Migration, Remittances and Development in South Asia
Publication Year: 2011
Migration, Remittances and Development in South Asia explores the impact of migration on development in South Asian countries, compiling extensive information on the migration flows and trends, migrant remittances and migration policies. It discusses a number of proposals for effective cooperation on protection of migrant rights and promotion of migration and development linkages.
Through a nuanced look at the role of remittances in bringing about development, it takes cognizance of the fact that remittances alone are unlikely to lift people out of poverty; rather, it is their interplay with other economic, social and cultural factors which determine the scale and type of impact remittances can have on poverty reduction.
The book also examines how migration should be brought into the mainstream of development planning where development must ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Section 1: Country Studies
- Chapter 2: India
- Chapter 3: Pakistan
- Chapter 4: Sri Lanka
- Chapter 5: Bangladesh
- Chapter 6: Nepal
- Chapter 7: Bhutan
- Chapter 8: The Maldives
- Chapter 9: Afghanistan
- Section 2: South Asia
- Chapter 10: South Asia: Issues on Migration and Development
- Chapter 11: Case for a South Asian Migration Commission
This volume on Migration, Remittances and Development in South Asia, edited by Saman Kelegama, is a significant contribution to the literature on migration studies. It provides valuable, skillfully analyzed information on the significant macro-economic and poverty reducing impact of the migration process in South Asia. It also discusses migration policies and offers constructive ideas for their improvement along with proposals for cooperation within the region as well as with migrant receiving countries, to improve the conditions of our migrants. This volume needs to be read by both researchers as well as policymakers not just from South Asia but all labour importing countries.Centre for Policy Dialogue Dhaka, BangladeshChairman,
The book provides an excellent compendium of studies on the status of migrant workers from South Asia, the problems they face, the contributions they have made to the economies for these countries and the challenges governments in the region face in channeling returning migrant workers into productive sectors of the economy. It is must read for those interested in the impact of migrant workers in the global market.South Asia Centre for Policy Studies Kathmandu, NepalExecutive Director,
Migration has become an important aspect of global economic integration, source of foreign exchange earnings and development for South Asian countries. This book fills an important gap in the literature by presenting an in-depth analysis of migration, its developmental impact and related policy issues in different South Asian countries and raises common issues of concern to them. I hope it would be widely read and debated.Macroeconomic Policy and Development Division UN-ESCAP, Bangkok, ThailandChief Economist and Director [Page ii]
The challenges and opportunities that migration and remittances offer to South Asian countries are explored with rigour and imagination in a variety of country settings. This book will be essential reading for scholar and statesman alike.Beaconhouse National University, Lahore Senior Fellow, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad, PakistanDistinguished Professor of Economics,
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Migration, remittances and development in South Asia/edited by Saman Kelegama.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Emigrant remittances—South Asia. 2. Economic development—South Asia. 3. Emigration and immigration—South Asia. I. Kelegama, Saman.
ISBN: 978-81-321-0641-8 (HB)
The Sage Team: Elina Majumdar, Shreya Chakraborti, Amrita Saha and Deepti Saxena
List of Tables[Page vii]
- 2.1 Countries with Estimated Indians above 100,000, 2001 33
- 2.2 Trends in Workers Emigrated from India, 1985–2008 34
- 2.3 Labour Outflows from India by Destination 1988–2008 36
- 2.4 Migration Stock in gulf Countries in West Asia, 2005 37
- 2.5 Number of Workers granted Emigration Clearances by Major States, 1993–2002 38
- 2.6 Suspension of Emigration Clearances, 1992–2007 39
- 2.7 Emigration Clearances granted by Type of Work, 1988–1992 40
- 2.8 Top 20 Remittance-receiving Countries, 2007 41
- 2.9 Sample Size by Districts of Kerala, 2008 43
- 2.10 Emigration Trends in Kerala, 1982–2008 44
- 2.11 Percentage Distribution of Migrants by Religion, 2007 47
- 2.12 Proportion of Females among Emigrants by Religion, 2007 47
- 2.13 Emigrants by Marital Status, 1998–2007 49
- 2.14 Percentage Distribution of Emigrants by Educational Level, 2007 49
- 2.15 Macroeconomic Impact of Remittances on Kerala Economy 52
- 2.16 Impact of Emigration on Poverty in Kerala 53
- 2.17 Use of Remittances, 2007 53
- 2.18 Households Owning Houses by Migration Status, 2007 54
- 2.19 Distribution of Sample Houses by Type, 2007 55
- 2.20 Trends in Electricity Connection to Houses on the Basis of Migration Status 56
- 2.21 Distribution of Households on the Basis of Type of Fuel Used for Cooking, 1998–2007 56
- 2.22 Percentage of Households Possessing Various Consumer Durables, 1998–2007 57
- 2.23 Percentage of Households Possessing Various Consumer Durables by Migration Status 58 [Page viii]
- 3.1 Distribution of Migrant Workers by Region, 1971–2007 73
- 3.2 Distribution of Migrated Labour by Occupational groups (%) 74
- 3.3 Remittances Inflow by Region (%) 74
- 3.4 Remittance per Capita by Region (PKR) 83
- 3.5 Consumption Pattern of Households (%) 84
- 3.6 Poverty in Pakistan (%) 84
- 3.7 Effects of Remittances Inflow during 1990–2002 (Percentage Variation Over Base Values) 86
- 3.8 Simulation: Increase in Remittances by 5 Percent and Reduction in Labour Supply 87
- 3.9 Macro Effects of Migration and Remittances Inflow (Percentage Variation Over Base) 91
- 3.10 Macro Effects of Migration and Remittances Inflow (Percentage Variation Over Base) 92
- 3.11 Households Income, Expenditure and Welfare (Percentage Variation Over Base) 93
- 4.1 Migrant Profile 116
- 4.2 Developmental Implications 116
- 4.3 Sources of Remittance Inflows to Sri Lanka (%) 117
- 4.4 Contribution of Remittances to Savings and Investment 125
- 4.5 Departures for Foreign Employment by Manpower Levels and Sex, 2000–2007 128
- 4.6 Expatriates in OECD Countries by Country of Origin (Selected Countries) 129
- 4.7 Expatriation Rates for Nurses and Doctors, circa 2000 (Selected Countries) 130
- 4.8 Households Receiving Foreign Remittances 131
- 4.9 Comparison of Expenditure and Income by Migrant and Non-migrant Households with Controls for Selection Bias Using Propensity Score Matching Techniques 133
- 5.1 The Three Phases of Labour Migration from Bangladesh, 1976–2008 144
- 5.2 Share of Temporary Bangladeshi Workers by Destination Country (%) 145
- 5.3 Remittance Inflow and Balance of Payments of Bangladesh in Recent Years (US$ Million) 150 [Page ix]
- 5.4 Mean Expenditure and Average Share of Expenditures by Category in Bangladesh (in BDT) 153
- 5.5 Regressions on Housing Related Expenditures 154
- 5.6 Result of Logit Regression for Poverty 156
- 5.7 Marginal and Income Effects of Logit Regression 156
- 5.8 Importance of Remittance in Households’ Income 158
- 5.9 Disaggregation and Description of Factors, Institutions and Households 160
- 5.10 Macroeconomic Effects of Remittance Shock (% Change from the Base Year Value) 162
- 5.11 Remittance Shock: Percentage Changes in Prices from the Base-run 164
- 5.12 Remittance Shock: Percentage Changes in Volumes from the Base-run 165
- 5.13 Remittance Shock: Impact at the Household Level (Percentage Changes from the Base-run) 166
- 5.14 Poverty Effects (Percentage Point Change Over the Base Year Values) 167
- 6.1 Economic growth Rates from Fifth to Tenth Five Year Plans, 1975–2007 175
- 6.2 Sector Output as Percentage of gDP 176
- 6.3 Contribution of Remittance to the National Economy (Amount in NPR Billion) 178
- 6.4 growth in Official Statistics of Remittance (in NPR Million), Nepal, 1990/1991–2005/2006 186
- 6.5 Remittance Flow in Nepal in 1995–1996 and 2003–2004 187
- 7.1 Problems Reported as a Result of Migration from Households 204
- 7.2 Estimates of Remittances Sent via Formal Channels 205
- 7.3 Gup's (Village Headman) Opinions on the Main Positive Effects of Migration at Geog Levels 207
- 7.4 Gup's Opinions on the Main Negative Effects of Migration at Geog Levels 207
- 8.1 Labour Regulations, 2009 214
- 8.2 Headcount Ratios According to Various Poverty Lines in Malé and Atolls, 1997–2005 215 [Page x]
- 8.3 Expatriate Employment in the Maldives by Industry, 2004–2008 217
- 8.4 Educational Attainment in the Maldives 227
- 9.1 Seasonal and Permanent Migrants within and outside Afghanistan 239
- 9.2 Afghans in Pakistan by their First Arrival 240
- 9.3 Asylum Applicants in Selected Countries 241
- 9.4 Reasons for Not Intending to Return, 2005 243
- 9.5 Assisted Voluntary Repatriation to Afghanistan during March 2002–October 2008 by the Top Five Provinces 244
- 9.6 Main Occupations that Returned Migrants Integrated 245
- 9.7 Average Remittances by Wealth groups 248
- 9.8 Frequency in Reception of Remittances by Households (%) 248
- 9.9 Source of Income Reported by All Households (%)—By Top 10 Remittance-receiving Provinces 250
- 10.1 South Asia: Country Socio-economic Profiles 268
- 10.2 Demographic and Economic Profile: South Asian Countries 269
- 10.3 Migration Status—Selected Asian Countries 271
- 10.4 Migration Status in South Asia 272
- 10.5 Outflow of Migrant Workers from South Asian Countries (Number of Migrant Workers Officially Reported) 272
- 10.6 South Asia: Remittance Inflows (US$ Million) 288
- 10.7 Development Orientation of Migration Programmes 295
- 10.8 Emigration Policy and Legislative Frameworks in South Asia 304
- 10.9 Protecting Migrant Workers Abroad: Mechanisms Adopted in South Asia 306
- 10.10 Immigration Policies: Legislative and Regulatory Framework 309
List of Figures[Page xi]
- 2.1 Remittances to India, 1970–2008 41
- 2.2 Trend in Emigration, 1998–2008 45
- 2.3 Trend in Return Emigration, 1998–2008 45
- 2.4 Emigrants and Out-migrants by Religious groups, 2007 46
- 2.5 Age Distribution of Emigrants, 1998–2007 48
- 2.6 Country of Residence of Emigrants, 1998–2007 50
- 2.7 Estimated Remittances to Kerala, 1991–2008 (in ₹ Billion) 51
- 2.8 Increase in the Proportion of NRK and Non-NRK Households Possessing Consumer Item, 1998–2007 58
- 3.1 gDP growth and Remittance Share in gDP 75
- 3.2 Poverty and Remittance Share in gDP 75
- 3.3 Household Receipts by Source, 1990 81
- 3.4 Household Receipts by Source, 2002 82
- 3.5 Distribution of Remittances between Rural and Urban Area 83
- 4.1 Trends in Remittance Inflows 123
- 4.2 Comparative Sources of Foreign Capital Inflows 123
- 4.3 Remittances and BOP Support 124
- 5.1 Migrants Flows during the Years, 1976–2008 143
- 5.2 Different Skill Categories of Labour Migrants, 2001–2008 144
- 5.3 Remittances Flows in Bangladesh during 1976–2008 (Million US$) 147
- 5.4 Top 10 Remittance-receiving Countries in 2008 (Billion US$) 148
- 5.5 Country-wise Sources of Official Remittances into Bangladesh in 2006–2007 148
- 5.6 Remittance as % of gDP and Exports, 2000–2001 to 2006–2007 149
- 5.7 Channels through which Remittance Shock Affects Sectoral Prices and Output 163 [Page xii]
- 6.1 Relative Contribution of Agricultural and Non-agricultural Sectors to Country's gDP 173
- 6.2 Annual growth Rate of Agricultural and Non-agricultural Sectors and gDP 173
- 6.3 Percentage Contribution of Agricultural, Industrial and Service Sectors to the gDP of Nepal 174
- 6.4 Contribution of Remittance (in Comparison to Agriculture) to gDP in Nepal in the Decade of 1996/1997–2007/2008 177
- 6.5 Contribution of Remittances as Compared to Tourism on the Total Foreign Exchange Earnings of Nepal 179
- 6.6 Remittance Income and Development Aid (Both grant and Loan) in Nepal (NPR Billion) 180
- 6.7 Number of Migrant Workers Leaving the Country by Taking government Permission (Except to India) in Different Years 183
- 6.8 Workers going for Foreign Employment by Country in 2007–2008 (Except India) 184
- 8.1 Remittance Flows in the Maldives, 2000–2006 212
- 8.2 Expatriate Employment Annual growth Rate, 2004–2008 212
- 8.3 Major Countries generating Expatriate Employment in the Maldives 213
- 8.4 Teachers Serving at Different Levels, Local/Expatriate 216
- 8.5 Sectoral Contribution to gDP and Participation of Expatriates by Industry 218
- 8.6 Maldives Export Earnings and Import Expenditure 220
- 8.7 Balance of Payments, 1999–2008 221
- 8.8 Maldives Imports, 2004–2008 222
- 8.9 Financing the Current Account Deficit, 1999–2008 223
- 8.10 Worker Remittances and Trade Deficits in South Asia 224
- 8.11 Outward Remittances from the Maldives 225
- 8.12 Outward Remittances as a Proportion of gDP and Current Account Deficit 225
- 8.13 Outward Remittances and Current Account Balance, 2000–2003 226
- 8.14 Migrant Employment by Occupation 228
List of Abbreviations[Page xiii]
ACOR Average Capital Output Ratio AIHRC Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission ALFEA Association of Licenced Foreign Employment Agencies ANDS Afghanistan National Development Strategy ARTF Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations ASP Afghanistan Stabilization Programme AVR Assistance for Voluntary Return BAIRA Bangladesh Association of International Recruiting Agencies BaU Business as Usual BBS Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics BMET Bureau of Manpower, Employment and Training BOESL Bangladesh Overseas Employment Services Limited BOP Balance of Payments CAB Current Account Balance CBS Central Bureau of Statistics CDC Continuous Discharge Certificate CDS Centre for Development Studies CEC Centre for Education and Communication CEDAW Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women CES Constant Elasticity of Substitution CET Constant Elasticity of Transformation Cg Consultative group CgE Computable general Equilibrium CPI Consumer Price Index [Page xiv] DIOC Database on Immigrants in OECD Countries ECR Emigration Clearance Required ESC Employment Service Centres EV Equivalent Variation FDI Foreign Direct Investment FoB Free on Board gCIM global Commission on International Migration gDP gross Domestic Product gFMD global Forum on Migration and Development goN government of Nepal goP government of Pakistan goSL government of Sri Lanka HDI Human Development Index HIES Household Income and Expenditure Survey IDP Internally Displaced People IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute ILO International Labour Organisation IOM International Organization for Migration ISACPA Independent South Asian Commission on Poverty Alleviation LES Linear Expenditure System ME Middle East MFEPW Ministry of Foreign Employment Promotion and Welfare MMA Maldives Monetary Authority MLRFE Ministry of Labour Relations and Foreign Employment MOIA Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs MOLMOP Ministry of Labour, Manpower, and Overseas Pakistanis MoRR Ministry of Rehabilitation and Reconstruction MoU Memorandum of Understanding MoWA Ministry of Women's Affairs MPND Ministry of Planning and National Development [Page xv] MRRD Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development NCVT National Council for Vocational Training NDF National Development Framework NEEP National Emergency Employment Programme NMC National Manpower Commission NPLM National Policy on Labour Migration NRB Nepal Rastra Bank NRIs Non-resident Indians NRKs Non-resident Keralites NRVA Risk and Vulnerability Survey NSP National Solidarity Programme ODA Official Development Assistance OEC Overseas Employment Corporation OEP Overseas Employment Promoter PDPA People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan PIOs Persons of Indian Origin POR Proof of Registration Cards PPD Policy Planning Division RANA Return Reception of Afghan Nationals to Afghanistan RMMRU Refugee and Migratory Movements Research Unit RQA Return of Qualified Afghans SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAM Social Accounting Matrix SCVT State Council of Vocational Training SIE Small Island Economy SLBFE Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment SLFEA Sri Lanka Foreign Employment Agency TISA Transnational Islamic State of Afghanistan UAE United Arab Emirates UNAMA United Nations Assistance Mission to Afghanistan UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
The number of international migrants, defined as persons outside their country of birth, doubled between 1980 and 2010, from 103 million to 214 million, according to the United Nations. However, international migrants as a share of the world's population have remained at 3 percent or below despite factors favouring large cross-border migration flows in a globalizing world, including persisting demographic and economic inequalities between countries and easier and faster communications, information flows and expanded travel opportunities under globalization. governments that jealously guard national sovereignty have responded to rising migration pressures by tightening their border and immigration controls.
Asia has 60 percent of the world's people but less than 30 percent of the world's international migrants. It includes countries that represent migration extremes. Japan has very few migrant workers, while gulf oil-exporting countries rely on migrants to fill over 90 percent of private sector jobs. South Asia accounts for 23 percent of Asia's migrants and 40 percent of Asia's population.
South Asian migration has certain distinctive features compared to South East Asia. Most of the South Asian migrants are employed in the gulf countries. Some send a high share of their workers abroad (Sri Lanka), while in others, out-migration is concentrated in particular regions (Kerala in India). India represents the largest country of origin, destination and transit in the sub-region. Most countries in South Asia are keen on expanding overseas employment and maximizing development benefits from international migration.
The role of migration may decline over time if remittances from jobs abroad and the return of migrants with new skills trigger economic development that creates decent jobs and speeds economic growth. When migration sets such a virtuous circle of development in motion, the result can be economic growth in both destination and origin countries, much as a tide lifts all boats. Yet countries in South Asia face many challenges in moving towards such a win–win situation as documented in this volume.[Page xviii]
This book is a valuable addition to the scant literature on migration and development in South Asia. It provides a welcome summary in a comparative perspective of the impacts of migration on development in South Asian countries. It has compiled extensive and up-to-date information on migration flows and trends, migrant remittances and migration policies and practices in South Asia, and makes a number of proposals to protect the rights of migrants while they are abroad and to ensure that migration contributes to development at home. Dealing with the dilemma between “promotion” of overseas employment and “protection” of national workers abroad is a major policy challenge for origin country governments, some of which have ministries and agencies devoted to migrant worker protection and promotion of foreign employment, but no clear guidelines on which goal should get higher priority. At the same time, some countries in the sub-region have sizeable numbers of foreign workers inside their territories who face numerous protection challenges, and need equitable treatment under international human rights law.
The chapters on individual countries in this volume document and highlight the above challenges and opportunities posed by migration. For example, Bangladesh sends mostly low-skilled men abroad, generating remittances that reduce poverty and provide vital foreign exchange. However, recruitment malpractices prompt some destination countries to bar Bangladeshi workers, making foreign jobs and remittances uncertain. Out-migration from Kerala, India enabled the families of migrants to buy land, improve housing, and invest in education and health care. However, only a quarter of Kerala families benefited directly from remittances and, since they were already better off than non-migrant families, migration to the gulf has served to increase economic inequality. In Pakistan, out-migration provided jobs and raised wages for workers who remained behind, but remittances flowed primarily to urban areas, increasing the rural–urban income gap and fuelling rural–urban migration.
Most migrants leaving the three South Asian population giants—Bangladesh, India and Pakistan—are men. However, from Sri Lanka, a country richer than the above giants, a large share of the outflow consists of women domestic workers—a major vulnerable group in destination countries. Once again, the effects of out-migration are mixed. Families receiving remittances can invest more in housing, education, and health care, but there are also social costs including child abuse, school dropouts and family break-ups as a result of family separation. Out-migration [Page xix]may also lead to moral hazard, tempting governments to neglect local development efforts with the large inflow of migrant remittances.
The book also reviews migration and development issues, perhaps for the first time, in three South Asian countries largely neglected in the literature—Afghanistan, Bhutan and the Maldives. Afghanistan has long been a country of out-migration, sending migrants and refugees primarily to neighbouring Iran and Pakistan. Bhutan is a country with 700,000 residents that sends relatively well educated workers abroad who have few options for decent work at home. Many of the Bhutanese migrants settle abroad, which limits remittances. Development in Nepal has been slowed by internal conflicts and, when they were resolved, the main economic engines proved to be tourism and remittances. The Nepalese government is struggling to improve the recruitment system and better protect migrants abroad. The Maldives, a group of 200 inhabited islands with about 400,000 residents, are unusual in attracting migrants from neighbouring countries, including teachers as well as construction workers who build resorts to accommodate tourists. Many employers prefer foreign to local workers, making it hard for some natives to obtain jobs that pay decent wages; many natives are government employees or self-employed fishers.
The country studies collected in this volume thus highlight the impacts of migration in one of the world's most dynamic regions. Yet major countries of emigration and immigration such as India are yet to develop credible and consistent migration policies. good governance of labour migration requires transparent migration policies in line with international norms, broad-based consultative processes involving major stakeholders and effective inter-governmental cooperation, all of which can serve to better protect migrant workers and to ensure that migration and remittances accelerate development.
The book also highlights the limited regional cooperation achieved in regard to migration flows and protection of migrant workers in South Asia. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) has consistently left out migration issues from its agenda up to now unlike the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The book highlights the possible role for a South Asia Migration Commission (SAMC) which could provide best-practice guidance for governments for effective cooperation on protection of migrant rights and promotion of migration and development linkages. There are several regional and global forums that enable governments to discuss migration and development, including the Abu Dhabi Dialogue and the global Forum on[Page xx]
Migration and Development. International organizations such as the ILO and IOM also stand ready to advise governments on all aspects of labour migration.
In my view, this volume will be a valuable source of reference for policy makers, practitioners, and researchers, and certainly stimulate further research and debates on migration, remittances and development in South Asia.
August 2010Department of Agriculture and Resource Economics University of California, Davis One Shields Ave, 2101 SSH Davis, CA 95616 United Statesmartin@primal.ucdavis.eduhttp://martin.ucdavis.eduProfessor,
The topic Migration, Remittances and Development has been of interest to the Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka (IPS) during recent years. However, the IPS was of the view that since all South Asian countries are benefiting or losing from migration, it would be prudent to examine the topic from a regional perspective. For this purpose, a concept paper was prepared by the IPS and funds were mobilized from Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES)-Colombo, for a Conference on the topic in May 2009.
The IPS is most grateful to Joachim Schluetter, Resident Director, FES-Colombo for providing the financial support and Rohini Peiris of FES for providing organizational support for the conference. We are grateful to all the paper presenters for the efforts they made in preparing papers and PowerPoint presentations. Thanks also go to all Chairpersons/Discussants of the Country Sessions: Muhammad Junaid, Regional Technical Advisor, UNDP Regional Centre, Colombo; Sridhar Khatri, Executive Director, South Asia Centre for Policy Studies, Nepal; Piyasiri Wickramasekara, ILO, geneva; Ravi Srivastava, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India; Athula Ranasinghe, Department of Economics, University of Colombo; Aliya Khan, Department of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan; Hussain Niyaaz, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Maldives; Bishwambher Pyakuryal, Tribhuvan University, Nepal; Raja B. M. Korale, Ex-Department of Census and Statistics, Colombo; and all the participants of the Conference who made valuable comments and suggestions. It is based on these comments/suggestions that all the papers were revised for publication in this volume.
I would like to thank the IPS researchers: Deshal De Mel, Roshini Jayaweera, ganga Tilakaratna, Tilani Jayawardena and Nehara gunasekera for doing the background work for the Conference and preparing this volume. Thanks are due to D. D. M. Waidyasekera for editing the final manuscript and for Phil Martin, Professor of Economics, University of California, Davis, USA, for writing a Foreword to the volume. Piyasiri Wickramasekara has been a great source of strength in producing this volume and I would like to record my special thanks to him.[Page xxii]
Last but not least, my thanks to Sharmini de Silva for taking the lead role in organizing the Conference and preparing the manuscript for publication.
February 2010IPS, Colombo
About the Editor and Contributors[Page 342]Editor
Saman Kelegama is the Executive Director of the Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka (IPS). He is a Fellow of the National Academy of Sciences of Sri Lanka and was the President of the Sri Lanka Economic Association (SLEA) during 1999–2003. He has published extensively on South Asian/Sri Lankan economic issues in both local and international journals. His latest books are Trade in Services in South Asia: Opportunities and Risks of Liberalization (SAGE, 2009), South Asia in the WTO (SAGE, 2007), Development under Stress: Sri Lankan Economy in Transition (SAGE, 2006), Contemporary Economic Issues: Sri Lanka in the Global Context (SLEA, 2006), South Asia After the Quota System: The Impact of the MFA Phase-Out (IPS/FES, 2005), Economic Policy in Sri Lanka: Issues and Debates (SAGE, 2004) and Ready-Made Garment Industry in Sri Lanka: Facing the Global Challenge (IPS, 2004). He is the editor of the South Asia Economic Journal and a Governing Board Director of the South Asia Centre for Policy Studies. He received his Doctorate (DPhil) in Economics from the University of Oxford, UK and Masters in Mathematics from the Indian Institute of Technology in Kanpur, India.Contributors
Jagannath Adhikari is the Programme Director of the Nepal Development Research Institute, Kathmandu, Nepal. He holds a PhD in Human Geography from Australian National University, Canberra and an MSc. in Rural Development from Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand. He has a number of publications to his credit and his latest book Securitizing the Migration: A Case of Migration between Nepal and India will be released shortly.[Page 343]
Nisha Arunatilake heads the Labor, Employment and Human Resource Development unit at the Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka (IPS). She has extensive experience in development research in areas of education, health, social protection and the labour market. She has been principal investigator on several studies and has worked as a consultant to the World Bank, Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI), Asian Development Bank (ADB), International Labour Organization (ILO), Save the Children, and the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) in numerous research studies. Many of her research works have been published in peer reviewed journals and as book chapters. She holds a PhD in Economics from Duke University, USA and a BSc in Mathematics and Computer Science from University of the South, USA.
Suwendrani Jayaratne is working as a Research Assistant in the International Economic Policy Unit of the Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka. She obtained her Bachelors degree from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Her research interests include international trade, macroeconomics, trade facilitation and regional integration.
Priyanka Jayawardena is a Research Officer with IPS and holds a BSc (Honours) in Statistics from the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. She is currently reading for a Masters in Economics from the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Her research interests are in econometrics and economic modelling, economics of education, health economics, labour economics and demographic studies.
Tilani Jayawardhana is a Research Economist at the Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka (IPS). Her research interests and publications have been primarily related to international economics, regional integration, international migration and development issues, and macroeconomic policy. During the period 2004 to 2006, she was on secondment to the Ministry of Finance and Planning as a Senior Economist. During her tenure at the Ministry, she was involved extensively in public finance and national budgetary activities, gaining broad experience in national budget formulation and fiscal policy related work. Tilani Jayawardhana is a PhD Candidate at the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and holds an MA in Economics from the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and a BA in Economics with First Class Honours from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.[Page 344]
Roshini Jayaweera is currently serving as a Research Officer in the Poverty and Social Welfare Unit at the Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka (IPS). Her key research interests are in the areas of poverty impact assessment, development studies, social security, microfinance, micro-insurance and migration where she has been involved in a number of projects and national-level surveys. She holds a BA (Hons) in Economics from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka and an MSc in Economics from the National University of Singapore. She has also completed the ‘Microfinance Training of Trainers Blended Learning Course’ offered through the Global Development Learning Network.
Deshal De Mel is a Research Economist at the Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka (IPS). His primary research areas include international trade, regionalism, international aid, trade in services and macroeconomics. He completed his undergraduate degree at the University of Oxford where he read Philosophy, Political Science and Economics and holds a Masters in International Political Economy from the London School of Economics. Along with academic research, Deshal De Mel has been involved in international trade negotiations, representing Sri Lanka, and has been involved in consultative and collaborative work with USAID, UNIDO, UNESCAP, ADB, World Bank among others.
Selim Raihan is Associate Professor in the Department of Economics at Dhaka University, Bangladesh. He holds a PhD from the University of Manchester and his research has focused on international trade, macroeconomic policies and poverty. Some of his recently published books include Trade Development Poverty Linkages: Experiences from Selected Asian and Sub-Saharan African Countries: Vol. I and II (2008), Domestic Preparedness for Services Trade Liberalization: Are South Asian Countries Prepared for Further Liberalization? (2008), Dynamics of Trade Liberalization in Bangladesh: Analyses of Policies and Practices (2007), WTO and Regional Trade Negotiations Outcomes: Potential Implications on Bangladesh (2007), Trade and Industrial Policy Environment in Bangladesh (2007) and Export Diversification for Human Development in the Post-ATC Era (2007). Dr Raihan has collaborated with several organizations including Asian Development Bank, UNDP, World Bank, IFPRI, DFID, Commonwealth Secretariat, ILO, IDRC and CUTS International.
S. Irudaya Rajan holds a PhD in Demography from the International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India and is currently a Chair [Page 345]Professor of the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs Research Unit on International Migration at the Centre for Development Studies, Kerala, India (http://www.cds.edu). He has two decades of research experience in demographic issues in Kerala, has published extensively and has contributed seminally to debates on the demographic aspects of the ‘Kerala Model’ of development in national and international forums. He has been involved in five major Kerala Migration Surveys (1998, 2003, 2007, 2008 and 2009). He is the coordinator of the Kerala State Development Report prepared for the Planning Commission, Government of India and also member of the National Migration Policy drafting group of the Ministry Overseas Indians Affairs, India.
Rizwana Siddiqui is Senior Research Economist at the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad, Pakistan. She did her MSc from Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan and MA from Institute of Social Studies, the Netherlands. Her specialization is in Econometrics, Quantitative Models, Development Finance and Structural Adjustment. Her research focuses on gender, globalization, migration, remittances, and poverty issues. She developed a SAM-based computable general equilibrium model for Pakistan to assess the impact of trade liberalization policies on poverty and welfare. It has been used to analyse issues such as remittances inflow, foreign capital inflow, gender division of labour, intra-household allocation of resources and financial liberalization.
Farooq Sobhan is the President and Chief Executive of Bangladesh Enterprise Institute (BEI). He was Executive Chairman, Board of Investment and Special Envoy to the Prime Minister 1997–1999, Foreign Secretary 1995–1997, High Commissioner to India 1992–1995, Ambassador to China 1987–1991, High Commissioner to Malaysia 1984–1987, and Ambassador and Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations 1981–1984. He served as Chairman of the Group of 77 at the UN 1982–1983 and was Chairman, UN Commission, on TNCs from 1991 to 1992. He is a member of the International Research Committee of the Centre for Security Studies, Colombo and a member of the Board of Governors of the South Asia Centre for Policy Studies (SACEPS), based in Kathmandu and was Co-Chairman of the Coalition for South Asian Co-operation (CASAC) from 1994–2001. He was a visiting professor at the Elliott School for International Affairs at George Washington University in 2003, where he taught a post graduate course [Page 346]on South Asia. He has written extensively on the subject of regional cooperation in South Asia and is currently involved in a number of initiatives in the region.
Sonam Tobgay received his BSc degree in Agriculture Economics from the University of Philippines at Los Banos and has a Masters in Business Administration (MBA) from the Asian Institute of Management, Manila, Philippines. From 1998–2006, he has served in various position ranging from a Senior Policy Analyst to the Chief of Agribusiness and Trade Promotion Division within the Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Government of Bhutan. From 2004–2007, he was the Chief Agriculture Negotiator on Bhutan's Accession to the World Trade Organization. Currently, Sonam Tobgay is an international consultant and is employed by United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. His expertise is in the fields of food security, agriculture policy and development, international trade, and marketing.
Syed Al-Helal Uddin is Research Associate at the South Asian Network on Economic Modeling (SANEM) Dhaka, Bangladesh. He holds a Masters in Economics from University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. He has research interests in macroeconomic modelling, international trade and poverty.
Dushni Weerakoon is currently the Deputy Director of the Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka (IPS). Her research and publications have been in the areas of international trade, regional integration and macroeconomic policy management. She holds a PhD in Economics from the University of Manchester, UK.
Piyasiri Wickramasekara has been with the International Labour Organization since 1985 and has served as a senior migration specialist in the ILO's International Migration Programme, Geneva from 2001. He has extensive international experience in research and technical cooperation on development issues and international migration in Asia, Africa, the Gulf and Europe. His special interests cover governance of migration, skilled labour migration, migration and development, labour migration in Asia and migrant rights. Dr Wickramasekara obtained his PhD in Economics from the University of Cambridge, UK. Before joining the ILO he served as a senior lecturer in economics at the University of Sri Lanka, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.