & Willmott, H. (1995). Introduction. In A.Wilkinson & H.Willmott (Eds.), Making quality critical: New perspectives on organizational change(pp. 1–32). London: Routledge.
    Wills, G. (1997). John Wayne's America: The politics of celebrity. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Wilson, M. O.(1999, Fall). Between rooms 307: Spaces and memory at the National Civil Rights Museum. Harvard Design Magazine, 28–31.
    Windeller, R.(1967, September 27). Defiant Wayne filming “Green Berets.”New York Times, p. 41.
    Wing, B. (2000). The color of election 2000. Colorlines. Retrieved April 12, 2002, from http://www.alternet.org/story.html?StoryID-10201.
    Withdraw Guinier. (1993, June 14). The New Republic, 7.
    Woodward, C. (1974). The strange career of Jim Crow
    (3rd ed.)
    . New York: Oxford University Press.
    Wray, M., & Newitz, A. (1997). White trash: Race and class in America. New York: Routledge.
    Wright, M. (1999). “Alas, poor Richard!”: Transatlantic Baldwin, the politics of forgetting, and the project of modernity. In D.McBride (Ed.), James Baldwin now(pp. 208–232). New York: New York University Press.
    Xu, Q. (1999). TQM as an arbitrary sign for play: Discourse and transformation. Organization Studies, 2, 659–681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0170840699204007
    Yardley, J.(1993, November 15). All ears—And that's the problem. Washington Post, p. B2.
    Young, J. (1992). The counter-monument: Memory against itself in Germany today. Critical inquiry, 18, 267–296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/448632
    Zarefsky, D., Miller-Tutzauer, C., & Tutzauer, F. E. (1984). Reagan's safety net for the truly needy: The rhetorical uses of definition. Central States Speech Journal, 35, 113–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510978409368171
    Zbaracki, M. J. (1998). The rhetoric and reality of total quality management. Administrative Science Quarterly, 4, 602–636. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393677
    Zorn, T. E., Christensen, L. T., & Cheney, G. (1999). Do we really want constant change? (Beyond the Bottom Line booklet series, Vol. 2). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

    About the Editors

    Steven R. Goldzwig, Ph.D., is Professor of Communication Studies at Marquette University. He is coauthor of “In A Perilous Hour”: The Public Address of John F. Kennedy. He has written numerous scholarly articles and teaches a variety of courses on politics, ethics, and rhetoric.

    Patricia A. Sullivan, Ph.D., is Professor at State University of New York, New Paltz. She is coauthor of From the Margins to the Center: Contemporary Women and Political Communication and coeditor of Political Rhetoric, Power, and Renaissance Women. Her articles have appeared in Quarterly Journal of Speech, Western Journal of Communication, Communication Quarterly, and Women and Politics.

    About the Authors

    Barry Brummett, Ph.D., has taught at Purdue University and the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee and is now Charles Sapp Centennial Professor of Communication and chair of the communication studies department at the University of Texas at Austin. He is author of several articles and books, including Rhetorical Dimensions of Popular Culture, Contemporary Apocalyptic Rhetoric, Rhetoric of Machine Aesthetics, and The World and How We Describe It: Rhetorics of Reality, Representation, Simulation.

    Thomas R. Burkholder, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Hank Greenspun School of Communication at the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. He teaches and studies American public address, rhetorical criticism, and rhetorical theory. His work has appeared in Communication Studies and Southern Communication Journal. He is coauthor of the second edition of Critiques of Contemporary Rhetoric.

    Kathryn M. Cañas, Ph.D., is Associate Professor and Lecturer in the David Eccles School of Business at the University of Utah. Her primary responsibilities include developing and integrating communication-based management courses into the business curriculum at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Her areas of research include the rhetoric of democracy, the rhetoric of minority women in the public arena, and understanding and managing diversity as a competitive advantage in business.

    George Cheney, Ph.D., is Professor of Communication at the University of Utah and Adjunct Professor of Management Communication at the University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. His teaching and research interests include corporate public discourse, identity and power in organizations, quality of worklife, corporate social responsibility and sustainability, the marketization of society, and the rhetoric of war. The author or editor of four books and more than 70 articles and chapters, he has been recognized for teaching, research, and service. He has lectured in Europe and Latin America.

    Dana L. Cloud, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Texas at Austin. She has written one book, Consolation and Control in American Culture and Politics: Rhetorics of Therapy (Sage, 1998) and numerous articles on Marxist theory; race, gender, and culture; and the rhetoric of social movements. Currently, she is working on a book-length project about the union democracy movement during the 1990s at Boeing.

    Carrie Crenshaw, Ph.D., is an independent scholar living and writing in Birmingham, Alabama. She is author of numerous articles on feminism, critical race studies, and argument theory and criticism. She has received several grants in support of her research and debate outreach efforts. Her current focus is on integrating scholarly endeavors with her personal and political activism and the important position of being a primary caregiver to two small children.

    James Darsey, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Communication at Georgia State University. His essays on the rhetorics of radical and marginalized groups have appeared in Quarterly Journal of Speech, Communication Monographs, Communication Studies, Western Journal of Communication, and various anthologies. His 1997 book, The Prophetic Tradition and Radical Rhetoric in America, received several awards and was named by Choice as an outstanding academic book for 1997.

    George N. Dionisopoulos, Ph.D., is Professor in the School of Communication at San Diego State University. His research interests include political communication in the 1960s and presidential rhetoric.

    Victoria J. Gallagher, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at North Carolina State University. Her research on the rhetoric of civil rights leaders and civil rights-related commemorative sites has appeared in Quarterly Journal of Speech, Rhetoric and Public Affairs, Southern Communication Journal, and several edited collections. Her current research projects include a book length comparative analysis of civil rights museums and memorials and a rhetorical examination of selected photographs and paintings featured in Life and Look magazines during the 1960s. Professor Gallagher teaches courses in rhetorical theory, criticism, and communication ethics.

    G. Thomas Goodnight, Ph.D., is currently a Professor, Annenberg School for Communication, University of Southern California. He has also been a professor and director of graduate studies, the Department of Communication Studies, Northwestern University.

    Dexter B. Gordon, Ph.D., is Professor in the Communication Studies Department and Director of African American Studies at the University of Puget Sound. He is author of Black Identity: Rhetoric, Ideology, and Nineteenth-Century Black Nationalism (2003) and articles on rhetoric and culture.

    Marouf Hasian Jr. Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Utah. He is author of The Rhetoric of Eugenics in Anglo-American Thought (University of Georgia Press, 1996) and numerous articles on the law and rhetoric, postcolonial studies, and critical rhetoric.

    Ronald L. Jackson II, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Culture and Communication Theory in the Department of Communication Arts & Sciences at the Pennsylvania State University. He is author of The Negotiation of Cultural Identity, Think About It!, Understanding African American Rhetoric (with Elaine Richardson), and African American Communication: Identity and Culture (with Michael Hecht and Sidney Ribeau). He is editor of African American Communication & Identities: Essential Readings (Sage, 2003). His theory work includes the development of two paradigms called cultural contracts theory and black masculine identity theory.

    Mark Lawrence McPhail, Ph.D., is Professor of Interdisciplinary Studies in the Western College Program at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. He is author of Zen in the Art of Rhetoric: An Inquiry Into Coherence and The Rhetoric of Racism Revisited: Reparations or Separation? His scholarship has been published in Quarterly Journal of Speech, Critical Studies in Mass Communication, and the Howard Journal of Communications, and his creative work has appeared in Dark Horse Magazine and The American Literary Review. His research interests include rhetorical theory and epistemology, language and race relations, and visual communication.

    John M. Murphy, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Speech Communication at the University of Georgia. He studies contemporary public address. His work has appeared in Quarterly Journal of Speech, Rhetoric and Public Affairs, and Presidential Studies Quarterly.

    Kathryn M. Olson, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Communication at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. Her research agenda revolves around rhetoric that constitutes community or involves social controversy. She approaches the related issues from perspectives of argumentation, rhetorical criticism and theory, and public address scholarship. Her work appears in academic journals including Quarterly Journal of Speech and other publications on rhetoric, argument, and communication.

    Emily Plec, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Speech Communication at Western Oregon University. Her research interests include the rhetoric of science and sport, environmental communication, and critical approaches to social justice.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website