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Chapter 4: Challenges for International Diplomatic Agents
What is meant by “international negotiation?” Embedded in this phrase are three assumptions: Negotiations occur between groups or countries rather than individuals, which makes the use of agents an imperative; they often occur across cultures (racial, ethnic, religious, national); and they sometimes involve an “agent” of the international community, most often the United Nations, or a mediator from an outside country. Thus, for example, the ending of civil war in El Salvador, although not involving two or more cultures, is considered by most analysts to have been an “international” negotiation.
International negotiations encompass everything from treaty talks about climate change to the establishment of cease–fires and peace accords. They can be bilateral or multilateral; be conducted ...