Nations as Zones of Conflict

Books

John Hutchinson

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Acknowledgements

    This book has been some years in the making. I would like to thank my editor, Chris Rojek, for his patience during this time.

    Many people have contributed to the writing of this book. One spur came from Wayne Hudson with whom I taught a course in world history at Griffith University, which gave me a new appreciation of the long range and recurring processes in history. In developing my arguments, I have been much indebted to the pioneering scholarship of John Armstrong and Anthony Smith on the ethnic origins of nations, and to Michael Mann's insights into the multiple sources of social power. I am grateful to Steven Grosby for comments on an article I published in Ethnic and Racial Studies in which I introduced some of my ideas, and to Kosaku Yoshino, whose ‘consumption approach’ to nationalism has influenced Chapter 4 of this book. I have benefited from responses to early versions of these ideas presented in the form of conference or seminar papers in Australia, Britain, Italy and Turkey. This study was composed since my arrival at the London School of Economics, and I must pay tribute to the stimulus provided by ASEN, the Association for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism, run by talented and enterprising postgraduate students who have made the LSE such a powerhouse for the study of nationalism.

    Finally, I would like to thank my parents for the support they have always offered so unstintingly, and to my brother Geoffrey for managing to persuade me of his interest in the progress of this book.

    Earlier versions of some chapters have appeared elsewhere.

    Chapter 2 is an extended version of ‘Myth against myth: the nation as ethnic overlay’, Nations and Nationalism, 2004, 10 (1–2), 109–24, and I would like to thank Nations and Nationalism for permitting me to reproduce material from this article.

    Some of the arguments in Chapter 5 were presented first in my ‘Nationalism, Globalism and the Conflict of Civilisations‘, in U. Ozkirimli (ed.) Nationalism and its Futures, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, pp. 71–92.

    Chapter 5 also contains material published as ‘Enduring nations and the illusions of European integration’, in W. Spohn and A. Triandafyllidou (eds) Europeanisation, National Identities and Migration: Changes in Boundary Constructions between Western and Eastern Europe, London: Routledge, 2002, pp. 36–51. I am grateful for permission to reproduce this material.

    JohnHutchinsonLondon January 2004

    Dedication

    To Geoffrey

  • Conclusion

    The central problem addressed by this book is to explain how nations can appear to their members as enduring groups when the identities they maintain are continuously evolving and are subject to regular contestation, and to expansion and contraction. In my account nations are much more potent and also more limited than modernists would like to believe. They are potent because they are able to mobilise powerful sentiments and formulate a variety of routes by which to navigate through the perilous seas of the modern world. They are not mere outgrowths of deeper forces. But, at the same time, even in their guise as national states they never have been autonomous or unitary, but have always been subject to challenges and have always had to pool sovereignty with other actors. Their resilience in the past suggests that much of the discussion about the crisis of the contemporary national state is hyperbole.

    I have suggested that what gives nations their enduring character in the modern world is a sense of historical mission, exemplified over centuries, that enables nationalists to plan and act over a long period even when faced with great difficulties over the short- to medium-term. This long time sense is not simply an artefact of romantic historiography, that somehow or other has become lodged in our consciousness, in spite of the best efforts of scientific historians to deconstruct it. Romanticism builds on memories that are carried into the modern period by religious organisations, legal systems, vernacular literatures, constitutions and states, urban architecture and monuments. These institutions have purposes and identities that were not necessarily ethnic, at least in their origins, but, as such memories have become part of the living culture of communities, they have come to assume an ethnic character. Because populations have been subject to multiple shocks, those ethnic communities that do survive have layered pasts that offer several foci of identification and resistance against adversity.

    The sense of being part of a community that has survived and that has achieved moments of greatness as well as of decline explains much of the capacity of helpless peoples in the premodern and modern period to survive conquest and absorption into imperial systems. What sustains them is a knowledge that power passes, and this enables elites to work for the day, perhaps not in their lifetimes, that their great oppressor will fall and the ethnic group or nation will be redeemed. Where an ethnicity is infused with a sense of religious election, such visions may last virtually indefinitely (short of mass conversion). Such visions have extra force in the modern world because the uneven impact, intensity and rapidity of technological change of all kinds destabilises established states, as the collapse of the great empires in the twentieth century demonstrates. I therefore depart from Roger Brubaker's concept of nations as contingent and fluctuating events (Brubaker, 1996: 19). His ‘new institutionalism’ is overly focused on the state, neglecting the many other and often more powerful institutions through which identities become socially embedded.

    If nationalists are able to build on such memories, they are often confronted by the ‘guardians’ of tradition. The conflicts within nations between the dynamic and modernising projects of nationalism and the peculiar stickiness of ethnic traditionalism have been underplayed, certainly by those who are committed to the idea of the nation as an invention. I argued that the rise of national revivalism or cultural nationalism produced an intellectual revolution, repudiating the hegemonic claims of European Christendom as the primary world civilisation in favour of a multicentred world civilisation whose creative origins were non-Western. This, in part, explains the attraction of nationalism to intellectuals outside Europe who felt their cultures and their own status to be increasingly marginalised by European imperialism. But these intellectuals, like their counterparts in Europe, were a small minority, often of a different religion from the majority. This meant that the struggle to culturally transform their societies was a difficult and protracted process, only made possible because many conservatives came to realise that they faced a choice between saving either their peoples or their traditions in the new science-based world.

    Even so, one of the essential tools of the revivalists was having a layered ethnic past with alternative traditions that could be used to legitimise as ‘authentic’ an ideology of innovation through selective borrowing from more advanced cultures. Rather than inventors, I have called such cultural nationalists ‘moral innovators’ engaged in an internal transformation of tradition, a process I showed was unpredictable and operated in part through trial and error, because the search for the nation revealed unsuspected pasts, cultural practices, ‘hidden’ sacred sites and communities that then became reference points round which nationalists mobilised. I suggested that a second means by which revivalists established the nation over the older ethnies was through a process of mythic overlaying, inspired by a new cult of sacrifice devoted to the emerging ‘god’ of the people. In many contexts, this has only had a partial success and we see deep tensions between secular nationalism and ethnoreligious and religious cultures in countries such as Ireland, Israel and the Arab Middle East.

    Such divisions, we observed in the chapter on cultural wars, render nation-formation an unfinished and evolving process. All nations, to a lesser or greater extent, contain plural ethnic repertoires that in the modern period become systemised into competing cultural and political projects. These are not reducible to religious-secular differences. They reflect the different heritages possessed by populations, created by formative experiences of triumph or disaster. The activation of such heritages as rival (and sometimes alternating) options demonstrates the intimate involvement of nationalists in the construction of modernity. This undermines the modernist overemphasis on the homogeneity of nations in favour of a picture that shows nationalisms acting on modernisation to produce a differentiation of the human world. Does this not support the claims of postmodernists who view national formation as a construct, though one of many possible ‘plays of difference’, with the implication that it can be deconstructed? I suggest that this is not the case, for these alternatives have not been plucked from the air of history but have been institutionalised as a result of powerful experiences and they remain live because they address continuing problems. It is the sense of historical constraint that makes these contestations so intense, as the protagonists on each side seek to throw off a particular incubus that lies so heavily upon the present.

    Much of the historical discussion of nation-formation is predicated on a heroic myth of how political elites, marching in step with the extension in scale of political and economic communications, absorb ever-broader groups into a unitary and sovereign national society, by programmes of conscription, universal education and the extension of democratic citizenship. I have suggested that this movement can be dubbed ‘statism’ rather than nationalism, and that national formation is a much more complex and episodic process. The evidence indicates that national identities often emerged before the modern state, and that states have never been bounded power containers capable of inventing nations. Nationalists have used new political rights to mobilise against the state in the name of the national community, especially at times when states have lacked the capacity or willingness to defend the nation against external forces.

    In short, I identify two forms of nationalism, a ‘hot’ or ‘sacred’ nationalism that is society-forming in mobilising boundaries, and a ‘banal’, or ‘profane’ nationalism (or national identity) that is used eclectically and unselfconsciously by individuals and institutions to give meaning and a sense of distinctiveness to their diurnal existence. The latter is not a product of the former; the two exist in tension and interaction with each other. The sense of gap is not so much between a creative high culture versus a commodified popular culture (though this gap can be a stimulus of cultural innovation). Rather the contrast is between those who believe the nation must be recreated so that it regulates in an explicit manner other loyalties and those who take a national identity for granted in their social existence. Because we cannot identify the existence of a nation then with mass mobilisation, since a sense of national identity may exist among large sections of a given population in a more piecemeal fashion (identifying with national stereotypes, singing patriotic songs, rioting against foreign workers, holidaying in national sites), it raises the possibility that in certain cases a mass nation comes into being well before the late nineteenth century.

    If historically there is considerable fluctuation in the range of spheres regulated explicitly by national norms, this renders problematic many of the indicators of national incapacities employed by scholars to demonstrate the march of globalisation. I argued that ethnic formation and globalisation have operated together for millennia, and that the triumph of nationalism (as an ideology that legitimises progress through cultural exchange) is intrinsically linked to the rise of an increasingly interactive world. Indeed, we can see something of a cycle operating whereby global processes lead to ethnic crystallisations and ethnic agents sponsor long range interactions that result in new ethnic and national formations. The implications are that though nations may adopt new regulatory strategies in the contemporary world, more intensive forms of global interchange will lead to an intensification and proliferation of nationalisms and nations in the future.

    A still more important conclusion is that the concern with globalisation as an emerging threat to the future of the national state is misplaced. The focus should be on the global past. The viability of national projects in the contemporary world depends on whether they can draw on the ethnic crystallisations of earlier globalisations. Without such heritages, establishing a cohesive community that can act as the base of modernisation will be difficult and long drawn out.

    Yet there is one caveat, and it is a big one. What about the examples of soi-disant multicultural nations such as the USA, Australia and Canada? Are they not successful modern societies? I have argued elsewhere (Hutchinson, 1994: ch. 6), that these are special cases that have developed a futureoriented national myth, as ‘young’ countries destined to exemplify how a diverse humanity can live together. But this is a national myth, based on originating ethnic cores (Anglo-Celtic and, in Canada's case, French), and employed to justify their novelty in a world of nations where status is governed by an ancestral antiquity. In the USA a sense of religious destiny derived from the Puritan heritage has helped underpin this ‘New World’ identity. Moreover, in recent decades they have been torn by status and political competition between the originating settler ethnies, the waves of newer immigrants who seek to de-anglicise the dominant national culture, and the indigenous peoples.

    But what of those cases where, as in the Middle East, older ethnic identities were largely effaced at the popular level by transethnic religious loyalties, which remain strong competitors to nations? Or, alternatively, what of ethnic formations in parts of Africa that threaten to fragment existing states and that are too small to form the basis of an effective alternative polity? Does this not suggest that in many parts of the non-European world nations will be thinly-based elite formations, or will be unviable? To a degree. The problem is to find an alternative to the ethnically-based nation: there appears to be no other plausible model. The imperial principle no longer works, and the federal idea is stable only within states possessing a demographically dominant ethnic core.

    This is not to say that populations without premodern ethnic traditions cannot become nations. Ethnogenesis continues in the contemporary period. It is also true that many states or populations claiming to be nations do not fit the above definition, but I suggest that part of the disruption in world politics is an attempt to create such nations. Rather than, as some commentators suggest, reaching the end of the era of nations, I would argue that many areas of Eurasia, Africa and Latin America are still in the early period of nation-formation, and that this will be accompanied by social and political upheavals. But this is a topic for another book.

    Bibliography

    Abu-Lughod, J.1989Before European Hegemony, Oxford: Oxford University Press
    Abu-Lughod, J.1993‘The World System in the Thirteenth Century: Dead-End or Precursor’, in M.Adas (ed.) Islamic and European Expansion, Philadelphia: Temple University Press
    Adshead, C. M.1993Central Asia in World History, London: Macmillan
    Agulhon, M.1998‘Paris: A Traversal from East to West’, in P.Nora (ed.) Realms of Memory: Vol. 3 Symbols, New York: Columbia University Press
    Akenson, D. H.1992God's Peoples: Covenant and Land in South Africa, Israel, and Ulster, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
    Albrow, M.1996The Global Age, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Alter, P.1985Nationalism, London: Edward Arnold
    Anderson, B.1991Imagined Communities, London: Verso
    Anderson, P.1997a‘Under the Sign of the Interim’, in P.Gowers and P.Anderson (eds) The Question of Europe, London: Verso
    Anderson, P.1997b‘The Europe to Come’, in P.Gowers and P.Anderson (eds) The Question of Europe, London: Verso
    Argyle, W. J.1976‘Size and Scale as Factors in the Development of Nationalist Movements’, in A. D.Smith (ed.) Nationalist Movements, London: Macmillan
    Armstrong, J.1982Nations Before Nationalism, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press
    Auerbach, J. A.1999The Great Exhibition of 1851, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
    Augustinos, G.1977Consciousness and History: Nationalist Critics of Greek Society 1897–1914, New York: East European Quarterly
    Banton, M.1994‘Modelling Ethnic and National Relations’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 17 (1), pp. 1–29http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01419870.1994.9993810
    Barth, F.1969 (ed.) Ethnic Groups and Boundaries, Boston, MA: Little Brown and Co.
    Bartlett, R.1993The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonisation and Cultural Change 950–1350, Harmondsworth: Penguin
    Bate, J.1997The Genius of Shakespeare, London: Picador
    Bayly, C. A.2002“Archaic” and “Modern” Globalization in the Eurasian and African Arena, c. 1750–1850', in A. G.Hopkins (ed.) Globalization in World History, London: Pimlico
    Beckett, J. C.1966The Making of Modern Ireland, 1603–1923, London: Faber & Faber
    Beckett, J. C.1976The Anglo-Irish Tradition, London: Faber and Faber
    Bell, D.2001The Cult of the Nation in France, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
    Bennison, A. K.2002‘Muslim Universalism and Western Globalization’, in A. G.Hopkins (ed.) Globalization in World History, London: Pimlico
    Billig, M.1995Banal Nationalism, London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221648
    Bond, B.1984War and Society in Europe (1810–1970), London: Fortune
    Boyce, D. G.1982Nationalism in Ireland, London: Croom
    Helm Breuilly, J.1982Nationalism and the State, Manchester: Manchester University Press
    Breuilly, J.1996‘Approaches to Nationalism’, in Balakrishnan, G. (ed.) Mapping the Nation, London: Verso
    Breuilly, J.2000Panel discussion ASEN Conference: ‘Nationalism and the State’, 24 March, London School of Economics
    Briggs, A.1968Victorian Cities, Harmondsworth: Penguin
    Brock, P.1976The Slovak National Revival, Toronto: East European Monographs
    Brubaker, R.1996Nationalism Reframed, Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558764
    Burke, P.1994The Fabrication of Louis XIV, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
    Burrin, P.1996‘Vichy’, in P.Nora (ed.) Realms of Memory: Vol. 1 Conflicts and Divisions, Ithaca, NY: Columbia University Press
    Calhoun, C.1994‘National Traditions: Created or Primordial?’ in Ø.Sorensen (ed.) Nasjonal Identitet — Kunstproduct?, Oslo: Norges Forskningsrad
    Campbell, J. and Sherrard, P.1968Modern Greece, New York: Praeger
    Carr, E. H.1964What is History?, Harmondsworth: Penguin
    Carrithers, M. B.1984‘“They will be Lords upon the Island”: Buddhism in Sri Lanka’, in H.Bechert and R.Gombrich (eds) The World of Buddhism, London: Thames and Hudson
    Castells, M.1996The Rise of the Network Society, Oxford: Blackwell
    Cauthen, B.2004‘Covenant and Continuity: Ethnosymbolism and the Myth of Divine Election’, Nations and Nationalism, 10 (1–2), pp. 19–34http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1354-5078.2004.00152.x
    Colley, L.1992Britons: Forging the Nation, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
    Collins, R.2000Macrohistory, Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press
    Connor, W.1990‘When is a Nation?’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 13 (1), pp. 92–103http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01419870.1990.9993663
    Corbin, A.1996‘Divisions of time and space’, in P.Nora (ed.) Realms of Memory: Vol. 1 Conflicts and Divisions, New York: Columbia University Press
    Costello, P.1993World Historians and Their Goals, DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press
    Curtis, P.1984Cross-Cultural Trade in World History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511661198
    Curtis, L. P.1968Anglo-Saxons and Celts: A Study of Anti-Irish Prejudice in Victorian England, Bridgeport, CT: University of Bridgeport
    d'Appollonia, A. C. 2002‘European Nationalism and the European Union’, in A.Pagden (ed.) The Idea of Europe: From Antiquity to the European Union, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Darby, W.2000Landscape and Identity: Geographics of Nation and Class in England, Oxford: Berg
    Davies, N.1997‘Polish National Mythologies’, in G.Hosking and G.Schopflin (eds) Myths and Nationhood, London: Hurst and Co
    Eaton, R. M.1990Islam in World History, Washington, DC: American Historical Association
    Eley, G.1986From Unification to Nazism, London: Allen & Unwin
    Enloe, C.1980Ethnic Soldiers: State Security in DividedSocieties, Harmondsworth: Penguin
    Farmer, E. L., Hambly, G.R., Kopf, D., Marshall, B.K. and TaylorR. (eds) 1986Comparative History of Civilizations in Asia, Boulder, CU: Westview Press
    Fontana, B.2002‘The Napoleonic Empire and the Europe of Nations’, in A.Pagden (ed.) The Idea of Europe: From Antiquity to the European Union, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Foster, R. F.1988Modern Ireland 1600–1972, Harmondsworth: Penguin
    Frazee, C. A.1969The Orthodox Church and Independent Greece, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Friedman, E.1995National Identity and Democratic Prospects in Socialist China, New York: M. E. Sharpe
    Fulbrook, M.1999German National Identity After the Holocaust, Oxford: Polity
    Garvin, T.1981The Evolution of Irish Nationalist Politics, Dublin: Gill and Macmillan
    Garvin, T.1987Nationalist Revolutionaries in Ireland 1858–1928, Oxford: Clarendon Press
    Geary, P. J.2002The Myth of Nations: The Medieval Origins of Europe, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press
    Gellner, E.1964Thought and Change, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson
    Gellner, E.1983Nations and Nationalism, Oxford: Blackwell
    Gellner, E.1996‘Do Nations have Navels?’, Nations and Nationalism, 2 (3), pp. 366–70http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8219.1996.tb00003.x
    Geertz, C.1963‘The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiment and Civil Politics in the New States’, in C.Geertz (ed.) Old Societies and New States: The Quest for Modernity in Asia and Africa, New York: Free Press
    Gershoni, I.1997‘Rethinking the Formation of Arab Nationalism in the Middle East, 1920–45’, in J.Jankowkski and I.Gershoni (eds) Rethinking Nationalism in the Arab Middle East, New York: Columbia Unversity Press
    Giddens, A.1985The Nation-State and Violence, Cambridge: Polity Press
    Giddens, A.1990The Consequences of Modernity, Cambridge: Polity Press
    Gildea, R.1994The Past in French History, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
    Gorski, P. S.2000‘The Mosaic Moment: An Early Modernist Critique of Modernist Theories of Nationalism’, American Journal of Sociology, CV (5), pp. 1428–68http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/210435
    Grant, S.-M.1997‘Making History: Myth and the Construction of American Nationhood’, in G.Hosking and G.Schopflin (eds) Myths and Nationhood, London: Hurst and Co
    Grillo, R. D.1989Dominant Languages: Language and Hierarchy in Britain and France, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Grosby, S.1995‘Territoriality: The Transcendental, Primordial Feature of Modern Societies’, Nations and Nationalism, 1 (2), pp. 143–62http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1354-5078.1995.00143.x
    Grosby, S.2002Biblical Ideas of the Nation: Ancient and Modern, Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns
    Guibernau, M.2001‘Globalisation and the Nation-state’, in M.Guibernau and J.Hutchinson (eds) Understanding Nationalism, Cambridge: Polity Press
    Haddad, Y. Y.1991‘The Revivalist Literature and the Literature on Revival’, in Y. Y.Haddad, J. O.Voll and J. L.Esposito (eds) The Contemporary Islamic Revival, New York: Greenwood
    Hall, J.1985Powers and Liberties: The Causes and Consequences of the Rise of the West, Harmondsworth: Penguin
    Hastings, A.1997The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612107
    Haugen, E.1966Language Conflict and Language Planning: The Case of Modern Norwegian, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
    Haugland, K.1980‘An Outline of Norwegian Cultural Nationalism’, in R.Mitchison (ed.) The Roots of Nationalism: Studies in Northern Europe, Edinburgh: John Donald
    Hechter, M.1975Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in British National Development, 1536–1966, London: Routledge
    Hechter, M.2000Containing Nationalism, Oxford: Oxford University Press
    Heimsath, C.1964Indian Nationalism and Hindu Social Reform, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
    Held, D., McGrew, A., Goldblatt, D. and Perraton, J.1999Global Transformations, Cambridge: Polity Press
    Helleiner, E.2003The Making of National Money: Territorial Currencies in Historical Perspective, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
    Herder, J. G.1968Reflections on the Philosophy of History, ed. F.Manuel, Chicago: Chicago University Press
    Herzfeld, M.1982Ours Once More: Folklore, Ideology and the Making of Modern Greece, Austin, TX: Texas University Press
    Hill, C.1968Puritanism and Liberty, London: Panther
    Hobsbawm, E. J.1962The Age of Revolution, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson
    Hobsbawm, E. J.1983‘Mass-Producing Traditions, Europe 1870–1914’, in E. J.Hobsbawm and T.Ranger (eds) The Invention of Tradition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Hobsbawm, E. J.1990Nations and Nationalism Since 1780, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Hodgson, M.1993Rethinking World History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511626104
    Holy, L.1996The Little Czech and the Great Czech Nation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511621727
    Hopkins, A. G.2002‘The History of Globalization and the Globalization of History’, in A. G.Hopkins (ed.) Globalization in World History, London: Pimlico
    Hosking, G.1997‘The Russian National Myth Repudiated’, in G.Hosking and G.Schopflin (eds) Myths and Nationhood, London: Hurst and Co
    Hosking, G. and Schopflin, G.1997Myths and Nationhood, London: Hurst and Co
    Howard, M.1976War in European History, London: Oxford University Press
    Hroch, M.1985The Social Preconditions of National Revivals in Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Hunt, L.1992The Family Romance of the French Revolution, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
    Huntington, S.1997The Clash of Civilisations and the Remaking of World Order, London: Touchstone Books
    Hutchinson, J.1987The Dynamics of Cultural Nationalism: The Gaelic Revival and the Creation of the Irish Nation State, London: Allen & Unwin
    Hutchinson, J.1994Modern Nationalism, London: Fontana
    Hutchinson, J.1999‘Reinterpreting Cultural Nationalism’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, 45 (3), pp. 392–407http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8497.00072
    Ichijo, A.2002‘The Scope of Theories of Nationalism: Comments on the Scottish and Japanese Experiences’, Geopolitics, 7 (2), pp. 53–75http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/714000939
    Jarausch, K. H. and Geyer, M.2003Shattered Past: Reconstructing German Histories, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
    Jarausch, K. H., Seeba, H. C. and Conradt, D. P.1997‘The Presence of the Past: Culture, Opinion and Identity in Germany’, in K. H.Jarausch (ed.) After Unity: Reconfiguring German Identities, Providence, R. I.: Bergahn Books
    Jauregui, P.1999‘National Pride and the Meaning of “Europe”: A Comparative Study of Britain and Spain’, in D.Smith and S.Wright (eds) Whose Europe? The Turn Towards Democracy, Oxford: Blackwell/The Sociological Review
    Johnson, D.1993‘The Making of the French Nation’, in M.Teich and R.Porter (eds) The National Question in Europe in Historical Context, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Jordan, W. C.2002‘“Europe” in the Middle Ages’, in A.Pagden (ed.) The Idea of Europe: From Antiquity to the European Union, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Jusdanis, G.2001The Necessary Nation, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
    Juergensmeyer, M.1993The New Cold War?Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
    Karl, R. E.2002Staging the World: Chinese Nationalism at the Turn of the Twentieth Century, Durham, NC: Duke University Press
    Kaufmann, E. and Zimmer, O.1998‘In Search of the Authentic Nation: Landscape and National Identity in Canada and Switzerland’, Nations and Nationalism, (4), pp. 483–510http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1354-5078.1998.00483.x
    Kedourie, E.1960Nationalism, London: Hutchinson
    Keegan, J.1997‘From Albert Speer to Jacques Delors’, in P.Gowers and P.Anderson (eds) The Question of Europe, London: Verso
    Keynes, J. M.1920The Economic Consequences of the Peace, London: Macmillan and Co.
    Kiberd, D.1996Inventing Ireland: The Literature of the Modern Nation, London: Vintage
    Kidd, C.1999British Identities Before Nationalism: Ethnicity and Nationhood in the Atlantic World, 1600–1800, Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511495861
    Kohn, H.1967Prelude to Nation-states: The French and German Experience 1789–1815, New York: Van Nostrand
    Koksalakis, N. and Psimmenos, I.2003‘Modern Greece: A Profile of Identity and Nationalism’, in B.Strath and A.Triandafyllidou (eds) Representations of Europe and the Nation in Current and Prospective Members, Brussels: European Commission
    Kopf, D.1969British Orientalism and the Bengali Cultural Renaissance, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
    Koshar, R.1998Germany's Transient Pasts: Preservation and National Memory in the Twentieth Century, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North
    Carolina Krejci, J. and Velimsky, V.1981Ethnic and Political Nations in Europe, London: Croom Helm
    Kristof, L. D.1994‘Poland: The Image and the Vision of the Fatherland’, in D.Hooson (ed.) Geography and National Identity, Oxford: Blackwell
    Lamers, K.1997‘Strengthening the Hard Core’, in P.Gowers and P.Anderson (eds) The Question of Europe, London: Verso
    Landes, J.1988Women in the Public Sphere in the Age of the French Revolution, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
    Langlands, R.1999‘Britishness or Englishness? The Historical Problem of National Identity in Britain’, Nations and Nationalism, 5 (1), pp. 53–69http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1354-5078.1999.00053.x
    Langlois, C.1996‘Catholics and Seculars’, in P.Nora (ed.) Realms of Memory: Vol. 1 Conflicts and Divisions, New York: Columbia University Press
    Levenson, J.1959Liang Ch'i -ch'ao and the Mind of Modern China, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
    Lewis, B.1998Multiple Identities of the Middle East, New York: Schocken Books
    Lieven, D.2000Empire: The Russian Empire and its Rivals, London: John Murray
    Llobera, J.1994The God of Modernity, Oxford: Berg
    Lowenthal, D.1985The Past is a Foreign Country, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Lowenthal, D.1994‘European and English Landscapes’, in D.Hooson (ed.) Geography and National Identity, Oxford: Blackwell
    Lyons, F. S. L.1979Culture and Anarchy in Ireland 1890–1939, Oxford: Clarendon Press
    McCrone, D.1998The Sociology of Nationalism, London: Routledgehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203428856
    McDaniel, T.1996The Agony of the Russian Idea, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
    MacDougall, H. A.1982Racial Myth in English History, Hanover, NE: University Press of New England
    McNeill, W. H.1963The Rise of the West, Chicago: University of Chicago Press
    McNeill, W. H.1984The Pursuit of Power: Technology, Armed Forces and Society Since AD 1000, Chicago, Chicago University Press
    McNeill, W. H.1986Polyethnicity and National Unity in World History, Toronto: Toronto University Press
    McNeill, W. H.1990‘The Rise of the West after Twenty-Five Years’, Journal of World History, 1 (1), pp. 1–21
    Mann, M.1975‘The Ideology of Intellectuals and Other People in the Development of Capitalism’, in Lindberg L. R.Alford, C.Crouch and C.Offe (eds) Stress and Contradiction in Modern Capitalism, London: Heath
    Mann, M.1986The Sources of Social Power Vol. 1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511570896
    Mann, M.1993The Sources of Social Power Vol. 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511570902
    Mansergh, N.1968The Irish Question, London: Unwin University Books
    Marvin, C. and Ingle, D.1999Blood Sacrifice and the Flag, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Meinander, H.2002‘On the Brink or In-between? The Concept of Europe in Finnish Identity’, in M.af Malmborg and B.Strath (eds) The Meaning of Europe, Oxford: Berg
    Mercer, C.1992‘Regular Imaginings: The Newspaper and the Nation’, in T.Bennett, P.Buckridge, D.Carter and C.Mercer (eds) Celebrating the Nation: A Critical Study of Australia's Bicentenary, Sydney: Allen & Unwin
    Milward, A.1992The European Rescue of the Nation State, London: Routledge
    Milward, A.1997‘The Springs of Integration’, in P.Gowan and P.Anderson (eds) The Question of Europe, London: Verso
    Mosse, G.1975The Nationalization of the Masses, New York: New American Library
    Mosse, G.1976‘Mass Politics and the Political Liturgy of Nationalism’, in E.Kamenka (ed.) Nationalism: The Nature and Evolution of an Idea, London: Edward Arnold
    Mosse, G.1990Fallen Soldiers: Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars, London: Oxford University Press
    Mukherjee, S. N.1968Sir William Jones, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Nairn, T.1975The Break-up of Britain, London: New Left Books
    Neumann, I. B.1996Russia and the Idea of Europe, London: Routledgehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203428566
    Neumann, I. B.2002‘From the USSR to Gorbachev to Putin: “Perestroika” as a Failed Excursion from “the West” to “Europe” in Russian Discourse’, in M.af Malmborg and B.Strath (eds) The Meaning of Europe, Oxford: Berg
    Newman, G.1987The Rise of English Nationalism: A Cultural History, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson
    O'Farrell, P.1976‘Millenialism, Messianism and Utopianism in Irish History’, Anglo-Irish Studies, 2, pp. 45–68
    Ohmae, K.1996The End of the Nation State, New York: Free Press
    Ostergard, U.1994‘Nation-Building Danish Style’, in Ø.Sorensen (ed.) Nordic Paths to National Identity in the Nineteenth Century, Oslo: The Research Council of Norway
    Ozkirimli, U.2000Theories of Nationalism, London: Macmillan
    Ozouf, J. and Ozouf, M.1997‘Le Tour de la France par deux enfants': The Little Red Book of the Republic’, in P.Nora (ed.) Realms of Memory, Vol. 2, Traditions, New York: Columbia University Press
    Pagden, A.2002a‘Introduction’, in A.Pagden (ed.) The Idea of Europe: From Antiquity to the European Union, Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511496813
    Pagden, A.2002b‘Europe: Conceptualising a Continent’, in A.Pagden (ed.) The Idea of Europe: From Antiquity to the European Union, Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511496813
    Paris, M.2000Warrior Nation: Images of War in British Popular Culture 1850–2000, London: Reaktion Books
    Passerini, L.2002‘From the Ironies of Identity to the Identities of Irony’, in A.Pagden (ed.) The Idea of Europe: From Antiquity to the European Union, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Pastoureau, M.1998‘The Gallic Cock’, in P.Nora (ed.) Realms of Memory: Vol. 3 Symbols, New York: Columbia University Press
    Pearson, R.1983National Minorities in Eastern Europe 1848–1945, London: Macmillan
    Pearson, R.1996‘Hungary: A State Truncated, A Nation Dismembered’, in S.Deane and T. G.Fraser (eds) Europe and Ethnicity, London: Routledge
    Pepelassis, A.1958‘The Image of the Past and Economic Backwardness’, Human Organisation, 17 (9), pp. 19–27
    Petrovich, M. B.2000‘Religion and Ethnicity in Eastern Europe’, in J.Hutchinson and A. D.Smith (eds) Nationalism Vol. IV, London: Routledge
    Pfaff, W.1993The Wrath of Nations, New York: Simon and Schuster
    Pipes, R.1977Russia under the Old Regime, Harmondsworth: Penguin
    Plakans, A.1974‘Peasants, Intellectuals, and Nationalism in the Russian Baltic Provinces 1820–90’, Journal of Modern History, 46, pp. 464–9
    Pocock, J. G. A.1997‘Deconstructing Europe’, in P.Gowers and P.Anderson (eds) The Question of Europe, London: Verso
    Pocock, J. G. A.2002‘Some Europes in Their History’, in A.Pagden (ed.) The Idea of Europe: From Antiquity to the European Union, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Poliakov, L.1974The Aryan Myth, New York: Basic Books
    Pomian, K.1996‘Franks and Gauls’, in P.Nora (ed.) Realms of Memory: Vol.1 Conflicts and Divisions, New York: Columbia University Press
    Popielovsky, D.1989‘The “Russian Orientation” and the Orthodox Church’, in P.Ramet (ed.) Religion and Nationalism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, Durham, NC: Duke University Press
    Popper, K. R.1960The Poverty of Historism, London: Routlage, Kegan Paul
    Posen, B.1995‘Nationalism, the Mass Army and Military Power’, in J. L.Comaroff and P. C.Stern (eds) Perspectives on Nationalism, Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers
    Prizel, I.1998National Identity and Foreign Policy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511582929
    Puymege, G. de 1997‘The Good Soldier Chauvin’, in P.Nora (ed.) Realms of Memory, Vol. 2, Traditions, New York: Columbia University Press
    Ramet (ed.) Religion and Nationalism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, Durham, NC: Duke University Press
    Rabow-Edling, S.2001The Intellectuals and the Idea of the Nation in Slavophile Thought, Stockholm: Stockholm University Press
    Reid, D.1997‘Nationalizing the Pharaonic Past: Egyptology, Imperialism, and Egyptian Nationalism 1922–52’, in J.Jankowkski and I.Gershoni (eds) Rethinking Nationalism in the Arab Middle East, New York: Columbia University Press
    Reynolds, S.1997Kingdoms and Communities in Western Europe 900–1300, London: Oxford University Press
    Riasonovsky, N. V.1952Russia and the West in the Teaching of the Slavophiles, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
    Riasonovsky, N. V.1985The Image of Peter the Great in Russian History and Thought, London: Oxford University Press
    Richter, M.1998Medieval Ireland: The Enduring Tradition, Dublin: Gill and Macmillan
    Roberts, M.1967Europe 1880–1945, London: Longmans
    Rudnytski, I. L.1977‘The Ukrainian National Movement on the Eve of the First World War’, East European Quarterly, 11 (2), pp. 141–54
    Savory, R.M.1992‘Land of the Lion and the Sun’, in B.Lewis (ed.) The World of Islam, London: Thames and Hudson
    Schama, S.1995Landscape and Memory, London: Fontana
    Schenk, H. G.1966The Mind of the European Romantics, London: Oxford University Press
    Schwab, R.1984The Oriental Renaissance: Europe's Rediscovery of India and the East 1680–1880, New York: Columbia University Press
    Seton-Watson, H.1977Nations and States, London: Methuen
    Sharp, A.1996‘The Genie that Would Not Go Back into the Bottle’, in S.Dunn and T. G.Fraser (eds) Europe and Ethnicity, London: Routledge
    Sheehy, J.1980The Rediscovery of Ireland's Past: The Celtic Revival (1830–1930), London: Thames and Hudson
    Skinner, Q.1974‘Some Problems in the Analysis of Political Thought and Action’, Political Theory, 2 (3), pp. 277–303http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009059177400200303
    Sluga, G.1998‘Identity, Gender, and the History of European Nations and Nationalism’, Nations and Nationalism, 4 (1), pp. 87–111http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1354-5078.1998.00087.x
    Smith, A. D.1971Theories of Nationalism, London: Duckworth
    Smith, A. D.1981‘War and Ethnicity: The Role of Warfare in the Formation, Self-images and Cohesion of Ethnic Communities’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 4 (4), pp. 375–97http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01419870.1981.9993347
    Smith, A. D.1984‘National Identity and Myths of Ethnic Descent’, Research in Social Movements, Conflict, Change, 7, pp. 95–130
    Smith, A. D.1986The Ethnic Origins of Nations, Oxford: Blackwell
    Smith, A. D.1992‘National Identity and the Idea of European Unity’, International Affairs, 68 (1), pp. 55–76
    Smith, A. D.1999Myths and Memories of the Nation, London: Oxford University Press
    Smith, A. D.2001‘Nations in History’, in M.Guibernau and J.Hutchinson (eds) Understanding Nationalism, Cambridge: Polity
    Smith, A. D.2002‘When is a Nation?, Geopolitics, 7 (2), pp. 5–32http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/714000928
    Smith, G., Law, V., Wilson, A., Bohr, A., and Allworth, E.1998Nation-building in the Post-Soviet Borderlands, Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511598876
    Smith, M.2000Britain and 1940: History, Myth and Popular Memory, London: Routledge
    Sorensen, Ø.1994‘The Development of a Norwegian National Identity During the Nineteeenth Century’, in O.Sorensen (ed.) Nordic Paths to National Identity in the Nineteenth Century, Oslo: The Research Council of Norway
    Sorenson, M. L.1996‘The Fall of a Nation, the Birth of a Subject: The National Use of Archaeology in Nineteenth Century Denmark’, in M.Diaz-Andreu and T.Champion (eds) Nationalism and Archaeology in Europe. London: UCL Press.
    Sternhell, Z.1999The Founding Myths of Israel, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
    Stokes, W.1868The Life and Labours in Art and Archaeology of George Petrie, Dublin
    Thaden, E.1964Conservative Nationalism in Nineteenth Century Russia, Seattle: University of Washington Press
    Thompson, E. P.1968The Making of the English Working Class, Harmondsworth: Penguin
    Tilly, C. (ed.) 1975The Formation of National States in Western Europe, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
    Tilly, C.1995‘States and Nationalism in Europe, 1492–1992’, in J. L.Comaroff and P. C.Stern (eds) Perspectives on Nationalism, Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers
    Tonnesson, S.2004‘Globalising National States’, Nations and Nationalism, 10 (1–2), pp. 179–94http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1354-5078.2004.00162.x
    Tsoukalas, C.2002‘The Irony of Symbolic Reciprocities — the Greek Meaning of “Europe” as a Historical Inversion of the European Meaning of “Greece”’, in M.af Malmborg and B.Strath (eds) The Meaning of Europe, Oxford: Berg
    van der Veer, P.1994Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India, Berkely: University of California Press
    van der Veer, P.1999‘The Moral State: Religion, Nation and Empire in Victorian Britain and British India’, in P.van der Veer and H.Lehmann (eds) Nation and Religion, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
    Vauchez, A.1992‘The Cathedral’, in P.Nora (ed.) Realms of Memory, Vol. 2 Traditions, New York: Columbia University Press
    Wallace, W.1997‘The Nation-state — Rescue or Retreat?’, in P.Gowers and P.Anderson (eds) The Question of Europe, London: Verso
    Wallerstein, I.1974The Modern World System: Volume 1, New York: Academic Press
    Weber, E.1976Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France (1870–1914), Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press
    Weiler, J. H. H.1997‘Demos, Telos, Ethos and the Maastricht Decision’, in P.Gowers and P.Anderson (eds) The Question of Europe, London: Verso
    Weiss, L.1998The Myth of the Powerless State, Cambridge: Polity Press
    Wiener, M. J.1981English Culture and the Decline of the Industrial Spirit 1850–1980, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Wilson, W. A.1976Folklore and Nationalism in Modern Finland, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press
    Wimmer, A.2002Nationalism and its Exclusions, Cambridge: Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511490415
    Winock, M.1998‘Joan of Arc’, in P.Nora (ed.) Realms of Memory: Vol. 3 Symbols, New York: Columbia University Press
    Winter, J.1995Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
    Woodruff, W.1973‘The Emergence of an International Economy 1700–1914’, in C.Cipolla (ed.) The Fontana Economic History of Europe: The Emergence of Industrial Societies Part 2, London: Collins
    Wriston, W.1992The Twilight of Sovereignty, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
    Yahil, L.1992‘National Pride and Defeat: A Comparison of Danish and German Nationalism’, in J.Reinharz and G.Mosse (eds) The Impact of Western Nationalisms, London: Sage
    Yoshino, K.1999‘Rethinking Theories of Nationalism: Japanese Nationalism in a Market-place Perspective’, in K.Yoshino (ed.) Consuming Ethnicity and Nationalism: Asian Experiences, Richmond: Curzon Press
    Young, C. (ed.) 1993The Rising Tide of Cultural Pluralism: The Nation-State at Bay?, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin
    Yuval-Davis, N.1997Gender and Nation, London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446222201
    Zerubavel, Y.1995Recovered Roots: Collective Memory and the Making of the Israeli Nation, Chicago: University of Chicago Press
    Zheng, Y.1999Discovering Nationalism in China: Modernisation, Identity and International Relations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website