Mindful Inquiry in Social Research

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Valerie Malhotra Bentz & Jeremy J. Shapiro

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    “The truth, however nobly it may loom before the scientific intellect, is ontologically something secondary. Its eternity is but the wake of the ship of time, a furrow which matter must plough upon the face of essence. Truth must have a subject matter, it must be the truth about something; and it is the character of this moving object, lending truth and definition to the truth itself, that is substantial and fundamental in the universe.”

    George Santayana, Realms of Being

    “Wisdom not steeped in method is bondage.

    Wisdom steeped in method is freedom.

    Method not steeped in wisdom is bondage.

    Method steeped in wisdom is freedom.”

    Tsongkapa, The Principal Teachings of Buddhism

    Copyright

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    Dedication

    To our parents, Norma Bentz Sajeck and George Sajeck and Judah J. Shapiro and Florence I. Shapiro, who raised us both to become reflective scholars, musicians, and critical thinkers; and to our siblings, Daniel Shapiro and Lorelei Cederstrom, who are always alongside us in our lifeworlds.

    Preface

    There are a number of introductions available to research in the social and human sciences. In fact, there are more than 150 introductions to research listed in Books in Print. A number of them are very good at what they intend to do. But we believe that the beginning researcher has fundamental needs that they do not address. We have written this book to try to meet needs that we have encountered in recent years among students with whom we have worked, needs that were not being met by other introductory books, including books that we like and advised them to read. We do not assume that our book is the only introduction to research that you will read. In fact, we hope that it is not, because we are deliberately not duplicating standard material that is covered elsewhere. We believe that you need to consider multiple perspectives—that is a main point of our book. But we imagine that you will find that this book contains information, ideas, and a perspective on research that is not to be found in other books and courses and that will help you reframe that other material and use it more effectively for your own purposes.

    We have found that for students—and for us—the challenges in undertaking research are not mainly about the details of research methods. Rather, they are about making choices about which research approach to take; trying to figure out how to integrate your research with your underlying sense of who you are and what you want out of life; being aware of your intellectual and social context and how your research relates to it; deciding what your “knowledge values” are; trying to figure out if your research is significant; learning to be an intellectual peer of other scholars; finding your own niche in the world of scholarship and research; situating yourself in the cross-cutting discourses that exist in the academic world; finding the right way of conceptualizing the topic in which you are interested; making sure that the topic and approach are “right” personally and existentially; relating to the social worlds that you inhabit and in which you do your research; and managing personally the conflicts, ambiguities, fears, and confusions that the research can bring to the surface. This short book—and it is short intentionally—obviously does not provide the solutions to all of these problems, but we try to take them into account and help people deal with them constructively.

    What is distinctive about our approach is that we pay attention to the intellectual and cultural postmodern, chaotic situation in which human and social science research takes place today, to the social and historical changes that are the background context of intellectual work today, and to the multicultural, interdisciplinary, multiparadigmatic trends in the social and human sciences. Most textbooks either do not address this situation at all or do so peripherally, at best. This is especially true of textbooks and courses that are operating within a framework passed down from a previous intellectual generation. In consequence, we believe, students are not prepared adequately either to make sense of the scholarly work that they encounter or to fit their own work into current intellectual discourse. We believe that, in such a situation, you—the researcher—have to place yourself at the center of the research process because of the need to make choices in a chaotic environment; and you need to become a bit of an applied philosopher to be able to make these choices. You also need to be aware both of the social and cultural context of research today and of the multiple research modes, or cultures of inquiry, that are available to you in the human and social sciences. In contemplating your research, have you thought, for example, of building your own theory? Analyzing your own consciousness? Changing your own social environment? These are among the many options available to you (although your immediate environment may not be receptive to all of them).

    Instead of presenting research as a neutral tool kit to be used in any kind of intellectual or philosophical or value framework, we present and recommend our own philosophical framework, which we call mindful inquiry, as a way to think about inquiry and research. Our framework is not value-neutral: It is a synthesis of critical social science, hermeneutics, phenomenology, and Buddhism. Do not worry if these terms are unfamiliar to you. We explain them in the text and in a glossary at the end of the book. We believe that mindful inquiry will help connect, in a meaningful way, you as a researcher, your inner self, your research interests, the world in which you live, your philosophical assumptions and commitments, and your moral and political values.

    Our conception of the book has shaped our bibliography. We have provided bibliographical information for all the works to which we refer in the text. We have limited recommended readings to a short list of introductions to the major topics that we cover. We believe that the interested reader will be best served by using those works in combination with our references and with bibliographic searches guided by her own particular interests.

    We wish to thank, first of all, the faculty of the Human and Organization Development (HOD) Program of the Fielding Institute, particularly those involved in the development and writing of the program's Study Guide for Research and Inquiry, from which we have borrowed considerably in the present work: Anna DiStefano, Will McWhinney, Rich Appelbaum, Judy Stevens-Long, and Frank Friedlander (Jeremy Shapiro was also involved in this project). Other faculty have contributed to ongoing discussions about research through their participation on the HOD Research and Inquiry Committee and in other faculty contexts. These include Jody Veroff, Elizabeth Douvan, Peter Park, Bob Silverman, Sara Cobb, Matt Hamabata, Willy DeMarcell Smith, Keith Melville, Dottie Eastman, and Morris Berman. We are also grateful to Linda Ford and Paul Bundick for permission to use their descriptions of their experiences of research, to Elyse Kutz for reading the manuscript and suggesting editorial changes, and to Daniel Shapiro for graphics consultation and for making the helix used in the diagrams. We wish to especially thank editor and colleague Tamera Bryant of Five Oak Editorial, who “midwifed” the book from her Ohio office as Jeremy, its East Coast mother, completed labor and Valerie, its West Coast father, paced the floor. We are indebted to our editors, Marquita Flemming and Sherrise Purdum, of Sage Publications, for nurturing this manuscript through a long process of conceptualization, production, and revisions.

    From Valerie: I wish to thank those who sustained my lifeworld as I worked toward and completed this project: my daughter, Pamela Malhotra; my dear friends and colleagues Jeanette Day, Frieda Karr, Ellen Pratt, Amanda Samaha, Frank Jankowitz, and Jonathan Freedman; my friend and yoga teacher, Abhaya (Susan MacDonald); my kundalini yoga teachers, Dr. Bede Kuntz and Amrit Joy of the Center for Inner Peace; my dear niece, Greta Cederstrom; and my teachers and colleagues at the Body Therapy Institute of Santa Barbara. Others with whom I have worked and whose work supported and inspired me are cited in the text. The love and friendship of my kittens, Spitfire and Lovejones, were invaluable in alleviating the stress of the process of bringing the book to completion. I thank the Great Spirit for bringing Steven Figler into my life just as this book was born.

    From Jeremy: This book grew out of a decade of thinking and working with friends—graduates of and students at the Fielding Institute—whose doctoral work shaped my understanding of inquiry and research, and I would like to thank especially Jan Elliott and Kelly Rae Reineke, as well as Gail Suttelle, Barbara Rusness, Andrea Zintz, Theresa Russell, Viola Harrison, Jenny Wade, Anita Jensen, Mike Terpstra, Pat Salgado, and Karin Bunnell. Coteaching critical theory with Kelly Rae Reineke has also contributed to my reconceptualizing it. During this period I also benefited from the thought, conversation, and friendship of Bert Somers, Virginia Mullin, Trent Schroyer, Barbara Einzig, Hannah Davis Taieb, David Guss, Linda Ford, Terry Winant, Judy Adler, David Bellin, Mike McCullough, Billy Stoneman, Kathleen Rubin, Marty Rubin, and Charlotte Riley. I am particularly grateful to the friends, collaborators, and family who sustain my intellectual and personal life on a daily basis: Shierry Nicholsen, Shelley Hughes, Pamela Walsh, Florence I. Shapiro, and Daniel Shapiro. And I want to acknowledge Hallock Hoffman and the late Renate Tesch for the gift of their special friendship and mentorship.

    A note about masculine and feminine pronouns:

    We have chosen to alternate at random between masculine and feminine pronouns because we feel that slicing or mutilating everyone's pronoun gender identification makes it difficult for each of us, as gendered beings, to identify with the text.

  • Appendix A: Glossary

    • Being-in-the-world A concept of twentieth-century philosopher Martin Heidegger that focuses attention on the actual nature of human existence as bounded by the physical environment at a particular time and place with a physical body that has a biography and history and a being who exists in a linguistically infused world.
    • Cognition The active process of knowing by which knowledge is produced. Cognitive science seeks to explain all thought, knowledge, and understanding in terms of brain functioning and its evolution.
    • Community of inquirers-investigators-researchers-scientists-scholars Each research tradition is carried on by researchers or scholars who operate in a shared network that includes a shared language.
    • Critical theory A body of thought developed by a group of scholars associated with the University of Frankfurt in the 1930s. Critical theorists, such as Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, and Leo Lowenthal, blended the thinking of Marx and Freud into cogent and incisive analyses of culture. They contended that cultural forms, such as music, law, art, and the mass media, exercise a force on culture just as economic forms and psychological forms influence culture. Critical theory is dedicated to human and world emancipation from humanly created forms of oppression, such as fascism.
    • Culture of inquiry A way of knowing, with a shared set of assumptions, language, and understandings about appropriate ways of conducting research.
    • Epistemology The study of valid knowledge, its status, and its conditions. In the modern period, with Descartes and, especially, with Kant, epistemology has concentrated especially on the way in which features of the knowing human mind shape, structure, and set conditions for anything that we can know. The underlying idea of modern epistemology is that, because all knowledge is produced by the human mind, and because the mind is a more or less subjective thing, we need to understand how the mind can arrive at more or less objective knowledge of the world outside it. We need to investigate various features of the mind itself in order to grasp its knowledge capacities. Epistemology is not psychology. That is, it does not study how human minds actually operate in the world to produce what is considered knowledge. Rather, it studies how the human mind can arrive at valid knowledge of reality. A psychologist might observe people to find out how they come to form the idea that there is a sun and a moon and that these objects move in certain paths. An epistemologist is concerned with how we could ascertain that these ideas are valid. Indeed, an epistemologist would evaluate what would make the psychologist's claims about this valid.
    • Feminism A worldview that holds that women and men should be treated in all respects as social equals. Some forms of feminism seek to portray women as superior to men and to make claims for female supremacy. Feminist critiques of all forms of knowing are being conducted.
    • Hermeneutic circle The relationship between an interpreter and her or his interpretation of the text as she or he moves toward greater understanding.
    • Hermeneutic spiral A concept used to correct the image of the hermeneutic process as a closed circle. The hermeneutic spiral moves forward in time in a continual process toward deeper and richer understanding.
    • Hermeneutics Hermeneutics is the interpretation of texts. Developed from the tradition of biblical scholarship, hermeneutic strategies were later employed in the analysis of all textual materials by scholars in the humanities and social sciences. In the later half of the twentieth century, texts other than verbal, such as clothing, geography, architecture, conversations, and group interactions, have come to be viewed as kinds of texts and treated hermeneutically.
    • Human science A broader term than social science because it emphasizes the connection between the social sciences and the humanities. A human science is a discipline that seeks to use systematic scientific means to study human beings and their forms of social organization. It includes the disciplines of history, literature, and social philosophy as they interface with the social sciences.

      The term human science parallels the German terms Geisteswissenschaft and Kulturwissenschaft, meaning “sciences of spirit” and “sciences of culture.” Dilthey, a German historian of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, distinguished them from the natural sciences or Naturwissenschaft because of the way in which human beings not only observe other humans but understand the meaning of their actions from the inside.

    • Ideal type A model of a type of action, person, or social situation. It highlights some characteristics of the phenomenon in order to explore the nature and effects of the phenomenon as it relates to other phenomena. For example, Max Weber developed an ideal type of the “Protestant ethic” and an ideal type of the “spirit of capitalism” and showed how the one fostered the other in the history of the west.
    • Inquiry A sustained investigation involving careful reflection, the purpose of which is to disclose truth. Truth may be reached when one has made a sincere, self-critical, and socially verifiable attempt to understand or explain a phenomenon. Truth is always partial and temporary, as fuller disclosures may lead to deeper understanding.
    • Lifeworld The lived experiences of human beings and other living creatures as formed into more or less coherent grounds for their existence. This consists of the whole system of interactions with others and objects in an environment that is fused with meaning and language (for human actors) and that sustains the life of all creatures from birth through death. It is the fundamental ground of all experience for human beings.
    • Metaculture of inquiry A culture of inquiry that carries power that transcends all other cultures of inquiry. (We contend that phenomenology, hermeneutics, and critical theory are metacultures of inquiry.)
    • Methodology The study of ways of gaining knowledge. It involves a reflective analysis of the kinds of knowledge desired and the nature of knowledge claims that can be made according to the procedures followed.
    • Mindful inquiry Mindful inquiry combines the Buddhist concept of mindfulness with phenomenology, critical theory, and hermeneutics in a process that puts the inquirer in the center.
    • Mindfulness A concept from Buddhism that stresses focus, intention, and awareness of whatever is present in a situation or experience. It requires the acceptance of complete responsibility for the effects of all one's actions, thoughts, and experiences. Mindfulness itself is antithetical to cruelty and bears a natural affinity to compassion.
    • Modern The historical period called modern is marked by the shift from a traditional, agriculturally based society to an industrial-urban society. It is characterized by a detached, scientific attitude toward the world and an attempt to view everything with the light of reason and logic.
    • Ontology The knowledge of being of all and anything that is, and of its features, properties, or qualities. In its nontechnical sense, ontology means fundamental conceptions or assumptions about reality and about how it is structured. For example, one could say that people who believe the world consists only of observable behavior have a different ontology from those who believe it also consists of intentions. In a similar way, people who believe that only individuals exist have a different ontology from people who believe that there are features of groups or systems that cannot be reduced to the individuals that are part of them. All of the sciences study aspects of being or of what is. For example, physics studies material being, biology studies living beings or being, anthropology and psychology study human being, and so on.

      In the Western philosophical tradition, especially since Aristotle, ontology has meant primarily the study of being as being—that is, the features, properties, and qualities that things have just by being and that are common to all beings as such. An example would be the idea that, regardless of any particular qualities that differentiate physical, living, and human beings, all beings have properties, or essences, and all have quantitative and qualitative features. Furthermore, there are different types, or regions, of being. For example, numbers have being. Frogs have being. Fantasies have being. And, just because they are, there are certain things that are common to all of them. But because they are in different ways, both their similarities and differences are subject matter for ontology.

      In the twentieth century, Martin Heidegger has criticized the Western onto-logical tradition for studying being as though it were just another, more general particular being. Heidegger argued that being is very different from beings and that humans have a special relationship to the being of beings that enables them to understand beings. According to Heidegger, being is neither an object nor a concept, but rather something that we relate to through our existence in a way that makes beings accessible or available to us. He points out that the question of why there is being rather than nothing points to a very different sort of answer than the question of why there is any particular being.

    • Phenomenology Phenomenology is the study of experiences of consciousness. Edmund Husserl, a key founder of phenomenology, used the phrase “back to the things themselves” to describe the objective of phenomenology. Things to human beings are experienced by and through consciousness. This fundamental reality had been ignored in the twentieth century in the rush to develop social sciences to parallel the natural sciences.
    • Postcolonial A concept from anthropology that viewed the anthropological tradition as having been linked with the colonization of much of the world by Western European and American powers. Postcolonial thought sets itself in opposition to this framework and emphasizes the voices and powers of those who are native to a culture.
    • Postmodern A trend in intellectual circles of the late twentieth century used to characterize forms of art, architecture, scholarship, literature, social science, and social organization itself. The postmodern tends to be characterized by an eclecticism of styles, combining forms from different eras and geographic locations, which at prior times would have been thought to be incompatible. There is an irreverence for past achievements, which postmodernists wish to “deconstruct,” destroy, or ignore. Grand theories, enlightenment ideals, and fundamental motives are viewed with suspicion by postmodern thinkers. The human identity or self is seen as a fictional construct, and indeed fact and fiction are indistinguishable.
    • Reification The use of a concept or abstraction as if it were an objective, physical reality. For example, one may say that the concepts husband and wife are reified terms that carry meanings that distort the lived experience of persons who act as husbands and wives.
    • Research Literally, research means to “search again” or “look again.” In the traditional academy of the late nineteenth century and through the twentieth century, research has meant a scientific approach modeled after the methods of the natural sciences. However, research actually includes methods such as logical analysis, semiotics, historical methods, hermeneutics, and phenomenology.
    • Research tradition A body of research on a particular topic or with a particular perspective. For example, within the field of sociology, there is a research tradition on complex organizations. In the same way, psychoanalytically inspired researchers carry on a research tradition. Research traditions typically are brought forward in a journal or several related journals, in monograph series, and in conferences.
    • Social science A general term for those disciplines that have adopted the scientific model for understanding human beings and their forms of social organization. The social sciences include sociology, psychology, political science, anthropology, economics, and social geography.
    • Typification A mental construct of attributes about a person or thing. It is a concept from social phenomenology, which stresses that we only know others and objects based on judgments from prior knowledge.
    • Undistorted/uncoercive communication Jürgen Habermas, a well-known theorist of the late twentieth century, working in the tradition of critical theory, developed a concept of undistorted communication. Communication is usually distorted by the power relationships and hidden agendas of members of groups and organizations. Habermas developed guidelines for communication that were designed to alleviate some of these distortions so that truthful discourse could occur. These norms are (a) understandability (speakers should share enough norms and ways of speaking and writing that they can accurately interpret each other's meaning); (b) truth (speakers should have cogent and recognized means of relating their assertions about the nature of the world to the actual world); (c) truthfulness (speakers should be sincere and have self-critical abilities to detect ideological distortions coming from their own experiences and strategies); and (d) rightness (speakers should follow valid moral norms). In undistorted communication, all items may be placed on the agenda, and all assumptions must be available for discussion and critique.

    Appendix B: Research Competencies

    This listing of research competencies was developed by the five consulting faculty of the Fielding Institute, each of whom has vast experience in serving as a methods advisor on dissertation committees. This list is a proposed integration of the research competency lists drawn up by Fielding faculty research committees and consulting faculty.

    • Intersection of Research and Scholarship
      • Ability to critique existing research, including
        • the logic of the arguments presented
        • the methods used
        • the interpretations made of the data
      • Ability to make and present an argument, including
        • looking at all sides of the issue
        • bringing in past research in support of and against the argument
        • framing the argument in terms of theory, schools of thought, and cultures of inquiry
        • using language correctly and according to standards of relevant professional associations
      • Ability to develop research questions that
        • are framed in such a way as to add to existing thought and understanding in theory, literature, and schools of thought
        • are attached to a larger frame of reference
        • can be invalidated by data (for quantitative)
        • orient the researcher to finding that preconceived ideas are wrong or incomplete (for qualitative)
        • are well matched with one or more identified cultures of inquiry
        • will result in new knowledge
      • Ability to understand and implement research according to ethical standards, including
        • understanding the researcher's accountability
        • not inflicting harm to research participants
        • providing for support where unintentional harm is done
        • evaluating the appropriate use of methods for questions related to ethno-racial, gender, age, disability and lifestyle issues
    • A theoretical and practical understanding of quantitative research methods, including
      • Research design
        • that is appropriate to the research question being addressed
        • that allows for invalidation of hypotheses
        • that includes appropriate consideration of confounding variables
        • that controls appropriately for sources of internal and external invalidity
      • Sampling
        • that considers representativeness and the effects of sampling bias
        • that avoids sampling bias
        • that considers sample sizes that are appropriate to the question and the effects the researcher wants to detect
      • Data collection techniques
        • that maximize validity and reliability
        • that maximize participation and minimize attrition
    • An understanding of the logic of and interpretation of the most common statistical techniques used in the social science literature, including
      • Basic statistics
        • Univariate descriptors
        • t-tests
        • chi-squares
      • The logic of inference and statistical significance
      • Statistics involving more than one independent variable
        • ANOVA and the partitioning of variance
        • Multiple regression
      • Interpretation of statistical results
      • Presentation of statistical results
    • An understanding of the place of more specialized techniques in the scholarly literature, and the types of questions they address, including
      • Discrimination of groups
        • Discriminant function analysis
        • Nonparametric tree methods
        • Logistic regression
      • Analysis of multiple dependent variables and mediating variables
        • MANOVA
        • Causal modeling
      • Measurement of underlying, unobserved constructs
        • Factor analysis
        • Scaling
      • Analysis of categorical data
        • Loglinear
      • Classification of cases
        • Cluster analysis
      • Nonparametrics
    • A theoretical and practical knowledge of basic qualitative methods of research, including the ability to
      • choose a culture of inquiry appropriate to the research question
      • match a method to the research question
      • design a qualitative study that allows initial assumptions to be invalidated
      • address the effects of sampling methods on results
      • address issues of trustworthiness, authenticity, and transferability
      • interpret qualitative data to bring out the underlying structure of meaning
      • collect qualitative data at a level that supports scholarly interpretation
      • present interpretations and the data on which they are based
    • Familiarity with the common approaches to qualitative research, their appropriate use, their similarities and their differences, including
      • Grounded theory
      • Phenomenology
      • Narrative analysis
      • Hermeneutics
      • Ethnography
      • Ethnomethodology
      • Action research

    Appendix C: Key Ideas of Positivism

    We present here a brief statement of interrelated ideas, each of which has been part of some conception of positivism. Looking at the separate ideas in this way can help make sense of what positivism is and is not. Over the past 30 years, positivism has come under withering criticism as a social and political ideology, as a general theory of knowledge, and as a valid basis for the human sciences. As a consequence, after every positivist notion, we have provided a counter-idea or counterposition that has some weight in philosophy or in the social and human sciences. This is not meant to imply that the positivist idea is automatically wrong and the counterposition is automatically right. We want mainly to indicate that these are complex and controversial issues.

    • Knowledge consists primarily of turning “facts,” derived from observation, into sciences organized according to theories formulated as general laws.

      There are no pure facts: All facts are theory laden and exist within prior conceptual or theoretical frameworks or paradigms. Through their activities and the active processes of knowing, human beings shape the “facts” that surround them. Although there is an external reality, it is constructed (Berger & Luckmann, 1967) and relative to conceptual frameworks.

    • Distinct from religious or philosophical speculation, these fact-oriented, or “positive,” sciences are the only legitimate form of knowledge. Metaphysics is meaningless, obsolete, or both. Only that which can be verified empirically is meaningful. Propositions containing unverifiable statements are meaningless. Metaphysical or ethical statements are meaningless in this sense.

      All forms of knowledge rest on some prior doctrine about knowledge that goes beyond what can be derived from empirical knowledge and thus rest on some kind of metaphysics. Metaphysical doctrines of various kinds continue within philosophy, despite the importance of the positive sciences. The philosopher Karl Popper has stressed that it is impossible to verify scientific hypotheses and theories. At best one can hope to falsify them (Popper, 1965).

    • There is a single scientific method, that of the natural sciences, primarily physics and astronomy. For Comte, the official founder of positivism, astronomy was the model science (Comte, 1963). For twentieth-century logical positivists, physics is the model science. It is valid everywhere, at all times, and in all domains of knowledge, and only the results of applying that method can count as true knowledge. Disciplines or areas that do not yet operate according to this single scientific method are still in a prescientific stage of development. This belief is sometimes also called scientism.

      In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, scholars in the human and social sciences started to develop methods for studying human beings objectively to parallel the efforts of natural scientists in studying nature objectively. However, because human beings act in the world and express themselves in terms of meanings, subjective experience, and symbols, much inquiry in the human sciences consisted of, and still consists of, understanding and interpreting human beings' subjective experience and action as expressed in language and other forms of symbolic communication. Thus, starting in the nineteenth century, historians interpreted documents, inscriptions, artifacts, and artworks in order to create accurate pictures of societies at different times in their history. Anthropologists and ethnographers traveled to different parts of the world, living among native peoples in order to describe and analyze their cultures. Psychologists and psychiatrists interacted with their patients to develop detailed case histories and analyses of different forms of problematic human behavior and experience. Sociologists observed the lives of people in their own societies undergoing industrialization and urbanization in order to understand the social structures and tendencies of modern societies. Thus, the original research methods in the human sciences consisted of capturing and understanding human communication and subjective experience.

      Around the turn of the century, German and French social scientists and philosophers developed the idea that the human sciences are based on distinctive methods that involve the use of understanding and interpretation. That is, in the human sciences the observer or scholar studies the phenomenon by virtue of being similar to the phenomena themselves. The researcher and the researched interact through shared culture and communicative ability. It is by virtue of being able to share communication and subjective experience that the investigator can come to understand the data. The natural scientist, on the other hand, does not resemble the data he or she studies and does not communicate with them or understand them. Much current research in the human sciences continues in this tradition of understanding and interpretation as sociologists, anthropologists, historians, political scientists, and many psychologists continue to study human beings as they reveal themselves in actions and expressions occurring in, or shaped by, meanings and symbols.

      In the twentieth century, the human sciences have also been affected strongly by a current of thought that stresses similarity between the human sciences and the natural sciences. This way of thinking has sought to transfer to the study of human beings the experimental methods and search for mathematically formulated laws that originated much earlier in the natural sciences. Quantitative and experimental methods are sometimes very useful in isolating patterns and relationships among different aspects of human and social phenomena. However, they are not the only “scientific” approach.

    • Only hypotheses that can be formulated as potential general laws involving relationships among measurable variables and verified through experiment and sensory observation can count as knowledge. These laws are what constitute explanation.

      Much of the work of the human and social sciences rests on understanding unique human situations and does not involve measurement or experiment. This understanding draws on the way we understand unique situations in everyday life (Habermas, 1971). All human behavior, action, and experience is shaped by, and occurs within systems of language, meaning, and symbolism that cannot just be described and explained but must be understood and interpreted. This means that the researcher must be to some extent “inside” of, or sharing, the language or symbol system of those who are being studied. Otherwise the researcher has no access to the meanings involved (Habermas, 1971, 1984).

    • The ability to generate confirmable predictions is the test of the validity of a hypothesis and the sign of its holding up as a general law.

      Prediction is irrelevant to much of the work of the human sciences. The human sciences are concerned with fully comprehending the unique features of an event, situation, or organization, and even their general conclusions rarely make predictions possible. Furthermore, because human beings have freedom and the possibility of action, they can change the course of events, so predictions cannot play the same role in human affairs that they can in nonhuman affairs.

    • In the human realm, only observable and measurable behavior is legitimate data for science. The realm of subjective or internal experience and meaning is irrelevant to science unless it manifests itself in measurable, observable behavior that follows law-like regularities. This doctrine is also referred to as behaviorism.

      As we pointed out, much of twentieth-century social science is based on the understanding of subjective meaning. Max Weber claimed that the basis of social science is the understanding of the meaning of social action. Although the status of the understanding and interpretation of meaning is controversial, many social scientists accept it as foundational to their science. This involves intentionality—a concern with the “interior” (cognitive, emotional) meaning of action (to the actors involved) rather than merely with the observed behavior by itself (Weber, 1949)

    • To count as knowledge, these general laws have to be formulated mathematically and follow from one another according to logical deduction.

      Even in the natural sciences, the organization of knowledge as a system of mathematically formulated laws interconnected by deduction has only limited applicability. In the social and human sciences, it has even more limited applicability. The fact that the social sciences are generally not organized in this way is not because they are still in an undeveloped state but because the model is not appropriate.

    • Values have no relevance to science except as expressions of irrational human emotions and preferences. Behavior originating in values can be studied scientifically, but values themselves have no application to knowledge. To the contrary, the entire realm of values, the “ought,” and the normative need to be rigorously excluded from science. There is no way to be rational about ethical or political values or norms, for these are, strictly speaking, nonrational or irrational. Thus, there is no such thing as practical reason—rationality that applies to action or practice—except for the instrumental rationality that can be used to evaluate whether particular means are appropriate to the realization of ultimately irrational goals or values.

      Major philosophical traditions and positions argue that values can have a cognitive basis and that there is such a thing as practical reason or practical rationality. For a critical exposition of the influential Kantian conception of practical reason, see Wolff (1973). For some recent discussions of the notion of practical rationality, especially with regard to Habermas's conception of “communicative ethics,” see Benhabib and Dallmayr (1990).

    • The only things that we can know exist for sure are individual, isolated occasions of observation of the external world (“atomism”), because everything else is really only inferred from them. In some versions of positivism, this led to the notion that there really are no “wholes” or “systems.” In scientific explanation, “holistic” or “system” properties were to be “reduced” to properties of the system's elements or component parts. Other versions, however, as in some forms of systems theory, emphasize the priority of the system over the part or the individual. In the human and social sphere, this form of systems theory usually severs the system from any sort of moral or normative regulation or action (Dallmayr, 1987). It can also be argued that phenomenological, subjectivistic, or interpretive approaches to reality are positivistic when they take the “facts” of consciousness or meaning as ultimate, irreducible givens.

      Critics of the atomistic version of positivism have stressed the importance of “holism” “systemness,” and “systematicity” (Rescher, 1979), rather than merely the individuals that comprise them. Although there are positivistic ways of conceptualizing systematicity, the notion of system properties that go beyond the facts can serve as a critical, rather than positivistic, notion (Harris, 1987; Marcuse, 1954).

    • Because all genuine knowledge consists of either scientifically formulated statements and theories that obey the preceding rules or the logical analysis of such statements and theories, strictly speaking there is no need to justify or ground knowledge epistemologically or philosophically. Because philosophical statements do not obey these rules, they are not really scientific. Indeed, most of them are, strictly speaking, meaningless, and philosophical problems are pseudo-problems. Philosophy and epistemology are really relics of the prescientific age, and are valid and useful only to the extent that they clarify and advocate scientific knowledge. Therefore, positivism does not need to justify itself.

      “Empiricism cannot be justified empirically or scientism by means of scientific method” (Dallmayr, 1987, p. 248). Habermas pointed to the denial of the need for or possibility of epistemological reflection as the most basic positivistic notion. These critics of positivism point out that positivism undermines itself by having to ground itself in a “meta-language” that itself does not obey the rules of positivism.

    • Knowledge is essentially the product of a “knower” and conceived from the perspective of an individual observer and knower of reality. Although knowledge is formulated in language and communicated, essentially shared knowledge is the knowledge of a collection of such individual, solitary knowers.

      Much of the recent philosophy and sociology of science and of knowledge shows that knowledge arises in and is created by communities, and many of its characteristics follow from the role of these communities, and not just from interaction between an individual “knower” and an individual known. See, for example, Toulmin (1972).

    • The fundamental relationship of the knower to reality is essentially a passive or neutral one, consisting primarily of observing facts or sensory data and then building up knowledge from these observed facts. True, experimentation is an active process. But ultimately knowledge is derived from observation, and these observations are “given” to the observer.

      Contemporary thought has argued for both the inevitability and legitimacy of the knower's active role in both perception and conceptualization as well as the knower's engagement with the known. In the human and social sciences, in particular, involvement with the subjects of one's study may be necessary and appropriate. It has come to be recognized that detachment, or neutrality, is itself a form of engagement with or relation to these subjects, which may make certain phenomena visible but render others invisible. Furthermore, our knowledge is connected with our embodiment. Recent philosophy is concerned with the way in which the human bodily relation to the world mediates, frames, and shapes our knowledge of it (Merleau-Ponty, 1981). And practice, or action, may be combined with knowledge.

    • The observer's or knower's context does not enter into knowledge, because context exists just as another source of intruding subjective and irrational elements into the research or knowledge process. Making knowledge valid and scientific requires excluding contexts or situations in the same way that values and preferences need to be excluded. Thus, knowledge is fundamentally impersonal, and the person of the knower, scientist, or researcher has no bearing on and does not enter into the research, except as a negative factor.

      The importance of context in the generation of knowledge, especially in the social sciences, is a primary thrust of important currents in the theory of knowledge over the past three decades. It is central to hermeneutics, which sees all interpretation as occurring within the horizon of a historical and cultural context (Gadamer, 1975); critical theory, which sees all knowledge as shaped by its historical, class, gender, and ethnic context (Collins, 1990; Harding, 1996; Horkheimer, 1972); and constructionism and constructivism of different varieties (Berger & Luckmann, 1967; Hess, 1995).

    • Knowledge serves as a means of control, and this orientation toward control is built into knowledge itself. This can be seen in the way that knowledge is validated or established through experimentation and prediction. The experimental method is based on control, because an experiment is precisely a situation in which one can produce a particular result through controlling the factors of the situation. And prediction is a way of controlling the future (e.g., the results of an experiment) or of enabling control of the future (e.g., if we can predict when the sun will set, we know when to turn on the lights). So there is a built-in “instrumental” or “technical” approach to knowledge, and positivism tends to assume an instrumental orientation of knowledge and of knowledge processes (Habermas, 1971). This instrumental orientation may seem to contradict the idea of the knower relating to reality in a neutral or passive manner, but it is in fact connected with it. For it is precisely by adopting a neutral stance, by being outside of a context with reality, that the observer can then control it. Part of the scientific critique of magical, prescientific thinking is that magic presumes the ability to control or influence reality, which ends up being more wish fulfillment than real control. Science, to the contrary, can achieve real control precisely by adopting a neutral or passive relationship.

      Since the seventeenth century, the idea that scientific knowledge is a means to increase humans' power over, or domination of, nature has been a key element in the modern European worldview (Leiss, 1994). The ability to dominate nature has been taken—and still is taken by many—to be an obvious, unquestioned value. But it is currently being called into question from a number of points of view, both ethical (Taylor, 1986) and scientific (Schroyer, 1983). In the human sciences in particular, the interpretive stream of thought has argued that although the domination of nature may be appropriate for the explanatory knowledge of the natural sciences, it is inappropriate for understanding the point of view and lifeworld of human beings and societies, which are of equal human status to the interpreter and need to be considered as subjects, not objects.

    • Just as there is no such thing as context, strictly speaking there is no such thing as history, because history is context or situation—and action within that context or situation—that changes over time. Because scientific knowledge consists of general laws that are true universally and at all times and that are verified through repetition or recurrence—because the ability to make verifiable predictions implies a future that is fundamentally like the past—the existence of history is either denied or deemphasized. The world is a totality of facts without context, history, or system. For positivism, history is fundamentally the transition from the prescientific age and mentality to the scientific. That is, the only real history is the history of positivism itself. In the same way that the knower's person cannot and should not enter into research, the knower's social or Historical situation, including social, gender, or ethnic background or context, cannot and should not enter into the research.

      Recent work in the human and social sciences has become much more historicist than in the previous generation. Historicism is concerned with comprehending the unique by seeing it in a multidimensional, historical situation. This applies to both the researcher and the object of inquiry. Although the researcher may invoke or be interested in discovering laws that transcend the situation, the uniqueness is part of the essence of what the researcher is trying to understand or explain.

    • Progress in knowledge—and, by implication, in civilization—results automatically from applying and extending this positive approach to knowledge. Removing the obstacles to science will bring about social improvement as scientific knowledge is applied piecemeal to different provinces of social life through a process of social engineering. The social order of the status quo is alright as it is and requires no fundamental or structural change, except to the extent that it is an obstacle to the spread of positivism and the positive sciences themselves. Nevertheless, positivism will contribute to an entire new level of civilization, by helping eradicate religious, philosophical, or metaphysical beliefs and ways of thinking that impede the development of science and its positive impact on human life and society. Thus, for example, Comte, the founder of positivism, saw positivism as contributing to a new “religion of humanity.” For him, positivism and its slogan, “order and progress,” were solutions to the social and political conflicts that emerged in modern society during the French Revolution (Comte, 1963). Comte considered it essential to educate working-class people in positivist philosophy in order to help create a new, positivistic social order (1963).

      Progress in knowledge can contribute to barbarism and reinforce the power of the status quo unless it is allied with the transformation of fundamental social, structural, and political structures (Horkheimer & Adorno, 1975). The way science and technology have been put at the service of the destruction of human beings, nature, and culture—from concentration camps to nuclear waste to environmental pollution to instruments of torture and surveillance—shows that science by itself does not lead to human progress and that technology does not lead to affluence.

    • Positivism rejects “negative” thinking, that is, thinking that either invokes principles that have not been verified experimentally or that applies to the current social order principles, norms, standards, or values that go beyond it or that are more than generalizations of behavior or statements of subjective preference. According to positivists, we must be limited to the facts; everything else is speculation or emotion. Social critique and “negative” or “critical thinking” are seen as expressions of confused thinking, resentment, ideology, or totalitarian hopes and visions.

      Positivism is a fundamentally conservative political ideology. Herbert Marcuse emphasized positivism's reaction against the critical and radical power of “negative thinking” as manifested especially in Hegelian philosophy (Marcuse, 1954). Social critique is a legitimate and indeed primary goal of the human and social sciences. These sciences should explicitly and deliberately criticize the ideologies prevalent in the surrounding society, including the worship of decontextualized “facts” and the alleged value neutrality of social science. In the critique of ideology, researchers are concerned with unmasking individual and social illusions that are part of the social fabric and that sustain social and political domination and oppression. Almost every social arrangement, whether an entire society, an organization, a town, or a social group, has some set of ideas that justify or rationalize or legitimate it. Because almost all such ideas are based on something that cannot be justified on a rational basis; that incorporates fantasies, distortions, projections, or illusions; and that is used for purposes of social control or to maintain power, research that shows the illusory quality of the ideas may function, intentionally or unintentionally, to undermine the illusions, the power structure, or the social cohesion of that arrangement. Research may not be neutral in relation to what it studies; instead it may alter it or disrupt it (Fay, 1987).

    Appendix D: Introductory Reading List

    Each of the topic areas of this book is a rather large one, with a voluminous literature. Although we have referred to a number of works in the body of the text, they are not always the best ones for getting started in an area. Following is a short list of books that can serve as introductions to the different areas we have covered.

    Historical Context of the Present
    Harvey, David. (1989). The condition of postmodernity: An enquiry into the origins of cultural change. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.
    Hobsbawm, Eric. (1994). The age of extremes: A history of the world, 1914–1991. New York: Random House.
    Reich, Robert. (1991). The work of nations: Preparing ourselves for 21st-century capitalism. New York: Random House.
    Stavrianos, Leften Stavros. (1995). A global history: From prehistory to the present (
    6th ed.
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Postmodernism
    Best, Steven, & Douglas M.Kellner. (1991). Postmodern theory: Critical interrogations. New York: Guilford Press.
    Docherty, Thomas. (Ed.). (1993). Postmodernism: A reader. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Jencks, Charles. (1989). What is post-modernism? (
    3rd ed.
    , enlarged). New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Lyon, David. (1994). Postmodernity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    General Philosophy
    Appleby, Joyce, ElizabethCovington, DavidHoyt, MichaelLatham, & AllisonSneider (Eds.). (1996). Knowledge and postmodernism in historical perspective. New York and London: Routledge.
    Cornford, Francis Macdonald. (1993). Before and after Socrates. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Nagel, Thomas. (1986). The view from nowhere. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Wolff, Robert Paul. (1995). About philosophy (
    6th ed.
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Philosophy of Science
    Fisher, Alec. (1988). The logic of real arguments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hempel, Carl G. (1966). Philosophy of natural science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Kuhn, Thomas S. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions (
    2nd ed.
    , enlarged). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Popper, Karl. (1965). Conjectures and refutations: The growth of scientific knowledge. New York: Harper and Row.
    Quine, W. V., & J. S.Ullian. (1978). The web of belief (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Random House.
    Ziman, John. (1978). Reliable knowledge: An exploration of the grounds for belief in science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Philosophy of the Social Sciences
    Bohman, James. (1991). New philosophy of social science: Problems of indeterminacy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Dallmayr, Fred, & Thomas A.McCarthy (Eds.). (1977). Understanding and social inquiry. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
    Manicas, Peter T. (1987). A philosophy and history of the social sciences. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Rosenberg, Alexander. (1995). Philosophy of social science. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Skinner, Quentin (Ed.). (1985). The return of grand theory in the human sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Toulmin, Stephen, & JuneGoodfield. (1965). The discovery of time. New York: Harper and Row.
    Multicultural and Gender Perspectives on Science and Knowledge
    Belenky, MaryField, BlytheMcVickerClinchy, Nancy RuleGoldberger, & Jill MattuckTarule. (1986). Women's ways of knowing. New York: Basic Books.
    Goldberger, Nancy Rule, Jill MattuckTarule, Blythe McVickerClinchy, & Mary FieldBelenky. (1996). Knowledge, difference, and power: Essays inspired by women's ways of knowing. New York: Basic Books.
    Hess, David J. (1995). Science and technology in a multicultural world: The cultural politics of facts and artifacts. New York: Columbia University Press.
    San Juan, E., Jr. (1992). Racial formations/critical transformations. Atlantic High-lands: Humanities Press.
    White, Robert. (1990). White mythologies: Writing history and the west. London: Routledge.
    Mindful Inquiry
    Buddhism
    Conze, Edward. (1959). Buddhism: Its essence and development. New York: Harper and Row.
    Nhat Hanh, Thich. (1974). Zen keys. (AlbertLow and JeanLow, Trans.). Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor.
    Rahula, Walpola. (1974). What the Buddha taught (
    2nd ed.
    , enlarged). New York: Grove Press.
    Phenomenology
    Ihde, Don. (1986). Experimental phenomenology: An introduction. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Psathas, George (Ed.). (1989). Phenomenology and sociology: Theory and research. Washington, DC: Center for Advanced Research in Phenomenology and University Press of America.
    Wagner, Helmut R. (1983). Phenomenology of consciousness and sociology of the life-world: An introductory study. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.
    Young, Iris Marion. (1990). “Throwing like a girl: A phenomenology of feminine body comportment, motility, and spatiality.” In Throwing like a girl and other essays in feminist philosophy and social theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Hermeneutics
    Howard, Roy J. (1982). Three faces of hermeneutics: An introduction to current theories of understanding. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Palmer, Richard E. (1969). Hermeneutics: Interpretation theory in Schleiermacher, Dilthey, Heidegger, and Gadamer. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
    Ricoeur, Paul. (1977). “The model of the text: Meaningful action considered as a text.” In FredDallmayr & Thomas A.McCarthy (Eds.), Understanding and social inquiry (John B.Thompson, Trans.). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
    Ricoeur, Paul. (1981). Hermeneutics and human sciences: Essays on language, action, and interpretation (John B.Thompson, Ed.; John B.Thompson, Trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Critical Social Science and Critical Theory
    Benhabib, Seyla, JudithButler, DrucillaCornell, & NancyFraser. (1995). Feminist contentions: A philosophical exchange. New York: Routledge.
    Braaten, Jane. (1991). Habermas's critical theory of society. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Calhoun, Craig. (1995). Critical social theory: Culture, history, and the challenge of difference. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Collins, Patricia Hill. (1990). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. Boston: Unwin Hyman.
    Fay, Brian. (1987). Critical social science: Liberation and its limits. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Harding, Sandra (Ed.). (1987). Feminism and methodology: Social science issues. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Held, David. (1980). Introduction to critical theory: Horkheimer to Habermas. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Morrow, Raymond A., & David A.Brown. (1994). Critical theory and methodology: Interpretive structuralism as a research program. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243696
    Smith, Dorothy. (1987). The everyday world as problematic: A feminist sociology. Boston: Northeastern Press.
    Young, Iris Marion. (1990). “Humanism, gynocentrism, and feminist politics.” In Throwing like a girl and other essays in feminist philosophy and social theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Sociological Theory
    Collins, Randall. (1994). Four sociological traditions. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Collins, Randall (Ed.). (1994). Four sociological traditions: Selected readings. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Coser, Lewis A. (1977). Masters of sociological thought: Ideas in historical and social context. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    Ritzer, George. (1992). Contemporary sociological theory (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    General Introductions to Research
    Golden, M. Patricia (Ed.). (1976). The research experience. Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock.
    Robson, Colin. (1993). Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Quantitative and Behavioral Science
    Bausell, R. Barker. (1986). A practical guide to conducting empirical research. New York: Harper and Row.
    Kerlinger, Fred N. (1979). Behavioral research: A conceptual approach. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
    Meek, Ronald L. (1971). Figuring out society. London: William Collins Sons.
    Qualitative Research in General
    Berger, Peter, & ThomasLuckmann. (1967). The social construction of reality. New York: Doubleday Anchor.
    Creswell, John W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Denzin, Norman K., & Yvonna S.Lincoln. (1994). Handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Lofland, John, & Lyn H.Lofland. (1995). Analyzing social settings: A guide to qualitative observation and analysis (
    3rd ed.
    ) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Schatzman, Leonard, & AnselmStrauss. (1973). Field research: Strategies for a natural sociology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Silverman, David. (1993). Interpreting qualitative data. London: Sage.
    Strauss, Anselm, & JulietCorbin. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Ethnography
    Agar, Michael H. (1986). The professional stranger: An informal introduction to ethnography (
    2nd ed.
    ) San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Marcus, George E., & Michael M. J.Fischer. (1986). Anthropology as cultural critique: An experimental moment in the human sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Spradley, James P., & David W.McCurdy (Eds.). 1997. Conformity and conflict: Readings in cultural anthropology. New York: Longman.
    Action Research
    Park, Peter. (1992). “The discovery of participatory research as a new scientific paradigm: Personal and intellectual accounts.”The American Sociologist, 23, 2–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02691929
    Park, Peter (Ed.). (1993). Voices of change: Participatory research in the United States and Canada. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey.
    Whyte, William Foote (Ed.). (1991). Participatory action research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Evaluation Research
    Patton, Michael Quinn. (1997). Utilization-focused evaluation: The new century text. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Rossi, Peter H., & Howard E.Freeman. (1993). Evaluation: A systematic approach (
    5th ed.
    ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Comparative-Historical Inquiry
    Bloch, Marc. (1953). The historian's craft. (PeterPutnam, Trans.). New York: Vintage.
    Fischer, David Hackett. (1970). Historians' fallacies: Toward a logic of historical thought. New York: Harper and Row.
    Theoretical Inquiry
    Stinchcombe, Arthur L. (1968). Constructing social theories. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Critical Thinking and Argumentation
    Fisher, Alec. (1988). The logic of real arguments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Jones, Morgan, D. (1995). The Thinker's Toolkit: Fourteen skills for making smarter decisions in business and in life. New York: Random House.
    Quine, W. V., & J. S.Ullian. (1978). The web of belief, (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Random House.

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    About the Authors

    Valerie Malhotra Bentz, PhD, is Associate Dean and Professor on the Graduate Faculty in the Human and Organization Development Program at the Fielding Institute, Santa Barbara. She has taught and published in the areas of sociological theory, social psychology, phenomenology, symbolic interaction, dramatism and hermeneutics, and is a classical musician. She is editor of Phenomenology and the Human Sciences. Currently she is writing a book about her emotional and intellectual relationships with George Herbert Mead, Martin Heidegger, and other philosophers. She is the author of Becoming Mature: Childhood Ghosts and Spirits in Adult Life (1989) and Visual Images of Women in the Arts and Mass Media. A practicing psychotherapist for 20 years, she consults internationally and offers workshops on deep learning, a way of knowing that integrates philosophical, bodily, and emotional understanding. She is a licensed body therapist in Santa Barbara, and she is Associate Editor of Sociological Practice: A Journal of Clinical and Applied Sociology.

    Jeremy J. Shapiro is Professor of Human and Organization Development and Senior Consultant for Academic Information Projects at the Fielding Institute, New York. With a background in sociology, philosophy, information systems, and the history of ideas, he is active as a scholar and translator in the area of critical social theory, with publications and interests focusing on the cultural and social impact of information technology, the integration of social and personal change, the politics of communication theory, and aesthetic experience. He serves on the editorial board of Theory and Society. As an educator, he has specialized in the teaching of research, critical thinking, and information literacy. He has also worked as an information systems professional for 15 years; been active nationally in efforts to use networked information resources and computer networks in higher education; published and presented on information literacy, the virtual university, and the social consequences of the Internet; served as institutional representative to EDUCOM and the Coalition for Networked Information; and been involved in efforts to bring computer technology to community, grassroots, and nonprofit organizations. He has also taught peer counseling. He graduated from Harvard College, studied with Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, and Jürgen Habermas at the University of Frankfurt am Main, and obtained his doctorate from Brandeis University under Kurt Wolff and Maurice Stein. His passions are classical music and travel. He lives in New York City with his wife Pamela Walsh and his cat Deeda.


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