New Approaches to Family Practice: Confronting Economic Stress

Books

Nancy R. Vosler

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  • Sage Sourcebooks for the Human Services Series

    Series Editors: ARMAND LAUFFER and CHARLES GARVIN

    Recent Volumes in This Series

    HEALTH PROMOTION AT THE COMMUNITY LEVEL

    edited by NEIL BRACHT

    ELDER CARE: Family Training and Support

    by AMANDA SMITH BARUSCH

    SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE WITH ASIAN AMERICANS

    edited by SHARLENE MAEDA FURUTO, RENUKA BISWAS, DOUGLAS K. CHUNG, KENJI MURASE, & FARIYAL ROSS-SHERIFF

    FAMILY POLICIES AND FAMILY WELL-BEING: The Role of Political Culture

    by SHIRLEY L. ZIMMERMAN

    FAMILY THERAPY WITH THE ELDERLY

    by ELIZABETH R. NEIDHARDT & JO ANN ALLEN

    EFFECTIVELY MANAGING HUMAN SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS

    by RALPH BRODY

    SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES

    by KRIS KISSMAN & JO ANN ALLEN

    SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT: A Family Systems Perspective

    edited by EDITH M. FREEMAN

    SOCIAL COGNITION AND INDIVIDUAL CHANGE: Current Theory and Counseling Guidelines

    by AARON M. BROWER & PAULA S. NURIUS

    UNDERSTANDING AND TREATING ADOLESCENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    by PHILIP P. MUISENER

    EFFECTIVE EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS: A Guide for EAP Counselors and Managers

    by GLORIA CUNNINGHAM

    COUNSELING THE ADOLESCENT SUBSTANCE ABUSER: School-Based Intervention and Prevention

    by MARLENE MIZIKER GONET

    TASK GROUPS IN THE SOCIAL SERVICES

    by MARIAN FATOUT & STEVEN R. ROSE

    WHAT ABOUT AMERICA'S HOMELESS CHILDREN? Hide and Seek

    by PAUL G. SHANE

    NEW APPROACHES TO FAMILY PRACTICE: Confronting Economic Stress

    by NANCY R. VOSLER

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Figures

    • 1.1. Social Science Theory Building
    • 2.1. The Family As Social System
    • 2.2. Multilevel Social Systems Model
    • 2.3. Components of Social Systems
    • 2.4. ABCX Model of Family Stress and Coping
    • 2.5. Family Transition Process Following a Stressor Event
    • 3.1. Symbols Used in Genograms
    • 3.2. A Multigenerational Genogram
    • 3.3. The Ecomap
    • 3.4. Ecomap of a Specific Household
    • 3.5. Monthly Household Income and Expenses
    • 3.6. Smith Family Time Line
    • 4.1. Family System Equilibrium
    • 4.2. Ecomap: Roles and Potential Role Overload
    • 4.3. Multilevel Factors in Family Member Outcomes
    • 5.1. 1993 Smith Family Genogram
    • 5.2. 1993 Smith Family Ecomap
    • 5.3. Family Budget (Weekly or Monthly)
    • 5.4. Household Time and Tasks Management
    • 6.1. Key Factors for Understanding Laid-Off Workers and Their Families
    • 7.1. 1995 Smith Family Budget (Yearly)
    • 7.2. 1995 Smith Household Time and Tasks
    • 8.1. 1995 U.S. Annual Poverty-Line Income for a Family of Four
    • 8.2. Monthly Poverty-Line “Budget” for a Family of Four (1995)
    • 8.3. Number of Persons Below the Official Poverty Line, 1959–1990 (in thousands)
    • 8.4. Multiple Stressors Associated With Poverty in an Urban Ghetto Neighborhood
    • 9.1. Jones Family Genogram
    • 9.2. Jones Family: Scenario 1 Ecomap
    • 9.3. Jones Family: Scenario 2 Ecomap
    • 9.4. Family Access to Basic Resources (FABR)
    • 9.5. Household Ecomap: Family Connected to Resources and Currently Stable
    • 9.6. Household Ecomap: Family Unconnected to Resources and Stressed
    • Appendix: Ang Mo Kio Family Service Centres Research Forms

    Preface

    After searching for a number of years for a family practice text that directly addresses social work with families confronting issues of poverty, unemployment, and work-related stress, I finally decided to write this book. I will be using it in my masters'-level theory for practice family course at the George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University in St. Louis. I am confident that it can be used equally well as a text in MSW foundation-level practice overview courses, in family-focused human behavior courses, in advanced family practice courses, and in human behavior and practice courses at the undergraduate level. In addition, concepts and summaries of literature should be useful in applied non-social-work courses dealing with the family. The theoretical material has already been successfully used outside of the United States in a training course for family service staff in Asia.

    The core impetus for writing the book came from the realization that a basic assumption of current family systems practice—including family therapy and family preservation models—is flawed. The flawed assumption is “If the family system changes, [all] significant problems can be resolved.” Having worked in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems in inner-city urban neighborhoods for a number of years, I know from experience that high unemployment, poverty, poor housing, crime, and lack of accessible services create barriers to effective work with both individuals and families. I've often said that in my quest for understanding effective direct practice, I have been driven to consider macro systems and structures.

    When I returned to formal schooling in 1980—with the career goal of earning a PhD for teaching social work—I had the opportunity to immerse myself in two very exciting sets of literature: (a) systemic family therapy models—Bowen, Haley, Minuchin, Satir, and others—and (b) social science-based family studies—arising in large measure from the work of members of the National Council on Family Relations (NCFR) and NCFR publications, Journal of Marriage and the Family, Family Relations, and Journal of Family Issues. Since the early 1980s, I have taught family theory and practice courses on a regular basis. I have for a long time been frustrated, however, with how to teach a course that combines material from these two sets of literature and what text or combinations of texts to use. Such books as Hartman and Laird's (1983) Family-Centered Social Work Practice, Carter and McGoldrick's (1988) The Changing Family Life Cycle, and Walsh's (1993) Normal Family Processes are excellent sources for teaching students to think about family systems as well as to begin to assess problems and patterns for the purpose of planning interventions. But the “family therapy” approach to family practice seems to assume that services and structures necessary for healthy family functioning are in place and simply need to be accessed and mobilized by the family or the clinician. In this regard, it is perhaps crucial to note that a number of the family therapy models were developed out of work with white middle-class families who indeed often do have access to essential economic and service resources—resources that I am convinced must be developed for all families in our many demographically varied and rapidly changing societies across the globe.

    Some family practice authors—notably Bowen, Minuchin, Boyd-Franklin, and others—have called attention to the impact of intersystem conflicts in larger systems on the problems and patterns seen in troubled families and have noted the need for cooperation among professionals and coordination of services. The theoretical connections to changes in larger systems—particularly economic changes resulting in work stress, unemployment, and increasing poverty, detailed by family-oriented social science research studies—have not been highlighted or adequately incorporated into family practice models, however.

    Thus, I argue in this book that both thinking about problems and, especially, targeting interventions must increasingly become “multilevel”—that is, focused not on family systems alone but equally on neighborhoods and local communities, and on policies and structures at state, national, and global levels. I present and discuss case examples of effective new practice approaches and delineate tools for multilevel assessment and intervention.

    In my courses, I will certainly continue to use other texts in conjunction with this book—including both the NCFR decade reviews of family research and family practice classics. But I am convinced that in the ongoing social, economic, political, and cultural changes in the United States, to practice effectively, social workers and other human service professionals must be able to conceptualize their direct practice work within an understanding of larger systems and structures and of needed change. Just as the family therapy movement gave birth to the shift from focusing exclusively on treating the individual to “seeing” the person in the context of family patterns and needed changes, so must social workers and other human service professionals now work to shift both their own and fellow citizens' thinking from an exclusive focus on “fixing” families—to seeing individuals and families in the context of larger systems and necessary multilevel change. If this book contributes to a shift in current thinking in family practice toward incorporating this multilevel approach, I'll consider the endeavor a success.

    Acknowledgments

    This book has been “a long time coming” and would not have been possible without the help, support, and encouragement of many, many people.

    Robert Green at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Social Work introduced me to family systems thinking and simultaneously to the importance of theory and empirical research for practice knowledge development. He also read and commented extensively on a first draft of the manuscript and encouraged me to complete the project. Others who especially nurtured my early learning regarding families and knowledge building for practice have included Martin Bloom, Katharine Briar, Anne Fortune, and Ann Hartman.

    The community of scholars at the George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University in St. Louis has provided the environment of intellectual challenge and support within which my thinking has developed and come to this stage of fruition. Dean Shanti Khinduka has given encouragement, several faculty research awards, and a sabbatical leave during which I was able to begin the long task of getting ideas onto paper. Faculty colleagues have discussed ideas, read and commented on drafts, and believed the project could be completed. I particularly want to thank Larry Davis, Therese Dent, Shanta Pandey, Enola Proctor, Mark Rank, Michael Sherraden, and Gautam Yadama.

    Washington University MSW, PhD, and undergraduate students, in classes and individually, have helped to shape my questions and ideas. Then-PhD-student Deborah Page-Adams collaborated on an unemploy-ment research project and read and commented on a draft of chapters. Cynthia Rocha and I had long conversations about families and poverty. MSW students Pamela Fitch, Karen Krischker, and Jennifer Johnson assisted with literature searches; Shirley Crenshaw read a draft and made very helpful suggestions.

    My thinking has also been profoundly influenced by opportunities for collaboration with practitioners both in St. Louis and in Singapore. Jean Caine read an early draft and encouraged me to continue with the project. Janice Olson of Provident Counseling provided invaluable suggestions and detailed feedback on the manuscript. In Singapore, collaboration with Sudha Nair, Myrna Blake, Pang Kee Tai, Suraya, Ng Guat Tin, and others at The Ang Mo Kio Family Service Centres allowed me to reflect on both family diversity and common human realities.

    Production of the manuscript would not have been possible without the support of David Cronin, and the able and patient assistance of Vivian Westbrook, Lisa Mathis, Suzanne Fragale, and Jennica Dotseth. I also want to thank Rhonda Winstead for her magical computer work on the graphics.

    I deeply appreciate the encouragement and guidance I have received from Series Editor Charles Garvin and from Jim Nageotte at Sage Publications.

    Finally, I want to thank my extended families—the Benoits, Days, Rose-Cooks, Roses, Smith-Voslers, Thompsons, and Voslers—for “being there” in my reflections on families and society. Most of all, I want to thank my husband, Mike, for believing from the very beginning that this undertaking was important and doable. His support, encouragement, and optimism in the face of frustrations and inevitable detours have seen me through to the successful completion of this project.

    Research for this book was supported by a faculty research award by the George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University, St. Louis.

    Excerpts from Poor Support: Poverty In The American Family by David T. Ellwood. Copyright © 1988 by Basic Books, Inc. Reprinted by permission of BasicBooks, a division of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.

    From Living On The Edge by Robert Mark Rank. Copyright © 1994 by Columbia University Press. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

    NancyR.Vosler
  • Appendix: Ang Mo Kio Family Service Centres Research Forms

    Developed by Nair, Blake, and Vosler (1993). Also being used, with permission, is an adapted form of Taynor, Nelson, and Daugherty's (1990) Family Intervention Scale.

    Included are:

    • Time 1 (Intake), Form 1
    • Time 1 (Intake), Form 2
      • Time 2 (6 Months), Form 1
      • Time 3(1 Year), Form 1
      • Case Closing, Form 2
    • Time 2 (6 Months), Time 2
      • Time 3(1 Year), Form 2
      • Case Closing, Form 3
    • Case Closing, Form 1

    Time 1 (Intake), Form 1

    ID#:_____

    Family:_____

    Worker:_____

    Date opened (mo/yr):_____

    Reopened?:_____ Yes(1)
    _____ No (New case)(0)

    Referral source (Please check one only):

    _____Husband(1)
    _____Wife(2)
    _____Child(3)
    _____Other family member(4)
    _____Friend(5)
    External System:
    _____HDB(6)
    _____PUB(7)
    _____Town Council(8)
    _____School(9)
    _____Hospital(10)
    _____Police(11)
    _____MP(12)
    _____Other (Please specify:_____)(13)

    Who made the 1st contact? (Please check one only):

    _____The family(1)
    _____AMKFSC(0)

    For the initial contact, where was/were family member(s) seen? (Please check one only):

    _____Family's home(0)
    _____AMKFSC(1)
    _____Other (Please specify:_____)(9)

    Presenting problem (Please check one only):

    _____HDB arrears(1)
    _____Financial(2)
    _____Family/marital(3)
    _____Behavioral(4)
    _____Childcare/BASIC(5)
    _____Employment(6)
    _____Other (Please specify:_____)(7)

    Husband's Ethnicity (Please circle one only):

    • Chinese
    • Malay
    • Indian
    • Eurasian
    • Other (Please specify:_____)

    Wife's Ethnicity (Please circle one only):

    • Chinese
    • Malay
    • Indian
    • Eurasian
    • Other (Please specify:_____)

    Time 1 (Intake), Form 2

    Time 2 (6 Months), Form 1

    Time 3 (1 Year), Form 1

    Time 4 (2 Years), Form 1

    Case Closing, Form 2

    [Please circle one above]

    ID#:_____

    Family Intervention Scale:

    • Family Roles
    • Social Support
    • Physical Maintenance
    • Community Resources
    • Emotional Well-Being

    (Please check if form has been turned in):_____

    Date of birth (mo/yr):

    Husband:_____/_____

    Wife:_____/_____

    Date of Birth:Gender (circle one):
    Child #1_____/_____m/f
    Child #2_____/_____m/f
    Child #3_____/_____m/f
    Child #4_____/_____m/f
    Child #5_____/_____m/f
    Child #6_____/_____m/f
    Child #7_____/_____m/f
    Child #8_____/_____m/f
    Child #9_____/_____m/f
    Child #10_____/_____m/f

    Total number of members in current household:_____

    (Breakdown of this Total:)

    Husband?_____Yes(1)
    _____No(0)
    Wife?_____Yes(1)
    _____No(0)

    # of their children:_____

    # of extended family adults:_____

    # of extended family children:_____

    Other (Please specify:_____):_____

    Total monthly household expenses:$_____

    (Breakdown of this Total monthly household expenses:)

    Housing/HDB:$_____
    Utilities/PUB:$_____
    SC/CC:$_____
    Telephone:$_____
    Marketing/Food:$_____
    Groceries:$_____
    Transportation:
    For work:$_____
    For school:$_____
    For other:$_____
    Childcare:$_____
    Education:
    School fees:$_____
    Other school expenses/allowances$_____
    Medical:$_____
    Clothing, personal care:$_____
    Other (e.g., family obligations, debt or loan repayment(s), lunch(es) at work, family outings, recreation):
    Please specify:
    __________________$
    ____________________$
    ____________________$
    ____________________$
    Total monthly household cash income:$_____

    (Breakdown of this Total monthly household cash income:)

    Husband: $_____

    Wife: $_____From other family member(s): $_____

    Subsidy (e.g., P.A.): $_____

    Other:

    (Please specify:_____) $_____

    Monthly household cash income range:

    Lowest monthly household cash income: $_____

    Highest monthly household case income: $_____

    Non-financial assistance? (e.g., food, child-care):_____No (0)
    _____Yes (1)
    Total household debts:$_____

    Marital status (Please circle one only):

    1. Married2. Widowed
    3. Divorced4. Separated
    5. Never married
    6. Other (Please specify:_____)
    Did either family-of-origin object to the marriage?:_____No (0)
    _____Yes(1)

    Husband's religion (Please circle one only):

    1. Muslim2. Hindu
    3. Buddhist4. Taoist
    5. Jewish6. Christian: Catholic
    7. Christian: Protestant8. No religion
    9. Other (Please specify:_____)

    Wife's religion (Please circle one only):

    1. Musli2. Hindu
    3. Buddhist4. Taoist
    5. Jewish6. Christian: Catholic
    7. Christian: Protestant8. No religion
    9. Other (Please specify:_____

    Husband's education (Please circle one only):

    1. No formal education2. Primary
    3. Secondary, ‘N’ level4. Secondary, ‘O’ level
    5. ‘A’ level6. VITB
    7. Polytechnic8. University
    9. Other (Please specify:_____)

    Wife's education (Please circle one only):

    1. No formal education2. Primary
    3. Secondary, ‘N’ level4. Secondary, ‘O’ level
    5. ‘A’ level6. VITB
    7. Polytechnic8. University
    9. Other (Please specify: _____)

    Citizenship:

    Husband a Singapore Citizen?:_____Yes (1)
    _____No (0)
    Wife a Singapore Citizen?:_____Yes(1)
    _____No (0)

    Flat Type (Please circle one only):

    1. One room2. Two room
    3. Three room4. Four room
    5. Five room
    6. Other (Please specify:_____)
    Own or rent? (Please check one only):_____rent (0)
    own (1)

    Husband's current occupation (Please circle one only):

    • Professional
    • Technical
    • Sales & clerical
    • Craftsman, such as electrician, plumber
    • Production
    • Service, such as police, hospital attendant, beautician
    • Manual, such as cleaner, sweeper, grasscutter
    • Homemaker
    • Retired
    • Student (in school)
    • Other (Please specify:_____)

    Wife's current occupation (Please circle one only):

    • Professional
    • Technical
    • Sales & clerical
    • Craftsman, such as electrician, plumber
    • Production
    • Service, such as police, hospital attendant, beautician
    • Manual, such as cleaner, sweeper, grasscutter
    • Homemaker
    • Retired
    • Student (in school)
    • Other (Please specify:_____)

    Husband's current employment (Please circle one only):

    • Regular wage earner
    • Unemployed and looking for work
    • Unemployed and not looking for work
    • Part-time wage earner
    • Irregular wage earner
    • Homebased wage earner
    • Other (Please specify:_____)

    Wife's current employment (Please circle one only):

    • Regular wage earner
    • Unemployed and looking for work
    • Unemployed and not looking for work
    • Part-time wage earner
    • Irregular wage earner
    • Homebased wage earner
    • Other (Please specify:_____)

    General Problems Checklist (Please check ALL that apply):

    I. Family, marital, and parental roles:

    _____Marital conflict

    _____Extra-marital relationship(s)

    _____Isolated adolescent parents

    _____Communication problems

    _____Unplanned children

    _____Spousal abuse

    _____Physical fighting between parents (violence)

    _____School difficulties (child)

    _____Child(ren) behavior problem(s)

    _____Parent-child conflict

    _____Lack of parenting skills (e.g., behavior management, discipline)

    _____Physical abuse of child(ren)

    _____Sexual abuse of child(ren)

    II. Social support:

    _____Conflict with extended family member(s)

    _____Conflict with workmates

    _____Conflict with friends

    _____Conflict with neighbors

    _____Lack of stable child care

    _____Lack of before/after school supervision

    _____Conflict with child caregiver(s)

    _____Lack of elder care

    _____Conflict with elder caregiver(s)

    _____Lack of disabled (household member) care

    _____Conflict with disabled (household member) caregiver(s)

    III. Physical maintenance:

    _____Unstable housing (HDB, PUB, Town Council, TELECOM)

    _____Debt(s) to family and/or friends

    _____Debts and/or credit owed to loan sharks, money lenders,

    or other creditors

    _____Budgeting and/or money management problems

    _____Unstable income

    _____Household management problem (e.g., unclean apartment,

    laundry not done)

    _____Nutrition problem for child(ren)

    _____Nutrition problem for adult(s)

    _____Housing maintenance problem (e.g., repairs not done, unsafe environment)

    IV Community resources:

    _____Low skills for employment

    _____Unemployment

    _____Irregular employment

    _____Conflict with police or court

    _____Conflict with school

    _____Conflict with hospital, clinic, or other medical personnel

    _____Conflict with employer

    _____Conflict with other external systems (e.g., MCD, VWO's);

    (Please specify: ___)

    _____Transportation problem(s)

    (Please specify:_____)

    _____Lack of other resources (e.g., banking, legal aid, cultural/recreation opportunities);

    (Please specify:_____)

    V. Emotional well-being and health:

    _____Acute medical problem for adult(s)

    _____Chronic medical problem for adult(s)

    _____Acute medical problem for child(ren)

    _____Chronic medical problem for child(ren)

    _____Diagnosed mental illness in adult(s)

    _____Diagnosed mental illness in child(ren)

    _____Depressed parent(s)

    _____Hyperactive child(ren)

    _____Learning disabled child(ren)

    _____Disabled parent

    _____Disabled child(ren)

    _____Other disabled family member

    _____Alcohol abuse

    _____Drug use or addiction

    _____Gambling problem

    _____Angry outbursts

    _____Violent outbursts

    _____Expressed sense of hopelessness/helplessness

    _____Suicidal ideation/threats

    _____Suicide attempt

    _____Low IQ (adult)

    _____Low IQ (child)

    _____Other (Please specify:_____)

    Systemic Patterns Checklist (household patterns identified)

    (Please check ALL that apply):

    _____Life cycle transition: first child(ren)

    _____Life cycle transition: school-aged child(ren)

    _____Life cycle transition: adolescent(s)

    _____Life cycle transition: launching young adults

    _____Life cycle transition: newly married couple

    _____Life cycle transition: aging parent(s)’ care

    _____Entrance(s) into the family

    _____Loss (divorce, death)

    _____Enmeshed pattern(s)

    _____Disengaged/distancing pattern(s)

    _____Chaotic/out-of-control pattern(s)

    _____Rigid/closed pattern(s)

    _____Marital communication unclear

    _____Parent-child communication unclear

    _____“Mind-reading” statements

    _____Parent-child coalition(s)

    _____Marital distancing/disengagement

    _____Unclear family roles (who does what)

    _____Unclear family rules (how things are done)

    _____Unrealistic family beliefs

    _____Depressed family “mood”

    _____Hostile family “mood”

    _____Pattern of avoidance

    _____Acute unresolved conflict

    _____Chronic unresolved conflict

    _____Family secrets

    _____Other (Please specify:_____)

    Time 2 (6 Months), Form 2

    Time 3 (1 Year), Form 2

    Time 4 (2 Years), Form 2

    Case Closing, Form 3

    [Please circle one above]

    ID#:_____

    Total number of interviews (at least 30 minutes):_____

    (Breakdown of this Total—with whom:)

    All nuclear family members present:_____

    Some nuclear members present:_____

    Couple only:_____

    Nuclear member(s) plus extended family

    and/or friend:_____

    Individual:_____

    Other (Please specify:_____)

    (Breakdown of Total interviews—where:)

    Home:_____

    Office:_____

    Other (Please specify:_____)

    Social Work Methods Used (Please check ALL that apply):

    _____Client support

    _____Task-oriented (problem-focused) approach

    _____Financial aid (AMKFSC)

    _____Child care (AMKFSC)

    _____BASIC (AMKFSC)

    _____Advocacy and negotiation with external systems

    _____External agencies skills training

    _____Contracting

    _____Referral and follow-up

    _____Household management skills training

    _____Parenting skills training (with 1 person)

    _____Linking

    _____Spousal communication skills training (with 1 person)

    _____Information giving

    _____Other (Please specify:_____)

    Systemic Interventions Checklist (Areas worked on/Interventions used)

    (Please check ALL that apply):

    _____Interpersonal communication training (with 2 or more family members) for clear, direct, empathic/attentive communication

    _____Clear consensus on family roles

    _____Negotiation, compromise, and conflict resolution training

    (with 2 or more family members)

    _____Clear, “up-to-date” consensus on family beliefs

    _____Clear, “up-to-date” consensus on family rules and behaviors

    _____Marital cohesion/alliance

    _____Appropriate autonomy/connection with families-of-origin

    _____Appropriate connecting among family members

    _____Repairing cut-offs

    _____Separating and letting go

    _____Using humor, warmth, and optimism

    _____Restructuring family time

    _____Redrawing boundaries in physical space

    _____Redrawing boundaries in emotional space

    _____Reflecting on and supporting change

    _____Normalizing

    _____Refraining

    _____Paradoxical injunctions

    _____Other (Please specify:_____)

    Client Satisfaction Scale:

    1. How satisfied are you with the services or help you have received froin the Ang Mo Kio Family Service Centre over the past [6 or 12] months? (Please circle one number only):

    2. How satisfied are you with the work your family and the agency social worker (Name:) _______________________________have done over the past [6/12] months? (Please circle one number only):

    What suggestions (if any) do you have to help the agency improve our services to you and other Ang Mo Kio families in the future?:

    Case Closing, Form 1

    ID#:___________

    Date closed (mo/yr): ________/_______

    At case closing, number of workers assigned

    (since case opening):_________

    References

    Aldous, J. (Ed.). (1982). Two paychecks: Life in dual-earner families. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Aldous, J., Ganey, R., Trees, S., & Marsh, L.C. (1991). Families and inflation: Who was hurt in the last high-inflation period?Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 121–334.
    Aldous, J., & Turtle, R.C. (1988). Unemployment and the family. In C.S.Chilman, F.M.Cox, & E.W.Nunnally (Eds.), Employment and economic problems (pp. 14–71). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Anderson, R.E., & Carter, I. (1990). Human behavior in the social environment: A social systems approach (
    4th ed
    .). Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
    Angell, R.C. (1936). The family encounters the Depression. New York: Scribner.
    Armstrong, P.S., & Schulman, M.D. (1990). Financial strain and depression among farm operators: The role of perceived economic hardship and personal control. Rural Sociology, 55(4), 474–593.
    Babbie, E. (1992). renThe practice of social research (6th ed). Belmont, CA: Wads worth
    Bailey, R., & Brake. M. (Eds.). (1975). Radical social work. New York: Pantheon.
    Bakke, E.W. (1940a). Citizens without work: A study of the effects of unemployment upon the workers’ social relations and practices. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Bakke, E.W. (1940b). The unemployed worker: A study of the task of making a living without a job. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
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    About the Author

    NANCY R. VOSLER, MSW, LCSW, PhD, is Associate Professor of Social Work in The George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. Her direct practice experience has focused on child and family welfare, and on community-based services. Her research and publications are in the areas of family systems, support programs, family stress and coping, single-parent households and welfare, unemployment, and poverty. She teaches social policy and family practice courses at Washington University, and also has taught at the National University of Singapore, Longwood College, Virginia Commonwealth University, and Northeastern (Oklahoma) State University. In addition, she has supervised social work students for the University of Queensland (Australia) Department of Social Work. She recently taught staff of Family Service Centres in a Diploma Course entitled “A Systems Approach to Marital and Family Counselling”; the course is offered by the Family Resource and Training Centre, a project developed by the Singapore Association of Social Workers.

    Dr. Vosler is collaborating with staff of The Ang Mo Kio Family Service Centres to study effective family-focused social work practice with low-income families in Singapore. In the United States, her current research interest is nonmarital coparenting, and the development and evaluation of services for nonmarital parents and their children.

    Among her recent publications, she coauthored with Drs. Enola K. Proctor and Larry E. Davis, “Families: Direct Practice,” in the 19th edition (1995) of the Encyclopedia of Social Work (Washington, DC: NASW Press).


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