Nationalism, Ethnicity and the State: Making and Breaking Nations

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John Coakley

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    List of Tables

    • Table 1.1 Issues of definition: examples 6
    • Table 2.1 Soviet estimates of the size of the world's racial groups, 1964 32
    • Table 3.1 Classification of languages 50
    • Table 3.2 Relation of official language to linguistic composition of society 59
    • Table 3.3 Language and identity, Switzerland, 2003 62
    • Table 3.4 Potential national groups by major linguistic community 64
    • Table 3.5 Ethnic nationality and language, Baltic Republics, 1989 66
    • Table 3.6 Ethnic nationality and language, Romania, 2002 66
    • Table 3.7 Language and identity, Wales and Basque Country, 2001–05 68
    • Table 4.1 Population by major religion, 2005 73
    • Table 4.2 Reported religious composition of Northern Ireland, Netherlands and Japan, 1961–66 74
    • Table 4.3 Examples of distinctive religious minorities in interwar Europe 91
    • Table 6.1 Cultural dimensions of nationalist activity 117
    • Table 6.2 England confronts the Celtic threat: selected legal texts 121
    • Table 7.1 Bauer's ‘laws of national assimilation’ 155
    • Table 8.1 Examples of types of nationalism 172
    • Table 8.2 Potential phases in nationalist movements 191
    • Table 9.1 Classification of theories of nationalism 199
    • Table 9.2 Two conceptions of the nation 208
    • Table 9.3 Nationalist mobilization: ideal types 210
    • Table 9.4 Nationalist demands and statehood: examples 213
    • Table 10.1 Approaches to national minorities 220
    • Table 10.2 Jewish population of selected European states, c. 1920–48 223

    List of Figures

    • Figure 1.1 Relationship between the terms ‘nation’, ‘ethnic group’ and ‘racial group’ 13
    • Figure 2.1 Nineteenth-century interpretation of racial relationships 34
    • Figure 2.2 Acquisitions of empire: Irish, African and Asian subject races, 1881 36
    • Figure 3.1 Schematic relationship between selected Indo-European languages 52
    • Figure 3.2 Four types of relationship between language communities and nations 61
    • Figure 4.1 Levels of belief and practice of US Catholics, 2008 75
    • Figure 4.2 Coherence of linguistic and religious territories, Switzerland, 1850–2000 77
    • Figure 4.3 National identity by religion, Northern Ireland, 2008 89
    • Figure 4.4 National identity by religion, Bosnia, 2001 90
    • Figure 5.1 A nationalist interpretation of Irish history 106
    • Figure 5.2 ‘Historic’ lands and ethnic territories: Hungary, Lithuania, Czech Lands, Israel 110
    • Figure 7.1 Relationship between class and national background, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Ireland, nineteenth century 144
    • Figure 7.2 Comparative median income levels of selected groups, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, 2006–09 146
    • Figure 7.3 Stages in assimilation and mobilization of peripheral cultures 148
    • Figure 7.4 Declining languages by age group, Brittany, Friesland, Ireland and New Zealand Maori, 1881–2001 151
    • Figure 7.5 Decline of regional languages, France, 1835–1950 152
    • Figure 7.6 Decline of the Irish language, 1821–1911 154
    • Figure 7.7 Linguistic competition in Helsinki, Tallinn, Prague and Bratislava, nineteenth and twentieth centuries 156
    • Figure 7.8 Spatial distribution of groups in Northern Ireland, 1991, Belgium, 1947, and Cyprus, 1960 158
    • Figure 7.9 Indicators of economic development in selected regions, United Kingdom, Canada, Spain and Yugoslavia, c. 1950 161
    • Figure 8.1 Nationalism and metropolitan–regional relations 171
    • Figure 9.1 Potential phases in the evolution of nationalism 195
    • Figure 10.1 Notional approaches to territorial organization 235

    Preface

    The rapidly growing range of books and articles on nationalism raises the question as to why yet another book on the subject is needed. Those familiar with this vast literature, however, will be aware that, for all its extent and quality, it is overwhelmingly dominated by case studies, with theoretical analyses occupying a respectable niche, and just a tiny number of comparative works.

    There have been notable efforts to synthesise the huge body of writing that has emerged in recent decades, and impressive strides have been made in the domain of sociological theories of nationalism. Nevertheless, this still leaves a gap: the need for further broad comparative study of this powerful force. The present book tries to respond to this need, though necessarily subject to two important restrictions. First, this multi-faceted phenomenon clearly requires interdisciplinary analysis; but the present study reflects the perspective of the political scientist. Second, the reach of nationalism is global; but few scholars can claim familiarity with all zones of the world, and the European bias of this book must be acknowledged.

    The book seeks, then, to offer an overview of nationalism characterised by a comparative historical approach that combines an attempt to synthesise the existing literature on the concomitants of nationalism with theoretical speculation regarding the path that it typically follows. The book rests on analysis of a large number of case studies of very different kinds, an approach that relies on the generous assistance of many people and institutions.

    I would like in the first place to record my gratitude to the many libraries in which it was my privilege and pleasure to work. The libraries of University College Dublin and Queen's University Belfast have been of particular assistance, but it has been a rewarding experience to work also in so many other university libraries (with that of the London School of Economics as the richest in resources in this area) and national libraries (with the National Library of Ireland and the British Library as those on which I have relied most). The eccentricities of national library culture are, indeed, almost as intriguing as nationalism itself, with only experienced practitioners having the capacity to penetrate unwritten norms to ensure that books are not only ordered but are likely to be delivered. The extremes are represented by the openness of the Library of Congress system (sadly limited in recent years by security considerations) and the eccentric and often frustrating unpredictability of the old German Staatsbibliothek in East Berlin and its unique relationship with its West Berlin counterpart during the years of the cold war.

    The gigantic expansion in availability of data that was ushered in by the information technology revolution makes it necessary also to acknowledge the invaluable assistance of other institutions. These include national statistical databases (notably, central statistics offices), but also, in particular, data archives which have made important datasets available. Among these, I am grateful to ARK-Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas in Madrid, DANS in the Netherlands, GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences in Germany, the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research at the University of Michigan, the Irish Social Science Data Archive at University College Dublin, the Norwegian Social Science Data Services at the University of Bergen (for the European Social Survey), Réseau Quetelet in Paris, the United Kingdom Data Archive at the University of Essex, and the World Values Survey network.

    My thanks are due also to the several institutions that have hosted sabbatical visits over the years, including the Free University of Berlin, the Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques in Paris, the University of Helsinki, the Woodrow Wilson Center in Washington, DC, and Australian National University. Warm thanks are due to friends and colleagues who read one or more chapters of the book or assisted in other ways: Stefan Auer, Joe Brady, Steve Bruce, Linda Cardinal, Walker Connor, John Edwards, Bryan Fanning, Yvonne Galligan, Tom Garvin, Adrian Guelke, Katy Hayward, Michael Holmes, Iseult Honohan, Derek Hutcheson, Jean Laponce, Wolfgang Marx, Stephen Mennell, Gerald Mills, Brendan O'Leary, Pascal Pragnere, Joe Ruane, Claudia Saba, Bill Safran and Tobias Theiler. I am particularly indebted to Siniša Malešević and Jennifer Todd, who read all, or almost all, of the text. Finally, I am grateful to the staff of Sage Publications, including Natalie Aguilera, Patrick Brindle, David Mainwaring, James Piper, Imogen Roome and their colleagues, for their work at various stages in ensuring the publication of this book.

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