New Approches to Rhetoric


Edited by: Patricia A. Sullivan & Steven R. Goldzwig

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  • Dedication

    To Ray for his ongoing love and support To Judi, Claire, and David, whose love and support sustain all my scholarly efforts


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    We thank the contributors for their generosity and for their patience. We are deeply appreciative of the vital scholarly dialogue that made this volume possible. We are indebted to Todd Armstrong for believing in this collection. We also wish to thank the reviewers of this project:

    Sonja Foss, University of Colorado at Denver David Henry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas Robert L. Ivie, Indiana University Janice Rushing, University of Arkansas at Fayetteville


    The purpose of this collection is to provide fresh perspectives on the study of rhetoric for the twenty-first century. Although traditional approaches (e.g., neo-Aristotelian) to the study of rhetoric have utility for the twenty-first century, communication in a complex, mass-mediated postmodern age calls for new critical approaches. As professors, we struggle to help our students understand traditional critical approaches as well as cultural and ideological approaches that will help them “make sense” of communication in a complicated world.

    This collection invites students to join rhetorical theorists and critics in an ongoing dialogue concerning what it means to study communication in a postmodern world. As rhetoricians struggle to articulate critical approaches to account for discourse in a multicultural world, they question the assumptions guiding their research. In a special issue of the Southern Communication Journal in 1998, scholars offered perspectives on the shape that the study of rhetoric would take in the twenty-first century. Raymie McKerrow argued that “Western Rhetoric, as currently fashioned via a male dominant language, is virtually incapable of being the ‘site’ from which to appraise rhetorics within a diverse world” (p. 315). John Angus Campbell urged scholars to recognize the legacy of neoclassical rhetoric as they seek critical perspectives for the twenty-first century. He suggested we return to our historical roots and recognize an important connection between neoclassical rhetoric and contemporary rhetorics. Neoclassical rhetoric shares with postmodern and deconstructionist rhetorics a recognition of “the importance of grounding theory in local conditions and is wary of the potential tyranny of universalizing perspectives” (p. 291).

    Other scholars have addressed possibilities for bridging the “old” and “new” rhetorics in acknowledgment of conditions in a postmodern world. In responding to the fragmentation of culture, Michael Calvin McGee (1990) argued that rhetoricians “make discourses from scraps and pieces of evidence” (p. 279). Maurice Charland's (1987, 1991) work has examined ways in which audiences rather than rhetors are responsible for creating discourses. In the early 1990s, Martha Solomon (1993), in an article published in Communication Monographs, speculated on the direction of rhetorical studies for the twenty-first century and proposed “continuing this process of questioning our taken-for-granteds and expanding our views of rhetorical processes” (p. 67).

    A number of scholars have asked what it means to study rhetoric in an increasingly diverse world. Dana Cloud and Celeste Condit debated the roles of the ideal and the material in human communication. In Critical Studies in Mass Communication, Cloud (1997) and Condit (1997) expressed different philosophies concerning the limits of communication in bringing about social change. In a special issue of Communication Studies published in 1996 on “Theorizing Communication From Marginalized Perspectives,” guest editors Sonja Foss and Eileen Berlin Ray suggested they strived to “advocate theoretic pluralism and an appreciation for different theorizing and methods that expand our explanatory lenses rather than constrain us by the myopia of dogmatic theory” (p. 253). Laura Gray-Rosendale and Sibylle Gruber (2001), editors of Alternative Rhetorics: Challenges to the Rhetorical Tradition, “emphasize multiplicity and fragmentation within and between different rhetorics and different traditions” (p. 5).

    In identifying threads in contemporary approaches to analysis, and what he described as “the tangle of rhetorical culture,” Dale Cyphert (2001), in a Quarterly Journal of Speech article, claimed that the study of rhetoric is undergoing profound changes. He summarized the ferment in approaches to rhetorical criticism as follows:

    The transcultural questions implied in our current threads of theory suggest the study of rhetoric is undergoing a more profound change—a paradigm shift, perhaps—that dissociates the study of rhetorical cultures from the normative presumptions of Western rhetorical tradition. (p. 390)

    As we move into the twenty-first century, then, rhetoricians explore possibilities for bridging rhetorical studies of the past with rhetorical studies of the future. The essays in this collection offer guidance for professors who are attempting to address this paradigm shift in rhetorical studies. The essays challenge and expand the definitions, approaches, and assumptions governing rhetorical scholarship, but they do not reach consensus. The collection is divided into three parts: Part I: Rhetorics, Ethics, and Values; Part II: Rhetorics, Institutions, and Contexts; and Part III: Rhetorics, Cultures, and Ideologies. Each part begins with a brief introduction designed to frame discussion for students. Readers who are familiar with the critical approaches represented in each section may choose to bypass the introductions. Following Part III, Barry Brummett provides a response to all the essays in the collection. Professor Brummett highlights a key thread in the assumptions that have prompted these essays.

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    About the Editors

    Steven R. Goldzwig, Ph.D., is Professor of Communication Studies at Marquette University. He is coauthor of “In A Perilous Hour”: The Public Address of John F. Kennedy. He has written numerous scholarly articles and teaches a variety of courses on politics, ethics, and rhetoric.

    Patricia A. Sullivan, Ph.D., is Professor at State University of New York, New Paltz. She is coauthor of From the Margins to the Center: Contemporary Women and Political Communication and coeditor of Political Rhetoric, Power, and Renaissance Women. Her articles have appeared in Quarterly Journal of Speech, Western Journal of Communication, Communication Quarterly, and Women and Politics.

    About the Authors

    Barry Brummett, Ph.D., has taught at Purdue University and the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee and is now Charles Sapp Centennial Professor of Communication and chair of the communication studies department at the University of Texas at Austin. He is author of several articles and books, including Rhetorical Dimensions of Popular Culture, Contemporary Apocalyptic Rhetoric, Rhetoric of Machine Aesthetics, and The World and How We Describe It: Rhetorics of Reality, Representation, Simulation.

    Thomas R. Burkholder, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Hank Greenspun School of Communication at the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. He teaches and studies American public address, rhetorical criticism, and rhetorical theory. His work has appeared in Communication Studies and Southern Communication Journal. He is coauthor of the second edition of Critiques of Contemporary Rhetoric.

    Kathryn M. Cañas, Ph.D., is Associate Professor and Lecturer in the David Eccles School of Business at the University of Utah. Her primary responsibilities include developing and integrating communication-based management courses into the business curriculum at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Her areas of research include the rhetoric of democracy, the rhetoric of minority women in the public arena, and understanding and managing diversity as a competitive advantage in business.

    George Cheney, Ph.D., is Professor of Communication at the University of Utah and Adjunct Professor of Management Communication at the University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. His teaching and research interests include corporate public discourse, identity and power in organizations, quality of worklife, corporate social responsibility and sustainability, the marketization of society, and the rhetoric of war. The author or editor of four books and more than 70 articles and chapters, he has been recognized for teaching, research, and service. He has lectured in Europe and Latin America.

    Dana L. Cloud, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Texas at Austin. She has written one book, Consolation and Control in American Culture and Politics: Rhetorics of Therapy (Sage, 1998) and numerous articles on Marxist theory; race, gender, and culture; and the rhetoric of social movements. Currently, she is working on a book-length project about the union democracy movement during the 1990s at Boeing.

    Carrie Crenshaw, Ph.D., is an independent scholar living and writing in Birmingham, Alabama. She is author of numerous articles on feminism, critical race studies, and argument theory and criticism. She has received several grants in support of her research and debate outreach efforts. Her current focus is on integrating scholarly endeavors with her personal and political activism and the important position of being a primary caregiver to two small children.

    James Darsey, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Communication at Georgia State University. His essays on the rhetorics of radical and marginalized groups have appeared in Quarterly Journal of Speech, Communication Monographs, Communication Studies, Western Journal of Communication, and various anthologies. His 1997 book, The Prophetic Tradition and Radical Rhetoric in America, received several awards and was named by Choice as an outstanding academic book for 1997.

    George N. Dionisopoulos, Ph.D., is Professor in the School of Communication at San Diego State University. His research interests include political communication in the 1960s and presidential rhetoric.

    Victoria J. Gallagher, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at North Carolina State University. Her research on the rhetoric of civil rights leaders and civil rights-related commemorative sites has appeared in Quarterly Journal of Speech, Rhetoric and Public Affairs, Southern Communication Journal, and several edited collections. Her current research projects include a book length comparative analysis of civil rights museums and memorials and a rhetorical examination of selected photographs and paintings featured in Life and Look magazines during the 1960s. Professor Gallagher teaches courses in rhetorical theory, criticism, and communication ethics.

    G. Thomas Goodnight, Ph.D., is currently a Professor, Annenberg School for Communication, University of Southern California. He has also been a professor and director of graduate studies, the Department of Communication Studies, Northwestern University.

    Dexter B. Gordon, Ph.D., is Professor in the Communication Studies Department and Director of African American Studies at the University of Puget Sound. He is author of Black Identity: Rhetoric, Ideology, and Nineteenth-Century Black Nationalism (2003) and articles on rhetoric and culture.

    Marouf Hasian Jr. Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Utah. He is author of The Rhetoric of Eugenics in Anglo-American Thought (University of Georgia Press, 1996) and numerous articles on the law and rhetoric, postcolonial studies, and critical rhetoric.

    Ronald L. Jackson II, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Culture and Communication Theory in the Department of Communication Arts & Sciences at the Pennsylvania State University. He is author of The Negotiation of Cultural Identity, Think About It!, Understanding African American Rhetoric (with Elaine Richardson), and African American Communication: Identity and Culture (with Michael Hecht and Sidney Ribeau). He is editor of African American Communication & Identities: Essential Readings (Sage, 2003). His theory work includes the development of two paradigms called cultural contracts theory and black masculine identity theory.

    Mark Lawrence McPhail, Ph.D., is Professor of Interdisciplinary Studies in the Western College Program at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. He is author of Zen in the Art of Rhetoric: An Inquiry Into Coherence and The Rhetoric of Racism Revisited: Reparations or Separation? His scholarship has been published in Quarterly Journal of Speech, Critical Studies in Mass Communication, and the Howard Journal of Communications, and his creative work has appeared in Dark Horse Magazine and The American Literary Review. His research interests include rhetorical theory and epistemology, language and race relations, and visual communication.

    John M. Murphy, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Speech Communication at the University of Georgia. He studies contemporary public address. His work has appeared in Quarterly Journal of Speech, Rhetoric and Public Affairs, and Presidential Studies Quarterly.

    Kathryn M. Olson, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Communication at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. Her research agenda revolves around rhetoric that constitutes community or involves social controversy. She approaches the related issues from perspectives of argumentation, rhetorical criticism and theory, and public address scholarship. Her work appears in academic journals including Quarterly Journal of Speech and other publications on rhetoric, argument, and communication.

    Emily Plec, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Speech Communication at Western Oregon University. Her research interests include the rhetoric of science and sport, environmental communication, and critical approaches to social justice.

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