New Approches to Rhetoric
Publication Year: 2004
New Approaches to Rhetoric provides fresh perspectives on the study of rhetoric and its ability to affect change in today's society. Although traditional approaches (e.g., neo-Aristotelian) to the study of rhetoric have utility for the twenty-first century, communication in a complex, mass-mediated postmodern age calls for new critical approaches. The contributors of this volume, including James Darsey, Kathryn M. Olson and G. Thomas Goodnight, George Cheney, Dana Cloud, and Barry Brummett, explore possibilities for bridging rhetorical studies of the past with rhetorical studies of the future. The original essays invite students to join rhetorical theorists and critics in an ongoing dialogue concerning what it means to study communication in a postmodern world. New Approaches to Rhetoric is ideal for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses in ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: James Baldwin's Topoi
- Chapter 2: Ingenium—Speaking in Community: The Case of the Prince William County Zoning Hearings on Disney's America
- Chapter 3: Arguing About the Place of Values and Ethics in Market-Oriented Discourses of Today
- Chapter 4: Cultural Contracts Theory: Toward a Critical-Rhetorical Identity Negotiation Paradigm
- Chapter 5: Remembrances of Things Past: A Postcolonial Critique of the Human Genome Diversity Project
- Chapter 6: The Life of the Party: The Contemporary Keynote Address
- Chapter 7: Memory as Social Action: Cultural Projection and Generic Form in Civil Rights Memorials
- Chapter 8: John Wayne, the Green Berets, and the Containment Doctrine
- Chapter 9: Fighting Words: Labor and the Limits of Symbolic Intervention at Staley 1993–1996
- Chapter 10: Demonizing Democracy: The Strange Career of Lani Guinier
- Chapter 11: Racial Apologies
- Chapter 12: Autobiography, Rhetoric, and Frank McCourt's Angela's Ashes and 'Tis: A Memoir
- Chapter 13: Communities, Identities, and Politics: What Rhetoric is Becoming in the Twenty-First Century
To Ray for his ongoing love and support To Judi, Claire, and David, whose love and support sustain all my scholarly efforts
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
New approaches to rhetoric / Patricia A. Sullivan and Steven R. Goldzwig, editors.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-2912-6—ISBN 0-7619-2913-4 (pbk.)
1. Rhetoric. I. Sullivan, Patricia Ann. II. Goldzwig, Steven R.
Printed on acid-free paper
04 05 06 07 08 09 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Todd R. Armstrong
Editorial Assistant: Veronica K. Novak
Production Editor: Claudia A. Hoffman
Copy Editor: Dan Hays
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Indexer: Molly Hall
We thank the contributors for their generosity and for their patience. We are deeply appreciative of the vital scholarly dialogue that made this volume possible. We are indebted to Todd Armstrong for believing in this collection. We also wish to thank the reviewers of this project:
Sonja Foss, University of Colorado at Denver David Henry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas Robert L. Ivie, Indiana University Janice Rushing, University of Arkansas at Fayetteville[Page viii]
The purpose of this collection is to provide fresh perspectives on the study of rhetoric for the twenty-first century. Although traditional approaches (e.g., neo-Aristotelian) to the study of rhetoric have utility for the twenty-first century, communication in a complex, mass-mediated postmodern age calls for new critical approaches. As professors, we struggle to help our students understand traditional critical approaches as well as cultural and ideological approaches that will help them “make sense” of communication in a complicated world.
This collection invites students to join rhetorical theorists and critics in an ongoing dialogue concerning what it means to study communication in a postmodern world. As rhetoricians struggle to articulate critical approaches to account for discourse in a multicultural world, they question the assumptions guiding their research. In a special issue of the Southern Communication Journal in 1998, scholars offered perspectives on the shape that the study of rhetoric would take in the twenty-first century. Raymie McKerrow argued that “Western Rhetoric, as currently fashioned via a male dominant language, is virtually incapable of being the ‘site’ from which to appraise rhetorics within a diverse world” (p. 315). John Angus Campbell urged scholars to recognize the legacy of neoclassical rhetoric as they seek critical perspectives for the twenty-first century. He suggested we return to our historical roots and recognize an important connection between neoclassical rhetoric and contemporary rhetorics. Neoclassical rhetoric shares with postmodern and deconstructionist rhetorics a recognition of “the importance of grounding theory in local conditions and is wary of the potential tyranny of universalizing perspectives” (p. 291).
Other scholars have addressed possibilities for bridging the “old” and “new” rhetorics in acknowledgment of conditions in a postmodern world. In responding to the fragmentation of culture, Michael Calvin [Page x]McGee (1990) argued that rhetoricians “make discourses from scraps and pieces of evidence” (p. 279). Maurice Charland's (1987, 1991) work has examined ways in which audiences rather than rhetors are responsible for creating discourses. In the early 1990s, Martha Solomon (1993), in an article published in Communication Monographs, speculated on the direction of rhetorical studies for the twenty-first century and proposed “continuing this process of questioning our taken-for-granteds and expanding our views of rhetorical processes” (p. 67).
A number of scholars have asked what it means to study rhetoric in an increasingly diverse world. Dana Cloud and Celeste Condit debated the roles of the ideal and the material in human communication. In Critical Studies in Mass Communication, Cloud (1997) and Condit (1997) expressed different philosophies concerning the limits of communication in bringing about social change. In a special issue of Communication Studies published in 1996 on “Theorizing Communication From Marginalized Perspectives,” guest editors Sonja Foss and Eileen Berlin Ray suggested they strived to “advocate theoretic pluralism and an appreciation for different theorizing and methods that expand our explanatory lenses rather than constrain us by the myopia of dogmatic theory” (p. 253). Laura Gray-Rosendale and Sibylle Gruber (2001), editors of Alternative Rhetorics: Challenges to the Rhetorical Tradition, “emphasize multiplicity and fragmentation within and between different rhetorics and different traditions” (p. 5).
In identifying threads in contemporary approaches to analysis, and what he described as “the tangle of rhetorical culture,” Dale Cyphert (2001), in a Quarterly Journal of Speech article, claimed that the study of rhetoric is undergoing profound changes. He summarized the ferment in approaches to rhetorical criticism as follows:
The transcultural questions implied in our current threads of theory suggest the study of rhetoric is undergoing a more profound change—a paradigm shift, perhaps—that dissociates the study of rhetorical cultures from the normative presumptions of Western rhetorical tradition. (p. 390)
As we move into the twenty-first century, then, rhetoricians explore possibilities for bridging rhetorical studies of the past with rhetorical studies of the future. The essays in this collection offer guidance for professors who are attempting to address this paradigm shift in rhetorical studies. The essays challenge and expand the definitions, approaches, [Page xi]and assumptions governing rhetorical scholarship, but they do not reach consensus. The collection is divided into three parts: Part I: Rhetorics, Ethics, and Values; Part II: Rhetorics, Institutions, and Contexts; and Part III: Rhetorics, Cultures, and Ideologies. Each part begins with a brief introduction designed to frame discussion for students. Readers who are familiar with the critical approaches represented in each section may choose to bypass the introductions. Following Part III, Barry Brummett provides a response to all the essays in the collection. Professor Brummett highlights a key thread in the assumptions that have prompted these essays.
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About the Editors[Page 349]
Steven R. Goldzwig, Ph.D., is Professor of Communication Studies at Marquette University. He is coauthor of “In A Perilous Hour”: The Public Address of John F. Kennedy. He has written numerous scholarly articles and teaches a variety of courses on politics, ethics, and rhetoric.
Patricia A. Sullivan, Ph.D., is Professor at State University of New York, New Paltz. She is coauthor of From the Margins to the Center: Contemporary Women and Political Communication and coeditor of Political Rhetoric, Power, and Renaissance Women. Her articles have appeared in Quarterly Journal of Speech, Western Journal of Communication, Communication Quarterly, and Women and Politics.[Page 350]
About the Authors