Negotiating Communication Rights: Case Studies from India

Books

Pradip Ninan Thomas

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    For Ammama with Love

    Thanks from SAGE

    Thank you for choosing a SAGE product! If you have any comment, observation or feedback, I would like to personally hear from you. Please write to me atcontactceo@sagepub.in

    —Vivek Mehra, Managing Director and CEO, SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi

    Bulk Sales

    SAGE India offers special discounts for purchase of books in bulk.

    We also make available special imprints and excerpts from our books on demand.

    For orders and enquiries, write to us at

    Marketing Department

    SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd

    B1/I-1, Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area

    Mathura Road, Post Bag 7

    New Delhi 110044, India

    E-mail us at marketing@sagepub.in

    Get to know more about SAGE, be invited to SAGE events, get on our mailing list. Write today tomarketing@sagepub.in

    This book is also available as an e-book.

    List of Abbreviations

    ADGAdditional Director General
    AIDSAcquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
    AIRAll India Radio
    ALFAlternative Law Forum
    AMARCWorld Association of Community Radio Broadcasters
    APCAssociation for Progressive Communications
    AFSPAArmed Forces Special Powers Act
    BSPBahujan Samaj Party
    BJPBhartiya Janata Party
    BDOBlock Development Officer
    BECILBroadcast Engineering Consultants India Limited
    BOSSBharat Operating Systems Solutions
    BPLBelow Poverty Line
    BRAIBiotechnology Regulatory Authority of India
    BBCBritish Broadcasting Corporation
    BSABusiness Software Alliance
    BtBacillus thuringiensis
    C-DACCentre for Development of Advanced Computing
    CEMCultural Environment Movement
    CEMARDCentre for Protection of Minorities and Against Racism and Discrimination
    CGNetChhattisgarh People's News Site
    CICCentral Information Commission
    CISCentre for Internet & Society
    CJCitizen Journalism
    CMCCommunity Media Centre
    CRFCommunity Radio Forum
    CRCommunication Rights
    CRISCommunication Rights in the Information Society campaign
    CPI-MCommunist Party of India—Marxist
    CSOCivil Society Organisation
    CSPGCivil Society Plenary Group
    CSRChild Sex Ratio
    DAVPDirectorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity
    DDSDeccan Development Society
    DDDoordarshan
    DMKDravida Munnetra Kazhagam
    ELCOTElectronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu Limited
    ENILEntertainment Network India Limited
    ERPEffective Radiated Power
    EEDEvangelischer Entwicklungsdienst
    FOIAFreedom of Information Act
    FOSSFree and Open Source Software
    FOSSCOMFOSS Community Network India
    FMFrequency Modulation
    GATTGeneral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
    GDPGross Development Project
    GGPGlobal Governance Project
    GMGenetically Modified
    GMMPGlobal Media Monitoring Project
    GNUGNU's not Unix
    GPSGlobal Positioning System
    GOPAGrant of Permission Agreement
    HIVHuman Immunodeficiency Virus
    HULHindustan Unilever
    IIPMIndian Institute of Planning Management
    IWMIndian Women's Movement
    I&BInformation & Broadcasting
    IT-BPOInformation Technology–Business Process Outsourcing
    ICANNInternet Consortium for Assigned Names & Numbers
    ICCPRInternational Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
    IDPInternally Displaced People
    INGOInternational Non-governmental Organisation
    IPLIndian Premier League
    ITUInternational Telecommunication Union
    ITU-DInternational Telecommunications Union–Development Sector
    KLKhabar Lahariya
    KMVSKutch Mahila Vikas Sangathan
    MAGPMahiti Adhikar Gujarat Pahel
    MAHYCOMaharashtra Hybrid Seeds Company Limited
    MAITManufacturer's Association for Information Technology
    MBPLMusic Broadcast Private Limited
    MKSSMazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan
    MBCMost Backward Community
    MNCMulti National Corporation
    MLAMember of the Legislative Assembly
    MPMember of Parliament
    MuSHMulti-stakeholder
    NASSCOMNational Association of Software and Services Company
    NCANational Commission for Women
    NBANarmada Bachao Andolan
    NDTVNew Delhi Television
    NEERINational Environmental Engineering Research Institute
    NICNational Informatics Centre
    NOCNo Objection Certificate
    NWMINetwork of Women in Media, India
    NGONon-governmental Organisation
    NREGANational Rural Employment Guarantee Act
    NSMNew Social Movement
    NWICONew World Information and Communication Order
    NWIONew World Information Order
    OASOrganisation of American States
    OBCOther Backward Caste
    PACPublic Affairs Centre
    PARDPeople's Association for Rural Development
    PUCLPeople's Union for Civil Liberties
    PCCPeople's Communication Charter
    PCRPlatform for Communication Rights
    PDSPublic Distribution System
    PRPanchayati Raj
    RJDRashtriya Janata Dal
    RMTResource Mobilisation Theory
    RTIRight to Information
    SEWASelf Employed Women's Association
    SACFAStanding Advisory Committee on Frequency Allocation
    SECState Election Commission
    SEZSpecial Economic Zone
    SJCSchool of Journalism & Communication
    SDISlum/Shack Dweller's International
    SMSShort Message Service
    SPACESociety for Promotion of Alternative Computing and Employment
    STEPSSTEPS Women's Development Organisation
    TNPCBTamil Nadu Pollution Control Board
    TOITimes of India
    TRAITelecommunications Regulatory Authority of India
    TRFThe Restoring Force
    TRIPSTrade Related Intellectual Property Rights
    TRPTarget Rating Point
    UIAIUnique Identity Authority of India
    UDHRUniversal Declaration of Human Rights
    UNDPUnited Nations Development Programme
    UNESCOUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
    UNHCRUnited Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
    UNICEFUnited Nations Children's Fund
    UKUnited Kingdom
    UPUttar Pradesh
    UTCUnited Theological College
    UQUniversity of Queensland
    VOTVoice of Tibet
    WACCWorld Association for Christian Communications
    WFCRWorld Forum for Communication Rights
    WIPOWorld Intellectual Property Organisation
    WPFCWorld Press Freedom Committee
    WPCWireless Planning & Coordination Wing
    WSISWorld Summit on the Information Society
    WTOWorld Trade Organization

    Foreword

    As I am writing this foreword (early December 2010) the need for the recognition of communication rights has rarely been so dramatically demonstrated. The reckless efforts of the US administration and others to stop global access to information in an overheated response to Wikileaks publications and the decision by companies such as Mastercard and Visa to refuse the facilitation of donations to an organisation that furthers transparency and democracy are ominous signals.

    At its core the acceptance of communication rights is a key element in the age-old discussion about whether states should be democratically organised and, if so, to what extent? Communication rights suggest that who govern accept that they are at the service of the governed and that this requires openness and dialogue. The difficulty is that throughout history, most governors had little trust in the people they made decisions for. From the times of Plato to contemporary governments, a dominant attitude has been to consider ordinary people unfit to make relevant public choices. Since most governments do not trust their people they decide to keep many things hidden from them. However, as US President Harry Truman once remarked, secrecy and democracy do not go together.

    In weak, representative democracies people outsource their power to specialists. In strong democracies people take their responsibilities for their actions back. In a strong democracy people are trusted to be the best judges of the quality of their lives. As Benjamin Barber wrote, a strong democracy ‘does not place endless faith in the capacity of individuals to govern themselves, but it affirms … with Theodore Roosevelt that the majority of the plain people will day in and day out make fewer mistakes in governing themselves than any smaller body of men will make in trying to govern them’ (Barber, 2003: 151). The development of strong democracies demands access to and participation in public communication without barriers.

    This implies that granting the freedom to people to communicate is decisive for the quality of a society's democratic governance.

    An important part of this freedom has already been codified in international law. Crucial now are solid procedures, institutions and practices for the implementation of standards and rules that the international community has adopted. But beyond the currently adopted legal provisions there is a pertinent omission: the right to be heard. This is arguably the most contested dimension of the debate on communication rights. It is understandably also a very challenging proposition since it addresses the heart of the contemporary (global) democratic deficit: the refusal to listen to what people have to say, to take their perspectives into account.

    This implies that both the governors and the governed accept that there are always multiple perspectives on any issue, that our own beloved perspective may have to be questioned and that we may have to listen to people who say things we do not want to hear.

    This cannot be forced by legislation. The law is too blunt an instrument to address what is basically a mind-set of openness, multiplicity and a high level of tolerance for uncertainty.

    Communication rights are for adults. They demand that the process of Enlightenment that sets in with the 18th century expectation that humankind can reach maturity and that has not yet been completed, is continued. Foucault wondered ‘whether we will ever reach mature adulthood’ (Waugh, 1992: 107). It is therefore critical to find such inspiring and capable guides as Pradip Thomas for the journey we are all part of.

    Professor CeesHamelink, Burg. Hogguerstraat 279 1064 CP Amsterdam
    References
    Barber, B. (2003). Strong Democracy. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Waugh, P. (1992). Postmodernism. London: Edward Arnold.

    Preface

    The term Communication Rights (CR) refers to a corpus of rights that are integral to the democratisation of communication. Communication rights, as a concept, and as content has been debated, discussed and dare I say muddled over for close to 50 years. There have been occasions when there has been widespread interest in communication rights, as for instance, during the heady days of the New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO) debates at the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) in the late 1970s and more recently, during the Communication Rights in the Information Society (CRIS) campaign linked to the UN sponsored World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) held in Geneva and Tunis in 2003 and 2005, respectively. For the most part though, communication rights, while occasionally in the limelight, have remained in the background. Opinions have been split on whether or not this right requires a formal status in international and national legislations and conventions. In fact, until the mid-1990s, the formal institution of this right was taken for granted. However, in the light of an emerging consensus on the sheer impossibility of formalising this rather complex right, it was felt that opportunities for the operationalisation of this right were best explored in the context of existing communication rights, as for instance on language diversity and cultural diversity that pre-exists in international conventions. With hindsight, the formal institution of this right would have been difficult to operationalise for the simple reason that (a) it, or better, the litany of rights associated with the right to communication covers a multitude of sins—from copyright to media ownership, cultural diversity and other critical issues related to communication and culture. This smorgasbord or masala, is rather cumbersome and it would simply have been impossible to accommodate its diverse strands within a single legislation, and (b) even if it were to be formulated as a stand-alone right, its operationalisation would have been impossible given its threats to the status quo—to global and national media monopolies, copyright regimes and media governance institutions that have routinely ignored the need to democratise communications and who routinely and rather resolutely see no option to market-oriented solutions. Any limits to media ownership is definitely not an issue that Rupert Murdoch will warm to and the idea of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) as a critical foundation for the Information Society will not exactly excite the imaginations of the Microsofts of this world unless they see in such solutions a business opportunity. CR activists are committed to the making of an equitable communications order at global, national and local levels. As an observer of CR movements for nearly three decades, it is clear that it has led a charmed life—marginalised in the immediate post-MacBride period and resurrected during the CRIS campaign (2001–06) resulting in a traction that is visible in UN documents and civil society outputs—while remaining largely invisible but present in a thousand initiatives throughout the world aimed at improving the quality of access, participation, the shaping of media alternatives and cultural environments.

    And yet, in spite of what some would say has been a tortured existence, the CR movement has been shaped by a formidable array of scholars/activists who have nailed their masts on the CR door and who passionately believe that communication rights is an important aspect of human rights. Most of us live in globalised communication environments, in contexts in which our access to information and knowledge and its affordable uses have begun to impact on the quality of lives that we lead. In this context we need more cultural and media diversity not less, more transparency and accountability in the way global media laws are crafted rather than less, more voices than just that of the dominant actors. Foremost among scholars who have made a difference to communication rights are two extraordinary individuals. My late colleague and dear friend Michael Traber, who in many ways, played a pioneering role in shaping this area of research through ceaselessly advocating for communication rights, and Professor Cees Hamelink, who has been a global advocate for communication rights and whose stance on this issue as a public intellectual has been second to none. This book recognises the roles played by these two giants of the CR movement. The World Association for Christian Communication (WACC) has played an important role in globalising communication rights and their Centre for Communication Rights is the culmination of a ‘labour of love’. Philip Lee and the journal Media Development have, of course, played an instrumental role in globalising the CR cause. There are also many friends associated with the CRIS movement that I was involved with and who have made important contributions to communication rights inclusive of Sean O'Siochru and Bruce Girard along with Andrew Calabrese, Mark Raboy, Robert Hackett, Kaarle Nordenstreng and Claudia Padovani among very many others. I see this book as my contribution to a continuing conversation and I thank all those people who have worked in this area, for their ideas, ‘agonisms’ and for their commitment to the cause of communication rights.

    This book can be read as a sequel to—Political Economy of Communications in India: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (Thomas, 2010). While that book primarily dealt with the structures that are an obstacle to the project of communication rights in India, this volume explores the ways in which communication as resistance is making a difference in people's lives. I would like to complete the circle by writing a book on the digital environment in India that provides the context and framework for both communications and communication rights in contemporary India.

    I have increasingly taken the view that for CR movements to make a difference, they simply have to be grounded respond to communication deficits faced by ordinary people. While I have been involved in global media advocacy focused on the reform of global media governance and believe that there is a place for advocacy related to initiatives such as global media governance, the possibilities for real change at local levels are far greater than at a global level. Global advocacy requires a shared identity for any given movement and resourcing in terms of finances and personnel. The CRIS campaign clearly revealed the limits to such a shared identity. Furthermore, it is not always possible for civil society organisations (CSOs) to lobby consistently at the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) or for that matter at the World Trade Organization (WTO) precisely because budgets and other resources are limited. Given that CSOs involved in media-related movements have neither attained ‘critical mass’, such as, say, the environmental movement nor have been able to create larger alliances with non-media groups; opportunities to consistently deal with global media governance have strictly been limited. The CRIS campaign linked to the WSIS remains an exception to this rule, although, even in this case, the synergies did not include non-media groups. Civil society involvement in governance issues related to the Internet Consortium for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) may also be seen as an exception.

    This book is divided into two sections. Section I deals with theory and Section II highlights case studies. The theory section is important not only because communication rights is as much about ‘reflection’ as it is about ‘action’, but also because I have tried to explore an Indian ‘tenor’ for communication rights. I strongly believe that while it is necessary to acknowledge all theorists who have contributed to the theorising of communication rights, it is also necessary to link local practices to local theorists and their theories in order to understand the ‘why’ of communication rights at local levels. The attainment of self-respect, for example, could well be more important for a Dalit involved in the Right to Information (RTI) movement than some vague extension of a human right. The case studies that illustrate the practices of communication rights in India are, in my way of thinking, equally important, precisely because each are grounded in context and reveal a complex political economy of practice. The case studies of CR movements in India include community radio, the FOSS, women and media, citizen journalism and the RTI movements. These are, by no means, the only movements in India involved in extending communication rights. One can certainly make a case for CR movements linked to the differently abled Dalit liberation and the environment among other movements. While each of the five movements highlighted in this book have contributed to the extension of access and enabled participation, the RTI movement's impact has been second to none. Its impact includes the revitalisation of grassroots democracy and the embedding of transparency and accountability in the national imaginary. The fact that it began at grassroots levels as a response to local needs is the key factor behind the success of this movement. I have taken the liberty to describe these five expressions of communication rights as movements despite the fact that not all of them can be considered ‘mature’ in terms of their movement characteristics. Mature movements can be studied in terms of their structures, strategies, collective action, identity and discourses (see Whittier, 2002) and from the perspective of both social movement and new social movement theories. In the case of the five movements described in this volume, the citizen journalism movement is just about beginning to take shape, the women and media movement has been around for a number of years, the community radio movement is being shaped as I write and the FOSS movement is strong in Kerala and is also coming to its own in other states in India. The RTI is, of course, the strongest of the CR movements in India and one can argue that it is second, in terms of extent and reach, to the nationalist movement in colonial India.

    Acknowledgements

    I am thankful to the University of Queensland (UQ) and its School of Journalism & Communications (SJC) for granting me a sabbatical and supporting field work in India during the period—December 2009–March 2010, to colleagues at the SJC, Michael Bromley, Elske van de Fliert and Zala Volcic in particular, and to my students for sharing in my enthusiasm for communication rights.

    My work in India would have been impossible without inputs from so many wonderful human beings. And I would like to especially acknowledge the many people who willingly spared their time to enlighten me on issues and concerns related to CR movements. Fieldwork was an exciting experience that was made all that more enriching for the warmth of strangers. The Jain family, Ashim and Anu Jain and Gautam and Raj, all of whom I had not known earlier, very kindly invited me to spend time at their home and lunch in the company of Aruna Roy and Nikhil Dey. It was an opportunity that I would not have missed for the world and it was a real privilege to meet and chat with both Aruna and Nikhil. Special thanks to Ashis and Munira Sen for invaluable conversations, and Ashis in particular for introducing me to the key people associated with the community radio movement in India and for inviting me to attend community radio workshops including the Asia-Pacific AMARC meeting that was held in Bangalore (now Bengaluru) in February 2010, and for accompanying me on a visit to the community radio station, Namma Dhwani. Ammu Joseph too was very helpful in opening doors for me. I am grateful for the resources and contacts that she shared, and for inviting me to Kozhikode to attend the public events associated with the eighth Network of Women and Media Conference also held in February 2010. Dr Lily for arranging my stay in Kozhikode and for a ‘dosai’ breakfast at her place. There are a number of people in Bengaluru whom I would like to thank, including Sunil Abraham, Pranesh and Nirmita at the Centre for Internet & Society (CIS) and Lawrence Liang from the Alternative Law Forum (ALF). The ALF has an excellent library that I did make full use of. V. Geetha in Chennai for a very stimulating conversation on feminism, women and the media. There are a number of people associated with the MSS Swaminathan Biocentre in Pondicherry (now Puducherry) that I would like to thank, including Mrs Mina Swaminathan who put me in touch with Rosario, Vimal and Thyagarajan. Gaurav Mishra from 20:20 Media for enlightening me on the citizen journalism movement in India. Rajan Varada and Iskra Panevska from UNESCO, New Delhi, and Rajan, in particular, for inviting me to attend the Public Sector Software workshop in Bengaluru. Gargi Sen from Magic Lantern Foundation and her colleagues for conversations and for a superb Bengali lunch. Vibodh Parthasarthi and his colleagues from Jamia Milia Islamia, who are doing important academic work on media policy and governance. The folks at Kriti, New Delhi, for the use of their resource centre. Jasmeen Patheja from Blank Noise. Sashi Kumar from SPACE in Trivandrum for conversations related to the FOSS movement. Sajan Venniyur from Radio Deutschwelle; James Rajasekeran from PARD; Varadesh Hireganga and Vineeth from the Manipal Institute of Communication; Raghu Mainali, a pioneer in the CR movement in Nepal; Esther Kar, my senior at the Madras Christian College and now Additional Director General, News Services Division at All India Radio; Arti Jaiman from Gurgaon Ki Awaaz; Nalini Rajan from the Asian College of Journalism; Vinod Pavarala and Vasuki Belawadi from the University of Hyderabad; Naghuveer Prakash from Radio Kalinjam; Vasanthi Hariprakash from NDTV, Bengaluru; Shanta, Triveni, Ramesh and Vasu from Namma Dhwani; M.K. Rao from the Wireless Planning & Coordination Wing (WPC); the freelance journalist and gender specialist Geeta Araimula; staff at Namma Dhwani; Evangeline and Sam Rajkumar at the United Theological College (UTC), among very many other people who were kind enough with their time and patience. Also Narasimhan from Coimbatore who introduced me to the intricacies of the traditional knowledge movement in India. Last but not least, my sincere thanks to P.V. Satheesh from the Deccan Development Society (DDS) who was in Brisbane in May 2010 attending the World Press Freedom Day hosted by the University of Queensland and with whom I had critical conversations related to food sovereignty, community radio and other issues. I acknowledge that this volume has been shaped by many conversations and is based on inputs from many people.

    Using Bengaluru as my base served me well as I was able to take part in three extremely well organised conferences related to communication rights and meet a variety of CR and other activists from India. I would also like to place on record my thanks to my close friends in Chennai—Ramli, Sushil and Benny in particular, for introducing me to a study circle and to their conversations. Ramli was instrumental in gathering together the class of 1980–82 from the Madras Christian College, many of whom I had not met in years. Similarly meeting up with my dear friend Ramesh (Zamby) after a long gap and with Geeta, Ragani and my godson Pradip made my stay in Bengaluru all that more interesting. To connect where we left off more than a decade ago was simply magic—humanity at its best.

    My thankyous also to friends at SAGE India who have kept their faith in my writings. Special thanks to Elina Majumdar and her team for their encouragement and support.

    Finally, of course, family. A very special thanks to my brother Prem, my sister-in-law Beena and neice Shruthi in Chennai who have time and again demonstrated their knack of making my fieldwork ‘easy’. Beena's enthusiasm for fieldwork is matched by her ability to open doors and I am grateful for her support and confidence in my work over the years. AD72 has always been home and the bond that they have with me is made of a very special glue. Daddy, Mummy, Praveen, Preetha and

    Anna in Coimbatore for their support; Priya, Aji, Joel and Sarah in Delhi for making life in Delhi as comfortable as possible my wife Preetha and children Nitin and Prianka for tolerating my absence from Brisbane but also my work habits in Brisbane! My Aunt Molly and her always-welcoming home away from home in Ooty, Sneha and Mathew in Bengaluru. And my mother Anna—for her unreserved and unlimited love that only a mother can give. This book is for you Ammama.

    Pradip NinanThomas, Brisbane
  • References

    Abraham, S. (n.d.) ‘Response to the Draft National Policy on Open Standards for E-Governance’, Centre for Internet & Society. Available online at http://cis-india.org/advocacy/openness/standards/the-response (accessed on March 16, 2010).
    Aleaz, B. (2010) ‘Community Radio and Empowerment’, Economic & Political Weekly, 45 (16): 29–31.
    Ahmad, A. (2000) Lineages of the Present: Ideology and Politics in Contemporary South Asia. London: Verso.
    Aishwarya, S., R.Sujatha and Aloysius XavierLopez (2010) ‘Women Adapt To Changing Times’, The Hindu, Chennai, March 1.
    All India Radio. Website found at http://www.allindiaradio.org/about1.html.
    Aloysious, G. (2010) Dalit-Subaltern Self-Identifications: Iyothee Thassar & Tamizhan. New Delhi: Critical Quest.
    Anand, S. (2004) ‘Getting Ready for the World's First Women's Only Mosque.’ Available online at http://www.countercurrents.org/gender-anand020904.htm (accessed on March 3, 2010). See also Khanam, Dawood Sharifa (2010) ‘The Tamil Nadu Muslim Women's Jamaat: Who Are We and What Do We Do.' Available online at http://www.mazefilm.de/dokupdf/khanum.pdf (accessed on March 3, 2010).
    Anantharam, A. (2009) ‘East/West Encounters: ‘Indian' Identity and Transnational Feminism in Manushi’, Feminist Media Studies, 9 (4): 461–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680770903233076
    Andrejevic, M. (2008) iSpy: Surveillance and Power in the Interactive Era. Kansas: University Press of Kansas.
    Appadurai, A. (2004) ‘Public Culture’, in V.Das (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Indian Society, pp. 257–72. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Aravamudan, Gita (2010) Interviewed in Kozhikode, Freelance journalist and writer on gender issues, February 27.
    Arnason, J. (1991) ‘Modernity as Project and Field of Tension’, in A.Honneth and H.Joas (eds), Communicative Action, pp. 181–214. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    http://Article19.org (1999) ‘The Public's Right to Know: Principles on Freedom of Information’, Article 19. Available online at http://www.article19.org/pdfs/standards/righttoknow.pdf (accessed on May 24, 2010).
    Banerjee, S. (2010) ‘In Bihar Death for the RTI Activist Who Knew Too Much’, p. 20, The Hindu, Bengaluru Ed., February 21.
    Bangalore Times (insert) in The Times of India, February 26, 2010, pp. 1–8.
    Basu, S. (2001) ‘The Blunt Cutting Edge: The Construction of Sexuality in the Bengali Feminist Magazine Sananda’, Feminist Media Studies, 1 (2): 179–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680770120062123
    Bayly, C.A. (2009) ‘The Indian Ecumene: An Indigenous Public Sphere’, in A.Rajagopal (ed.), The Indian Public Sphere: Readings in Media History, pp. 49–64. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    BBC News (n.d.) ‘Anger as India Shuts FM Station.’ Available online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4860162.stm (accessed on April 20, 2010).
    Beltran, L. R. (1978) ‘TV Etchings in the Minds of Latin Americans: Conservatism, Materialism & Conformism’, International Communications Gazette, 24 (1): 61–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001654927802400107
    Bhattacharya, S. (2007) ‘The Sound of Youth’, Business Today Online, September 11. Available online at http://businesstoday.intoday.in/index.php?issueid=81&id=1583&option=com_content&task=view (accessed on April 26, 2010).
    BhoomiProject (n.d.) Available online at http://www.bhoomi.karnataka.gov.in/ (accessed on January 25, 2011).
    Biotechnology Regulatory Authority (2008) ‘Draft National Biotechnology Regulation Bill’. Available online at http://dbtindia.nic.in/Draft%20NBR%20Act_%2028may2008.pdf (accessed on March 19, 2010).
    Blanton, T. (2002) ‘The World's Right to Know’, Foreign Policy, 131 (July–August): 50–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3183417
    Bose, B. (2008) ‘When the Towel Drops: Sexuality, Censorship and Cinema’, Seminar. Available online at http://www.india-seminar.com/2008/583/583_brinda_bose.htm (accessed on January 25, 2011).
    Brecht, B. (1932) ‘The radio as an Apparatus of Communication, July’. Available online at http://home.freeuk.net/lemmaesthetics/brecht1.htm (accessed on March 19, 2010).
    Buber, M. (1958) I and Thou. Edinburgh: T&T Clark.
    Butler, J. (1990) Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York and London: Routledge.
    Butsch, R. (ed.). (2009) Media and Public Spheres. Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Calabrese, A. (2004) ‘Moving Forward, Looking Back: The MacBride Report Revisited’, Information, Technologies and International Development, 1 (3–4): 51–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/1544752043557297
    Calhoun, C. (ed.). (1993) Habermas and the Public Sphere. Cambridge, Mass./London, England: The MIT Press.
    Carino, L.V. (2008) ‘Collective Governance: An Alternative Model of Third Sector Governance’, in S.Hasan and J.Onyx (eds), Collective Governance: An Alternative Model of Third Sector Governance, pp. 131–50. New York: Springer. Available online at http://www.springerlink.com/content/x1221g6k71411531/fulltext.pdf (accessed on May 22, 2010).
    Carpentier, N., R.Lie and J.Servaes (2007) ‘Multitheoretical Approaches in Community Media: Capturing Specificity and Diversity, in L.K.Fuller (ed.), Community Media: International Perspectives, pp. 219–35. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Chakravarty, A. (2010) ‘Experiencing Sharing’, presented at the South Asia regional Workshop on ‘Software Principles for the Public Sector, with focus on Public Education', February 1–2, 2010, Bengaluru.
    Chakraborty, T. (2008) ‘Women Seeks own Mosques’, The Telegraph Online, May 7, Kolkata. Available online at http://www.telegraphindia.com/1080507/jsp/nation/story_9236894.jsp (accessed on March 3, 2010).
    Chandhoke, N. (2005) ‘Exploring the Mythology of the Public Sphere’, in R.Bhargava and H.Reifeld (eds), Civil Society, Public Sphere and Citizenship: Dialogues and Perceptions, pp. 327–47. New Delhi/London/Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
    Chatterjee, P. (2004) The Politics of the Governed: Reflections on Popular Politics in Most of the World. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Chaudhary, S. (2009) ‘Irom and the Iron in India's Soul’, Tehelka, December 6, 6 (48). Available online at http://www.tehelka.com/story_main43.asp?filename=Ne051209irom_and.asp (accessed on March 12, 2010).
    Choudhary, S. (2009) ‘CGnet and Citizen Journalism in India’, June 1. Available online at http://www.america.gov/st/peopleplace-english/2009/June/20090616175845mlenuhret0.1840588.html (accessed on March 3, 2011).
    Christians, C. (1997) ‘The Ethics of Being in a Communications Context’, in C.Christians and M.Traber (eds), Communication Ethics and Universal Values, pp. 3–23. London/New Delhi: Sage Publications/Thousand Oaks. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243542
    Christians, C. (2008) ‘The One-and-the Many Problem in Communication Ethics’, in P.Lee (ed.), Communicating Peace: Entertaining Angels Unawares, pp. 45–62. Penang/Toronto: Southbound/WACC.
    CIA (2009) The World Factbook. Available online at http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2012.html (accessed on March 15, 2010).
    Cohen, R.L. (1983) ‘Rethinking Social Movements’, Berkeley Journal of Sociology28: 97–113.
    Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia (2009) Consultation on Community Radio Awareness: Background Material. New Delhi: Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
    Corporal, L.L. (2010) ‘Exiled Radio Play a Cat and Muse Game’, Inter-Press Service, May 19. Available online at http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=50719 (accessed on August 26, 2010).
    CRIS. (2002) ‘Communication Rights in the Information Society: The CRIS Campaign’, Media Development, Special Issue on CRIS, 50 (4): 3–4.
    CRIS Campaign (2005) Assessing Communication Rights: A Handbook. London: World Association for Christian Communication.
    CSDS. 2007. State of Democracy in South Asia. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    D'Arcy, J. (1969a) ‘Direct Broadcasting Satellites and the Right to Communicate’, EBU Review, 118: 14–18.
    D'Arcy, J. (1969b) ‘Right to Communicate.’ Available online at http://www.righttocommunicate.org/viewDocument.atm?sectionName=human&id=15 (accessed on Febraury 11, 2010).
    D'Aveni, R.A. (2004) ‘Corporate Spheres of Influence’, MIT Sloan Management Review, 45 (4): 38–46.
    D'Monte, L. (2008) ‘Microsoft “Cajoles” Indian NGOs to Support OOXML’, Rediff India Abroad, March 7. Available online at http://www.rediff.com/money/2008/mar/07ms.htm (accessed on March 16, 2010).
    Dakroury, A., M.Eid and Y.R.Kamalipour, (eds) (2009) The Right to Communicate: Historical Hopes, Global Debates, and Future Promise. Dubuque: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.
    Das, S.K. (2004) Three Case Studies: Media Coverage on Forced Displacement in Contemporary India. Kolkatta: Mahanirban Calcutta Research Group. Available online at http://www.mcrg.ac.in/mediareport2.htm (accessed on May 6, 2010).
    DDS: Deccan Development Society (n.d.) ‘About Us.’ Available online at http://www.ddsindia.com/www/default.asp (accessed on April 26, 2010).
    De, Rahul (2009) ‘Economic Impact of Free and Open Source Software in India: A Study in India’, IIM-Bangalore, September. Available online at http://www.iimb.ernet.in/~rahulde/RD_FOSSRep2009.pdf (accessed on March 16, 2010).
    DeccanHerald (2010) ‘Women's Bill Cleared’, p. 1, Deccan Herald, February 26, Bengaluru.
    Della Porta, D. and M.Diani (1999) Social Movements: In Introduction. Oxford/UK, Malden/USA: Blackwell Publishers.
    De Souza, P.R., S.Palshikar and Y.Yadav (2008) ‘The Democracy Barometers: Surveying South Asia,’, Journal of Democracy, 19 (1): 84–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jod.2008.0008
    Desai, R. (2002) Slouching towards Ayodhya. New Delhi: Three Essays Press.
    Dhar, A. (2010) ‘Cabinet Nod for Women's Bill’, The Hindu, Bengaluru Ed., February 26.
    Dhar, A. (2010) ‘NCW Writes to Ministry on Show Featuring Rahul Mahajan’, p. 20, The Hindu, Bengaluru Ed., February 2.
    Dhara, T. (2006) ‘The Khushboo Case File: Reverse Culture Jamming’, pp. 388–400, The Sarai Reader 2006: Turbulence.
    Dhawan, H. (2010) ‘Road Cleared for Reserving 33% of All MP, MLA Seats for Women’, p. 1, The Times of India, Bengaluru Ed., February 26.
    Divekar, V.D. (1978) ‘Survey of Material in Marathi on the Economic and Social History of India–4’, Indian Economic & Social History Review, 15 (4): 467–503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001946467801500403
    Draft Manual of Patent Procedure and Practice, The Patent Office India (2008) Controller General of Patents, Designs & Trademarks in India. Available online at http://www.patentoffice.nic.in/ipr/patent/DraftPatent_Manual_2008.pdf (accessed on March 17, 2010).
    http://Expressbuzz.com (2010) ‘RTI Papers Reveal Dilution in Remediation Standard.’ Available online at http://expressbuzz.com/Cities/Chennai/rti-papers-reveals-dilution-in-remediation-stand/154547.html (accessed on March 8, 2011).
    FOSSCOM (2009) The Draft Recommended Policy on Open Standards for e-Governance, Version 2.4, November 25, Government of India Ministry of Communications & Information Technology Department of Information Technology. Available online at http://fosscomm.in/OpenStandards?action=AttachFile&do=view&target=Draft+Recommended+policy+on+Open+Standards+for+e-Governance.pdf (accessed on March 16, 2010).
    Fraser, N. (1990) ‘Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy’, Social Text, 25 (26): 56–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/466240
    Fraser, N. (2003) ‘Social Justice in the Age of Identity Politics: Redistribution, Recognition, and Participation, in N.Fraser and A.Honneth (eds), Redistribution or Recognition? A Politico-philosophical Exchange, pp. 7–109. London: Verso.
    Freire, P. (1971) ‘A Few Notions about the Word “Conscientization”’, Hard Cheese, 1: 23–28.
    Freire, P. (1993) ‘Foreword’, in P.McLaren and P.Leonard (eds), Paulo Freire: A Critical Encounter, pp. ix–xii. New York: Routledge.
    Friends of Tibet India (n.d.) “Save the Hindu Campaign.” Available online at http://www.friendsoftibet.org/save/ (accessed on August 25, 2010).
    Gallagher, M. (2001) ‘The Push and Pull of Action and Research in Feminist Media Studies’, Feminist Media Studies, 1 (1): 11–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680770120042774
    Garrett, J.E. (1978) ‘Hans-Georg Gadamer on “Fusion of Horizons”’, Man & World, 11 (3–4): 392–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01251946
    http://Groundviews.org (n.d.) Available online at http://www.groundviews.org/about/ (accessed on March 3, 2011).
    Geetha, V. and S.V.Rajadurai (1998) Towards a Non-Brahmin Millennium: From Iyothee Thass to Periyar. Kolkata: Samya.
    George, C. and R.Raman (2008) ‘When Big Media Meet “We” Media in Singapore’, Australian Journalism Review, 30 (2): 61–73.
    Ghosh, S. (2005) ‘The Troubled Existence of Sex and Sexuality: Feminists Engage with Censorship’, in M.Khuller (ed.), Writing the Women's Movement: A Reader, pp. 482–512. New Delhi: Zubaan.
    Golding, P. (1977) ‘Media Professionalism in the Third World: The Transfer of an Ideology’, in J.Curran, M.Gurevitch and J.Woollacott (eds), Mass Communication and Society, pp. 291–308. London: Edward Arnold/Open University Press.
    Golding, P. and P.Elliot (1979) Making the News. London and New York: Longman.
    Gunawardena, N. (2005) ‘Communication Rights and Wrongs’, SciDevNet. Available online at http://www.scidev.net/Opinions/index.cfm?fuseaction=readopinions&itemid=447&language=1 (accessed on July 13, 2009).
    Guru, G. (n.d.) ‘Jan Sunwai: A New Instrument of Democracy in India’, Democracy Asia http://www.democracy-asia.org/casestudies_studies_gopal_guru.htm (accessed on February 11, 2008).
    Habermas, J. (1981) ‘New Social Movements’, Telos, 49 (Fall): 31–37.
    Habermas, J. (1989) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Enquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
    Hackett, R.A. and W.K.Carroll (2006) Remaking Media: The Struggle to Democratise Public Communication. New York and London: Routledge.
    Hamelink, C.J. (1984) Transnational Data Flows in the Information Age. Lund: Studentlitteratur.
    Hamelink, C.J. (1994) The Politics of World Communication. London/ Thousand Oaks/ New Delhi: Sage Publications.
    Hamelink, C.J. and J.Hoffman (2008) ‘The State of the Right to Communicate Global’, Media Journal, 7 (13): 1–24.
    Harms, L.S. (2001) ‘The Right to Communicate: Towards Explicit Recognition’, Intermedia, 21 (5–6): 32–35.
    Harris, P. (1976) ‘An analysis of the West African Wire Service of an International News Agency’, paper presented at the IAMCR Conference, Leicester.
    Hegde, R.S. (2001) ‘Global Makeovers and Maneuvers: Barbie's Presence in India’, Feminist Media Studies, 1 (1): 129–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680770120042918
    hooks, b. (1993) ‘Bell Hooks Speaking about Paulo Freire–The Man, His Work’, in P.McLaren and P.Leonard (eds), Paulo Freire: A Critical Encounter, pp. 146–54. New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203420263_chapter_7
    Howe, J. (2006) ‘The rise of Crowdsourcing’, Wired, 14 (6), June. Available online at http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.06/crowds.html (accessed on April 11, 2009).
    Howell, J. (2002) ‘Making Civil Society from the Outside-Challenges for Donors’, The European Journal of Development Research, June, 12 (1): 3–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09578810008426750
    Human Rights Initiative: Manipur (n.d.) Meire Paibis. Available online at http://www.hrimanipur.org/meira-pibis.html (accessed on March 12, 2010).
    Human Rights Watch (n.d.) Malaysia's Treatment of Undocumented Rohingya, Human Rights Watch Report. Available online at http://www.hrw.org/hrw/reports/2000/malaysia (accessed on June 23, 2005).
    Ideosync Media Combine (n.d.) ‘Projects V: Community media and technology Access.’ Available online at http://www.ideosyncmedia.org/Community_Media_Technology_Access.htm (accessed on April 27, 2010).
    http://IndiaEduNews.Net (2009) ‘Gujarat Govt. joins hands with Microsoft to empower education sector’, India http://EduNews.Net. January 16. Available online at http://www.indiaedunews.net/Gujarat/Gujarat_Govt._joins_hand_with_Microsoft_to_empower_education_sector_7193/ (accessed on March 19, 2010).
    Infochange, Right to Information (2009) ‘Karnataka best in RTI implementation, WB worst’, 26 October. Available online at http://infochangeindia.org/200910267999/Right-to-Information/News/Karnataka-best-in-RTI-implementation-WB-worst.html (accessed on April 19, 2010).
    Information Technology Policy: Towards an Inclusive Knowledge Society (2007) Government of Kerala. Available online at http://www.catfoss.kerala.gov.in/pdf/ITPolicy-2007.pdf (accessed on March 16, 2010).
    IT@School. Department of General Education, Government of Kerala, Available online at http://itschool.gov.in/otherprograms.php#3 (accessed on March 16, 2010).
    Iyer, R. (1986) The Moral and Political Basis for Gandhi's Writings. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Jacobson, T. (1998) ‘Discourse Ethics and the Right to Communicate’, International Communication Gazette, 60 (5): 395–413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0016549298060005003
    Janus, N.Z. (1977) ‘Research on Sex-roles in the Mass Media: Toward a Critical Approach’, Critical Sociology, 7 (1): 19–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089692057700700302
    Jax Magazine (2008) ‘India's Opposition to Open XML Standardisation Disappoints Major IT Companies’, March 25. Available online at http://www.jaxmag.com/itr/news/psecom,id,41114,nodeid,146.html (accessed on January 25, 2011).
    Jenkins, H. (2006) Convergence Culture: Where New and Old Media Collide. New York: New York University.
    Jenkins, R. (2007) ‘Civil Society versus Corruption’, Journal of Democracy, 18 (2): 55–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jod.2007.0026
    Jenkins, R. and A.M.Goetz (1999) ‘Accounts and Accountability: Theoretical Implications of the Right-to-Information Movement in India’, Third World Quarterly, 20 (3): 603–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01436599913712
    Jha, V., S.Gupta, J.Nedumpra and K.Karthikeyan (2003) ‘Trade Liberalisation and Poverty in India’, UNCTAD. Available online at http://www.unctadindia.org/InternationalConferenceOnDevelopmentInOpenEconomies_UNCTADReport.pdf (accessed on January 27, 2011).
    Jishnu, L. (2009) ‘How Microsoft is “Using” India's Skewed Patent Laws’, Rediff Business, December 24. Available online at http://business.rediff.com/special/2009/dec/24/tech-spec-how-microsoft-is-using-indias-skewed-patent-laws.htm (accessed on March 19, 2010).
    John, M.E., R.Kaur, R.Palriwala and S.Raju (2009) ‘Dispensing with Daughters: Technology, Society, Economy in North India’, Economic & Political Weekly, 44 (15): 16–19.
    Joseph, A. (2000) Women in Journalism: Making News. New Delhi: Konark Publishers.
    Joseph, A. (2005) Making News, Women in Journalism. New Delhi: Penguin.
    Joseph, A. (2008) ‘Gender and Media: An Overview’, pp. 1–9, paper presented at the Symbiosis University, Pune, August 25, 2008.
    Joseph, A. and K.Sharma (2006) Whose News: The Media & Women's Issues. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
    Joseph, A., V.Kannabiran, L.Kumari, R.Menon and G.Salvi (2004) The Right to Write: Gender-based Censorship and the Right to Communicate in India, in P.Lee (ed.), Many Voices, One Vision: The Right to Communicate in Practice, pp. 89–111. Penang/London: Southbound/WACC.
    Joshi, K. (2006) ‘Irom's Iron in the Soul’, Tehelka, March 25. Available online at http://www.tehelka.com/story_main17.asp?filename=Cr032506_Iroms_iron.asp (accessed on March 12, 2010).
    Joshi, U., A.Pahad and A.Maniar (2006) Images of Women in print media: A Research Enquiry’, Indian Media Studies Journal, 1 (1): 39–51.
    Kannabiran, K. (2009) ‘The Law, Gender and Women’, Economic & Political Weekly, 44 (44): 33–35.
    Kapoor, I. (2002) ‘Capitalism, Culture, Agency: Dependency versus Postcolonial Theory, Third World Quarterly, 23 (4): 647–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0143659022000005319
    Karlekar, M. (2005) Visualising Indian Women, 1875–1947. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Kasinathan, G. (2009) ‘ICTs in School Education-Outsourced Versus Integrated Approach’, Policy Brief. Bengaluru: IT for Change.
    Keck, M.E. and K.Sikkink (1998) Activists Beyond Borders. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
    Kelly, O. (1984) Community, Art and the State: Storming the Citadels. London: Comedia Publishing Group.
    Kelty, C.M. (2008) Two Bits: The Cultural Significance of Free Software. Durham/London: Duke University Press.
    Kemp, P., P.Perraudin and S.Findley (1997) ‘Another Language for the Other: From Kierkegaard to Levinas’, Philosophy & Social Criticism, 2 (6): 5–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019145379702300602
    Kern, T. and S.Nam (2009) ‘The Making of a Social Movement: Citizen Journalism in South Korea’, Current Sociology, 57 (5): 637–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011392109337649
    Kiely, R. (1999) ‘The Last Refuge of the Noble Savage? A Critical Assessment of Post-Development Theory’, European Journal of Development Research, 11(1): 30–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09578819908426726
    Kishwar, M.P. (2008) Zealous Reformers. Deadly Laws: Battling Stereotypes. New Delhi/London/Singapore/ Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
    Kohli-Khandekar, V. (2006) The Indian Media Business. New Delhi/London/Thousand Oaks: Response Books, a Division of Sage Publications.
    Kravets, D. (2009) ‘Copyright Owners Fight Plan to Release E-books for the Blind’, Wired Magazine, December 11.
    Kulkarni, P. (2010) ‘RTI for the road’, p. 10, Sunday Express, Delhi Ed., April 18, 2010.
    Kumar, D. (2006) ‘Software Patents: Background, Discussion and Illustration of harm’, April 26. Available online at http://foss.org.my/projects/papers/Software_Patents.pdf (accessed on March 17, 2010).
    Kumar, R. (2006) ‘Exiled Burmese Urge India to Rethink Its Burma Policy’, One World South Asia, November 28. Available online at http://www.openspaceforum.net/twiki/tiki-print_article.php?articleId=195 (accessed on January 25, 2011).
    Kurup, D. (2010) ‘An Open Answer to Office’ (15), The Hindu, Chennai Ed., March 14.
    Lee, P. (2008) ‘Introduction’, in P.Lee (ed.), Many Voices, One Vision: The Right to Communicate in Practice, pp. 1–15. Penang/London: Southbound/WACC.
    Lee, Philip (2004) ‘Introduction’, in P.Lee (ed.), Many Voices, One Vision: The Right to Communicate in Practice, pp. 1–20. Penang/London: Southbound/WACC.
    Lee, P. (2009) ‘Communication Rights and the Millennium Development Goals’, in A.Dakroury, M.Eid, Y.R.Kamalipour (eds), The Right to Communicate: Historical Hopes, Global Debates, and Future Promise, pp. 129–50. Dubuque: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.
    Lewis, C. (2010) ‘Oppn Wields RTI to Expose Govt's Inaction’, p. 4, Times of India, Mumbai Ed., April 20.
    Liang, L., A.Sethi and P.Iyengar (n.d.) ‘Briefing Note on the Impact of Software Patents on the Software Industry in India’, pp. 1–11. Available online at http://www.sarai.net/research/knowledge-culture/critical-public-legal-resources/whysoftwarepatentsareharmful.pdf (accessed on March 17, 2010).
    Lintner, B. (2007) ‘India Stands by Myanmar Status Quo’, Asia Times Online. Available online at http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/IK14Df03.html (accessed on August 26, 2010).
    Lokniti (2005) Available online at http://www.lokniti.org/pdfs_dataunit/newsletters/lok_nov05_newsletter.pdf (accessed on January 25, 2011).
    Loynd, M. (2008) ‘Politics without Television: The Bahujan Samaj Party and the Dalit counter–public sphere’, in N.Mehta (ed.), Television in India: Satellites, Politics and Cultural Change, pp. 62–86. Abingdon/NY: Routledge.
    Mander, H. and A.S.Joshi (n.d.) ‘The Movement for Right to Information in India: People's Power for the Control of Corruption’, pp. 1–29. Available at the website of the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative http://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/programs/ai/rti/india/articles/The%20Movement%20for%20RTI%20in%20India.pdf.
    Mares, P. (2001) Borderline: Australia's Treatment of Refugees and Asylum Seekers. Sydney: UNSW Press.
    Mattelart, A. and S.Siegelaub, (eds) (1983) Communication & Class Struggle, 2: Liberation, Socialism. NY Bagnolet: International General/International Mass Media Research Centre.
    McCarthy, J.D. and M.N.Zald (1977) ‘Resource Mobilisation Theory and Social Movements: A Partial Theory’, American Journal of Sociology, 82 (6): 1212–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/226464
    McFarlane, C. (2006) ‘Knowledge, Learning and Development: A Post-rationalist Approach’, Progress in Development Studies, 6 (4): 287–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/1464993406ps144oa
    Mclver, W.J., W.F.Birdsall and M.C.Rasmussen (2003) ‘The Internet and the Right to Communicate’, First Monday, 8 (12): 1–21.
    MeirePaibis, Human Rights Initiative: Manipur. Available online at http://www.hrimanipur.org/index.php/meira-paibis (accessed on January 25, 2011).
    Melucci, A. (1984) ‘An End of Social Movements?' Introductory Paper to the Sessions on ‘New Movements and Change in Organisational Society’, Social Science Information, 23 (4/5): 819–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/053901884023004008
    Melucci, A. (1989) Nomads of the Present: Social Movements and Individual Needs in Contemporary Society. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Menon, N. (2007) Recovering Subversion: Feminist Politics beyond the Law. Ranikhet: Permanent Black.
    Mishra, G. (2009) ‘The Valentine's Day Pink Chaddi Campaign: Indian Pub Going Women vs. the Ram Sena’, Gauravonomics Blog, February 19. Available online at http://www.gauravonomics.com/blog/the-valentines-day-pink-chaddi-campaign-indian-pubgoing-women-vs-shri-ram-sena/ (accessed on March 12, 2010).
    Mishra, T.P. (n.d.) ‘Refugees Media Hit by Cash Crisis’, Media Helping Media. Available online at http://www.mediahelpingmedia.org/content/view/309/2/ (accessed on August 25, 2010).
    Misra, N. (n.d.) ‘The Right to Informaiton Discourse in India, MKSS’. Available online at http://www.mkssindia.org/writings/mkssandrti/the-right-to-information-discourse-in-india-%E2%80%93-neelabh-misra/ (accessed on April 20, 2010).
    Mitra, A. (2002) ‘Theorising Cyberspace: The Idea of Voice Applied to the Internet Discourse’, New Media & Society, 4 (4): 479–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146144402321466778
    Mitta, M. (2007) ‘CIC Orders Government to Divulge the Toxicity of GM Foods’, The Times of India, online edtion, April 7. Available online at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/NEWS/India/CIC_orders_govt_to_divulge_toxicity_of_GM_foods/rssarticleshow/1907423.cms (accessed on March 19, 2010).
    Mohanty, B.K. (2006) ‘The Growing Role of Civil Society Organisations in Contemporary India: A Case Study of the Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan’, Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta.
    Mosco, V. (2004) The Digital Sublime: Myth, Power and Cyberspace. Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
    Mozilla Europe (n.d.) ‘A Better Way to the Web.’ Available online at http://www.mozilla-europe.org/en/firefox/organic/ (accessed on March 15, 2010).
    Mueller, M.L., B.N.Kuerbis and C.Page (2007) ‘Democratising Global Communication? Global Civil Society and the Campaign for Communication Rights in the Information Society’, International Journal of Communication, 1: 267–96.
    Mukhopadhyay, B. (2006) ‘Cultural Studies and Politics in India’, Theory, Culture & Society, 23 (7–8): 279–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276406073230
    Mumbai Newsline (2005) ‘Bloggers Join Hands against B School’, Mumbai Newsline, October 13. Available online at http://cities.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=152721 (accessed on July 12, 2010).
    Munshi, S. (n.d.) ‘Images of Indian Women in the Media.’ Available online at http://www.iias.nl/iiasn/iiasn5/munshi.html (accessed on January 25, 2011).
    Muralidharan, S. (2001) ‘A Forceful Assertion’, Frontline, April 28–May 11, 18 (9). Available online at http://www.flonnet.com/fl1809/18090850.htm (accessed on May 26, 2010).
    Muralidharan, S. (2007) ‘The Shackling of Community Radio’, Himal Southasian, 20, 3, http://osdir.com/ml/culture.region.india.zestmedia/2007-02/msg00137.html (accessed on January 25, 2011).
    Murdock, G. and P.Golding (2005) ‘Culture, Communications and Political Economy’, in J.Curran and M.Gurevitch (eds), Mass Media and Society, pp. 60–83. London: Hodder Arnold.
    Murray, J.W. (2002) ‘The Paradox of Emmanuel Levinas: Knowledge of the Absolute Other’, Communication Quarterly, 49 (4): 39–46.
    Murthy, C.S.H.N. (2009) ‘Citizen Journalism: Blogging, Facebook, Twitter: New Challenges and Questions’, Citizen Journalism: Global Perspectives, September 5. Available online at http://citizenjournalism.me/tag/india/ (accessed on May 22, 2010).
    Naqvi, A. (2008) Waves in the Hinterland: The Journey of a Newspaper. New Delhi: Nirantar/Zubaan.
    NASSCOM (2010) ‘IT-BPO Sector Overview.’ Available online at http://www.nasscom.in/Nasscom/templates/NormalPage.aspx?id=56966 (accessed on March 15, 2010).
    Naqvi, F. (2007) Waves in the Hinterland: The Journey of a Newspaper. New Delhi: Zubaan.
    NCPRI (n.d.) ‘Right to Information: Other RTI Website links, blogs’. Available online at http://www.righttoinformation.info/rti_sites.htm (accessed on April 18, 2010).
    Ninan, S. (2007) Headlines from the Heartland: Reinventing the Hindi Public Sphere. New Delhi/Thousand Oaks/London: SAGE Publication.
    Niranjana, T. (2006) Mobilising India: Women, Music and Migration between India and Trinidad. Durham: Duke University Press.
    Nomad India Network (n.d.) ‘Being Nomad.’ Available online at http://www.nomadindia.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=44&Itemid=53 (accessed on April 27, 2010).
    Nordenstreng, K. (1984) The Mass Media Declaration of UNESCO. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corp.
    Noronha, F. (2001) ‘Who's Afraid of Radio in India’, Sarai Reader 2001: The Public Domain, 72–75.
    Noronha, F. (2007) ‘Roadblocks Hit Community Radio Campaigners’, February 7. Available online at http://www.indiaenews.com/technology/20070205/38191.htm (accessed on June 11, 2010). NWMI Charter. Available online at http://www.nwmindia.org/articles/charter (accessed January 25, 2011).
    NWMI, Information on the GMMP. Available online at http://www.nwmindia.org/site/uploads/File/2_India_GMMP_2010_India_Country_Report_FINAL.pdf (accessed on January 25, 2011).
    O'Hanlon, R. (1983) ‘Maratha History as Polemic: Low-caste Ideology and Political Debate in Late Nineteenth Century Western India’, Modern Asian Studies, 17 (1): 1–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0026749X0000888X
    O'Siochrú, Séan (1999) ‘Progress for NGOs at ITU-D Meeting?' Available online at http://www.comunica.org/itu_ngo/progress.html (accessed on May 20, 2007).
    O'Siochru, S. (2004) ‘Will the Real WSIS Please Stand up?: The Historic Encounter of the ‘Information Society' and the ‘Communication Society’, International Communication Gazette, 66 (3–4): 203–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0016549204043606
    Omvedt, G. (1973) ‘The Satyashodak Samaj and Peasant Agitation’, Economic & Political Weekly, 8 (44): 1971–82.
    Omvedt, G. (1974) ‘Jotirao Phule and the Ideology of Social Revolution in India’, Economic & Political Weekly, 6 (37): 1969–79.
    Pande, S. and S.Singh (2008) Right to Information Act 2005: A Primer. New Delhi: National Book Trust.
    Pandey, S. (2010) ‘Too Tired to teach’, pp. 48–51, Tehelka, 27 February.
    Paparella, E.L. n.d. ‘Emmanuel Levinas' Challenge to the Modern European Cultural Identity, The Global Spiral.’ Available online at http://www.metanexus.net/magazine/tabid/68/id/10408/Default.aspx (accessed on April 9, 2010).
    Parameswaran, R. (2003) ‘Feminist Media Ethnography in India: Exploring Power, Gender and Culture in the Field’, Qualitative Enquiry, 7 (1): 69–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107780040100700104
    Parekh, B. (1989) Colonialism, Tradition and Reform: An Analysis of Gandhi's Political Discourse. New Delhi/London: SAGE,/Newbury Park.
    Paul, S. (2004) ‘Right to Information in Elections: Tale of Two Karnataka Municipal Polls’, Economic & Political Weekly, 39 (2): 129–31.
    Pavarala, V. and K.K.Malik (2007) Other Voices: The Struggle for Community Radio in India. Los Angeles/London/New Delhi/Singapore: Sage Publications.
    PCC: People's Communication Charter (n.d.) ‘People's Communication Charter Text.’ Available online at http://www.pccharter.net/charteren.html (accessed on March 8, 2011).
    Personal e-mail from Esther Kar, ADG, News Services Division, AIR, April 25, 2010.
    Personal interview with Ammu Joseph, Freelance journalist and writer on women and media issues, Bengaluru, February 7, 2010.
    Personal interview with Arti Jaiman, Gurgaon Ki Awaaz, Bengaluru, February 21, 2010.
    Personal interviews with Aruna Roy and Nikhil Dey in Bengaluru, January 27, 2010.
    Personal interview with Ashish Sen, Bengaluru, February 7, 2010.
    Personal interview with Gaurav Mishra, Bengaluru, February 7, 2010.
    Personal interview with G. Sen, Magic Lantern Foundation, New Delhi, February 11, 2010.
    Personal interview with James Rajasekeran, PARD, Madurai, February 22, 2010.
    Personal interview with Jasmeen Patheja, Bengaluru, January 26, 2010.
    Personal interview with Nirmita Narasimhan, Program Manager, CIS, February 7, 2010.
    Personal interview with P.V. Satheesh, Deccan Development Society, Brisbane, May 2, 2010.
    Personal Interview with Pranesh Prakash, Centre for Internet and Society, Bengaluru, February 15, 2010.
    Personal interview with Raghu Mainali, formerly of Radio Sagarmatha, Bengaluru, February 22, 2010.
    Personal interview with Sajan Venniyoor, Bengaluru, February 22, 2010.
    Personal interview with V. Geetha, Tara Publishing, Bengaluru, February 17, 2010.
    Personal interview with Vasanthi Hariprakash, NDTV Special Correspondent, Bengaluru, February 26, 2010.
    Personal interview with Vinod Pavarala, University of Hyderabad, Bengaluru, February 22, 2010.
    Pickard, V. (2007) ‘Neoliberal Visions and Revisions in Global Communications Policy’, Journal of Communications Inquiry, 31 (2): 118–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0196859906298162
    Pieterse, J.N. (1998) ‘My Paradigm of Yours? Alternative Development, Post-Development, and Reflexive Development’, Development and Change, 29 (2): 343–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-7660.00081
    Pollock, P. (2008) ‘Is There an Indian Intellectual History: Introduction to Theory and Method in Indian Intellectual History’, Journal of Indian Philosophy, 36 (5–6): 533–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10781-008-9051-y
    Prakash, P. (2010) ‘Arguments against Software Patents in India’, Centre for Internet & Society, February 10. Available online at http://www.cis-india.org/advocacy/ipr/blog/arguments-against-software-patents (accessed on March 17, 2010).
    Rai, S. (n.d.) ‘Transparency and Accountability in Governance and Right to Information in India’, pp. 1–14. Available online at http://rti.img.kerala.gov.in/RTI/elearn/GovernanceandRTIinIndiaSHEILA_RAI.pdf (accessed on August 27, 2010).
    Ramakrishnan, N. (2007a) CR: A User's Guide to the Technology. New Delhi: UNESCO.
    Ramakrishnan, N. (2007b) ‘Chapter 9: CR Guidelines in India and their Implications’. Available online at http://cr-userguide.web4all.in/index.php//Chapter_9:_CR_guidelines_in_India_and_their_implications (accessed on April 26, 2010).
    Ramakrishnan, N. (2008) Applying for SACFA Clearance and Allotment of Frequency for a Community Radio Station (CRS): A step by step guide, pp. 1–25, Ideosync Media Combine, New Delhi. Available online at http://edaa.in/communityRadio/community-radio-resources/SacfaManual.pdf (accessed on May 18, 2010).
    Ramkumar, V. (n.d.) ‘Beyond Democratic Rights and Electoral Reform Campaigns: Challenges Facing Non-party Political Movements (1–40).’ Available online at http://www.freedominfo.org/wp-content/uploads/documents/beyond_vivek.pdf (accessed on May 22, 2010).
    Ranjan, A. (2009) ‘Three Years after the RTI Act in Bihar–A Reflection’, Movement of India, 4 (1): 18–19.
    Ravindran, G. (2008) ‘Male Gaze Gone Astray? The Case of Surveillance and Subjugation of Tamil Actresses Off-screen and On-screen’, January 24. Edit Room: Wide screen Journals Editor's Blog. Available online at http://blogs.widescreenjournal.org/?p=244 (accessed on March 6, 2010).
    Raymond, E. (2000) ‘The Cathedral and the Bazaar’. Available online at http://manybooks.net/titles/raymondericother05cathedralandbazaar.html (accessed on January, 25, 2011).
    Red Hat's Comments on the Draft Patent Manual. Available online at http://www.patentoffice.nic.in/ipr/patent/Patent_Manual_Feedback/REDHAT_INDIA_PVT._LTD._NEW_DELHI.pdf (accessed on March 17, 2010).
    Ribeiro, J. (2010) ‘India Having Tech Advisory Group for E-Governance Projects’, PC World, February 26. Available online at http://www.pcworld.com/article/190272/india_having_tech_advisory_group_for_egovernance_projects.html (accessed on January 25, 2011).
    Rodrigues, C. and P.Slough (2005) ‘India's Right to Information Movement Makes a Breakthrough’, Open Government: A Journal on Freedom of Information, 1 (1): 1–14.
    Rodriguez, C. (2001) Fissures in the Mediascape: An International Study of Citizen's Media. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
    Routledge, P. (2003) ‘Voices of the Damned. Discursive Resistance amidst Erasure in the Narmada Valley, India’, Political Geography, 22 (2): 243–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-6298%2802%2900095-1
    Roy, A. (1996) ‘Survival and Right to Information’, Gulam Rassol Third Memorial Lecture, MKSS, Rajasthan.
    Roy, A. (2000) ‘Information, Democracy and Ethics’, pp. 1–35, Twelfth Shri B.V. Narayana Reddy Memorial Lecture, February 1, MKSS/Indian Institute of World Culture, Bangalore.
    Roy, A. (2004) ‘Fostering Informed Choices: Ethical Challenges for the Fourth Estate’, pp. 1–42, Convocation Address, Asian College of Journalism, Chennai, May 3, ASJ, Chennai.
    Roy, S. (2009) Melancholic Politics and the Politics of Melancholia: The Indian Women's Movement, Feminist Theory, 10 (3): 341–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1464700109343257
    RTI (2005) ‘The Right to Information Act.’ Available online at http://righttoinformation.gov.in/rti-act.pdf (accessed on August 25, 2010).
    RTI (n.d.) ‘Save the RTI’. Available online at http://rti.aidindia.org/content/view/12/54/ (accessed on April 13, 2010).
    Sadath, A. (2010) ‘IT@School Project–A Case Study (2010)’, paper presented at the South India regional Workshop Software principles for the Public Sector with Focus on Public Education, Bengaluru, February 1–2, 2010.
    Saeed, S. (n.d.) ‘Community Radio: Policies, Power and Possibilities’, pp. 1–11, Unpublished Paper, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi.
    Sampat, P. and N.Dey (2005) ‘Bare Acts and Collective Explorations: The MKSS Experience with the Right to Information’ Sarai Reader: 2005, Bare Acts.
    Santhi Kumari, A.. (2008) ‘National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA)–AP Software.’ Available online at http://www.nisg.org/knowledgecenter_docs/B02040003.pdf?PHPSESSID=13fdad8a34ca1b7aa890a6d392df17ab (accessed on March 16, 2010).
    Sasi Kumar, V.. (2007) ‘The Story of Free Software in Kerala.’ Available online at http://www.nettime.org/Lists-Archives/nettime-l-0709/msg00045.html (accessed on May 12, 2010).
    Satheesh, P.V. (2008) ‘The Community Media Trust’, in P.V.Satheesh and M.Pimbert (eds), Affirming Life and Diversity: Rural Images and Voices on Food Sovereignty in South India, pp. 23–29. London/Hyderabad: IIED/DDS.
    Satheesh, P.V. and M.Pimbert (2008) Affirming Life and Diversity: Rural Images and Voices on Food Sovereignty in South India. London/Hyderabad: IIED/DDS.
    Schiller, H.I. (1969) Mass Communication and American Empire. New York: Augustus M. Kelly.
    Schiller, H.I. (1976) Communication and Cultural Domination. New York: International Arts and Sciences Press.
    Schnieder, N.C. (2009) ‘Islamic Feminism and Muslim Women's Rights Activism in India: From Transnational Discourse to Local Movement–or Vice Versa?’, Journal of International Women's Studies, 11(1): 56–71.
    Scott, J.C. (1985) Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Reistance. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
    Sen, P. (2006) ‘The Right to Information Act: Turning It into an Effective Tool to Combat Corruption in Government.’ Available online at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=981256 (accessed on April 20, 2010).
    Sethi, Aarti (2009) ‘Cultural Policing in Dakshina Kannada: Vigilante Attacks on Women and Minorities’, April 6, Karnataka. Available online at http://kafila.org/2009/04/06/cultural-policing-in-dakshina-kannada-vigilante-attacks-on-women-and-minorities/ (accessed on March 11, 2011).
    Shah, P. and S.Agrawal (2005) ‘Participatory approaches in Public Expenditure Management, India: Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangatan and the Right to Information Campaign’ (n.p.). Available online at http://www.sasanet.org/documents/Case%20Studies/MKSS%20Case%20Study.pdf (accessed on April 20, 2010).
    Sharma, D.C. (2010) ‘Govt. Moots Jail for GM Food Critics', India Today, Online Ed., February 19. Available online at http://indiatoday.intoday.in/site/Story/84730/Govt+moots+jail+for+GM+food+critics.html (accessed on March 19, 2010).
    Sharma, K. (2009) ‘Irom Sharmila's 10 Year Fast is Ignored’, DNA. Available online at http://www.dnaindia.com/opinion/comment_irom-sharmila-s-10-year-fast-is-ignored_1323405 (accessed on March 12, 2010).
    Silber, J. (2007) ‘Opening up a Pandora's Box’, Springboard Research, August 14. Available online at http://www.springboardresearch.com/content/sampleresearch/pandora_box.pdf (accessed on March 19, 2010).
    Sikand, Y. (2009) ‘Film Review: On Tamil Muslim Women's Struggle’, December 2. Available online at http://madrasareforms.blogspot.com/2009/12/film-review-on-tamil-muslim-womens.html (accessed on March 3, 2010).
    Simon, K.I. (2005) ‘The Value of Open-Standards and Open-Software in Government Environments, IBM Systems Journal, 44 (2): 227–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1147/sj.442.0227
    Singh, H. (2009) ‘Draft on Open Source Standards Splits IT industry’, The Economic Times Online, July 8. Available online at http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/Infotech/Draft-on-open-source-split-IT-sector/articleshow/4752282.cms (accessed on March 16, 2010).
    Singh, P. (2008) ‘Online Journalism in India: Moblogging is Citizen Journalism in India’, http://Journalism.co.uk, February 27. Available online at http://blogs.journalism.co.uk/editors/2008/02/27/online-journalism-india-moblogging-is-citizen-journalism-in-india/ (accessed on March 19, 2010).
    Singh, P.J. and A.Gurumurthy (2006) ‘Political Economy of the Information Sector: A Southern View’, pp. 1–40, briefing paper prepared for the WSIS paper Series of the Instituto Del Tercer Mundo/IT for Change Occasional Paper, January, IT for Change, Bangalore.
    Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1999) ‘What Fate Awaits the World's Languages’, Media Development, 46 (4): 3–6.
    Sonwalker, P. (2009) ‘Citizen Journalism in India: The Politics of Recognition’, in S.Allan and E.Thorsen (eds), Citizen Journalism: Global Perspectives, pp. 75–85. New York: Peter Lang.
    Sonwalker, P. and S.Allan (2007) ‘Citizen Journalism and Human Rights in North-East India’, Media Development, 3. Available online at http://www.waccglobal.org/en/20073-media-and-terror/462-Citizen-journalism-and-human-rights-in-north-east-India.html (accessed on January 27, 2011).
    South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre (1997) ‘Survival, Dignity & Democracy: Burmese Refugees in India’. Available online at http://www.hrdc.net/sahrdc/resources/survival_dignity.htm (accessed on August 26, 2010).
    Splichal, S. (1999) ‘Using the Principle of Publicity to Create Public Service Media’, Media Development, 46 (3): 3–8.
    Splichal, S. (2003) ‘Bentham, Kant, and the Right to Communicate’, Critical Review, 15 (3): 285–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08913810308443584
    Statement of CIS on the Matter of the Treaty for the Blind made by Nimrita Narashimhan at the 19th WIPO Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights in Geneva on December 18, 2009, CIS. Available online at http://www.cis-india.org/advocacy/accessibility (accessed on March 17, 2010).
    STEPS Women's Development Organisation (2009) Annual Report 2008–09. Available online at http://www.stepswomenjamaat.org/Report/2008-2009.pdf (accessed on May 12, 2010).
    Subramaniam, V. (2009) ‘The System Strikes Back’, The Hindu, Bengaluru, December 17.
    Sundaram, R. (2010) Pirate Modernity: Delhi's Media Urbanism. New York: Routledge.
    Supraja, C. (2008) ‘Women Join Hands for a Better Media’, IndiaTogether, May 10. Available online at http://www.indiatogether.org/2008/may/med-nwmi.htm (accessed on March 6, 2010).
    Tamang, S. (2003) ‘Civilising Civil Society: Donors and Democratic Space in Nepal’, Himal South Asian, July. Available online at http://www.himalmag.com/2003/july/essay.htm (accessed on September 25, 2008).
    Taylor, C. (2002) ‘Modern Social Imaginaries’, Public Culture, 14 (1): 91–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363-14-1-91
    Taylor, C. (2009) Modern Social Imaginaries. New Delhi: Critical Quest.
    Tejpal, T.J. (2003) ‘Tehelka: Hitting Dirt, Getting Hurt’, in B.G.Verghese (ed.), Breaking the Big Story: Great Moments in Indian Journalism, pp. 112–31. New Delhi: Viking, Penguin Books.
    Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (2004) ‘Consultation Paper on Licensing Issues Related to Community Radio Stations.’ Available online at http://www.trai.gov.in/WriteReadData/trai/upload/ConsultationPapers/18/CONSULTATION%20PAPER25AUG.PDF (accessed on January 25, 2011).
    Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (2008) ‘Recommendations on Issues Relating to Entry of Certain Entities into Broadcasting and Distribution Activities’, New Delhi, November 12.
    Tewary, A. (2006) ‘The Amazing DIY Village FM Radio Station.’ Available online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4735642.stm (accessed on June 15, 2010).
    Thapar, R. (2010) Syndicated Hinduism. New Delhi: Critical Quest.
    The Free Software Definition (2010) ‘GNU Operating System’. Available online at http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html (accessed on March 15, 2010).
    The Hindu Business Line (2005) ‘Community Radio Referred to GOM’, The Hindu Business Line, October 7, http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2005/10/07/stories/2005100703120900.htm (accessed on June 5, 2010).
    The Hindu Business Line (2010) ‘IT, E-governance Spend May Touch $4b Next Fiscal’, The Hindu Business Line, February 10. Available online at http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2010/02/10/stories/2010021052610400.htm (accessed on March 15, 2010).
    The Hindu (2010a) ‘Supreme Court Challenges Verdict Bringing CJI Under RTI’, The Hindu Online, March 8. Available online at http://beta.thehindu.com/news/national/article217154.ece (accessed on April 13, 2010).
    The Hindu (2010b) ‘RTI Activist Killed’, The Hindu, Chennai, January 14.
    The Hindu (2010c) ‘A Worry for RTI Activists’, The Hindu, Chennai, May 4.
    The New Indian Express (2010) ‘Cabinet Clears Women's Reservation Bill’, p. 1, The New Indian Express, February 26, Bengaluru.
    The Patents (Amendment) Ordinance, 2004, Ord. No. 7 of 2004. Available online at http://lawmin.nic.in/Patents%20Amendment%20Ordinance%202004.pdf (accessed on March 17, 2010).
    TRF: The Restoring Force (n.d.) ‘107.8: Gurgaon's Own Community Radio Station.’ Available online at http://www.trfindia.org/community_radio.php (accessed on January 25, 2011).
    TRF: The Restoring Force (n.d.) ‘Community Radio: Giving Wider Reach to TRF's Programs.’ Available online at http://www.trfindia.org/community_radio_topic2.php (accessed on April 26, 2010).
    The South Asian (2009) ‘RTI Activist Murdered in Bangalore’, The South Asian, April 13. Available online at http://www.thesouthasian.org/archives/2009/rti_activist_murdered_in_banga.html (accessed on April 14, 2010).
    Thomas, P.N. (1987) Communication and Development in India: A Study of Two Approaches, Doctoral Thesis, Centre for Mass Communications Research, University of Leicester (Unpublished).
    Thomas, P.N. (1994) ‘Participatory Development Communication: Philosophical Premises’, in S.A.White, S.Nair and J.Ascroft (eds), Participatory Communication: Working for Change & Development, pp. 49–59. New Delhi/London: SAGE Publications/Thousand Oaks.
    Thomas, P.N. (ed.). (2001) Refugees and Their Right to Communicate: Perspectives from South East Asia. Hong Kong: WACC/CCA.
    Thomas, P.N. (2003) ‘Freirean Futures: Towards a Further Understanding of Participatory Communications’, in M.Richards, P.N.Thomas and Z.Nain (eds), Communication and Development: The Freirean Connection, pp. 241–53., Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press Inc.
    Thomas, P.N. (2006) ‘The Communication Rights in the Information Society (CRIS) Campaign: Applying Social Movement Theories to an Analysis of Global Media’, The International Communication Gazette, 68 (4): 291–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1748048506065763
    Thomas, P.N. (2007) ‘The Right to Information Movement and Community Radio in India’, Communication for Development and Social Change, 1 (1): 33–48.
    Thomas, P.N. (2008a) ‘Making a Difference: The Right to Information Movement and Social Change’, in P.Lee (ed.), Communicating Peace: Entertaining Angels Unawares, pp. 137–55. Penang/Toronto: Southbound/WACC.
    Thomas, P.N. (2008b) Strong Religion/Zealous Media: Christian Fundamentalism and Communications in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
    Thomas, P.N. (2008c) ‘The Politics of Radio in India’, Media Asia, 34(2): 113–17.
    Thomas, P.N. (2010a) ‘Traditions of Public Journalism in India’, in A.Romano (ed.), International Journalism & Democracy: Civic Engagement Models from Around the World, pp. 194–207. London: Routledge.
    Thomas, P.N. (2010b) Political Economy of Communications in India: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
    Thomas, P.N. and Z.Nain, (eds) (2004) Who Owns the Media Global Trends and Local Resistances. Penang/London: Southbound, ZED, WACC.
    Tiwari, D. (2002) ‘Electric Chair: Dalit women Sarpanches Are Abused’, The Week, June 9, quoted in the Sarojini Naidu Prize, 2002: The Hunger Project Report, New Delhi.
    Touraine, A. (1981) The Voice and the Eye: An Analysis of Social Movements. Paris: Maison des Sciences de l'homme.
    Traber, M. (2008a) ‘Communication as a Human Need and a Human Right’, in P.Lee (ed.), Communicating Peace: Entertaining Angels Unawares, pp. 193–204. Penang, Toronto: Southbound/WACC.
    Traber, M. (2008b) ‘Communication is Inscribed in Human Nature: A Philosophical Enquiry into the Right to Communicate’, in P.Lee (ed.), Communicating Peace: Entertaining Angels Unawares, pp. 243–57. Penang/London: Southbound/WACC.
    Tsering, B.K. (2007) ‘What Ails All India Radio's Tibetan Service?’, Available online at http://tibetreport.wordpress.com/2008/12/30/what-ails-all-india-radios-tibetan-service/ (accessed on January 25, 2011).
    Umanadh, J.B.S. (2008) ‘Voice of the People’, Frontline, 25 (1). Available online at http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2501/stories/20080118506609400.htm (accessed on April 26, 2010).
    Umashankar, C. (2007) ‘Accessability: Visually Challenged’, synopsis of paper presented by C. Umashankar at the South India Regional Workshop Software principles for the Public Sector with Focus on Public Education, Bengaluru, February 1–2, 2010, http://www.Public-Software.in. Available online at http://www.public-software.in/media/Foss_Workshop/Syn/C_Umashankar.pdf (accessed on March 17, 2010).
    Under Construction: Film Catalogue (2009) Magic Lantern Foundation, New Delhi.
    Upadhyaya, A.K. (1979–80) ‘Class Struggle in Rural Maharashtra’, Journal of Peasant Studies, 7 (2): 212–34.
    Van Dijk, T.A.. (1988) ‘Semantics of a Press Panic: The Tamil “Invasion”’, European Journal of Communication, 3 (2): 167–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267323188003002004
    Venkateshwarlu, K. (2002) ‘Community Radio Has Villagers Excited’, The Hindu, October 6. Available online at http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/2002/10/06/stories/2002100600691200.htm (accessed on January 25, 2011).
    Virmani, S. (2001) ‘Women Making Meaning: Telling Stories about Reality in India’, Feminist Media Studies, 1 (2): 233–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680770120062150
    Vitkin, M. (1995) ‘The “Fusion of Horizons” on Knowledge and Alterity: Is Inter-traditional Understanding Attainable through Situated Transcendence?’, Philosophy & Social Criticism, 21 (1): 57–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019145379502100104
    Venkatesu, E. (n.d.) ‘The Right to Information Movement in India (1–12)’. Available online at http://www.rti.org.in/Documents/RTIMovementinIndiaDrEVenkatesuNIRD.pdf (accessed on May 23, 2010).
    Voice of Tibet. Available online at http://www.vot.org/?page_id=2 (accessed on August 26, 2010).
    Voices 21 (n.d.) ‘A Global Movement for People's Voices in Media and Communication in the 21st Century.’ Available online at http://comunica.org/v21/statement.htm (accessed on March 29, 2010).
    Vora, Paromita (2002) ‘Unlimited Girls’, InfoChange Film Forum, Interview. Available online at http://infochangeindia.org/200408086248/Film-Forum/Documentary/Unlimited-Girls.html (accessed on March 13, 2010).
    Voth, D. (2006) ‘Community & Community Development: Communities as Types of Human Groups’, in A.Gumucio-Dagron and T.Tufte (eds), Communication for Social Change Anthology: Historical and Contemporary Readings, pp. 849–54. New York: CFSC.
    Watts, E.K. (2001) ‘“Voice” and “Voicelessness” in Rhetorical Studies’, Quarterly Journal of Speech, 87 (2): 179–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335630109384328
    Whittier, N. (2002) ‘Meaning and Structure in Social Movements’, in D.S.Meyer, N.Whittier and B.Robnett (eds), Social Movements: Identity, Culture and the State, pp. 289–307. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Williams, G., M.Srivastava, S.Corbridge and R.Veron (2003: 174) ‘Enhancing Pro-poor Governance in Eastern India: Participation, Politics and Action Research’, Progress in Development Studies, 3 (2): 159–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/1464993403ps059ra
    World Blind Union Proposal, ‘WIPO Treaty for Improved Access for Blind, Visually Impaired and Other Reading Disabled Persons’, October 23, 2008. Available online at http://www.keionline.org/misc-docs/tvi/tvi_en.html#toc1 (accessed on March 17, 2010).
    Yee Siong, T.. (2004) ‘Malaysiakini: Treading a Tightrope of Political Pressure and Market Factors’, in S.Gan, J.Gomez and U.Johannen (eds), Asian Cyberactivism: Freedom of Expression and Media Censorship, pp. 276–316. Bangkok: Friedrich Naumann Stiftung.
    Zaidi, A. (2010) ‘The UP Man: The Bhaiyya, the Bandit and the Bak-Bak Artist’, pp. 52–55, Tehelka, 27 February.
    Zelliot, E. (1970) ‘Mahar and Non-Brahmin Movements in Maharashtra’, Indian Economic and Social History Review, 7 (3): 395–415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001946467000700304
    CJ Websites

    About the Author

    Pradip Ninan Thomas is Associate Professor at the School of Journalism and Communications, University of Queensland, Australia. 1He is currently Joint Director at the Centre for Communication & Social Change, University of Queensland.

    Earlier, he was Research Director with the international media NGO, WACC. He has served on the editorial committee of a number of journals including Media Development, Journal of Creative Communications, Communication for Development and Social Change, Journalism and Communication Monographs and the International Journal of Press/Politics. He is also on the advisory board of a number of international institutes including the India Media Centre at the University of Westminster, London.

    He has co-edited several books, including, Who Owns the Media: Global trends and Local Resistance (2001), Intellectual Property Rights and Communication in Asia: Conflicting Trends (2006), Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Intellectual Property in the Twenty First Century: Perspectives from Southern Africa (2007) and has authored Political Economy of Communications in India: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (2010).


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website