- Subject index
The "organization linkage" concept is relatively new. This book provides a unique and very valuable approach to the study of organizations - how do actions among individuals and groups affect (or not affect) organizations as a whole, and vice versa. This ground-breaking book shows how to bridge the gap between the traditional micro and macro camps of organizational studies.
Chapter 6: Focusing on System-Wide Changes
Focusing on System-Wide Changes
In Chapter 5, we explored why changes at one unit or level may not have impacts at other levels. The focus has been on why individual, group, or unit changes may not affect organizational-level outcomes. A number of tools have been introduced to understand these linkages.
Let's take a different approach and look at system-wide versus unit-level change (Lawler, 1986, 1992). The new question is: What are the conditions when system-wide changes have (or do not have) positive effects on individual-, group-, and corporate-level outcomes? System-wide changes refer to changes in a large number of subsystems and their elements, versus one subsystem or unit. These subsystems include (a) technical subsystems, which are defined by elements such as layout, processes, ...