Michel Foucault

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Clare O'Farrell

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    Dedication

    To my mother

    Deirdre O'Farrell

    and to the memory of my father

    Patrick O'Farrell

    1933-2003

    Preface

    The French thinker Michel Foucault, who died in 1984 aged 57, is one of the most influential sources of ideas in the humanities and social sciences today. His output was enormous, including some twelve books published during his lifetime, four 800-page volumes of his collected articles, interviews and lectures as well as seven recent and very substantial volumes of lectures with more promised. Two previously unpublished sets of interviews also appeared in 2004, 20 years after his death, one set in book form (Droit, 2004) and the other dramatised for radio (1969i). Other material is also available on video, audio tape and CD.

    Such an output is daunting indeed and this book is designed as an introductory guide for people who are looking for a broad overview of Foucault's work. It is also aimed at providing some tools for students and researchers who wish to apply Foucault's ideas at more technical levels. The analysis is situated within the general field of cultural studies and is focused on the mechanics of Foucault's approach rather than towards the empirical content of his work. In addition, discussion is mainly restricted to his own work, with only limited references to what is now a very large and very diverse secondary industry.

    Introducing Foucault's work is no easy matter. This book takes a layered approach, dealing with the same problems from a variety of angles in an attempt to try and deal with some of the complexities. Chapter 1 situates Foucault in the contemporary context and discusses reasons why his work is so difficult to come to grips with, write about and then apply to other domains. Chapter 2 then locates Foucault within his own social and historical setting and Chapter 3 offers brief summaries of his major works in chronological order. Chapter 4 then takes up the challenge from yet another angle, and advances the idea that Foucault's work rests on a set of five closely interrelated assumptions relating to order, history, truth, power and ethics. The remaining chapters build on this schema and examine in some detail the specific tools and concepts that Foucault has become famous for. The overall aim is to reduce some of the mystery surrounding Foucault's approach and to increase the flexibility and precision with which people can both understand and use his work.

    The book also includes two appendices which are intended to function as working tools. The first is a chronology of Foucault's life, work and other major contemporary intellectual and political events. This is designed to serve as an easy set of historical reference points to ground the more theoretical analyses in the book. The second appendix provides a detailed alphabetical list of Foucault's key concepts. Brief definitions are provided, but more importantly, the aim is to guide the reader to those texts by Foucault himself where he provides definitions and illustrations of what he is trying to convey. Amongst the favorite pastimes of those engaged in the study of Foucault is trying to hunt down specific tools in his work suitable for applications to other domains, or otherwise searching for clarification of particular concepts. The intention of Appendix 2 is to make this quest a little easier. For example, someone searching for Foucault's definition of the notion of ‘discourse’ and how he actually puts this idea into play can look the word up in the appendix and then track down the necessary references.

    The inclusion of this list of key concepts has had two consequences for the rest of the book. First of all, it has made it possible to keep the referencing structure within the text itself fairly light and unencumbered. Readers looking for a general introduction to Foucault's work therefore, need not be bothered by complex referencing, whereas those searching for more detailed information on any of his concepts can turn to the list. The inclusion of this list has also necessitated a comprehensive and custom designed bibliography of Foucault's work, in order to make it a tool that can be used not only by English speakers consulting multiple translations of the same work, but also by those working in the original French or with translations into other languages.

    With regards to the translations, when the published English translation does not quite convey some of the nuances of the French original, I have modified the translation and added the annotation ‘mod.’ beside the reference in the text. Translations of texts not yet published in English are my own. Wherever possible, I have referred to the most recent translation of each item in English, otherwise I have listed the most accessible version in French.

    Acknowledgements

    This book owes much to the ongoing and generous support of many people over a number of years. I would like to begin by thanking my family, in particular my father, who died on Christmas Day 2003, and was a source of constant encouragement, support, advice and intellectual discussion, even through long-term illness. My mother has also been tremendously supportive over the years, as have other members of my family.

    I would also like to thank the commissioning editor at Sage publications, Chris Rojek, and the anonymous reader who provided very helpful feedback at the proposal stage. The staff at the Foucault Archives at the Institute Mémoire Contemporaine (IMEC) in Paris helped to make my visit in 1998 a most productive one. Also in Paris, Jean-Paul and Monique Delamotte of the Association Culturelle Franco-Australienne (ACFA) were the source of generous support and hospitality. The Humanities Research Centre and Burgmann College at the Australian National University in Canberra provided excellent research facilities and accommodation in 1999. Thanks are also due to my colleagues in the School of Cultural and Language Studies in Education at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) in Brisbane for their collegial spirit. I am especially grateful to the Head of School, Jillian Brannock for facilitating work conditions in the final stages of completing this book. I would also like to mention the Foucault Reading Group at QUT whose members have provided much lively and interesting discussion.

    Colin Gordon, Dominique Séglard, Chris Falzon, Jeremy Carrette, and my two fellow co-editors of the new Foucault Studies journal, Stuart Elden and Alan Rosenberg have all contributed in many ways with their ongoing enthusiasm for Foucault's work. I have also benefited from contact with the many researchers who have contacted me via my website on Foucault (www.michel-foucault.com). They have drawn my attention to far-flung and unexpected applications of Foucault's work across the globe. On the technical side of things, I would like to thank Peta Blackford who typed the final drafts of the manuscript and John Anderson who provided sterling assistance by entering all my bibliographical data.

    Finally, I would like to dedicate this book to my mother and to my father, who even if he was not able to see the completed project, did so much to bring it into reality. His loss is sorely felt and his contribution to these pages is remembered with warm affection.

    Abbreviations

    Dates in square brackets refer to original date of French publication

    AK (1972) [1969]. The Archaeology of Knowledge. Tr. A.M. Sheridan Smith. London: Tavistock. AN (2003) [1999]. Abnormal. Lectures at the Collège de France, 1974–1975. New York: Picador.

    BC (1973) [1963]. The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception. Tr. A.M. Sheridan Smith. London: Tavistock.

    CS (1990) [1984]. The Care of the Self. The History of Sexuality: Volume 3. Tr. R. Hurley. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin.

    DE (1994). Dits et écrits: 1954–1988. Vols I-IV. D. Defert, F. Ewald & J. Lagrange (eds.). Paris: Gallimard.

    DP (1991) [1975]. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Tr. A.M. Sheridan Smith. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin.

    EW1 (1997). Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth. The Essential Works of Michel Foucault 1954–1984. Volume One. P. Rabinow (ed.) Tr. R. Hurley and others. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Allen Lane, Penguin.

    EW2 (1998). Aesthetics, Method and Epistemology. The Essential Works of Michel Foucault 1954–1984. Volume Two. J.D. Faubion. (ed.). Tr. R. Hurley and others. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Allen Lane, Penguin.

    EW3 (2000). Power. J.D. Faubion (ed.). Tr. R. Hurley and others. New York: The New Press.

    FL (1996). Foucault Live Interviews, 1961–1984. S. Lotringer (ed.). Tr. L. Hochroth & J. Johnston. 2nd ed. New York: Semiotext(e).

    FR (1991). The Foucault Reader. P. Rabinow (ed.). Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin. Originally published in 1984.

    FS (2001). Fearless Speech. J. Pearson (ed.). Los Angeles: Semiotext(e).

    HER (2001). L'hermeneutique du sujet. Cours au Collège de France, 1981–1982. Paris: Gallimard Seuil. [(2005). The Hermeneutics of theSubject. Lectures at the Collège de France, 1981–82. F. Gros. (ed.). Tr. G. Burchell. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.]

    HF (1972) [1961]. Histoire de la folie à l'age classique. Revised. Paris: Gallimard.

    HS (1990) [1976]. The History of Sexuality: Volume 1. Tr. R. Hurley. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin.

    MC (1989) [1961]. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Tr. R. Howard. London: Routledge.

    MIP (1976) [1954, 1962]. Mental Illness and Psychology. Tr. A.M. Sheridan Smith. New York: Harper and Row.

    NBP (2004). Naissance de la biopolitique. Cours au Collège de France. 1978–1979. Paris: Gallimard Seuil.

    OD (1981) [1971]. ‘The order of discourse’. In R. Young (ed.). Untying the Text: A Post-Structuralist Reader. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

    OT (1970) [1966]. The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. Tr. A.M. Sheridan Smith. London: Tavistock.

    P/K (1980). Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977. C. Gordon (ed.). New York: Pantheon Books.

    PP (2003). Le pouvoir psychiatrique. Cours au Collège de France, 1973–1974. Paris: Gallimard Seuil.

    PPC (1988). Politics, Philosophy, Culture: Interviews and Other Writings, 1977–1984. L. Kritzman (ed.). New York: Routledge.

    RC (1999). Religion and Culture. J.R. Carrette (ed.). Manchester: Manchester University Press.

    RR (1987) [1963]. Death and the Labyrinth: the World of Raymond Roussel. Tr. C. Ruas. London: Athlone.

    SMD (2003) [1997]. ‘Society Must Be Defended.’ Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975–1976. Tr. D. Macey. New York: Picador.

    STP (2004) Sécurité, territoire, population. Cours au Collège de France, 1977–1978. Paris: Gallimard Seuil. TS (1988). Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault. L. Martin, H. Gutman & P. Hutton (eds.). Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

    UP (1992) [1984]. The Use of Pleasure. The History of Sexuality: Volume Two. Tr. R. Hurley. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin.

  • Appendix 1 Chronology of Foucault's Life and Times

    Introduction

    For a more detailed chronology of Foucault's life, times and works see DE I: 13–64. See also, on the net, Alt (2000). There are three biographies of Foucault by Didier Eribon (1991); David Macey (1993) and James Miller (1993). Eribon has also written a sequel (1994) to his 1991 work. For additional treatments of Foucault's general intellectual and social background see O'Farrell (1989: 1–19) and Châtelet (1979). Foucault himself also provides various accounts of the personal, historical and intellectual setting of his own work. See DE items 37; 50; 54; 55; 56; 141; 160; 161; 163; 192; 212; 216; 219; 234; 330; 242; 272; 281; 336; 343; 349; 362 and 2004b. (For an explanation of this numbering system see the bibliography.)

    Chronology
    192615 October Paul-Michel Foucault is born in Poitiers, France.
    1945Attends the lycée Henri-IV in Paris. End of World War II. Existentialist thought and the Communist Party ‘the Party of the Resistance’ are held in much esteem by intellectuals.
    1946Enrols in the Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS) in Paris.
    1949Simone de Beauvoir, the founder of post-World War II feminism, publishes The Second Sex.
    1950–3Foucault briefly joins the French Communist Party. His decision to join is influenced by the war in Indo-china. Leaves when a number of Jewish doctors are arrested in the USSR for alleged treason.
    1948–53Obtains qualifications in philosophy, psychology, psycho-pathology and experimental psychology.
    1952–4Teaches psychology at the University of Lille and philosophy at the Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS) in Paris.
    1954Publication of Maladie Mentale et Personnalité and introduction to Ludwig Binswanger's Dream and Existence. Beginning of the Algerian uprising. This war polarises French intellectuals and militants, particularly in the existentialist, Marxist and Gaullist camps.
    1955Foucault takes up a post as the Director of the Maison de France in Uppsala Sweden.
    1956The Khrushchev Report is released in the USSR condemning the ‘personality cult of Stalin’. An uprising in Hungary is violently suppressed by Soviet troops. The centre-left government in France, including the Communist deputies, votes for special powers to aid in the ‘pacification’ of Algeria. These events provoke a mass exodus of intellectuals from the ranks of the Communist Party whom they perceive as changing tune to suit its own purposes rather than supporting the just causes of the oppressed. A general disillusion amongst intellectuals concerning party politics sets in.
    1957Publication of the collection of essays Mythologies by Roland Barthes, one of the key figures of the newly developing structuralist movement of thought.
    1958Foucault takes up a post in Poland as head of a new Centre for French Civilisation at the University of Warsaw. De Gaulle's right-wing government comes to power in France further alienating intellectuals from party politics and humanist and literary philosophy. Many young researchers turn their attention instead to apparently less ideological domains such as the human sciences and areas such as epistemology, ethnology and linguistics. The so-called ‘father of structuralism’, Claude Lévi-Strauss publishes Structural Anthropology.
    1959Foucault appointed director of the French Institute of Hamburg in Germany.
    1960Takes up a post at the University of Clermont-Ferrand in France.
    1961Foucault obtains his doctorate and his major thesis for this degree, Madness and Civilization, is published.
    1962Revised and retitled edition of Mental Illness and Psychology is published. The Algerian War ends. Publication of Nietzsche and Philosophy by Gilles Deleuze. Thomas Kuhn publishes The Structure of Scientific Revolutions which introduces the famous notion of paradigm to which Foucault's idea of the episteme is often compared.
    1963Publication of The Birth of the Clinic and Raymond Roussel.
    1964Claude Lévi-Strauss publishes The Raw and the Cooked.
    1965Foucault lectures in Brazil. Publication of one of the classic texts of anti-humanist structuralist Marxism, Louis Althusser's For Marx.
    1966Publication of The Order of Things, which provokes controversy in the press because of its anti-Marxist and anti-humanist stance and also its perceived affiliation with a new structuralist movement of thought which was beginning to pose a serious threat to the previously reigning philosophies of existentialism and phenomenology. The book is an instant best seller. Foucault also lectures in Hungary and moves to Tunisia to take up a Chair in Philosophy. Publication of Ecrits by psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, who employs structuralist methods in his analysis of the unconscious. Publication of Reading Capital another classic of structuralist Marxism by Althusser, Balibar, Macherey and Rancière.
    1967Publication of On the Normal and the Pathological by historian and philosopher of science, Georges Canguilhem. Foucault was to write an introduction for the English translation of this book published in 1978. Publication of Writing and Difference, and Of Grammatology by the instigator of ‘deconstructionism’ Jacques Derrida.
    1968The ‘events of May’ take place with student and worker uprisings and a general strike in France. Student unrest also occurs in other countries: Japan, the USA, Poland, Germany and Mexico. In Tunisia Foucault puts himself at some personal and physical risk to support the cause of Tunisian student activists. Publication of sociologist/philosopher Jean Baudrillard's The System of Objects. Baudrillard was to become well known for his ‘postmodern’ ideas on the contemporary breakdown of the divisions between ‘reality’ and ‘representation’ as well as a short book provocatively titled Forget Foucault, published in 1977.
    1969Foucault is appointed to the Chair in Philosophy at the new experimental University in the Parisian suburb of Vincennes, the University of Paris VIII. Publishes The Archaeology of Knowledge and lectures in England for the first and last time.
    1970–3Foucault makes regular trips to the USA, Canada, Japan and Brazil and two trips to Germany to deliver lectures, seminars and set up networks with intellectuals and others.
    1970Appointed Professor of the History of Systems of Thought at the prestigious research institution of the Collège de France in Paris where he gives a course of public lectures and seminars almost every year until his death. Roland Barthes publishes S/Z which develops and applies methods of linguistic structuralism to literature. In December Foucault launches his inaugural series of lectures titled ‘The will to knowledge’.
    1971Publication of Foucault's inaugural speech at the Collège de France, ‘The order of discourse’. Foucault announces the creation of the Groupe d'informations sur les prisons (GIP), a collective of intellectuals, prisoners, ex-prisoners and their families, aimed at providing prisoners themselves with a public forum to help them activate to improve conditions in prisons. Foucault gives a lecture in Tunisia on the painting of Manet which was finally published in complete form in 2004. In November, Foucault begins his second series of lectures at the Collège de France titled ‘Penal theories and institutions’.
    1972Continues activities with the GIP and participates in other groups organised along the same lines, namely the Groupe d'information – santé aimed at assisting health workers, and the Groupe d'information et de soutien des travailleurs immigrés, a support group for immigrant workers. A second edition of Madness and Civilization is published with a new preface. A discussion between Foucault and Deleuze titled ‘Intellectuals and Power’ is also published. Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari publish their celebrated work Anti-Oedipus. The course at the Collège de France is titled ‘The punitive society’.
    1973Publication of I, Pierre Rivière … In November Foucault starts his course for the year. These lectures were eventually published in 2003 under the title Le pouvoir psychiatrique.
    1975Publication of Discipline and Punish. Travels to Spain with six other intellectuals, film-makers and journalists to protest unsuccessfully against the execution of eleven Spanish activists opposed to the Franco regime. Foucault's course for this year was published in 1999 and translated into English under the title of Abnormal in 2003.
    1976Publication of the first volume of The History of Sexuality. Course titled ‘Society Must Be Defended’, subsequently published in 1997, and in English translation in 2003.
    1977Reviews a book by André Glucksmann, The Master Thinkers. Glucksmann is one of a group of young ex-Maoists dubbed the ‘New Philosophers’, who appeared on the scene in the late 1970s and created a media furore both in France and in the USA with their strong critiques of Marxism and the repressive regimes in Communist countries as embodied and symbolised by the gulag.
    1978Publication of the influential article ‘Governmentality’ in Italian. Foucault travels to Iran and writes a highly controversial series of articles on the political situation there. His annual course was subsequently published under the title of Sécurité, Territoire, Population in 2004. A book titled La nouvelle histoire (The New History) [LeGoff, 1978) is published. This book which provides a key to work by the famous school of ‘Annales historians’ makes a number of references to Foucault's work.
    1979Continuing attacks on Foucault's writings on Iran. His course for this year was published under the title of Naissance de la biopolitique in 2004. Jean-François Lyotard publishes The Postmodern Condition, which introduces the term ‘postmodernism’ into the humanities and social sciences. Sociologist Pierre Bourdieu publishes Distinction.
    1980The annual course is titled ‘The government of the living’ with a seminar series on Liberalism. Noted existentialist philosopher and novelist Jean-Paul Sartre dies. Foucault joins the huge funeral procession.
    1981Foucault's course is titled ‘Subjectivity and truth’. A state of emergency is declared in Poland. Foucault is active on a committee of support for Poland working alongside exiled members of the dissident trade union Solidarity.
    1982The title of the course this year is The Hermeneutics of the Subject subsequently published in 2001 and appearing in English translation in 2005. Foucault travels to Poland in a truck with medications and other supplies in the company of the actor Simone Signoret and members of the humanitarian organisation Médecins du monde.
    1983Course at the Collège de France titled ‘The government of self and others’. A version of these lectures which he delivered in Berkeley was published under the title of Fearless Speech in 2001.
    1984Foucault's annual lectures are titled ‘The government of self and others: the courage of truth’. Volumes 2 and 3 of The History of Sexuality: The Use of Pleasure and The Concern for Self are published. Foucault dies on 25 June at the Saltpêtrière Hospital in Paris from a condition subsequently identified as AIDS.

    Appendix 2 Key Concepts in Foucault's Work

    Introduction

    Foucault's terminology has always posed a significant challenge for critics and admirers alike. His readers are constantly confronted with terms he has invented himself, such as ‘governmentality’ (which he willingly describes himelf as a ‘nasty word’ (STP: 19)), or words which he has completely redefined for his own purposes, such as ‘archaeology’, ‘genealogy’, ‘discourse’, ‘technology’ or ‘apparatus’. Then there are the words he has borrowed from Ancient Greek such as ‘episteme’ or ‘techne’. Added to this are phrases such as ‘discursive practice’, ‘pastoral power’, ‘regimes of truth’ or such colourful creations as ‘pangraphic panopticism’ (PP: 57) and so on. Many readers have asked, and continue to ask, why not just use plain language, why this complex and baroque edifice of language? Foucault happily admits, understating the case a little perhaps, that he belongs to ‘that category of people, who when they write spontaneously, write in a slightly convoluted manner’ (1984e: 406).

    In Foucault's earlier work, this complexity is perhaps partially the result of a new writer out to prove himself philosophically, but even at this early stage it is also an attempt to invite people to think about the ideas they usually take for granted. By playing with the meanings of words and inventing new ones, Foucault is inviting the reader to refuse to accept commonplaces at face value. His aim is to demonstrate that words do not transparently mirror things and that the connection between words and their meanings is not automatic, but instead the result of often byzantine historical, social and cultural processes. The firm grounding of Foucault's work in historical analysis, allows him to attach rigorous definitions and concrete examples to his terminology which he deploys in a highly logical and organised manner – even if following it initially demands a degree of patience from the reader. As he comments himself in relation to one of his well-known inventions, namely ‘problematisation’:

    words are only barbarous when they do not clearly say what they mean; we know that many familiar words are barbarous because they say many things at once or say nothing at all, but, on the other hand, certain technical words which are bizarre in their construction are not barbarous because they say fairly clearly what they mean. (1988d: 413–4)

    This guide to Foucault's terms and concepts – his ‘tool box’ – has been constructed with a view to assisting users of his work in the process of the clarification and definition of his terminology.

    Instructions for Use
    • A key to all abbreviations can be found at the beginning of this book.
    • Given the enormous scope and sheer quantity of Foucault's work, this list does not claim to be comprehensive. It can be used in conjunction with the indexes found at the end of Volume IV of the French collection of his shorter works, Dits et écrits, and the indexes of his books of lectures, as well as those found at the end of some of the English editions of Foucault's books.
    • Only very brief definitions of each of the terms are provided here. Instead, this list is more intended to indicate where the best definitions and examples of concepts might be found in Foucault's own work. This is to aid those wishing to apply Foucault's ideas to gain first hand and accurate clarification on terminology and reduce some of the inevitable (if productive) confusions and distortions produced by multiple second-hand interpretations.
    • To simplify matters, as there are quite a few editions of Foucault's various shorter works (not to mention translations into various languages), items have been listed in this guide according to the numbers allocated to them in Dits et écrits. These numbers can be found at the end of each item in the bibliography and have increasingly come to serve as points of reference for scholars working around the globe with multiple versions and different translations. Also for reasons of simplicity, and because of the existence of multiple editions, page numbers have been omitted.
    • Where the item does not appear in Dits et écrits it is listed according to conventional date format.
    • When referring to Foucault's books, I have used abbreviations for the titles and have referred to chapters. This is to facilitate consultation across various editions and translations.
    • As the only edition available of Histoire de la folie in English is a heavily abridged version, I have referred to the French original (HF) as well as the English translation (MC). A translation is due out in late 2005.
    • The books of Foucault's lectures do not include chapter numbers, so I have referred to the dates of individual lectures. The lectures in L'hermeneutique du sujet are each divided into two chapters representing the first and second hours. I have referred to these as (a) and (b).
    Key Concepts

    ANTIPSYCHIATRY While Foucault emphasises that his own work cannot be described as antipsychiatry, he makes a number of sympathetic references to the movement in interviews and articles. See 95; 98; 143; 160; 173; 281; 336; 342; PP 21 Nov 1973.

    APPARATUS (DISPOSITIF) Foucault generally uses this term to indicate the various institutional, physical and administrative mechanisms and knowledge structures, which enhance and maintain the exercise of power within the social body. It first appears in his work in the mid-1970s (see 151). He also uses it in PP. 7, 28 Nov 1973. He finally offers an extended definition in 206. For examples see, 193; 195; 197; 198; 200; 239; 278; 306; HS pts. 4, 5; PP 28 Nov 1973. On apparatuses of security see STP 11, 18, 25 Jan 1978.

    ARCHAEOLOGY ‘Archaeology’ is the term Foucault used during the 1960s to describe his approach to writing history. Foucault first refers to the ‘archaeology of knowledge’ in his work without explaining what he means. See, for example, MC ch. IV; HF pt. 1 ch. III. On the origins of the term and for a discussion of why Foucault chose the term ‘archaeology’, see 97; 221. For a complete, some might argue, excessively detailed exposition of Foucault's archaeological method, see AK. For an excellent brief definition of the term ‘archaeology’, see 34 (this article also provides a useful brief summary of OT). See also 48; 58; 59 (this is a good summary of AK); 66; 68; 330; OT preface, ch. 3; AK pt. III ch. 5, pt. IV ch. 1, pt. IV chs. 4, 5, pt. V. After 1970, Foucault uses the term archaeology only occasionally. See 221; 330. For an interesting definition of archaeology in the context of the analysis of power, see 139 (discussion) and on archaeology as an ‘approach’ rather than a comprehensive theory, see 169 and 281.

    ARCHAEOLOGY VERSUS GENEALOGY Foucault's remarks on the difference between archaeology and genealogy are generally rather vague and confusing. For distinctions between a ‘critical’ project and a ‘genealogical’ project, see OD. For an early distinction between the ‘archaeology of knowledge’ and the ‘dynastic of knowledge’, see 119. For the most complete discussion on the difference between archaeology and genealogy, see 193. See also STP 18 Jan; 1978 UP intro. ch. 1 for brief comments. On ‘criticism’ as archaeological in its methodology and genealogical in its goal, see 339. For another oblique discussion of the difference between the two, in terms of a distinction between the history of sciences and the genealogy of knowledges, see SMD 25 Feb 1976. Later, Foucault makes a distinction between the history of sciences and a genealogy of the subject (1993).

    ARCHITECTURE On the historical role of institutional and domestic architecture, and its role in social control, organisation and government, see 195 and 310. On institutional architecture (prisons, schools, factories, asylums, army barracks etc.) and its role in the exercise of disciplinary power, see DP pt. 3. On architecture and the regulation of sexuality, see HS pt. 2 ch. 1. On town planning see STP 11 Jan 1978.

    ART (PAINTING) Foucault comments on his tastes in painting in 149. On Fromanger, see 150. On Manet, see 20; 149; 2004a. On Magritte, see 53; 307. For a very detailed description of Valasquez’ painting Las Meninas and a discussion of representation, see OT ch. 1. On African art, see 12. On Klee, see 39; 43; 50; 53. On pop and op art, see 50. On Panofsky, see 51. On Rebeyrolle, see 118. On Byzantios, see 135. For comments on how an archaeology of painting might be conducted, see AK pt. IV ch. 6. On Renaissance art and madness, see MC ch. 1; HF pt: 1 ch. I. On Goya, see MC conclusion; HF pt. 3 ch. V.

    THE ART OF EXISTENCE (LIFE AS A WORK OF ART) On creating oneself as a work of art as opposed to discovering the truth about oneself see 308; 326; 329; 339; 344; 357; UP intro. ch. 1, pt. 1 ch. 4. For definitions of the ‘arts of existence’ in Ancient Greek philosophy see 338; 344; 350; CS pt. 2, conclusion; HER 3 Feb (a), 17 Mar (a) 1982. On the relation between art and intellectual knowledge see 139 (discussion); 174; 185; 272.

    AUTHOR/ARTIST Foucault challenged traditional notions of the author as being restrictive. For definitions, history and criticisms of the notion of the author, the artist and the ‘work’, see 8; 48; 54; 59; 69; 85; 2004c; OD. On the relation between the author (specifically Foucault) and his readers, see 236. He notes in 328 that a work should say, and show, how it is undertaken as a mark of respect to the reader.

    BIOPOWER Foucault argues that biopower is a technology which appeared in the late eighteenth century for managing populations. It incorporates certain aspects of disciplinary power. If disciplinary power is about training the actions of bodies, biopower is about managing the births, deaths, reproduction and illnesses of a population. See 197; HS pt. 5; SMD 17 Mar 1976; STP 11 Jan 1978. On ‘biopolitics’, see 274; 297; 364; HS pt. 5. In spite of its title, Foucault's series of lectures titled Naissance de la biopolitique barely mentions biopolitics.

    BO DY For comments on the relation between political power and the body, and on ways of training the body to make it socially productive, see 131; 136; 138; 139; 157; 197; 221; 234; 297; 2004c; DP pt. 1 ch. 1, pt. 2 ch. 1, pt. 3 chs. 1, 2; PP 16 Jan 1974; SMD 17 Mar 1976. On the health of the body in relation to strategies of the economic and social management of populations, see 168; 170; 194; 257; DP pt. 3 ch. 3; HS pt. 4 ch. 4. On the body as prison of the ‘soul’, namely using the body as a means of controlling people's behaviour and existence, see DP pt. 1 ch. 1, pt. 2 ch. 1. On the disposal of dead bodies in Western culture, see 360. On the body as a way of experiencing man's finitude, see OT ch. 9.

    CAPITALISM For a critique of the notion of capitalism see NBP 21 Feb 1979. On the enterprise society see NBP 21 Mar 1979. On human capital see NBP 14, 21 Mar 1979.

    COLONIALISM AND THE WEST For comments on European colonial power and colonial ways of thinking, see 12; 108; 234; SMD 4 Feb, 17 Mar 1976; PP 28 Nov, 5 Dec 1973. On the notion of the West, and the impact of the West on the rest of the world, see 50; 119; 212. When delivering lectures and interviews in Japan, Foucault was always careful to emphasise the Western context of his work, and that he had developed his ideas within a Western, more specifically, a French setting. See 231; 232; 233. On Vietnam, refugees, boat people and the legacy of colonialism, see 271. On Western ‘orientalism’, see 4; 50; MC preface. On the impact of Western knowledge and Marxism as an instrument of struggle against the West in non-Western countries, see 119. On Tunisia, see 163. For a discussion of the origins of ideas concerning a global economy in eighteenth and nineteenth-century Europe see NBP 24 Jan 1979.

    CONDUCT (RULES OF) For definitions and the history of conduct and the ‘conduct of conduct’, see 306; 340; STP 22 Feb, 1, 8 Mar 1978. On rules of conduct versus actual conduct, see UP intro. ch. 3. On power and the determination of the conduct of others, see 356. See ‘resistance’ for ‘counter-conduct’.

    CONFESSION For a brief history of confession and its change from a religious to a secular practice, see 198; 289; HS pt. 3. For some brief early remarks on confession and sexuality, see OD. For comments on Eastern practices of confession, see 216. On confession in the Western legal system, see 163; 349; 363. On the differences between confession and the ritual of penitence in the history of Christianity, see 1993; AN 19 Feb 1975. On confession as a form of knowledgepower, see HS pt. 3. On confession in relation to sexuality, see 181; 363; HS pts. 2, 3; AN 19, 26 Feb 1975. On practices of confession in Antiquity see HER 3 Mar (b), 10 Mar (a) 1982. On confession and psychiatry see PP 30 Jan 1974.

    CONFINEMENT On the ‘Great Confinement’ of mad and other marginal people in 1657, see MIP ch. V; MC chs. II, III, VIII; HF pt. 1 chs. II, III, IV. On the confinement of ‘unreasonable’ people in the eighteenth century, see HF pt. 3 chs. II, III. On confinement as it appears in the form of the gulag in the USSR and other socialist States, see 204; 209; 218. For suggestions regarding the historical reasons for a change from practices of exile to those of confinement, see 234. For brief comments on the history of confinement, see 83; 105; 143; 161; DP pt. 3 ch. 3; AN 15 Jan. 1975.

    CRIME AND THE CRIMINAL For an analysis of changes in the definition of crime and the criminal, see 139; 144; 220; HF pt. 3 ch. III; DP pt. 2 ch. 1; AN 29 Jan 1975; NBP 21 Mar 1979. On the social and economic usefulness of delinquency, see 297; 2004b; DP pt. 4; NBP 21 Mar 1979. On the criminal as the enemy of the Prince, see DP pt. 1 ch.1. On the criminal as hero, see DP pt. 1 ch. 2. On the criminal as a monster and enemy of society, see DP pt. 2 ch. 1, pt. 4 ch. 1. On crime and madness, see HF pt. 3 chs. III, V; AN 8 Jan 1975.

    CULTURE Foucault describes culture as ‘a hierarchical organisation of values, accessible to everybody, but at the same time the occasion of a mechanism of selection and exclusion’ (HER: 173). For general statements about culture and cultural analysis, see 23; 34; 46; 50; 83; 89; 285; HER 3 Feb (a) 1982. On the orders underlying culture, see OT preface.

    CURIOSITY For Foucault's comments on curiosity as a motivation for engaging in research and ethical projects see 338; 1988e. For a definition of curiosity and its ethical benefits see 285. On curiosity in more abstract terms see 20 and MC ch. I; HF pt. 1 ch. I.

    DANGEROUS INDIVIDUALS On how certain individuals come to be defined as ‘dangerous’ both to themselves and the rest of the social body, see 108; 142; 144; 165; 170; 205; 209; DP pt. 4 ch. 1; AN 15 Jan, 12 Feb 1975; PP 16 Jan, 23 Jan 1974. For an extensive and detailed discussion, see 220.

    D E ATH On dreams, limits and death, see 1. On death and the life sciences, see 3. On the Renaissance view of death, see MC ch. I; HF pt. 1 ch. I. On medicine and death see BC chs. 8, 9. On death and the being of language, see 14; 38. On death as an event, see 80. On the decline in the ritualisation of death in the Western world, see SMD 17 Mar 1976. On modern techniques of mass destruction, see SMD 17 Mar 1976; HS pt. 5. For comments on suicide, see 308; 325.

    DEATH PENALTY Foucault was opposed to the death penalty and expressed his views on this issue in the public media. See 114; 161; 240; 246; 260; 300.

    DERRIDA Foucault responded to Derrida's critiques (1978) of his treatment of Descartes in MC at some length in two articles: 102 and 104. In both these texts he mounts what is, in effect, a critique of the whole deconstructionist project. (See also 119.) It is perhaps not surprising that the exchange effectively ended Foucault and Derrida's friendship until the early 1980s. See Macey 1993: 144–5, 237–8. Foucault also made a distinction between his own approach and deconstruction in 342 and 1994. For Foucault's own critique of binary oppositions (following Deleuze), see 80.

    DESIRE For brief and interesting comments on desire (following on from some of Deleuze's ideas), see 139 (discussion). For a brief and rather mysterious discussion on desire and discourse, see AK pt. II ch. 6. See also HS pt. 2 ch. 1. On the notion of the ‘desiring subject’ in Western thought, see UP intro. ch. 1. On Ancient Greek and on Christian notions of desire, see UP pt. 1 ch. 1. Also on desire see 1989c; OT ch. 10.

    DISCIPLINE Discipline is a mechanism of power which regulates the behaviour of individuals in the social body. Foucault emphasises that power is not discipline, rather discipline is simply one way in which power can be exercised, 341. See also AN 29 Jan 1975. Foucault introduces the term ‘disciplinary society’ in 139, discussing its history and the origins and disciplinary institutions. This piece also provides a good summary and expansion of some of the ideas in DP. See also 152; 297. For other early efforts to define disciplinary power, see PP 14, 21, 28 Nov 1973, 16 Jan 1974. For an extended discussion on what Foucault means by disciplinary power, its historical origins and for detailed examples, see DP pt. 3, pt. 4 ch. 3. See also 152; 194; 229; 297; 306; STP 11, 18 Jan 1978. Foucault also specifies that when he speaks of a ‘disciplinary society’ he does not mean a ‘disciplined society’: 277; 306. See also NBP 21 Mar 1979. Earlier in Foucault's work, one finds similar notions, for example, concerning the training of mad people in ‘self restraint’ and on the operation of surveillance in relation to madness in the nineteenth century, see HF pt. 3 ch. IV. On reigns of terror as the failure of discipline, see 172. On schools as disciplinary institutions, see 139; DP pt. 3 ch. 2. On four ways in which knowledge was organised by disciplinary power in the eighteenth century, see SMD 25 Feb 1976. On the history of the incorrigible individual who needs to be disciplined, see 165. After 1976, Foucault replaced ‘discipline’ with the notion of ‘biopower’. On the contrast between disciplinary power and biopower, see SMD 17 Mar 1976. In 239, and STP biopower is in its turn replaced by Foucault's new notion of ‘governmentality’.

    DISCONTINUITY Foucault uses a principle of discontinuity in his analyses, in order to undermine philosophical notions of unchanging essences in history. For definitions and discussion, see 47; 48; 58; 59; 66; 77; 84; 103; 192; 216; 219; 278; OT chs. 3, 7; AK pt. I, pt. II ch. 1, pt. IV ch. 5; OD.

    DISCOURSE Discourse is a rather slippery notion in Foucault's work but at its most basic he uses the term to refer to the material verbal traces left by history. It makes its first extended appearance in OT but mainly in the context of a description of eighteenth-century forms of representation. See OT chs. 2, 4, 7, 9. See also 34; 38. Foucault subsequently developed a broader definition of discourse as both a concrete object and event, and uses it as a building block for ‘archaeology’. See 48; 58; 59; 139 (discussion); 221; 281; 343; OD. See also AK, in particular pt. II chs. 1, 3, 4, pt. III ch. 3, pt. V. Foucault shifts his emphasis once again in the early 1970s and defines discourse in relation to power in OD. It makes a brief reappearance in HS pt. 4 ch. 2, where discourse is the location where power and knowledge intersect. For a ‘political’ definition of discourse, see 186; AK pt. V.

    DISCURSIVE FORMATION The discursive formation is roughly equivalent to a scientific discipline. For definitions see AK pt. II chs. 2, 7. See also 58; 59; 60.

    DISCURSIVE PRACTICE This term refers to a historically and culturally specific set of rules for organising and producing different forms of knowledge. For definitions see AK pt. III ch. 3, pt. IV ch. 6. See also 66; 101; 340. On using the notion of discursive practice as a way of avoiding the dilemma of an opposition between science and ideology, see 338.

    DREAMS For a history of Western dream interpretation, see 1. On truth, dreams and limits, see 1; 4; 12; 20. On dreams, madness and Descartes, see 102; 104. On dreams and madness in the Classical age, see MC ch. IV; HF pt. 2 ch. II. On dreams and psychiatry in the nineteenth century see PP 30 Jan 1974. On Ancient Greek dream interpretation in relation to sexuality, see CS pt. 1. On Ancient Greek dream interpretation, see 295; 304; 332; 344, 363. On early Christian discussions of dreams, see 312.

    ECONOMICS For an extensive analysis of nineteenth and twentieth-century economic liberalism and the primacy of economics see STP 5 Apr 1978 and NBP. For an enlightening history and critique of notions of economic rationalism see NBP 28 Mar 1979. On the history and prehistory of economics see OT ch. 6ff.

    EDUCATION On a number of occasions, particularly after the student unrest of May 1968, Foucault discusses teaching methods and the role of the teaching academic in higher education, as well as the relation between universities and the State. See 78; 82; 89; 98; 119; 285. For an incisive critique of institutional mechanisms in relation to the university and the dissemination of research and critical writing in the early 1980s, see 1985. For interesting discussions on the relationship between teaching and power, see 161. See also 160; 341; 356. For comments by Foucault on his public lectures at the Collège de France as reports on his research rather than teaching, see SMD 7 Jan 1976. On education as a way of regulating access to discourse, knowledge and power, see OD. On education and the Ancient Greeks see FS ch. 4; HER 27 Jan (a), 17 Mar. (b) 1982. On the architectural and disciplinary arrangements in schools in the nineteenth century see DP pt. 3; PP 28 Nov 1973. On the history of special education see PP 9, 16 Jan 1974.

    THE ENLIGHTENMENT (AUFKLÄRUNG) On the legacy of the Age of Reason and the eighteenth-century enlightenment period, see 219; 279; 291; 306; 330; 353. For definitions, see 339; 351.

    EPISTEME This term refers to the orderly ‘unconscious’ structures or ‘epistemological field’ underlying the production of scientific knowledge in a particular time and place. Foucault remarks ‘in any given culture and at any given moment, there is always only one episteme that defines the conditions of possibility of all knowledge’ (OT: 168). The original definitions appear in OT, where it only ever appears in the singular as either the ‘episteme of Western culture’, OT preface, chs. 3, 6, or as a specific historical configuration of the Western ‘episteme’, for example, the Renaissance, the Classical or the Modern episteme. See OT chs. 2, 3, 6, 7, 10. An early version of this idea emerges in Foucault's discussion of the isomorphisms or structures of order in language in a given age in 17. Epistemes subsequently appear very briefly in a plural form in his work. For a revised definition, see 58; AK pt. IV ch. 6. See also 109, where Foucault defines it as the relation between different sciences in a given period. In 206, Foucault describes the episteme as something purely discursive, a particular case of what he terms a ‘dispositif’ (apparatus).

    ETHICAL AND POLITICAL RECOMMENDATIONS Foucault, in spite of accusations of political and ethical nihilism, had firm views on the kind of ethical approach that he wanted to take in his work. He argued that he wanted to render certain taken-for-granted exercises of power ‘intolerable’, by exposing them to scrutiny. He argues that the exercise of power only remains tolerable by covering up its tracks. See HS pt. 4 ch. 1. He saw it as part of his task, to make people aware of how intolerable some previously taken-for-granted exercises of power actually were and show them that things could be different. See 91; 95; 120; 151; 160; 161; 204; 215; 238; 278; 279; 281; 285; 296; 326; 345; 346; 353; 359; 1988e. He argues in 339 that projects which propose radical universal solutions should be abandoned in favour of experimental work on the limits we face in our own daily lives and social situations. See also 351. Foucault notes that it is impossible not to think in terms of good and evil and of the true and false, but one must always question, in every situation, the content of these categories and where the line between them is drawn. See 161.

    ETHICS Ethics concerns the kind of relation one has to oneself. For definitions, see 336; 341; 342; 356; UP intro. ch. 3. On ethos see 339; 356; HER 10 Feb (b) 1982. For a distinction between ethics and ethos see 341 where Foucault suggests that ‘ethics is a practice; ethos is a manner of being’ (p. 377). On the four aspects of how the individual constitutes him/herself as the moral subject of his or her own actions, see 326; 344; UP intro. ch. 3. On the difference between moral systems which emphasise codes or sets of laws and those that emphasise individual self-transformation, see UP intro. ch. 3, pt. 1 ch. 4. For an account of a change in ethical structures in the Classical Age, see HF pt. 1 chs. III, V. For a rather obscure discussion on ethical forms in Western history, see OT ch. 9. On the links and differences between Ancient Greek and Roman and Christian sexual ethics, see UP intro. ch. 2; pt. 2 ch. 4 CS conclusion. On classical Greek ethics as a power relation over oneself and others see, UP pt. 1 chs. 3, 4.

    EVENTS An event is something that has a beginning and an end. For a lengthy philosophical definition of what constitutes an ‘event’, see 80. See also 10; 59; 84; OD. For early discussions where Foucault uses the term ‘expression’ or ‘expressive act’ instead of ‘event’, see 1. For a detailed discussion of the work of the Annales school of historians in establishing different layers of events, see AK pt. I, pt. IV ch. 5; 103, and for a critique of the way philosophy completely ignores events, see 104; 234. For an excellent discussion on the historiographical value of the notion of event, see 278. See also 192; 221. On knowledge as an event, see 101; 139. On truth as an event, see 146. On thought as an event, see 340. Foucault describes himself as a philosopher of the event in 234. On the image (photograph) as event, see 150.

    EXCLUSION (OF INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS ) The examination of the situation of people existing on the margins of society is one of the mainstays of Foucault's work. For some general descriptions of the processes by which societies exclude certain groups and individuals, see 83; 132; 137; 139; DP pt. 3 ch. 3. For comments on an analysis which focuses on the ‘negative structures’ or excluded groups, as opposed to more traditional approaches which focus on the mainstream, see 222. Here, Foucault also describes four general systems of exclusion which can be found across all societies. On the history of ‘abnormal’ individuals, see 165; AN. On the confinement of mad and other ‘unreasonable’ people as both a gesture of exclusion and of social organisation in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, see MIP ch. V, HF pt. 1 ch. III; OD and AN 15 Jan 1975. On the exclusions practised by discourse and language, see 25; OD.

    EXPERIENCE Foucault defines an experience as an interrelation between knowledge, ‘types of normativity’ and subjectivity in a particular culture at a particular time in UP intro. ch. 1. See also 43; 281; 338; 340. These ideas echo Foucault's earlier references to different types of ‘experience’ in HF, notably madness and also implicitly criticise phenomenological approaches. See also 4; 23. Foucault draws a distinction between scientific or conceptual knowledge (connaissance) and experience in HF pt. 2 ch. I. On sexuality as a historical ‘experience’, see UP intro. ch. 1.

    FAMILY For an extended discussion on the family as a model of sovereign power and its pivotal interaction with mechanisms of disciplinary power see PP 28 Nov, 5 Dec, 12 Dec 1973. On the history of the family and sexual regulation, see 336. On sexuality and the family in the nineteenth century, see HS pt. 4 ch. 3; AN 5, 12, 19 Mar 1975; 1989c. On the nineteenth-century origins of the modern family in relation to the crusade against masturbation, see 1989c; AN 5, 12 Mar, 1975. On the history of the administration of childhood, see 168; 257.

    FICTION On a number of occasions Foucault describes his work as ‘fictions’. By this he does not mean that what he is saying is not true, rather that his writings are particular accounts or ‘stories’ about reality, not transparent representations of what is really out there. See 48; 197; 272; 280; 281; 328. For some poetic and rather obscure definitions of fiction and the ‘fictive’, see 38.

    FILM Foucault's comments on film are not very extensive. For comments on Marguerite Duras’ films, see 159. For reviews and remarks on various films, see 140; 162; 164; 230; 284; 308. On the body in contemporary film and Sade, see 164.

    FINITUDE Foucault throughout his career emphasises in various ways the notion of the finite and limited condition of human existence and culture. On the ‘finitude of man’, see 8; 30; BC conclusion; OT chs. 8, 9, 10. For various definitions of finitude as it appears in a historical context, see OT ch. 9. On finitude and madness, see HF pt. 1 chs. I, V.

    FOOD On the place of food in early Christian techniques of self-formation and regulations and restriction surrounding food, see 312; 326; 344. On food and exercise in Classical antiquity, see UP pt. 2.

    FOUN DATIONS/NON – REDUCTION ISM Foucault often argues against the idea that there is a single foundation for knowledge or a single explanation for all human activity and social organisation. There is no one principle which explains everything else. See 221; 310. Instead it is a question of the interrelation of a complex and multi-layered range of elements. See also 281; 306; 1994; AK pt. II ch. 7.

    FREEDOM In 353, (cf. 362) Foucault notes that he believes ‘solidly in human freedom’. Against nineteenth-century and existentialist views of an abstract freedom and a ‘free’ subject, and on freedom as a practice rather than a goal to be achieved, see 84; 310; 356. On Foucault's views about respecting the freedom of the consumers of his work to interpret his work as they wished without being instructed by him on how to act politically and socially, see 236; 238; 328; 357; 364; 1988e; SMD 7 Jan 1976. On the idea that knowledge starts with rules and constraints, not freedom, see 132. For earlier ideas along these lines, see 1; 25; 58; 84; AK pt. V. On the idea that real liberation lies in knowing oneself rather than through liberation movements, see 242. On freedom as a condition for the exercise of power, see 306; 356. On freedom as the possibility of transformation, see 330; 339. On thought as freedom in relation to action, see 342. On freedom and ethics, see 356; 357. On freedom, reason and madness in the Classical Age and nineteenth century, see HF pt. 1 ch. V, pt. 3 chs. I, V. For definitions of freedom in relation to governmentality, see STP 5 Apr 1978; NBP 17, 24 Jan 1979.

    FREUD For criticisms of Freud's approach, see 1; 2; 25; HF pt. 3 ch. IV; OT ch. 9.

    FRIENDSHIP For some interesting, but rather obscure comments on how Foucault saw personal friendship, see 234. On friendship and homosexuality, see 293; 311, 358. On friendship and the Ancient Greeks, see 313; 326; 344; HER 20 Jan (b), 27 Jan (a) (b), 3 Feb (b) 1982.

    THE GAZE (LE REGARD) Foucault's most extended treatment of ‘the act of seeing, the gaze’ and its role in knowledge and the ‘medical gaze’ is to be found in BC. See also 195. On the primacy of vision and sight in the discipline of natural history in the Classical Age, see OT ch. 5. On the gaze in the new novel, see 17.

    GENEALOGY Genealogy is the term Foucault uses to describe his historical method during the 1970s. For an early mention of genealogy in relation to Foucault's method, see 48. See 84 for a discussion by Foucault of Nietzsche and genealogy. See also 139 for an extended and extremely interesting analysis of Nietzsche's historical approach to philosophy. At this stage Foucault was using the term ‘dynastic researches’ to describe what he was doing, rather than ‘genealogy’. For further definitions of genealogy, see OD. For a detailed set of definitions of genealogy as a method which opposes particular ways of linking power and knowledge, see 192; 193. For brief comments on the material Foucault uses for his archaeological/genealogical method, see 151. He also mentions genealogy in passing in STP 8 Feb 1978.

    GEOGRAPHY For Foucault's most extended discussion on this topic, see 169. For other references to geography and space, see 195.

    GOVERNMENTALITY Foucault originally used the term ‘governmentality’ to describe a particular way of administering populations in modern European history within the context of the rise of the idea of the State. He later expanded his definition to encompass the techniques and procedures which are designed to govern the conduct of both individuals and populations at every level, not just the administrative or political level. For an early reference to ‘governmental knowledge’ in Foucault's work, see 126. See also 139, in relation to the ‘inquiry’ as a juridical form which takes hold during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. See 239 for Foucault's best-known (to date) exposition on this subject. This lecture is, however, only one of a more extensive series of lectures on the topic delivered in 1978 and 1979 – only published in their entirety in 2004. See STP and NBP. For various definitions of the notion of government and governmentality, see 274; 281; 289; 306; 345; 356; 359; 1988d; STP 1, 8, 22 Feb; NBP 10 Jan 1979. On the art of government, see 291; AN 15 Jan 1975; NBP. On technologies of government, see 364. For a definition of governmentality as the encounter between techniques of domination over others and techniques of the self, see 363. See also HER 17 Feb (a) 1982. On the links between the care of the self, ‘telling the truth’ (dire-vrai) and the government of others, see UP pt. 1 chs. 3, 4; HER 6 Jan (b), 13 Jan (a) (b), 20 Jan (a), 27 Jan (a), 3 Feb (a) (b), 10 Feb (b) 1982.

    HETEROTOPIA ‘Heterotopia’ is a word coined by Foucault to mean a space which is outside everyday social and institutional spaces, for example trains, motels and cemeteries. For an extensive discussion, see 360. See also 310; OT preface.

    HISTORICAL A PRIORI This is the order underlying any given culture at any given period of history. It first appears in 3. See also OT preface, ch. 5; AK pt. III ch. 5; 345. Foucault also uses the phrase the ‘positive unconscious of knowledge’ (OT foreword), to refer to the same idea.

    HISTORY AND HISTORIOGRAPHY Foucault's entire philosophy is based on the assumption that human knowledge and existence are profoundly historical. He argues in 2 that what is most human about man is his history. He discusses the notions of history, change and historical method at some length at various points in his career. See 1; 48; 50; 58; 59; 68; 66; 84; 139; 132; 156; 221; 277; 278; HF pt. 1 chs. IV, V; BC preface; OT foreword, ch. 5; AK pt. I; OD; FS ch. 2, conclusion. On historical intelligibility see 281; STP 8 Mar 1978. For an attack on certain styles of Marxist history, see 119. On the structuralist movement and the political uses of history, see 103. For interesting comments by Foucault on how he sets the boundaries of investigation for his various studies, see 34; 156; 277; 278; 338. For an analysis of the historical methodology Foucault employs in DP, see 277. For a reply to critics who say that he denies history, see 281; 2004c. Against nostalgia for the ‘good old days’, see 310; 325; 344. For an argument that the solutions provided by past societies are not the answer to current problems, see 326. On the ethical obligations of the practitioner of historical research and writing, see 326; 1985. On history as a means of demonstrating that there is no such thing as historical necessity, that things could have been and could be otherwise, see 84; 330; 2004c. For brief comments on the history of history as a discipline, see OT ch. 5 and on history as a way of thinking, see OT chs. 8, 9, 10; SMD 28 Jan, 11, 25 Feb. 1976. On historicism, see SMD 25 Feb 1976; NBP 10 Jan 1979. For a general discussion of what constitutes a historical document, see 1989a.

    HISTORY OF THE PRESENT Foucault describes his work on a number of occasions as the history or the diagnosis of the present, as the analysis of ‘what today is’. See 47; 50; 126; 200; 219; 221; 306; 330; 339; 351; 364; 1988d; DP pt. 1 ch. 1; FS conclusion. He notes that our own times and lives are not the beginning or end of some ‘historical’ process but a period like, but at the same time unlike, any other. The question should simply be ‘how is today different from yesterday?’.

    HOMOSEXUALITY For historical discussions on the marginal status of homosexuals and for comments on the construction of homosexual identity, see 82; 200; 293; 336; HF pt. 1 ch. III; HS pt. 2 ch. 2, pt. 4 ch. 2. For a brief history of homosexual practices and on the existence and creation of forms of homosexual and gay culture, see 293; 311; 313; 317; 358. On homosexual practices and the Ancient Greeks, see 304; 311; 314; 326; 344; UP intro. ch. 2, pt. 1 ch. 4, pt. 4, pt. 5; CS pt. 6. On female homosexuality, see 293; 311, 358. On repressive measures against homosexuals, see 318; 349; 1989c.

    HUMANISM AND THE DEATH OF MAN During the 1960s, Foucault was noted for his critiques of humanist philosophy, which is founded on the belief that something called ‘human nature’ or ‘man’ is at the centre of all knowledge and morality, see 34; 37; 39; 50; 55; 69. For a definition of humanism, see 77. For a critique of the notion of human nature (following Nietzsche), see 132; 139. Foucault makes some modifications to what he means by the death of man in 281. On the differing definitions of humanism in Western history, see 339; 349; 362. For comments on the dangers of using humanism to justify struggles on the behalf of minorities, see 163. During the 1960s, Foucault also linked the death of man to the death of God, see 8; 13; 38; 50; OT chs. 8, 9, 10. For another definition of ‘man’ as he appeared historically in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, see PP 21 Nov 1973. On the demise of humanism, see 54; 59.

    HUMAN SCIENCES Over the course of his career, Foucault changed his perspective on the history and role of the human sciences several times. For ‘archaeological’ definitions relating to the demise of a form of thought based on ‘humanism’ and on the dubious scientific status of the human sciences, see 2; 3; 30; 34; 50; 54; 59; 85; OT ch. 10. On the conflict between the human science and the ‘hard sciences’, see 59; 70; OT ch. 10. For an extended analysis on the historical and philosophical origins of the human sciences, see OT chs. 9, 10. On the human sciences and medicine, see BC Ch. 2. On the human sciences as forms of power-knowledge and on their role in the constitution of a disciplinary society, see 139; DP pt. 4 ch. 3; PP 21 Nov 1973. On the human sciences and the constitution of the subject, see 363. On the human sciences and new forms of political rationality, see 364.

    IDEOLOGY Generally, Foucault did not find the notion of ideology to be a particularly useful one and when he does refer to it, it is usually to criticise it, arguing that the notion (1) presupposes a ‘truth’ to which ideology stands in opposition, (2) implies that it is secondary to a material ‘infrastructure’ and (3) that it proposes a universal subject. See 139; 157; 192; 200; 238; OT ch. 10; AK pt. IV ch. 6; UP intro. ch. 1. For a brief period in the wake of May 1968, Foucault adopted a quasi-Marxist and untheorised use of the term. See 105; 106; 107; 108. On the author as an ‘ideological product’, see 69.

    IDENTITY Although Foucault's work is often hailed as one of the inspirations for various identity movements, Foucault himself favours the dissolution of identity, rather than its creation or maintenance. He sees identity as a form of subjugation and a way of exercising power over people and preventing them from moving outside fixed boundaries. See 80; 242; 266; 272; 280; 293; 358; 2004c. For a discussion of how genealogy or history can be used to dissolve identities, see 84. See also 339. For a discussion of resistance to an individualising power which ties people down to a particular identity, see 306; 349. For remarks on early Christian penitence as a method of rejecting identity and the self, see 363. For a rather obscure philosophical critique of modern Western thought as a thought of identity or the Same, see OT ch. 9.

    IMAGINATION, THE FANTASTIC AND THE FABULOUS The theme of the fantastic imagination emerged strongly in Foucault's earlier work but only made occasional appearances later on. For later references, see 198. For comments on an ‘anthropology of the imagination’ and the idea that the imaginary world has its own specific laws and structures. See 1; 6. For an extended discussion on the fantastic imagination, see 20. Also on the imagination, see 28; 36; 80. On imagination and discourse, see 43. On imagination and the devil in the sixteenth century, see 52. On the historical relation between imagination and madness, see MC ch. IV; HF pt. 1 ch. I, pt. 2 chs. I, II.

    INDIVIDUALS AND INDIVIDUALISATION On the individual as a nexus of relations between power and knowledge and as the product of power, see 139; 141; 169; 232; DP, pt. 3 chs. 1, 3; PP 7, 21 Nov 1973. On the role of prisons in creating individuals, see 156. On the role of schools, see 297; DP pt. 3 ch. 2. On resistance to ‘government by individualisation’, see 306. On the ‘political technology of individuals’, see 364. On the relation between individuality and death, see BC chs. 1, 9, conclusion. On the individual and the State, see 364. On ‘individualism’, see CS pt. 2. Foucault makes a distinction between the notions of the individual and the subject in HER 27 Jan (a) 1982. On individualisation in relation to pastoral power, see STP 22 Feb, 8 Mar 1978.

    INSTITUTIONS Foucault notes that institutions are a way of freezing particular relations of power so that a certain number of people are advantaged. See 1988e. For another definition, see 206. On the problems associated with using institutions as the starting point for the analysis of power, see 306; PP 7 Nov 1973. Foucault talks about analysing ‘regimes of practice’ or ‘rationalities’, rather than institutions per se. See 278; 322; 340. See also 139.

    INTELLECTUALS For definitions and discussions relating to the role of the intellectual, see 106; 123; 160; 234; 238; 269; 281; 285; 296; 310; 321; 330; 350. Foucault sometimes uses the terms ‘philosopher’ and ‘intellectual’ interchangeably. In the late 1970s and early 1980s there was much public discussion in France about the role of the intellectual. During this period Foucault tends to use the term ‘intellectual’ rather than ‘philosopher’. On the ‘specific’ versus the ‘universal’ intellectual, see 192; 346; See also 157. On the relation between intellectuals and non-intellectuals, see 281. For critiques of the notion of intellectual as ‘prophet’ and purveyor of truth to the masses, see 163; 169; 192; 200; 336; 346; 350; 359; 362; 364; 1988d; 1988e; UP intro. ch. 1. On the political ‘silence’ of intellectuals in the early 1980s, see 353; 350. On the task of the intellectual as being to show people they are freer than they think, see 362.

    INTERPRETATION, COMMENTARY AND HERMENEUTICS Foucault, on a number of occasions, draws attention to and criticises the practice of ‘interpretation’ which endlessly searches for the ‘hidden meaning’ and ‘truth’ behind texts and what they ‘really mean’. Rather than looking for ‘hidden depths’, Foucault advocates the treatment of texts as flat surfaces across which one can discern patterns of order. See 37; 46; 48; 58; 221; BC preface; OT ch. 10; OD. On the opposition between commentary and criticism and for useful definitions of both these terms, see OT ch. 4. See also OT ch. 8; AK pt. II ch. 1, pt. III ch. 4. See also 339 for definitions of an analytical framework Foucault describes as ‘criticism’ which subsumes both archaeology and genealogy. On the history of the hermeneutics of the self, see HER.

    IRAN In 1978, Foucault wrote a controversial series of reports on the Iranian revolution. For a chronology of events, see DE III: 663. Foucault was particularly interested in the notion of a ‘political spirituality’ which he saw emerging in relation to events in Iran. He defines ‘political spirituality’ as the will to create a new division of the true and the false via a new government of self and others (278: 233). See also 245. Also on Iran, see 241; 243; 244; 246; 248; 249; 251; 252; 253; 259; 261; 262; 269.

    JUSTICE See 132. For a discussion outlining notions of ‘counter-justice’ and ‘popular justice’, see 108.

    KNOWLEDGE (SAVOIR AND CONNAISSANCE ) On knowledge as an event and historical rather than an innate human attribute, see 101; 139. See also 39; 55; 59. On ‘subjected knowledges’, see 193. On scientific knowledge and conceptual knowledge, see 219. On knowledge as a violence done to things, see 139. On knowledge as a weapon, see 161. On the difference between the two French terms for knowledge: ‘savoir’ and ‘connaissance’, see 71; 281; AK pt. I (English trans.). See also HER 24 Feb (a) 1982. On the relation between knowledge and language in the Classical Age, see OT ch. 4. On the way Renaissance knowledge was ordered and organised, see OT chs. 2, 3. (For brief overviews of OT see 34; 59; 281.) For an interesting distinction between knowledge and research, see 3. On the organisation of different ‘knowledges’ into disciplines in the eighteenth century, see SMD 25 Feb 1976, and in general, see OD. On the relation between Greek classical ethics, knowledge and truth, see HER 10 Feb (b) 1982. For a fascinating discussion on the difference between spiritual knowledge (‘savoir spirituel’) and ‘intellectual knowledge’ (‘savoir de connaissance’), see HER 24 Feb (a) 1982.

    L AC AN Foucault generally did not have a great deal to say about psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, beyond mentioning his name on a number of occasions in connection with the structuralist movement and psychoanalysis, and making a couple of comments about the difficulty of his work. For brief comments on Lacan and language see 1; 37. See also HER 6 Jan (b) 1982 for remarks on Lacan's treatment of the links between the subject and truth. For responses to questions on the relation between his own work and that of Lacan, see 281; HER 3 Feb (b) 1982. Foucault politely says in both instances that Lacan had not had any significant impact on his own work. For a very brief interview on Lacan, and notions of the subject, power and psychoanalysis, see 299.

    LANGUAGE On the relation between language and things, and language as a thing in itself rather than something that simply points to ‘reality’, see 1; 4; 8; 10; 13; 14; 28; 38; 48; 139 (discussion); RR chs. 2, 7, 8; OT chs. 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10. On the history of language and linguistics, see OT chs. 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10; AK pt. II ch. 5, pt. III.

    L AW For a history of the Western legal system and the interaction between law, other sectors of society and general ways of structuring knowledge, see 139. On the clash since the nineteenth century between systems of law and punishment and medical/psychiatric or normalising systems, see 107; 142; 161; 205; 220; 297; 301; 356; 353; 1989c; HF pt. 3 chs. III, IV; AK pt. II ch. 3; DP pt. 1 ch. 1; AN 15 Jan 19 Mar 1975; On the difficulty of judging and punishing people in contemporary society, see 161; 353. On the history of law in relation to the constitution of sovereign power and the State in Europe, see HS pt. 4 ch. 1; SMD; STP. On ideas of law and order in twentieth-century thought, see NBP 21 Feb 1979.

    LIBERALISM For a very detailed history, analysis and definitions of liberal and neo-liberal ideas in relation to government and economics see NBP. See NBP 10 Jan 1979 for a summary of definitions. See also 274; 310; STP 18 Jan 1978. On post-World War II neo-liberalism in Germany and France, see NBP 31 Jan 1979ff. On American neo-liberalism see NBP 14, 21 Mar 1979.

    LIFE On the concept of biological life and the introduction of the notion of life as an organising principle into nineteenth-century knowledge, see 219; BC ch. 9. On the history of biology, the life sciences and the notion of life, see 77; 81; 132 and OT chs. 2, 5, 8; AK pt. II ch. 5, pt. IV ch. 3. On a modern ‘technology of power centred on life’ (HS: 190) see HS pt. 5; SMD 17 Mar 1976.

    LIMI TS For useful discussions of the way cultures define acceptable behaviour and the way they also challenge the limits of such behaviour, see 23; 52; 83; 222. For a similar but more oblique discussion, see 25 and for a poetic discussion, see 38. On the limits of discourse, see 58. On ‘limit-experiences’ in Western knowledge, see 281. On a philosophical ethos of adopting a ‘limit attitude’, see 339. For comments on analysing the limits rather than the identity of a culture, see 4; 89; 1988d. On limits, sexuality and God, see 13. On the transgression of limits, see 13; 38; 52. On limits, death and language, see 14; 38; 43; BC conclusion. On writing as a transgressive act, see 69; 82. On madness as an absolute limit in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, see HF pt. 1 ch. I.

    LITERATURE In his earlier work, Foucault, draws attention to close links between the categories of literature, truth and madness in modern Western culture. See 25; 82; 83; 221; 222; OT ch. 3. For a definition of literature, see OT ch. 8; 1986a. On literary criticsim and the cultural role of literature, see 28; 1986a. Foucault comments on his tastes in literature in 154. For a distinction between imagination and madness, see 1; 20. On madness as the ‘absence of work’ and where the line between art and madness lies, see 4; 7; 8; 25; 30; 50; 82; 221; MC conclusion; HF pt. 1 ch. I, pt. 3 ch. V; RR ch. 8. On literature and madness in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, see HF pt. 1 ch. I; MC ch. I. On Racine, see MC ch. IV; HF pt. 2 ch. II; SMD 25 Feb 1976. On Don Quixote see 85; MC ch. I; HF pt. 1 ch. I; OT ch. 3. On eighteenth-century gothic and horror novels, see 11; 14; 18; 69; AN 29 Jan 1975. On Rousseau, see 7. On Sade, see 13; 14; 50; 82; 109; 164; MC ch. VII, conclusion; HF pt. 3 chs. I, V; OT ch. 6; HS pt. 2 ch. 1 pt. 5; AN 29 Jan 1975. On Diderot, see HF pt. 3 intro. On literature and the being of language, see 39; OT ch. 2. On Classical and Romantic literature, see OT ch. 4. On Oedipus Rex see 139. On Flaubert, see 20. On Mallarmé, see 28; 85; OT ch. 9. On Jules Verne and science fiction, see 36; RR ch. 5. On Raymond Roussel, see 10; 26, 50; 343; RR. On André Breton, see 43. On Blanchot, see 38; 48; 82; 85; 1985; 1986a. On Marguerite Duras, see 159. On Robbe Grillet, Sollers and other new novelists, see 17; 23; 28; 343. On crime fiction, see 116; 156; DP pt. 1 ch. 2. On Genet 82; 119. On literature and transgression, see 82.

    MADNE SS Foucault returns to the theme of madness constantly throughout his entire career. His most detailed discussions can of course be found in MC and MIP. There is also an extended treatment in PP where he criticises some of his own earlier ideas. For useful brief summaries of MC, see 71; 83; 143 (the latter to some extent reworks Foucault's earlier ideas with reference to the anti-psychiatry movement and power). On the relation between madness and European society since the end of the seventeenth century, see 222. On his reasons for being interested in madness, see 161; 281; 2004c. On madness and (illegal) drug use, see 50. Cf. 80. For a detailed response to historian Lawrence Stone's criticisms of HF, see 331. On madness as something one encounters in all societies see MIP pt. 2, intro; 1989a. On madness and water, see 16. On madness and limits, see 23; 25. On madness, Descartes and dreams, see 102; 104; HF pt. 1 chs. II, V, pt. 3, intro. On madness and medicine see 25; 59; 143; MC chs. V, VI; HF pt. 1 ch. IV, pt. 2 chs. I, III, IV, pt. 3 ch. IV; AN 12 Feb 1975. On the birth of the asylum in the nineteenth century, see MC ch. IX; HF pt. 3 ch. IV; PP. On the silencing of madness by Reason, see HF pt. 2 intro, pt. 3 ch. IV; OD. On madness as a scientific object, see HF pt. 2 ch. I, pt. 3 chs. III, IV, V. On madness as subsumed by the medical category of mental illness, see MIP, HF pt. 3 ch. III; AN 19 Mar 1975. On the real existence of madness outside of discourse and institutions see 1994; NBP 10 Jan, 4 Apr 1979.

    MARX AND MARXISM Foucault is well known for his controversial statements in 1966 that ‘Marxism exists in nineteenth-century thought like a fish in water: that is, it is unable to breathe anywhere else’ and that it was a mere ‘storm … in a children's paddling pool’ (OT: 262). See also 85; 163. On Marx and interpretation, see 46. For a brief period after 1968, Foucault's comments on Marxism as a form of political activity became more favourable, see 98; 103; 106; 107; 108. He subsequently returned to his earlier views on the historical specificity of Marxism and to criticisms of the inflated claims made by Marxists in relation to Marx's work. See 119; 139; 152; 156; 157; 169; 235; 281; 330; 1988e. On the oppressive effects of Marxism in university milieux in France, see 2004c. For a critique of the notion that the essence of man is work, see 13; 139; 221; 1976u. The latter item also includes a discussion of how Foucault's approach differs from the ‘materialist’ or Marxist approach. On the links between Marx's notion of class struggle and post-medieval themes of the ‘struggle of races’, see SMD 28 Jan 1976. On the absence of a ‘socialist art of governing’ see NBP 31 Jan 1979. On Marx's economic theories, see NBP 14 Mar 1979.

    MEDICINE Foucault's writings on medicine are extensive. For a detailed study of the birth of modern clinical medicine at the end of the eighteenth century, see BC. For good brief summaries of BC, see 58; 59; 71; 143; AK pt. II ch. 4. For an extended discussion of the relation between medicine and psychiatry in eighteenth and nineteenth-century France, see PP 12 Dec 1973, 16 Jan, 30 Jan 1974ff. In 168; 257, Foucault introduces the interesting idea of a ‘noso-politics’ and discusses the collective management of the health of populations. See also 170; 196; SMD 17 Mar 1976. On epidemics and their relation to both the development of medical knowledge and social organisation, see BC ch. 2; DP pt. 3, ch. 3; STP 25 Jan 1978. On the medicalisation of urban spaces, see 196; SMD 17 Mar 1976. On the history of hospitals and their role in general social organisation, see 143; 168; 170; 229; 257; BC ch. 1. For a very interesting analysis of medicine in terms of structuralist linguistics, see 44. On eighteenth-century medicine and linguistics, see BC ch. 6. On health as the modern form of salvation, see 46 (discussion); BC conclusion. For definitions on how illness and medicine work within cultures, see 62. On medicine and morality, see 110. On the medicalisation of the abnormal, see AN 19 Mar 1975. On Classical Greek medicine and sex, see 304. On links between medicine, ethics and philosophy in Antiquity, see UP pt. 2; CS pt. 2; HER 20 Jan (a) (b) 1982. On nineteenth-century medicine and sex, see HS pt. 3.

    MORALITY AND MORAL SYSTEMS Foucault defines morality as a set of values and rules for action which are proposed to individuals and groups by diverse institutions such as the family, education systems or churches. See 338. See also 326; UP intro. ch. 3. For a definition of contemporary morality as centred on issues of sex and politics, see 50; 54; 109. On Ancient Greek morality, see 326. On the difficulty of elaborating a contemporary morality, see 326; 344. On the constitution of self as a moral subject, see 326; UP intro. ch. 3. On morality as not being simply a series of prohibitions, see 350. On Ancient Greek morality as less than admirable, 344; 354. Of the treatment and exclusion of interned persons in the Classical Age as ‘moral subjects’, see HF pt. 1 ch. II. For Foucault's own description of himself as a ‘moralist’ and an outline of his own moral code as an intellectual, see 1988e. On the good as something that is practised not discovered, see 1988e. On Christian versus non Christian morality see HER 6 Jan (a), 17 Feb (a), 1982.

    MUSIC In spite of Foucault's professed interest in the most esoteric forms of contemporary classical music, his writing on music is not characterised by the same wealth of ideas as the rest of his work, something he is quite willing to admit himself. On Wagner and Boulez, see 234; 286; 305. See also 50; 336, where Foucault also mentions the importance of music in his personal life. On contemporary music (classical and popular), see 333. On musical cures for madness in the eighteenth-century, see MC ch. VI; HF pt. 2 ch. IV.

    NIETZSCHE On Nietzsche see, 41; 45; 46; 84; 101; 281; 330. On the influence of Nietzsche on Foucault's work, see 156; 354; 362. For references to Nietzsche's notion of tragedy, see 4; 13. For an extended discussion on knowledge and power, using Nietzsche's work as a point of departure, see 139. See OT ch. 9 on Nietzsche's notion of the death of God. On Nietzsche and madness, see MC conclusion; HF pt. 3 ch. V.

    NON-DISCURSIVE PRACTICES In AK Foucault lists non-discursive practices as including ‘institutions, political events, economic practices and processes’ (p. 162). Cf. SMD 3 Mar 1976. For definitions of non-discursive practices, see 48; 58; 59; 139 (discussion); AK pt. II ch. 6, pt. IV ch 4. For Foucault's response to accusations that he deals with words at the expense of things, see 77; 139 (discussion). For arguments that discourse does not underlie all cultural forms, see 51; 206; FS conclusion; 1994. Foucault also criticises Derrida for reducing discursive practices and events to ‘textual traces’, and teaching that text is all in 102. For another example of Foucault's distinction between the ‘order of discourse’ and the ‘order of reality’, this time in relation to sexuality, see 1989c.

    NORMAL AND THE PATHOLOGICAL, NORMALISATION Foucault argues that contemporary society is a society based on medical notions of the norm, rather than legal notions of conformity to codes and the law. For definitions and discussion, see 2; 50; 52; 161; 170; 173; 194; 212; BC ch. 2; STP 25 Jan 1978. On techniques of ‘normalisation’ in modern society, see DP pt. 3 ch. 2; PP 21 Nov 1973, 16 Jan 1974. On the ‘normal man’ as creation, see HF pt. 1 ch. IV. For a series of lectures on the history of abnormal individuals as defined by Western medico-legal expertise and what Foucault describes as ‘normalising power’, see AN. Also on normalising power see HS pt. 5. On ‘monsters’, see BC ch. 6; AN 22, 29 Jan, 5 Feb 1975. On the normalisation of certain types of knowledge in the eighteenth century, see SMD 25 Feb 1976. On the ‘normalising society’ in relation to discipline and biopower, see SMD 17 Mar 1976.

    OTHER On the Other and madness, see MC ch. IX; HF pt. 1 ch. IV, pt. 2 ch. I, pt. 3, ch. V; OT preface, ch. 9. On the care of the self in relation to others, see 356; HER 6 Jan (b) 27 Jan (a) 1982.

    OVERVIEWS OF FOUCAULT'S WORK For an overall description of his work as occupying three domains, or types of problems: knowledge, power and ethics or subjectivity, see 326. Cf. 342; 344; 354; UP intro. ch. 1.

    PANOPTICON, PANOPTICISM AND SURVEILLANCE The Panopticon was a design for a prison produced by Jeremy Bentham in the late eighteenth century which grouped cells around a central viewing tower. Foucault uses this as a model for the operation of power and surveillance in contemporary society. See 169 for some good definitions of Panopticism. See also 127; 139; 153; 221; 238. For extended discussions, see 195 and DP pt. 3 ch. 3; PP 28 Nov, 5 Dec 1973. On surveillance, see 161; DP pt. 3 ch. 2. On surveillance and the gaze in the treatment of mad people in the nineteenth century, see HF pt. 3 ch. IV.

    PARRHESIA On ‘free speech’ and Ancient Greek practices, rules and obligations in relation to ‘speaking the truth’, see FS; HER 27 Jan (a) (b), 3 Feb (a), 10 Feb (b), 3 Mar (b), 10 Mar (a) (b), 17 Mar (a) 1982.

    PHENOMENOLOGY For an excellent discussion by Foucault on how his own analysis of discourse differs from phenomenological and ethnomethodological approaches, see 221. For early steps in this direction, see also 1. Foucault also argues that if phenomenology is seeking to discover an authentic, founding subject through the analysis of everyday life, he, on the other hand is aiming at the dissolution of notions of a fixed subject, so that he and others can always be different. See 281. Cf. 80; 295; 306; 339. For other critiques of phenomenology and existentialism, see 85; 242; 1993; 2004c; OT ch. 9; PP 23 Jan 1974.

    PHILOSOPHY Foucault changed his mind many times about the role played by philosophy and the philosopher or intellectual. One thing that remained constant however, was that philosophy should be firmly rooted in a historical context. Foucault frequently emphasised that philosophy should also deal with the question of what is happening right now. See 30; 39; 42; 47; 48; 50; 55; 67; 80; 82; 136; 200; 219; 234; 281; 306; 310; 339; 348. For criticisms of the way philosophy is taught in France, see 78; 104. On philosophy as simply one academic discipline amongst others, rather than underlying them all, see 104; 351. For excellent discussions on the history of the relation between philosophy and the State, and for some suggestions as to how philosophy might relate to State power in the contemporary context, see 232; 356. For discussions on the relation between the philosopher and the Prince in the Roman Empire, see HER 27 Jan (b) 1982. For a useful definition of philosophy as a way, not of reflecting on what is true and what is false, but on our relations to truth and how we should conduct ourselves, see 285. On philosophy as an exercise of the ‘care of the self’ and self-transformation for the Ancient Greeks, see 1993; UP intro. ch. 1; CS pt. 2; HER. On the philosopher as hero and practitioner of an exemplary life in Ancient Greek thought, see FS ch. 4. On the boundaries between philosophy and non-philosophy, see 1986a; OD.

    PHOTOGRAPHY For a brief history on the relation between painting and photography, see 150. For a review of a photographic exhibition, see 307.

    POLAND On events in Poland in the early 1980s and on the dissident Solidarity union, see 303; 309; 319; 320; 321, 334; 341. Foucault was treasurer for the international support movement for Solidarity. For general remarks on the union movement, see 334.

    POLEMICS Foucault felt very strongly about the destructive effects of polemical discussion and citing Blanchot, he frequently returns to this theme throughout his career. See 163; 254; 262; 281; 282; 285; 342; 356.

    POLICE For a detailed history of early notions of the ‘police’ and its role in the formation of the modern State and for definitions, see STP 29 Mar, 5 Apr 1978. See also 139; 168; 239; 255; 291; 306; 310; 364; MC ch. II, HF pt. 1 ch. II, pt. 3 ch. III; DP pt. 3 ch. 3.

    POLITICAL ACTION AND PROGRESSIVE POLITICS For a definition of politics, see 197 and for comments on the construction of a ‘political dimension’ of analysis, see 1993. For a brief history of the notion of politics see STP 8, 15 Mar, 5 Apr 1978. For Foucault's views on how political action might be defined, see 37; 54; 55; 58; 125; 132; 136. For suggestions on how an archaeological analysis of political knowledge might be conducted, see AK pt. IV ch. 6. For comments on a ‘new political imaginary’, see 235. See also 339 where Foucault says we must turn away from global and radical projects to concentrate on working on our own limits. On the links between theory and political choices, see 341. Here, Foucault argues that his work is not essentially political and is not aimed at realising a political project. On politics as not being the solution to problems such as mental illness, crime and so on, see 342. On not accepting political domination, see 356; 357. On differences between intellectual and political action, see 357. On the problems of political institutions and parties and on social movements, see 358.

    POPULATIONS On the control of populations and individuals, see 139; 206; 239; 255; 257; 297; 364; MC ch. VIII; HF pt. 3 ch. II. On the notion of population as the object of biopolitics, see HS pt. 2. ch. 1, pt. 5; SMD 17 Mar 1976. In relation to power-knowledge see STP 18, 25 Jan 1978. On the State and population see STP 15 Mar, 5 Apr 1978.

    POSTMODERNISM AND MODERNITY Foucault did not comment on the term ‘post-modernity’ beyond saying how vague and imprecise it was, making a subtly ironic reference to ‘an enigmatic and troubling “postmodernity”’ (339: 309). He prefers to discuss how ‘modernity’ has been historically defined See 330; 339; 351.

    POWER Foucault's discussion of power is very extensive, hence this section will be divided into subsections for easier consultation.

    General definitions of power If the term ‘power’ makes its first appearances in Foucault's work in 1971 with OD and 98, his first extended definition of the notion appears in 106 where he draws attention to the limits of Marx and Freud's theories. See also 1988d. In 194, Foucault outlines five methodological points to consider in relation to the analysis of power. See also HS pt. 4 ch. 2 for detailed definitions. For an excellent critique of traditional notions of power and for a point-by-point definition of Foucault's version of power in 1977, see 218. For some examples of how power operates, see 212. For a brief history of different theories of power, see 297. For some very useful and reworked definitions of power and for what are perhaps Foucault's most nuanced and detailed methodological discussions on the subject, see 291; 306. See also 356; 359; 1988d; 1988e; STP 11 Jan 1978.

    Power is not a thing but a relation On the idea that power is not a substance, but a network of relations, see 193; 194; 206; 291; 306; HS pt. 4 ch. 2; 1988d; 1988e; DP pt.1 ch. 1; PP 7 Nov 1973; STP 11 Jan 1978. For Foucault's rejection of criticisms that his notion of power is a metaphysical one or a founding principle or ‘theory’ which explains all, see 161; 233; 238; 330.

    Power is not simply repressive but productive In the early 1970s, Foucault still adhered to classical definitions of power as oppressive and negative. See 119. For a detailed discussion of why he subsequently rejected this idea, see 139 (discussion). See also 163; 1988e; DP pt. 1 ch. 1; SMD 21 Jan 1976. On power as productive rather than repressive and for critiques of traditional and Marxist analyses of power, see 157; 160; 192; 193, 194; 197; 218; 233; 297; 1988e; HS pt. 4 ch. 1; AN 15 Jan 1976; PP 7 Nov 1973.

    Power is not simply a property of the State In 132 and NBP 31 Jan, 7 Mar 1979, Foucault criticises the notion of power as something that is localised in government and the State (which he says is not a universal essence). Rather power is exercised throughout the social body. Cf. STP 15 Mar 1978.

    The exercise of power is strategic and war-like For definitions of power as sets of strategic war-like relations, see 161; 175; 187; 192; 193, 194; 232; 235; 2004c; HS pt. 4 ch. 2; PP 7 Nov 1973. For a definition of the notion of strategy, see 306. For Foucault's most extensive discussion of war, the State and power, see SMD. See also STP 22 Mar 1978.

    The micro-physics of power Foucault argues that power operates at the most micro levels of social relations. On capillary power and the microphysics of power, see 139; 156; 194; DP pt. 1 ch. 1, pt. 3 ch. 1; PP 14 Nov 1973; NBP 7 Mar 1979. On power as omnipresent at every level of the social body, see HS pt. 4 ch. 2.

    Sovereign power For a definition of sovereign power, that is, a system of government based on the power of the king, see PP 21 Nov 1973. For a detailed history of the constitution of sovereign State power in Europe, see SMD. See also 1994; HS pt. 4 ch. 1, pt. 5. For an extended discussion of the way ‘disciplinary power’ gradually took over from ‘sovereign power’ in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and the complex interaction between these two forms, see PP 14, 21 Nov 1973. See also 193; 194; DP pt 1 ch. 2. On sovereign power and governmentality, see STP 8 Mar 1978. On the opposition between economic rationalism and the sovereign, see NBP 28 Mar, 4 Apr 1979.

    Disciplinary power See ‘discipline’.

    Pastoral power For useful definitions and a detailed history of what Foucault describes as ‘pastoral power’, see STP 8 Feb-8 Mar 1978. See also 232; 233; 239; 255; 291; 306.

    Normalizing power See ‘normal’.

    Power and freedom For a definition of power as ‘the strategic interplays between freedoms’, see 356. See also 306.

    Power and domination Foucault is loathe to identify power and domination. Rather he prefers to describe ‘states of domination’ as particular configurations of relations of power. See 341; 356; 363; 1994; SMD 21 Jan 1976. On techniques of domination, see 1993.

    Power and sex For a critique of the notion of power as repressive in relation to sex, see 1989c; HS pt. 4 ch. 1. On the erotic charge of power, see 140.

    Power and ethics in Ancient Greece On the continuity in Classical ethics between the power the Prince or free man exercises over himself and his power over others (women, subjects, slaves, boys), see UP pt. 1 ch. 4, pt. 3, conclusion. On the relation between the care of the self and power, see HER 6 Jan (b) 1982.

    Power and the law On ‘juridico-discursive’ power, see HS pt. 4 ch. 1.

    POWER-KNOWLEDGE Foucault first uses the specific term ‘power-knowledge’ in 115 (along with a useful definition). See also DP pt. 1 ch. 1; HS pt. 4 ch. 2. For other general discussions on the relation between power and knowledge, see 119; 139; 156; 169; 1989c; OD. On the non-hierarchical relation between power and knowledge, see 231. Foucault refutes the idea that he makes the claim ‘knowledge is power’. See 330; 350. On the relation between science and structures of power, see 356. See also SMD 25 Feb 1976, where Foucault criticises the notion that truth and knowledge only start when power and violence stops.

    PRACTICES Foucault notes that he is interested in analysing ‘regimes of practice’, not institutions, theories or ideologies. See 278. See also 339; 345; UP intro. ch. 1. Foucault makes a distinction between discourses and practices in 95.

    PRISONS On the history of prisons and punishment in France, from around 1760 to 1840, see DP. See also NBP 21 Mar 1979. On the continuing failure of imprisonment as an adequate form of penal justice, see DP pt. 4 ch. 2. Also on prisons see 105; 108; 131; 137; 139; 144; 151; 152; 153; 156; 346; 353; 2004b. For very brief summaries of some of the ideas of DP, see 127; 151; 153; 156; 277; 278. On the Groupe d'Information sur les prisons (GIP), see 86; 87; 88; 90; 91; 94; 95; 105; 125; 273; 282; 1988b. On internment in the eighteenth century, see HF pt. 3 chs. I, II, III, IV.

    PROBLEMATISATIONS/THE HISTORY OF PROBLEMS Foucault explains that he is more interested in writing a history of problems rather than a history of solutions or in writing the comprehensive history of a period or an institution. For definitions of ‘problematisation’ see 350; 1988b; 1994. See also 277; 278; 326; 339; 342; 344; UP intro. pt. 1; FS ch. 2, conclusion. For an early formulation of this idea, see 80.

    PSYCHOANALYSIS For comments, see 1, 2; 8; 139 (discussion); 141; 143; 157; 160; 173; 197; 233; OT ch. 10; PP 16 Jan 1974. For a brief definition, see 349. On psychoanalysis and systems of power, see 163; MC ch. IX; HF pt. 3 ch. IV; HS pt. 4 ch. 4.

    PSYCHIATRY For an extensive treatment of the history of psychiatry and its relation to organic medicine, science and disciplinary mechanisms, see PP. See also 143; 143; 161; 202; 205; 342; 2004c; MC ch. IX; HF pt. 3 ch. IV; AN 26 Feb, 19 Mar 1975. On psychiatry and social control, see 163; 209. On psychiatry and the judicial system, see 156; 220; 301; HF pt. 3 ch. IV; AN 8 Jan, 15 Jan, 5 Feb, 12 Feb 1975. On the response of psychiatrists to Foucault's work, see 160; 281. On nineteenth-century psychiatry and monomania, see AN 12 Feb, 12 Mar 1975. On psychiatry and sexuality, see AN 12 Mar, 19 Mar 1975.

    PSYCHOLOGY Foucault's initial university qualifications and his first university posts were mostly in psychology. For definitions, criticisms and the history of this discipline, see 2; 3; 30; MIP; OT ch. 9. On the historical origins of psychology, see HF pt. 3 ch. III.

    PUNISHMENT On torture and punishment as spectacle in the legal systems of the eighteenth century, see 2004b; DP pt. 1; AN 29 Jan 1975. On the shift to less spectacular and less corporal methods of punishment in the nineteenth century, see DP pt. II. On penal ‘rationalities’, see 346. For an extremely useful discussion on the problem of punishment in contemporary society, see 353. For a classification of the types of punishment found in various societies into four categories, see 107; 131. For a definition of punishment and penal practices, see NBP 21 Mar 1979.

    RACE, RACISM, HEREDITY For brief discussions on the biological notion of race, see 179; HS pt. 4 ch. 4, pt. 5; SMD 28 Jan, 17 Mar 1976; For brief comments on the history of racism, see 206. On racism and eugenics, see AN 5 Feb 1975. For a very useful discussion on the nineteenth-century view that heredity and race are important causal factors in social and individual abnormality, see AN 19 Mar 1975. On social normalisation and racism, see SMD 21 Jan 1976. On the origins of an oppositional discourse of history centred on the struggle of races as opposed to Roman and Medieval discourses of history centred on the legitimation of sovereign power, see SMD 21 Jan-3 Mar 1976. On the Nazis and racism, see SMD 28 Jan, 17 Mar 1976; HS pt. 5. On anti-Semitism, see SMD 4 Feb 1976. On the question of genetic heredity and human capital, see NBP 14, 21 Mar 1979.

    REALITY For remarks on how reality and the real are defined, see 277; 278; 296.

    RECEPTION OF FOUCAULT'S WORK For comments by Foucault himself on the reception of his work, see 95; 96; 97; 100; 152; 160; 161; 163; 272; 277; 278; 280; 281; 285; 331; 336; 350; 359; 2004c.

    REASON, RATIONALITY AND IRRATIONALITY Foucault criticises the notion that Reason is synonymous with truth and that it offers the solution to all social problems. He notes that repressive systems of social control are usually highly rational. For an extended discussion on the historical division between Reason and madness, see 4 and HF, and on madness as silenced by Reason, HF pt. 3, ch. IV. On the history of Reason, see 58; 330. For a definition of the ‘rationalisation of the empirical’, see 70. On the moral division between Reason and unreason in the Classical Age, see MC chs. III, IV; HF pt. 1 chs. III, V, pt. 2 ch. 1. On the historical origins of a mutually exclusive opposition between Reason and madness, see HF pt. 1 chs. I, II, pt. 2 ch. I. On spurious divisions between ‘rationality’ and ‘irrationality’, see OT ch. 10. The notions of rationality and irrationality, as they were posed by the Frankfurt School, became a fashionable topic of discussion in the late 1970s. On the Frankfurt School, see 281; 330; NBP 7 Feb 1979. On the dangers of describing Reason as the enemy and the equal danger of claiming that any criticism of rationality leads to irrationality, see 310; 330; 339. On Kant and Enlightenment thought, see 219; 339; 351; OT ch. 9. On the links between power, domination and rationality, see 215; 277; 291; 306; 330; 339. For definitions of ‘rationalities’, see 278; 279. On the links between violence and rationality see 215; 272; 280; 291; 364. On political rationality and Raison d'Etat, see 291; 339; STP 8 Mar 1978ff. Foucault argues that no form of rationality is equivalent to Reason in 330. On examining specific ‘rationalities’ as opposed to ‘rationalisation’ in general, see 306.

    REGIMES OF TRUTH Foucault defines ‘regimes of truth’ as the historically specific mechanisms which produce discourses which function as true in particular times and places. See 192 and NBP 10 Jan 1979; See also 194; DP pt. 1 ch. 1. For a detailed discussion of what Foucault means by ‘regimes of veridiction’ see NBP 17 Jan 1979. Foucault eventually replaces ‘regimes’ with ‘games’. For definitions of ‘games (jeux) of truth’, see 338; 345. See also 356; 363 and for an early example, PP 7 Nov 1973. In 356 Foucault explains what he means by ‘games.’ For similar notions concerning a “politics of truth’, see 139.

    RELIGION If Foucault's discussions on ‘sprirituality’ (self-transfomation) are well known, it has often been remarked that he seldom discusses organised religion at any length. However, recent publications of his lectures reveal fairly developed accounts of the history of Christianity both as a social institution (Church) and in terms of its internal conceptual apparatus (sacraments, the division between clerics and the laity and so on). See STP 8 Feb-8 Mar 1978. Foucault also examines resistances to the pastoral power exercised by the Church such as mysticism, asceticism, and various Gnostic and other heresies. See STP 1, 8 Mar 1978. See also 20; 52; 212; 222; 363; HER 17 Mar 1982. A number of writings by Foucault which include comments on religion are collected together in RC. See also ‘salvation’, ‘confession’.

    REPRESENTATION For discussions of different historical perspectives on the way words connect with things, see 10; 80; 139. On punishment and representation, see DP pt. 2 ch. 2. On language, representation and art, see 2004a; OT chs. 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10. On non-representational literature, see 1986a.

    RESISTANCE TO POWER AND THE LIMITS OF POWER Foucault suggests a number of ways in which the exercise of power can be resisted. He argues at one point (200; HS pt. 4 ch. 2) that resistance is co-extensive with power, but only in the sense that as soon as there is a power relation, there is a possibility of resistance. See also 216 and 358. If there is no society which exists without relations of power, this does not mean that existing power relations cannot be criticised. See 306; 356; 358. Foucault further emphasises (238) that it is not a question of an ‘ontological opposition’ between power and resistance, but a matter of the description of quite specific and changing struggles in space and time. See also 152; 157. On the necessity of examining relations of power at an empirical and local level in order to effect change at a general level, see 281. For a curious discussion about a quality of ‘plebness’ which, Foucault argues, exists in individuals across all social classes, see 218. Cf. 107; 108 for a discussion of the ‘non-proletarianised pleb’. Foucault subsequently rejected this notion in 127. For a description of relations of power as always reversible, see 216. For a detailed and most interesting analysis of historical resistances to pastoral and governmental power in terms of what Foucault describes as ‘counter-conduct’, or revolts and insurrections of conduct, see STP 1, 8 Mar, 5 Apr 1978. For a critique of the notion of dissidence, see STP 1 Mar 1978. On the idea of using resistance to power as a starting point for discussion and for a useful division of struggles into three general categories, see 306. On the possibility of resistance no matter how oppressive the system, see 291; 310; 356. For definitions which draw attention to the limits of the exercise of power, see 291; 306. On constructing rules, moralities and practices of the self which limit the dominating effects of power in societies, see 356.

    REVOLUTION On the notion of revolution, see 137; 163; 204; HS pt. IV ch. 2; SMD 28 Jan 1976. On the historical origins of the term see STP 22 Mar 1978. On terror and revolution, see 174. On Marxist ideas of revolution, see 108; 157. On the idea of revolution in relation to Iran, see 259; 260; 269. On local and anarchic struggles as opposed to revolutionary resistance, see 306. On Kant's ideas of revolution, see 351. On revolutions as ‘insurrections of conduct’, see STP 8 Mar, 5 Apr 1978. For some interesting ideas on ‘revolutionary subjectivity’ and on a relation between notions of conversion and revolution from the nineteenth century onwards, see HER 10 Feb (a) 1982.

    RIGHTS On problems concerning the notion of human ‘rights’, see 325. See also 313; 355 and HS pt. 5. On notions of natural rights since the sixteenth century and the rights of the governed in relation to government and the State see NBP 10, 17 Jan 1979.

    SALVATION For interesting historical definitions and comparisons of the Ancient Greek and Christian notions of salvation, see HER 20 Jan (b), 27 Jan (a), 3 Feb (a) (b) 1982. See also STP 22 Feb 1978.

    SCIENCE Foucault deals extensively with questions relating to the history of science in the work he produced before 1970. For a particularly good overview of his ideas on scientific knowledge, see 85. On the history of science as a form of knowledge and on the distinctions between scientific knowledge and other forms of knowledge, see 3; 59; 69; 119; 132; 234; 1993; OT ch. 10; AK pt. IV ch. 6; OD; SMD 25 Feb 1976. On the thresholds of ‘systematisation’ that knowledge passes through in order to become scientific, see 77; AK pt. IV ch. 6. For an excellent discussion on the distinction between science as ‘knowledge’ and science as ‘research’, see 3. On the way the history of science has been practised in France, see 219; 281; 330. Foucault offers a definition of ‘scientific practice’ in 281. On method in the history of science, see OT preface. On science and the notion of the author, see 69. On the historical constitution of science, see 71; SMD 25 Feb 1976. On science and truth see 169; PP 23 Jan 1974.

    SCIENCE AND SOCIETY Foucault frequently draws attention to the complex interrelationship between the disciplinary content of science and social, economic and political practices. His view is that power, knowledge and truth are not mutually exclusive terms. See 3; 58; 85; 132; 139; 356; 2004c. See also AK pt. II ch. 4, pt. IV chs. 4, 6. For an early formulation of structural similarities between scientific theories and institutional practices in the Classical Age, see HF pt. 2, ch. I.

    SELF/SELF-TRANSFORMATION On the government of the self, particularly in relation to sexuality, see 304; 326; 338. On Baudelaire, modernity and self-transformation, see 339. On the culture of self as being a social as well as an individual project, see 348; 356; CS pt. 2. On the cultivation of the self in relation to political and public activity in the Greek, Classical and Roman period, see CS pt. 3 ch. 2; HER 6 Jan (b) 1982. For descriptions of techniques relating to the care of the self and self-knowledge from Plato to the early Christian era, see 363; CS pt. 2, conclusion; FS; HER. On self and the truth, see 336; CS pt. 2; HER. On the differences and similarities between Christian and pagan practices of the self and ethics, see 1993; UP pt. 1 chs. 3, 4; FS ch. 4; HER 6 Jan (a), 20 Jan (b), 17 Feb (a) 24 Feb (b), 3 Mar (a), 24 Mar (b) 1982. For Foucault's first ideas along these lines, see STP 22 Feb 1978. On the differences in the ways Buddhism and Christianity approach the self and the truth, see 295. On the Ancient Greek emphasis concerning the need for constant ethical practice and training, see UP pt. 1 ch. 3. On the historical techniques of the examination of conscience, see 289; 291; 1993; CS pt. 2; HER 24 Feb (a), 24 Mar (b) 1982. For a definition of what Foucault means by techniques, technologies and practices of the self, see 1993. See also 295; 304; 312; 326; 330; 332; 344; 350; 356; 363; 364; UP intro., conclusion; HER. On the shift produced by Descartes in the historical relation between the truth and the self in the West, see 326; 344; HER 6 Jan (a) (b), 3 Feb (b), 24 Feb (a) 1982. On the difference between the care of the self (self-constitution) and knowing oneself (self-discovery), see HER 13 Jan (b), 24 Mar (a) 1982. On notions of ‘conversion’, see HER 10 Feb (a) 1982. On the genealogy of the self and the subject, see 1993.

    SEXUALITY Foucault's discussion of the history of thought and ethics in relation to sexuality is extensive, with one volume on the history of modern sexuality and two volumes dealing with the Ancient Greek, Roman and early Christian eras. He also wrote numerous articles on the subject.

    Modern sexuality On sexuality, limits and transgression, see 13. For comments on how an archaeology of sexuality might be conducted, see AK pt. IV ch. 6. For comments on the historical appearance of the word ‘sexuality’, see UP intro. ch. 1. On sexuality as a political problem, see 138. For a very brief summary of some of the themes of HS, see 181. On the relation between sexuality and truth, see 276; 287; 295; HS pt. 1, pt. 3, pt. 5. For early claims by Foucault that sexuality has been repressed since the nineteenth century, see 82; OD. On sexuality and repression, see 200; 336; 1989c; HS pts. 1, 2, 3, 4. On the proliferation of discourse, theory, science and knowledge around sexuality since the nineteenth century (contrary to more common arguments concerning the historical repression of sexuality), see 233; HS; AN 19 Feb 1975. On ars erotica (the erotic arts) versus scientia sexualis (the science of sex), see 233; HS pt. 3. Foucault revises his views on this front in 326; 344. On sexuality and architecture, see 310. On sexuality as an all-pervasive social danger in contemporary society, see 263; HS pt. 2 ch. 2. On sex and power, see HS pt. 1, pt. 2 ch. 2, pt. 4 ch. 1. On hermaphrodites, see 165; 287; AN 22 Jan 1975. On masturbation, see 160; 165; 336; 1989c; AN 22 Jan, 19 Feb, 5 Mar 1975. On sexuality as a problem of personal conduct, see 336. On marriage from the Middle Ages to the nineteenth century, see HS pt. 2 ch. 2. For comments on sexuality in the Classical Age, see HF pt. 1 ch. III. On psychiatry, sexual anomaly and ‘perversion’ in the nineteenth century, see HS pt. 2 ch. 2, pt. 4. ch. 3; AN 19 Feb 1975;. On incest, see AN 12 Mar 1975. On sexuality and biopower, see SMD 17 Mar 1976. Foucault argues that if there should be freedom of sexual choice, this does not imply that there should be freedom of sexual acts. See 317. On the issue of pornography, see 317.

    Ancient sexuality For statements debunking the myths about Ancient Greek sexual tolerance versus Christian repression, see 295; 304; 311; 326; 344; 350, UP intro. ch. 2, conclusion; CS conclusion; HER 17 Feb (a) 1982. On monosexual societies, see 311; 313. On early Christian ideas concerning sexuality and the regulation of sexual practices and the notion of chastity, see 312. On Ancient Greek, Roman and early Christian ideas in relation to virginity, see 312; 326; CS pt. 6 ch. 3; HER 17 Mar (a) 1982. On sexuality, Ancient Greek dream interpretation and ‘techniques of existence’, see 332; CS pt. 1. For critiques of an Ancient Greek ethics of sexuality based on purely masculine attributes of virility, penetration and domination excluding women, see 332; 326; 344; UP pt. 1 chs. 1, 4, pt. 2 ch. 4, pt. 4 ch. 3; CS pt. 1 ch. 3. For comments on how individuals came to recognise themselves as sexual subjects, see UP intro. ch. 1, conclusion. On Ancient Greek and early Christian moral and ethical discussions in relation to sexuality, see 326; 338; 344; 350. On sex as central to the techniques of the self, see 349. On Classical, Greek and Roman views on marriage, see UP intro. ch. 2, pt. 3; CS pt. 3 ch.1, pt. 5, pt. 6. On medicine and sexuality in Ancient Greece and Rome, see CS pt. 4. On why sexuality is the object of moral concern, see UP intro. chs. 1, 2, conclusion. On the ‘flesh’ and sexuality, see UP pt. 1 ch. 1.

    SOCIAL SECURITY For a detailed discussion on the history of social security, see 325. See also 170; 364; HF pt. 3 ch. II; SMD 17 Mar 1976; NBP 14 Feb, 7 Mar 1979.

    SOCIETY Foucault argues that the theoretical opposition between the State and civil society, between public and private, is a problematic one. See 281; 325; 274; NBP 7 Mar 1979. On the history of the notion of ‘civil society’, see STP 5 Apr 1978; NBP 4 Apr 1979. For a brief discussion of sociology see OT ch. 10.

    SPACE For a discussion by Foucault on his use of spatial metaphors, see 169. For an analysis of space in dreams, see 1. On the use of space in the new novel and writing, see 24. On the emphasis on time at the expense of space in philosophy and theory since the nineteenth century, see 169; 234. On spatial arrangements of body and disease in the eighteenth century, see BC ch. 1. On the government of space (cities, territories, architecture, railways), see 310; STP 11 Jan 1978. On space and social control see, 195; 234. On the distribution of individuals in space as a means of social control, see DP pt. 3. On the history of space, see 360.

    SPIRITUALITY Foucault defines ‘spirituality’ as the methods the subject uses to transform him or herself in order to gain access to the truth. See HER 6 Jan (a) 1982. See also 356; HER 6 Jan (b) 1982. On the ‘spiritual’ experiences of madness and dreams, see 22. On political spirituality, see 245; 251; 278. On the conflict between spirituality and theology as being the important historical issue rather than a conflict between spirituality and science, see HER 6 Jan (b) 1982. Foucault also recasts the standard Church versus State opposition as an opposition between pastoral and sovereign forms of power in STP 15 Feb 1978. Foucault notes a number of differences in the ways pre-Cartesian and post-Cartesian systems approached the problem of acquiring knowledge and the notion of self-transformation. He describes this as the difference between the ‘spiritual exercises’ and ‘intellectual method’, see HER 24 Feb (a) (b), 3 Mar (a) 1982.

    THE STATE Foucault argues that the State is a codification of relations of power at all levels across the social body (192: 123). It is a concept which provides a ‘scheme of intelligibility for a whole group of already established institutions and realities’ (STP: 294). Further, ‘the State is a practice not a thing’ (STP: 282). For a very detailed pre-history, history and set of definitions of the modern State, see STP and NBP. See also 187; 196; 306; 364; SMD. For criticisms of traditional definitions of the State, see 119; 139; 157; 169; 192; NBP 10, 31 Jan, 7 Mar 1979. For historical definitions of the ‘nation’, see SMD 18 Feb, 10 Mar 1976. On government and the State, see 239; STP 1 Feb, 8 Mar 1978ff. Foucault emphasises that the State is not the primary source of power. See 231; SMD 21 Jan 1976. For a detailed history of the ‘reason of State’, see STP 8 Mar 1978ff. See also 255; 274; 291; 364. On the Christian tradition of the State, see 364. On Machiavelli, 239; 364; STP 25 Jan, 1 Feb, 8, 15 Mar 1978. On the State and the individual, see 364. On capitalism and the State see 1994; NBP.

    STATISTICS For a definition and short history of statistics, see STP 15, 29 Mar 1979.

    STRUCTURALISM Foucault is well known in English for his declarations that he was not a structuralist (OT foreword). Less well known, however, are his excellent expositions of structuralism and his remarks on the convergence of his own concerns and those of structuralist thinkers working in other domains. His best writings on the subject are a lecture given in 1967 (1989a) and 281. For other positive treatments, see 37; 47; 54; 66 (this latter article is available in English). For an excellent brief history of the movement and its political context, see 281. See also 330. For an interesting and informative discussion on structuralist linguistics and its relation to the other human sciences, see 70. For good overviews of the relation between the discipline of history and structuralism, see 70; 103; AK pt. I. During the course of 1967, Foucault started to disassociate himself from structuralism. For criticisms of the movement, see 48; 50; 55; 109; 139; 174; 175; 216; 221; 222; 295; 330; 1993; AK pt. V.

    SUBJECT The subject is an entity which is self-aware and capable of choosing how to act. For criticisms of the Cartesian ‘cogito’ and the humanist idea of man as a unified, universal and transcendent subject and unifying principle in the history of thought, see 13; 28; 38; 48; 50; 58; 59; 68; 69; 80; 84; 85; 109; 132; 139; 192; 234; 345; 356; 357; 1993; OT foreword, ch. 9; AK pt. I, pt. II ch. 1 pt. V; OD. For a comparison of Descartes’ version of a unique universal non-historical subject versus Kant's location of the subject in history, see 306. On the subject and truth, see 330; 336; PP 23 Jan 1974. On the subject defined as an entity which makes choices according to self interest in eighteenth and nineteenth-century English empiricist and liberal thought, see NBP 28 Mar, 4 Apr 1978. See also ‘phenomenology’, ‘sexuality’, ‘self’.

    SUBJECTIVITY For early comments on the freedom that allows a subject to constitute itself as mad in the Classical Age, see HF pt. 3 ch. V. See also 48. For a discussion of the transformation of the subject through writing and meditation, see Foucault's texts on Descartes, 102 and 104. Foucault raises the possibility of a ‘re-elaboration of the theory of the subject’ in 139. On the idea of a historically constituted subject, see 192; 295; 330; 345; 354; STP 22 Feb 1978. For an extremely interesting if brief discussion on the Christian notion of the ‘flesh’ and techniques of interiorisation, see 233. On ‘subjectivation’, see 312; 345; 354; UP intro. ch. 3; SMD 21 Jan 1976; STP 22 Feb, 8 Mar 1978. For reformulations of Foucault's entire work as the examination of ‘three modes of objectivation’ which transform human beings into subjects, see 306; 339; 340; 342. See also ‘self’.

    TECHNOLOGY, TECHNIQUE,TECHNE Foucault defines the Greek word techne as ‘a practical rationality governed by a conscious aim’. For useful definitions of techne as opposed to technology (usually understood in a narrow scientific context), see 310. On techne, see also 326; 344. Foucault generally prefers the word ‘technology’, which he uses to encompass the broader meanings of techne. For a description of four groups of techniques of practical rationality, see 363. For other uses of the word techne to mean knowledge and know-how, see HER 6 Jan (b), 13 Jan (a) 1982. Foucault often uses the words techniques and technologies interchangeably, although sometimes techniques tend to be specific and localised while technologies are more general collections of specific techniques. See 1993 for examples. For a brief discussion of Habermas’ notion of techniques, see 1993.

    TELEVISION For Foucault's opinions on television, see 149; 242. Against the popular idea that the media is brainwashing people, see 285. On the media in general, see 285; 330. On the cultural and educational impact of TV, see 330.

    TERRORISM Foucault's comments on this subject have lost none of their relevance today. He argues that terrorism is counter-productive even on its own terms, since it merely entrenches those attacked further in their own world view. He also notes that one of the reasons terrorism is so unsettling is that it undermines the citizens’ faith in the capacity of the State to guarantee their security. Those who govern, likewise unsettled, then have an excuse to introduce stricter social and legal regulation as a result. For an extended discussion, see 213. For other remarks on terrorism, see 172; 174; 191; 210; 211; 214; 316.

    THEORY On the idea of theory as practice, see 106 and for a definition of theory, see AK pt. III ch. 3. On theory as a ‘tool box’ rather than an all-explaining system, see 136; 151; 152; 209; 218; 221; 2004b. Foucault also insists that he does not have a ‘general theory’ of his own. See 85; AK pt. III ch. 3. If, early on his career, this is a matter for regret, later he comes to see this as a positive attribute. See 216; 278; 306. He argues that what he writes is not prescriptive either for himself or others. See 281; 317. On the line between theory and practices, see 359.

    THOUGHT For definitions of ‘thought’ and the history of thought, see 34; 296; 322; 340; 345; 350; 362. On thought as an event and action, see 80. See also 301; 342; 362. On the difference between the ‘history of ideas’ and the ‘history of thought’, see 1994; FS ch. 2. Cf. AK pt. IV ch. 1. On every human artifact and practice as containing ‘thought’, see 310; 322.

    TIME For a brief history of the management of time as a means of social control, see 139. See also DP pt. 3 ch. 1.

    TOTALITARIANISM See 306. For a useful analysis and definitions of the totalitarian State, see NBP 7 Mar 1979. On the Nazi state, see NBP 31 Jan, 7 Feb 1979.

    TRANSGRESSION For definitions, see 13; 38; 52. On literature and sexuality as transgression, see 82. On crime, the law and transgression, see 95.

    TRUTH Truth is a major theme in Foucault's work, in particular in the context of its relations with power, knowledge and the subject. For early discussions in relation to truth, see 6. On truth and dreams, see 1; 4. For remarks on the relation between madness and the truth in Western history, see 25; HF pt. 1, chs. I, II, V, pt. 2 intro., pt. 3, intro., chs. I, III, IV, V. On truth and medicine, see BC chs. 4, 5. For an excellent discussion on truth as an event or something that ‘happens’, and is produced by various techniques (the ‘technology’ of truth) rather than something that already exists and is simply waiting to be discovered, see 146. Also on the historical origins of ‘truth’, see 84; 132; 139; 200; 281; UP intro. ch. 1. For a brief ‘history of the truth’ in the West and two different ways of defining how truth can be accessed, see PP 23 Jan 1974. See also 139. On truth and power, see 139; 192; 356; 2004c; OD. On truth and war, see SMD 21 Jan, 18 Feb, 1976. On the history of truth in relation to science and the division between the true and the false, see 192; 219; PP 23 Jan 1974. For further comments on the division between the true and the false, see 101; 278; 345; OD. On the division between the true and the false using the metaphor of theatre, see 234. On the relation between ‘telling the truth’ and governing oneself and others, see HER 6 Jan (b) 1982. On historical transformations in what allows people to have access to the truth, see 326; 344; HER 6 Jan (a), 3 Feb (b) 1982. Foucault argues that ‘the effect of truth’ he wants to produce consists in ‘showing that the real is polemical’ (238). On the ‘obligation’ in Western culture and history to speak and search for the truth in general or about oneself, see 295; 349; 356; 1993; FS; HER 10 Mar (b) 1982. On love and truth in Socrates and Plato, see UP pt. 5. Foucault notes that he is not interested in ‘telling the truth’, in his writing. Rather, he is interested in inviting people to have a particular experience for themselves, see 281. See also 102; 104. For an interesting set of lectures on the problem of how speaking the truth is defined and on parrhesia (free speech) in Ancient Greek and Roman thought, see FS. On discussions in Ancient Greece and Rome on how to become the ‘active subject of true discourse’, see HER 10 Mar (b) 17 Mar (a) (b) 1982.

    UNIVERSAL CATEGORIES Foucault was firmly and consistently opposed to the notion of universal categories and essences, ‘things’ that existed in unchanged form in all times and places such as the State, madness, sexuality, criminality and so on. These things only acquire a real (and changing) existence as the result of specific historical activities and reflection. See 84; 345; 2004c; AK pt. II ch. 1 pt. V; FS conclusion; STP 8 Feb 1978; NBP 10, 31 Jan, 4 Apr 1979.

    UTOPIAS Foucault argued that designing a social system to replace the current one merely produced another system which was still part of the current problem. See 98. He also describes the capitalist Utopia of the factory-prison in 130; 139. Also on Utopias, see 356; 360; OT preface.

    VIOLENCE On violence as the limit of power, where power breaks down, see 306; 1988e. See also PP 7 Nov 1973.

    WILL TO TRUTH See 101; OD. On the general notion of ‘will’ in Western philosophy, see 235.

    WILL TO KNOW For discussion on Nietzsche's ideas on why humans desire knowledge, see 101. See also 139; 330; HS pt. 3.

    WITCHCRAFT AND SORCERY On the history of witchcraft and sorcery in Western Europe, see 52; 62; 85; 173; AN 26 Feb 1975.

    WOMEN AND FEMINISM Foucault is often criticised for his lack of interest in the situation of women. When he does mention the feminist movement, however, it is usually to express his support. See 200. On the male heterosexual imagination and women, see 317. A discussion (209) with a number of others on the law, rape and sex with minors has been the subject of particular controversy within feminist literature. See also 263. For Foucault's response to the misinterpretations of what he said during this discussion, see 349. He also states very clearly in 317 that if there should be freedom of sexual choice, freedom of sexual acts such as rape should not be permitted. Foucault criticises Ancient Greek ethical systems in relation to women and its exclusively male-centred approach in 326, describing it as an ‘ethics of men made for men’. Cf. 344; UP intro. ch. 2; pt. 1 chs. 1, 4, pt. 2 ch. 4, pt. 3 ch. 2; CS pt. 1 ch. 3; On the domination of women in Western history and society, see 356. On the role of women as ‘Other’ in Classical philosophy, see CS pt. 5 ch. 1, pt. 6 ch. 2.

    WRITING AS A TRANSFORMATIVE PRACTICE Foucault often alludes to the process of writing and being a writer and the way in which writing is related (or not) to political activity and social subversion as well as to the formation of subjectivity and the self. See 69; 82; 1985; OD. On writing and intellectuals, see 192; 1985. For comments on his style and the way he hopes his readers will react, see 161; 2004c. At one stage he appears to have found writing particularly difficult. See 149; 150. See also 2004c. On writing as a practice of the self amongst the Ancient Greeks and early Christians, see 326; 329; 344; 363; UP intro. ch. 1; CS pt. 2; HER 3 Mar (b) 1982. On writing, limits and knowledge, see 43. On the notion of writing and the author, see 69; 2004c. For Foucault's comments on writing books as a means of self-transformation, see 102; 104; 281; 296; 336; 343; 350; 357; 362.

    Bibliography

    Referencing Foucault's work is a complex and arduous task, so I will be adopting a number of conventions. First of all, I have used the common practice of abbreviations for texts referred to frequently. Foucault's work, with the exception of the books listed in the abbreviations section at the beginning of the book is also listed by the date of its first publication whether this is in French, English, or other languages. As Foucault was interested in different things at different times it is useful to know when his individual writings originally appeared. I have also used wherever possible, the most recent English editions of Foucault's work. I am indebted to Richard Lynch's bibliography of English translations of Foucault's work (2004) for providing up-to-date and comprehensive information on this front.

    For those who wish to refer to the French originals of Foucault's shorter works, or use them as a point of reference for translations into other languages, I have appended at the end of each reference the number of the item as it is listed in the French four volume collection Dits et écrits (1994). So, for example (1963b) ‘A preface to transgression’ is followed by the appendage DE#8. This means that I have listed items in order of their original appearance in Dits et écrits, rather than in the order in which they first appear in the text of the current book. It must be noted, however, that not all these works were originally published in French but appeared in various languages such as English, German, Dutch, Japanese, Portuguese and Italian. Finally, lengthy as it is, this bibliography of Foucault's work is not completely comprehensive. For an exhaustive and frequently updated list of Foucault's shorter works in English translation see Lynch (2004). See also Dits et écrits and the www.Foucault.info website (Karskens, 2001) for comprehensive bibliographies of Foucault's work in French.

    Introductions to Foucault's Work

    There are a large number of general introductions to Foucault's work. These include books by Barker (1998); Bernauer (1990); Danaher et al. (2000); Dreyfus and Rabinow (1982): Fillingham and Süsser (1993); Horrocks and Jevtic (1997); Kendall and Wickham (1999); McHoul and Grace (1993); McNay (1994); Mills (2003); O'Farrell (1989); Rajchman (1985); Sheridan (1981); and Smart (1985).

    Bibliographies of Secondary Material

    Jeffrey Hearn's (2000) annotated bibliography on the internet is currently the most extensive list of secondary sources referring to Foucault's work in some way. For a huge list of earlier work, see Clark (1983).

    Websites

    There are now quite a few Foucault resources on the internet. The most comprehensive general sites on Foucault are listed below. These sites include variously: extracts from Foucault's writings, bibliographies, FAQs, introductions to his work, news about conferences and other events, articles, links to other sites, discussion forums and photos of Foucault.

    Journal

    An international peer-reviewed online journal with reviews and articles relating to Foucault's work and its applications titled Foucault Studies can be found at http://www.foucault-studies.com – The first issue was published in December 2004.

    Books by Foucault

    Books by Foucault are included in the abbreviations section at the front of the book.

    Foucault's Shorter Works

    (1954 [1993]). Dream, imagination, and existence (F. Williams, Trans.). In K. Hoeller (ed.), Dream and Existence (pp. 29–78). Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press. DE#1

    (1957a). La psychologie de 1850 à 1950. In DE I. (pp. 120–37). DE#2

    (1957b). La recherche scientifique et la psychologie. In DE I. (pp. 137–58). DE#3

    (1961a). Préface à Folie et déraison. Histoire de la folie à l'âge classique. In DE I. (pp. 159–67). DE#4

    (1961b). Madness only exists in society. In FL. (pp. 7–9). DE#5

    (1961c). Alexandre Koyré: La Révolution astronomique, Copernic, Kepler, Borelli. In DE I. (pp. 170–1). DE#6

    (1962a). Introduction to Rousseau's Dialogues. In EW2. (pp. 33–51). DE#7

    (1962b). Le ‘non’ du père. In DE I. (pp. 189–203). DE#8

    (1962c). The father's ‘no’. In EW2. (pp. 5–20). DE#8

    (1962d). Le cycle des grenouilles. In DE I. (pp. 203–4). DE#9

    (1962e). Dire et voir chez Raymond Roussel. In DE I. (pp. 205–15). DE#10

    (1962f). Speaking and seeing in Raymond Roussel. In EW2. (pp. 21–32). DE#10

    (1962g). So cruel a knowledge. In EW2. (pp. 53–67). DE#11

    (1963a). Veilleur de la nuit de hommes. Sur Rolf Italiaander. In DE I. (pp. 229–33). DE#12

    (1963b). A preface to transgression. In EW2. (pp. 69–87). DE#13

    (1963c). Language to infinity. In EW2. (pp. 89–101). DE#14

    (1963d). Guetter le jour qui vient. In DE I. (pp. 261–8). DE#15

    (1963e). Leau et la folie. In DE I. (pp. 268–72). DE#16

    (1963f). Distance, aspect, origine. In DE I. (pp. 272–85). DE#17

    (1963g). Un ‘nouveau roman’ de terreur. In DE I. (pp. 285–7). DE#18

    (1964a). Notice historique, in Kant, E., Anthropologie du point de vue pragmatique. In DE I. (pp. 288–93). DE#19

    (1964b). Afterword to The temptation of St. Anthony. In EW2. (pp. 103–22). DE#20

    (1964c). The prose of Acteon. In RC. (pp. 75–84). DE#21

    (1964d). The debate on the novel. In RC. (pp. 72–4). DE#22

    (1964e). Débat sur la poésie. In DE I. (pp. 390–406). DE#23

    (1964f). Le langage de l'espace. In DE I. (pp. 407–12). DE#24

    (1964g). Madness, the absence of work (Trans. P. Stastny & D. ?engel). In A.I. Davidson (ed.), Michel Foucault and his Interlocutors (pp. 97–104). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. DE#25

    (1964h). Pourquoi réédite-t-on l'œuvre de Raymond Roussel? Un précurseur de notre littérature moderne. In DE I. (pp. 421–4). DE#26

    (1964i). Les mots qui saignent (Sur L'Énéide de P. Klossowski). In DE I. (pp. 424–7). DE#27

    (1964j). Le Mallarmé de J.-P. Richard. In DE I. (pp. 427–37). DE#28

    (1964k). L'obligation d'écrire. In DE I. (p. 437). DE#29

    (1965a). Philosophy and psychology. In EW2. (pp. 249–59). DE#30

    (1965b). Philosophie et vérité. In DE I. (pp. 448–64). DE#31

    (1966a). The order of things. In EW2. (pp. 261–7). DE#34

    (1966b). À la recherche du présent perdu. In DE I. (pp. 504–5). DE#35

    (1966c). Behind the fable. In EW2. (pp. 137–45). DE#36

    (1966d). Entretien avec Madeleine Chapsal. In DE I. (pp. 513–8). DE#37

    (1966e). The thought of the outside. In EW2. (pp. 147–70). DE#38

    (1966f). Lhomme est-il mort? In DE I. (pp. 540–4). DE#39

    (1966g). Une histoire restée muette. In DE I. (pp. 545–9). DE#40

    (1966h). Michel Foucault et Gilles Deleuze veulent rendre à Nietzsche son vrai visage. In DE I. (pp. 549–52). DE#41

    (1966i). Philosophy and the death of God. In RC. (pp. 85–6). DE#42

    (1966j). A swimmer between two words. In EW2. (pp. 171–4). DE#43

    (1966k). Message ou bruit? In DE I. (pp. 557–60). DE#44

    (1967a). Introduction générale aux Œuvres philosophiques complètes de F. Nietzsche. In DE I. (pp. 561–4). DE#45

    (1967b). Nietzsche, Freud, Marx. In EW2. (pp. 269–78). DE#46

    (1967c). La philosophie structuraliste permet de diagnostiquer ce qu'est ‘aujourd'hui’. In DE I. (pp. 580–4). DE#47

    (1967d). On the ways of writing history. In EW2. (pp. 279–95). DE#48

    (1967e). Who are you, Professor Foucault? In RC. (pp. 87–103). DE#50

    (1967f). Les mots et les images. In DE I. (pp. 620–3). DE#51

    (1968a). Religious deviations and medical knowledge. In RC. (pp. 50–6). DE#52

    (1968b). This is not a pipe. In EW2. (pp. 187–203). DE#53

    (1968c). Interview avec Michel Foucault. In DE I. (pp. 651–62). DE#54

    (1968d). Foucault responds to Sartre. In FL. (pp. 51–6). DE#55

    (1968e). Une mise au point de Michel Foucault. In DE I. (pp. 669–70). DE#56

    (1968f). Lettre de Michel Foucault à Jacques Proust. In DE I. (pp. 670–3). DE#57

    (1968g). History, discourse and discontinuity. In FL. (pp. 33–50). DE#58

    (1968h). On the archaeology of the sciences: response to the epistemology circle. In EW2. (pp. 297–333). DE#59

    (1969a). lntroduction, in Arnauld, A. & Nicole, P., Grammaire générale et raisonnée. In DE I. (pp. 732–52). DE#60

    (1969b). Médecins, juges et sorciers au XVIIe siècle. In DE I. (pp. 753–66). DE#62

    (1969c). Maxime Defert. In DE I. (pp. 766–7). DE#63

    (1969d). Ariane s'est pendue. In DE I. (pp. 767–71). DE#64

    (1969e). The archeology of knowledge. In FL. (pp. 57–64). DE#66

    (1969f). Jean Hyppolite. 1907–1968. In DE I. (pp. 779–85). DE#67

    (1969g). The birth of a world. In FL. (pp. 65–6). DE#68

    (1969h). What is an author? In EW2. (pp. 205–22). DE#69, 258

    (1969i). Interview avec Claude Bonnefoy. Unpublished typescript held at the Foucault Archives at l'Institut Mémoires de l'Edition Contemporain (IMEC) Item number B14.

    Extracts from this interview are available for download. Retrieved 9 October 2004, from: http://www.radiofrance.fr/chaines/france-culture2/emissions/cultureplus/fiche. php?diffusion_id=25330

    (1969j). Candidacy presentation: Collège de France, 1969. In EW1. (pp. 5–10). DE#71

    (1970a). Sept propos sur le septième ange. In DE II. (pp. 13–25). DE#73

    (1970b). Discussion sur un exposé de F. Dagognet :‘Cuvier’. In DE II. (pp. 27–9). DE#76

    (1970c). La situation de Cuvier dans l'histoire de la biologie. In DE II. (pp. 30–66). DE#77

    (1970d). Le piège de Vincennes. In DE II. (pp. 67–73). DE#78

    (1970e). Il y aura scandale, mais… (sur Pierre Guyotat). In DE II. (pp. 74–5). DE#79

    (1970f). Theatrum philosophicum. In EW2. (pp. 343–68). DE#80

    (1970g). Croître et multiplier (sur François Jacob). In DE II. (pp. 99–104). DE#81

    (1970h). Folie, littérature, société. In DE II. (pp. 104–28). DE#82

    (1970i). Madness and society. In EW2. (pp. 335–42). DE#83

    (1971a). Nietzsche, genealogy, history. In EW2. (pp. 369–91). DE#84

    (1971b). Entretien avec Michel Foucault. In DE II. (pp. 157–74). DE#85

    (1971c). Manifeste du G.I.P. In DE II. (pp. 174–5). DE#86

    (1971d). Sur les prisons. In DE II. (pp. 175–6). DE#87

    (1971e). Enquête sur les prisons: brisons les barreaux du silence. In DE II. (pp. 176–82). DE#88

    (1971f). A conversation with Michel Foucault. Partisan Review, 38(2): 192–201. Interview with J.K. Simon. DE#89

    (1971g). Rituals of exclusion. In FL. (pp. 68–73). DE#89

    (1971h). La prison partout. In DE II. (pp. 193–4). DE#90

    (1971i). Préface à Enquête dans vingt prisons. In DE II. (pp. 195–7). DE#91

    (1971j). Larticle 15 (Laffaire Jaubert). In DE II. (pp. 198–9). DE#92

    (1971k). Rapports de la commission d'information sur l'affaire Jaubert. In DE II. (pp. 199–203). DE#93

    (1971l). Je perçois l'intolérable. In DE II. (pp. 203–5). DE#94

    (1971m). Un problème m'intéresse depuis longtemps, c'est celui du système pénal. In DE II. (pp. 205–9). DE#95

    (1971n). Lettre de Michel Foucault. In DE II. (pp. 209–14). DE#96

    (1971o). Monstrosities in criticism. Diacritics, 1(1): 57–60. DE#97

    (1971p [1977]). Revolutionary action: ‘until now’ (Trans. D.F. Bouchard & S. Simon). In D. Bouchard (ed.), Language, Counter-memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. (pp. 218–33). DE#98

    (1971q). Le discours de Toul. In DE II. (pp. 236–8). DE#99

    (1971r). Foucault responds. Diacritics, 1(2): 60. DE#100

    (1971s). The will to knowledge. In EW1. (pp. 11–16). DE#101

    (1972a). My body, this paper, this fire. In EW2. (pp. 393–417). DE#102

    (1972b). Return to history. In EW2. (pp. 419–32). DE#103

    (1972c). Réponse à Derrida. In DE II. (pp. 281–95). DE#104

    (1972d). Le grand enfermement. In DE II. (pp. 296–306). DE#105

    (1972e). Intellectuals and power. In FL. (pp. 74–82). DE#106

    (1972f). Table ronde. In DE II. (pp. 316–39). DE#107

    (1972g). On popular justice: a discussion with Maoists. In P/K. (pp. 1–36). DE#108

    (1972h). An historian of culture. In FL. (pp. 95–104). DE#109

    (1972i). Les grandes fonctions de la médecine dans notre société. In DE II. (pp. 380–2). DE#110

    (1972j). Piéger sa propre culture. In DE II. (p. 382). DE#111

    (1972k). Meeting Vérité-Justice. 1 500 Grenoblois accusent. In DE II. (p. 383–5). DE#112

    (1972l). Une giclée de sang ou un incendie. In DE II. (p. 385). DE#113

    (1972m). Pompidou's two deaths. In EW3. (pp. 418–22). DE#114

    (1972n). Penal theories and institutions. In EW1. (pp. 17–21). DE#115

    (1973a). Préface, in Livrozet, S., De la prison à la révolte. In DE II. (pp. 394–9). DE#116

    (1973b). Pour une chronique de la mémoire ouvrière. In DE II. (pp. 399–400). DE#117

    (1973c). La force de fuir. In DE II. (pp. 401–5). DE#118

    (1973d). De l'archéologie à la dynastique. In DE II. (pp. 405–16). DE#119

    (1973e). En guise de conclusion. In DE II. (pp. 416–9). DE#120

    (1973f). Un nouveau journal? In DE II. (pp. 419–20). DE#121

    (1973g). Lintellectuel sert à rassembler les idées, mais ‘son savoir est partiel par rapport au savoir ouvrier’. In DE II. (pp. 421–3). DE#123

    (1973h). Foucault, le philosophe est en train de parler. Pensez. In DE II. (pp. 423–5). DE#124

    (1973i). Prisons et révoltes dans les prisons. In DE II. (pp. 425–32). DE#125

    (1973j). Le monde est un grand asile. In DE II. (pp. 433–4). DE#126

    (1973k). A propos de l'enfermement pénitentiaire. In DE II. (pp. 435–45). DE#127

    (1973l). Summoned to court. In EW3. (pp. 423–5). DE#128

    (1973m). Equipments of power: towns, territories and collective equipments. In FL. (pp. 105–12). DE#129, 130

    (1973n). Ceci n'est pas une pipe. Illus. René Magritte. Montpellier: Fata Morgana.

    (1973o). This is not a pipe (Trans. J. Harkness). Illus. René Magritte. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    (1973p). The punitive society. In EW1. (pp. 23–38). DE#131

    (1974a). Human nature: justice versus power. In F. Elders (ed.), Reflexive Water: The Basic Concerns of Mankind (pp. 133–97). London: Souvenir Press. DE#132

    (1974b). Sur La Seconde Révolution chinoise. In DE II. (pp. 513–5). DE#133

    (1974c). La Seconde Révolution chinoise. In DE II. (pp. 515–8). DE#134

    (1974d). Paris, galerie Karl Flinker, 15 février 1974. Présentation (D. Byzantios, dessins). In DE II. (pp. 518–21). DE#135

    (1974e). Prisons et asiles dans le mécanisme du pouvoir. In DE II. (pp. 521–5). DE#136

    (1974f). On Attica. In FL. (pp. 113–21). DE#137

    (1974g). Sexualité et politique. In DE II. (pp. 536–7). DE#138

    (1974h). La vérité et les formes juridiques. In DE II. (pp. 538–646). DE#139

    (1974i). Truth and juridical forms. In EW3. (pp. 1–89). Does not include round table discussion. DE#139

    (1974j). Film and popular memory. In FL. (pp. 122–32). DE#140

    (1974k). Folie, une question de pouvoir. In DE II. (pp. 660–4). DE#141

    (1974l). White magic and black gown. In FL. (pp. 287–91). DE#142

    (1974m). Psychiatric power. In EW1. (pp. 39–50). DE#143

    (1975a). Préface, in Jackson, B., Leurs prisons. Autobiographies de prisonniers américains. In DE II. (pp. 687–91). DE#144

    (1975b). (Lettre) in Clavel, M., Ce que je crois. In DE II. (p. 692). DE#145

    (1975c). La maison des fous. In DE II. (pp. 693–8). DE#146

    (1975d). Un pompier vend la mèche. In DE II. (pp. 698–702). DE#147

    (1975e). La politique est la continuation de la guerre par d'autres moyens. In DE II. (pp. 702–4). DE#148

    (1975f). A quoi rêvent les philosophes? In DE II. (pp. 704–7). DE#149

    (1975g). La peinture photogénique. In DE II. (pp. 707–15). DE#150

    (1975h). From torture to cellblock. In FL. (pp. 146–9). DE#151

    (1975i). Sur la sellette. In DE II. (pp. 720–5). DE#152

    (1975j). La prison vue par un philosophe français. In DE II. (pp. 725–31). DE#153

    (1975k). La fête de l'écriture. In DE II. (pp. 731–4). DE#154

    (1975l). La mort du père. In DE II. (pp. 734–9). DE#155

    (1975m). Prison talk. In P/K. (pp. 37–54). DE#156

    (1975n). Body/Power. In P/K. (pp. 55–62). DE#157

    (1975o). Aller à Madrid. In DE II. (pp. 760–2). DE#158

    (1975p). A propos de Marguerite Duras. In DE II. (pp. 762–71). DE#159

    (1975q). Asiles, sexualité, prisons. In DE II. (pp. 771–82). DE#160

    (1975r). Talk show. In FL. (pp. 133–45). DE#161

    (1975s). Faire les fous. In DE II. (pp. 802–5). DE#162

    (1975t). Michel Foucault. Les réponses du philosophe. In DE II. (pp. 805–17). DE#163

    (1975u). Sade: sargeant of sex. In EW2. (pp. 223–7). DE#164

    (1975v). The abnormals. In EW1. (pp. 51–7). DE#165

    (1976a). Une mort inacceptable (l'affaire Mirval). In DE III. (pp. 7–9). DE#166

    (1976b). Les têtes de la politique. In DE III. (pp. 9–13). DE#167

    (1976c). The politics of health in the eighteenth century. In EW3. (pp. 90–105). DE#168, 257

    (1976d). Questions on geography. In P/K. (pp. 63–77). DE#169

    (1976e). Crisis of medicine or anti-medicine? Foucault Studies (1) 2004: 5–19. DE#170

    (1976f). Paul's story. In FL. (pp. 181–5). DE#171

    (1976g). The politics of Soviet crime. In FL. (pp. 190–5). DE#172

    (1976h). The social extension of the norm. In FL. (pp. 196–9). DE#173

    (1976i). Le savoir comme crime. In DE III. (pp. 79–86). DE#174

    (1976j). Michel Foucault, l'illégalisme et l'art de punir. In DE III. (pp. 86–9). DE#175

    (1976k). Sorcery and madness. In FL. (pp. 200–2). DE#176

    (1976l). Points de vue. In DE III. (pp. 93–4). DE#177

    (1976m). Des questions de Michel Foucault à Hérodote. In DE III. (pp. 94–5). DE#178

    (1976n). Bio-histoire et bio-politique. In DE III. (pp. 95–7). DE#179

    (1976o). I, Pierre Rivière. In FL. (pp. 203–6). DE#180

    (1976p). Pourquoi le crime de Pierre Rivière? In DE III. (pp. 106–8). DE#182

    (1976q). Ils ont dit de Malraux. In DE III. (p. 108). DE#183

    (1976r). Le retour de Pierre Rivière. In DE III. (pp. 114–23). DE#185

    (1976s). Le discours ne doit pas être pris comme… In DE III. (pp. 123–4). DE#186

    (1976t). Society must be defended. In EW1. (pp. 294–9). DE#187

    (1976u). Dialogue on power. Quid, 4–22. Roneotype edited by Simon Wade.

    (1977a). Préface à My Secret Life. In DE III. (pp. 131–2). DE#188

    (1977b). Preface to Anti-Oedipus. In EW3. (pp. 106–10). DE#189

    (1977c). Sexualité et vérité. In DE III. (pp. 136–8). DE#190

    (1977d). Préface, in Debard, M. & Hennig, J.-L, Les juges khakis. In DE III. (pp. 138–40). DE#191

    (1977e). Truth and power. In EW3. (pp. 111–33). DE#192

    (1977f). Two lectures (first lecture: 7 January 1976). In P/K. (pp. 78–92). DE#193

    (1977g). Two lectures (second lecture: 14 January 1976). In P/K. (pp. 92–108). DE#194

    (1977h). The eye of power. In P/K. (pp. 146–65). DE#195

    (1977i). The birth of social medicine. In EW3. (pp. 134–56). DE#196

    (1977j). The history of sexuality. In P/K. (pp. 183–93). DE#197

    (1977k). Lives of infamous men. In EW3. (pp. 157–75). DE#198

    (1977l). Le poster de l'ennemi public n° 1. In DE III. (pp. 253–6). DE#199

    (1977m). The end of the monarchy of sex. In FL. (pp. 214–25). DE#200

    (1977n). The gray mornings of tolerance. In EW2. (pp. 229–31). DE#201

    (1977o). Lasile illimité. In DE III. (pp. 271–5). DE#202

    (1977p). Paris, galerie Bastida-Navazo, avril 1977 (sur le peintre Maxime Defert). In DE III. (p. 275). DE#203

    (1977q). La grande colère des faits (sur A. Glucksmann). In DE III. (pp. 277–81). DE#204

    (1977r). The anxiety of judging. In FL. (pp. 241–54). DE#205

    (1977s). The confession of the flesh. In P/K. (pp. 194–228). DE#206

    (1977t). Une mobilisation culturelle. In DE III. (pp. 329–31). DE#207

    (1977u). Le supplice de la vérité. In DE III. (pp. 331–2). DE#208

    (1977v). Confinement, psychiatry, prison. In PPC. (pp. 178–210). DE#209

    (1977w). Va-t-on extrader Klaus Croissant? In DE III. (pp. 361–5). DE#210

    (1977x). Michel Foucault: ‘Désormais la sécurité est au-dessus des lois'. In DE III. (p. 366). DE#211

    (1977y). Le pouvoir, une bête magnifique. In DE III. (pp. 368–82). DE#212

    (1977z). Michel Foucault: la sécurité et l'État. In DE III. (pp. 383–8). DE#213

    (1977za). Letter to certain leaders of the left. In EW3. (pp. 426–8). DE#214

    (1977zb). La torture, c'est la raison. In DE III. (pp. 390–8). DE#215

    (1977zc). Pouvoir et savoir. In DE III. (pp. 399–414). DE#216

    (1977zd). Nous nous sentions comme une sale espèce. In DE III. (pp. 415–8). DE#217

    (1977ze). Power and strategies. In P/K. (pp. 134–45). DE#218

    (1978a). Life: experience and science. In EW2. (pp. 465–78). DE#219, 361

    (1978b). About the concept of the ‘dangerous individual’ in nineteenth-century legal psychiatry. In EW3. (pp. 176–200). DE#220

    (1978c). Dialogue sur le pouvoir. In DE III. (pp. 464–77). DE#221

    (1978d). La folie et la société. In DE III. (pp. 477–99). DE#222

    (1978e). Quatrième de couverture in Herculine Barbin, dite Alexina B. In DE III. (p. 499). DE#223

    (1978f). Eugène Sue que j'aime. In DE III. (pp. 500–2). DE#224

    (1978g). Une érudition étourdissante. In DE III. (pp. 503–5). DE#225

    (1978h). Alain Peyrefitte s'explique… et Michel Foucault lui répond. In DE III. (pp. 505–6). DE#226

    (1978i). La grille politique traditionnelle. In DE III. (pp. 506–7). DE#227

    (1978j). Attention: danger. In DE III. (pp. 507–8). DE#228

    (1978k). Lincorporation de l'hôpital dans la technologie moderne. In DE III. (pp. 508–21). DE#229

    (1978l). Sexualité et politique. In DE III. (pp. 522–31). DE#230

    (1978m). La société disciplinaire en crise. In DE III. (pp. 532–4). DE#231

    (1978n). La philosophie analytique de la politique. In DE III. (pp. 534–51). DE#232

    (1978o). Sexuality and power. In RC. (pp. 115–30). DE#233

    (1978p). La scène de la philosophie. In DE III. (pp. 571–95). DE#234

    (1978q). Méthodologie pour la connaissance du monde: comment se débarrasser du marxisme. In DE III. (pp. 595–618). DE#235

    (1978r). Michel Foucault and Zen: a stay in a Zen temple. In RC. (pp. 110–114). DE#236

    (1978s). Le mystérieux hermaphrodite. In DE III. (pp. 624–5). DE#237

    (1978t). Clarifications on the question of power. In FL. (pp. 255–63). DE#238

    (1978u). La gouvernementalité. In DE III. (pp. 635–57). DE#239

    (1978v). Governmentality. In EW3. (pp. 201–22). DE#239

    (1978w). The proper use of criminals. In EW3. (pp. 429–34). DE#240

    (1978x). L'armée quand la terre tremble. In DE III. (pp. 662–9). DE#241

    (1978y). M. Foucault. Conversation sans complexes avec le philosophe qui analyse les ‘structures du pouvoir’. In DE III. (pp. 669–78). DE#242

    (1978z). Le chah a cent ans de retard. In DE III. (pp. 679–83). DE#243

    (1978za). Téhéran: la foi contre le chah. In DE III. (pp. 683–8). DE#244

    (1978zb). À quoi rêvent les Iraniens? In DE III. (pp. 688–94). DE#245

    (1978zc). Lemon and milk. In EW3. (pp. 435–8). DE#246

    (1978zd). ‘Paris-Berlin’. In FL. (pp. 292–4). DE#247

    (1978ze). Une révolte à mains nues. In DE III. (pp. 701–4). DE#248

    (1978zf). Défi à l'opposition. In DE III. (pp. 704–6). DE#249

    (1978zg). Les ‘reportages’ d'idées. In DE III. (pp. 706–7). DE#250

    (1978zh). Réponse de Michel Foucault à une lectrice iranienne. In DE III. (p. 708). DE#251

    (1978zi). La révolte iranienne se propage sur les rubans des cassettes. In DE III. (pp. 709–13). DE#252

    (1978zj). Le chef mythique de la révolte de l'Iran. In DE III. (pp. 713–6). DE#253

    (1978zk). Lettre de Foucault à L'Unità. In DE III. (pp. 717–8). DE#254

    (1978zl). Security, territory, and population. In EW1. (pp. 67–71). DE#255

    (1979a). Préface de Michel Foucault. In DE III. (pp. 724–5). DE#256

    (1979c). Iran: the spirit of a world without spirit. In PPC. (pp. 211–24). DE#259

    (1979d). Manières de justice. In DE III. (pp. 755–9). DE#260

    (1979e). Une poudrière appelée islam. In DE III. (p. 759–62). DE#261

    (1979f). Michel Foucault et l'Iran. In DE III. (p. 762). DE#262

    (1979g). The danger of child sexuality. In FL. (pp. 264–74). DE#263

    (1979h). The simplest of pleasures. In FL. (pp. 295–7). DE#264

    (1979i). Open letter to Mehdi Bazargan. In EW3. (pp. 439–42). DE#265

    (1979j). For an ethic of discomfort. In EW3. (pp. 443–8). DE#266

    (1979k). Michel Foucault: le moment de vérité. In DE III. (p. 788). DE#267

    (1979l). Vivre autrement le temps. In DE III. (pp. 788–90). DE#268

    (1979m). Useless to revolt? In EW3. (pp. 449–53). DE#269

    (1979n). La stratégie du pourtour. In DE III. (pp. 794–7). DE#270

    (1979o). ‘Le problème des réfugiés est un présage de la grande migration du XXIe siècle'. Interview exclusive du philosophe français M, Foucault. In DE III. (pp. 798–800). DE#271

    (1979p). Truth is in the future. In FL. (pp. 298–301). DE#272, 280

    (1979q). Luttes autour des prisons. In DE III. (pp. 806–18). DE#273

    (1979r). The birth of biopolitics. In EW1. (pp. 73–9). DE#274

    (1980a). Préface, in Knobelspiess, R., QHS: Quartier de haute sécurité. In DE IV. (pp. 7–9). DE#275

    (1980b). La poussière et le nuage. In DE IV. (pp. 10–19). DE#277

    (1980c). Questions of method. In EW3. (pp. 223–38). DE#278

    (1980d). Postface, in Perrot, M. (ed.), L'Impossible Prison. Recherches sur le système pénitentiaire au XIXe siècle. In DE IV. (pp. 35–7). DE#279

    (1980e). Interview with Michel Foucault. In EW3. (pp. 239–97). DE#281

    (1980f). Toujours les prisons. In DE IV. (pp. 96–9). DE#282

    (1980g). Le Nouvel Observateur et l'Union de la gauche. In DE IV. (pp. 100–2). DE#283

    (1980h). The four horsemen of the Apocalypse and the everyday worms. In EW2. (pp. 233–4). DE#284

    (1980i). The masked philosopher. In EW1. (pp. 321–8). DE#285

    (1980j). The imagination of the nineteenth century. In EW2. (pp. 235–9). DE#286

    (1980k). Le vrai sexe. In DE IV. (pp. 115–23). DE#287

    (1980l). Roland Barthes (12 novembre 1915–26 mars 1980). In DE IV. (pp. 124–5). DE#288

    (1980m). On the government of the living. In EW1. (pp. 81–5). DE#289

    (1980n). Lecture, 9 January 1980. Unpublished audiotape.

    (1981a). Préface à la deuxième édition, in Vergès, J., De la stratégie judiciaire. In DE IV. (pp. 130–4). DE#290

    (1981b). ‘Omnes et singulatim’: toward a critique of political reason. In EW3. (pp. 298–325). DE#291

    (1981c). Lettre à Roger Caillois in Hommage à Roger Caillois. In DE IV. (p. 162). DE#292

    (1981d). Friendship as a way of life. In EW1. (pp. 135–40). DE#293

    (1981e). Le dossier ‘peine de mort’. Ils ont écrit contre. In DE IV. (p. 168). DE#294

    (1981f). Sexuality and solitude. In EW1. (pp. 175–84). DE#295

    (1981g). So is it important to think? In EW3. (pp. 454–8). DE#296

    (1981h). Les mailles du pouvoir. In DE IV. (pp. 182–201). DE#297

    (1981i). Michel Foucault: il faut tout repenser, la loi et la prison. In DE IV. (pp. 202–4). DE#298

    (1981j). Lacan, le ‘libérateur de la psychanalyse'. In DE IV. (pp. 204–5). DE#299

    (1981k). Against replacement penalties. In EW3. (pp. 459–61). DE#300

    (1981l). To punish is the most difficult thing there is. In EW3. (pp. 462–4). DE#301

    (1981m). Les réponses de Pierre Vidal-Naquet et de Michel Foucault (l'état de guerre en Pologne). In DE IV. (p. 210). DE#302

    (1981n). Notes sur ce qu'on lit et entend (même sujet). In DE IV. (pp. 211–2). DE#303

    (1981o). Subjectivity and truth. In EW1. (pp. 87–92). DE#304

    (1982a). Pierre Boulez, passing through the screen. In EW2. (pp. 241–4). DE#305

    (1982b). The subject and power. In EW3. (pp. 326–48). DE#306

    (1982c). La pensée, l'émotion. In DE IV. (pp. 243–50). DE#307

    (1982d). Passion according to Werner Schroeter. In FL. (pp. 313–21). DE#308

    (1982e). Un premier pas de la colonisation de l'Occident. In DE IV. (pp. 261–9). DE#309

    (1982f). Space, knowledge and power. In EW3. (pp. 349–64). DE#310

    (1982g). History and homosexuality. In FL. (pp. 363–70). DE#311

    (1982h). The battle for chastity. In EW1. (pp. 185–97). DE#312

    (1982i). The social triumph of the sexual will. In EW1. (pp. 157–62). DE#313

    (1982j). Des caresses d'hommes considérées comme un art. In DE IV. (pp. 315–7). DE#314

    (1982k). Le terrorisme ici et là. In DE IV. (pp. 318–9). DE#316

    (1982l). Sexual choice, sexual act. In EW1. (pp. 141–56). DE#317

    (1982m). Foucault: non aux compromis. In DE IV. (pp. 336–7). DE#318

    (1982n). Michel Foucault: ‘Il n'y a pas de neutralité possible.’ In DE IV. (pp. 338–40). DE#319

    (1982o). En abandonnant les Polonais, nous renonçons à une part de nous-mêmes. In DE IV. (pp. 340–3). DE#320

    (1982p). The moral and social experience of the Poles can no longer be obliterated. In EW3. (pp. 465–73). DE#321

    (1982q). L'âge d'or de la lettre de cachet. In DE IV. (pp. 351–2). DE#322

    (1982r). The hermeneutic of the subject. In EW1. (pp. 93–106). DE#323

    (1983a). Des travaux. In DE IV. (pp. 366–7). DE#324

    (1983b). The risks of security. In EW3. (pp. 365–81). DE#325

    (1983c). On the genealogy of ethics: an overview of work in progress. In EW1. (pp. 253–80). DE#326

    (1983d). Ça ne m'intéresse pas. In DE IV. (p. 412). DE#327

    (1983e). À propos des faiseurs d'histoire. In DE IV. (pp. 412–5). DE#328

    (1983f). Self-writing. In EW1. (pp. 207–22). DE#329

    (1983g). Structuralism and post-structuralism. In EW2. (pp. 433–58). DE#330

    (1983h). An exchange with Michel Foucault. New York Review of Books, 30(5): 42–4. DE#331

    (1983i). The cultural insularity of contemporary music. In FL. (pp. 391–6). DE#333

    (1983j). La Pologne, et après? In DE IV. (pp. 496–522). DE#334

    (1983k). Vous êtes dangereux. In DE IV. (pp. 522–4). DE#335

    (1983l). An interview by Stephen Riggins. In EW1. (pp. 121–33). DE#336

    (1983m)…. ils ont déclaré … sur le pacifisme, sa nature, ses dangers, ses illusions. In DE IV. (p. 538). DE#337

    (1983n). Usage des plaisirs et techniques de soi. In DE IV. (pp. 539–62). DE#338

    (1984a). What is Enlightenment? In EW1. (pp. 303–19). DE#339

    (1984b). Preface to The History of Sexuality, Volume II. In EW1. (pp. 199–205). DE#340

    (1984c). Politics and ethics: an interview. In FR. (pp. 373–80). DE#341

    (1984d). Polemics, politics, and problematisations. In EW1. (pp. 111–19). DE#342

    (1984e). Archeology of a passion. In FL. (pp. 397–406). DE#343

    (1984f). A propos de la généalogie de l'éthique: un aperçu du travail en cours. In DE IV. (pp. 609–13) DE#344

    (1984g). ‘Foucault’ by Maurice Florence. In EW2. (pp. 459–63). DE#345

    (1984h). What is called ‘punishing’? In EW3. (pp. 382–93). DE#346

    (1984i). Le souci de la vérité. In DE IV. (pp. 646–9). DE#347

    (1984j). Le style de l'histoire. In DE IV. (pp. 649–55). DE#348

    (1984k). Interview de Michel Foucault. In DE IV. (pp. 656–67). DE#349

    (1984l). The concern for truth. In FL. (pp. 455–64). DE#350

    (1984m). The art of telling the truth. In PPC. (pp. 86–95). DE#351

    (1984n). Interview with Actes. In EW3. (pp. 394–402). DE#353

    (1984o). The return of morality. In FL. (pp. 465–73). DE#354

    (1984p). Confronting governments: human rights. In EW3. (pp. 474–5). DE#355

    (1984q). The ethics of the concern for the self as a practice of freedom. In EW1. (pp. 281–301). DE#356

    (1984r). An aesthetics of existence. In FL. (pp. 450–4). DE#357

    (1984s). Sex, power and the politics of identity. In FL. (pp. 382–90). DE#358

    (1984t). L'intellectuel et les pouvoirs. In DE IV. (pp. 747–52). DE#359

    (1984u). Different spaces. In EW2. (pp. 175–85). DE#360

    (1985, 21 June). Pour en finir avec les mensonges. Le Nouvel Observateur, pp. 76–7.

    (1986a). On literature. In FL. (pp. 150–3). Interview originally conducted in 1975.

    (1986b). La pensée du dehors. Illus. Pierre Tal Coat. Montpellier: Fata Morgana.

    (1986c). Sept propos sur la septième ange. Illus. d'Ipoustéguy. Montpellier: Fata Morgana.

    (1988a). Truth, power, self: an interview with Michel Foucault, October 25, 1982. In TS. (pp. 9–15). DE#362

    (1988b). Technologies of the self. In EW1. (pp. 223–51). DE#363

    (1988c). The political technology of individuals. In EW3. (pp. 403–17). DE#364

    (1988d). What our present is. In FL. (pp. 407–15). Interview conducted in 1983.

    (1988e). Power, moral values and the intellectual. History of the Present, 4(Spring): 1–2, 11–13. Interview conducted with Michael D. Bess in 1980.

    (1989a). Structuralisme et analyse littéraire. Les Cahiers de Tunisie (3–4): 21–41. Lecture originally delivered in 1969.

    (1989b). Folie et civilisation. Les Cahiers de Tunisie (3–4): 43–59. Lecture originally delivered in 1971.

    (1989c). Schizo-culture: Infantile sexuality. In FL. (pp. 154–67). Lecture originally delivered in 1975.

    (1989d). Schizo-culture: On prison and psychiatry. In FL. (pp. 168–80). Discussion originally conducted in 1975.

    (1993). About the beginning of the hermeneutics of the self (1980). In RC. (pp. 158–281).

    (1994). Problematics. In FL. (pp. 416–22). Interview originally conducted in 1983.

    (2004a). La peinture de Manet. In M. Saison (ed.), La peinture de Manet suivi de Michel Foucault un regard. (pp. 21–48). Paris: Seuil.

    (2004b). ‘Gérer les illégalismes'. A propos de Surveiller et punir. In R.-P. Droit, Michel Foucault entretiens (pp. 57–73). Paris: Odile Jacob. Interview originally conducted in 1975.

    (2004c). ‘Je suis un artificier’. A propos de la méthode et de la trajectoire de Michel Foucault. In R.-P. Droit, Michel Foucault, entretiens (pp. 88–136). Paris: Odile Jacob. Interview originally conducted in 1975.

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