Methods of Text and Discourse Analysis

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Stefan Titscher, Michael Meyer, Ruth Wodak & Eva Vetter

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    Acknowledgements

    This book could not have been written without the help of many people and institutions. We extend our gratitude to them all. In particular, we gratefully acknowledge three years of support from the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), who financed our research project ‘Diplomacy and Language’ (P09577). Without FWF support we could never have developed the ideas embodied in the book since it was in the course of this project, when we had to deal with various and extensive text corpora, that the idea of writing a book on methods of text analysis was born.

    We also appreciate the support of the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Transport (BMWV) in financing the translation from German into English. This translation was done in a very professional, sensitive and effective way by Bryan Jenner. We gratefully acknowledge the collaboration with him.

    The bibliometric investigation was undertaken with the help of Sybille Krausler. We are grateful for the support of the Social Science Information Unit (SOWIS) of the Library at the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, and in particular that of Bettina Schmeikal and Georg Fessler.

    We appreciate the collaboration with Karl Berger, Thomas Gamperl and Gisela Hagmair. They wrote a German outline on objective hermeneutics which formed the basis of the corresponding chapter (Chapter 14) in this book and also undertook various pieces of analytical work using this method during our research project.

    We value the helpful comments of our reviewer Michael Stubbs, which contributed to improving the quality of this book. In Julia Hall at Sage we found a very rare kind of supportive and encouraging publisher, and in Seth Edwards an editor who contributed very positively to the final result.

  • Glossary

    • Abduction (Latin abducere — to take away.) Charles S. Pierce (1939-1914) characterized abduction as the logic which governs the formation of any hypothesis. Every observation and interpretation is a hypothesis made on the basis of an abduction. As a conscious process, abduction — after deduction and induction — is the third form of logical conclusion (‘the art of inference’). Abduction may be characterized as the search for the best explanation for any observed phenomenon that requires explanation: X (for instance the unexpected use of a particular word) is remarkable; A, B, C are possible explanations for this use; B (for instance the social position of the speaker, which distinguishes him from the other interlocutors) seems the most convincing. If B is true, phenomenon X is no longer remarkable; B is therefore accepted as the one hypothesis which can account for the occurrence of X. Abduction is the search for a rule by which particular events may be explained. This form of inferencing is always marked by great uncertainty, but — in contrast to deductive and inductive processes — it provides the only conclusion that can lead to new ideas. To show that a given explanation is a suitable hypothesis with general validity — rather than simply the best account of a single phenomenon — this kind of reasoning requires tests first of induction and then of deduction (to determine its general applicability). Abductive inferencing plays a central role in the formulation of hypotheses and therefore in qualitative social investigation, which is concerned with the development of explanations. (See deduction, induction.)
    • Acceptability While grammaticality determines what is structurally possible in a given language, acceptability determines which of the structurally possible forms will actually be selected for the fulfilment of a particular function.
    • Ad hoc sampling This takes place when, for a studied selection, a population is constructed a posteriori. The statements are then valid only for the sample and the constructed totality. Under what circumstances can this be done? In fact, this occurs only when one stumbles across material or is offered (access to) texts which seem so worthy of investigation that one dispenses with all normal criteria for selection. One could then still set up the analysis as a case study, but one would have to go into great detail and resist the temptation to generalize the results.
    • Assertion In the definition used in functional pragmatic pattern analysis assertion means ‘statement’ or ‘claim’. Functional pragmatics makes a distinction between assertion, (the introduction of the basic pattern), request,the announcement of a future act — and of an already completed act — and on the basis of this distinction subdivides the basic pattern into four main types. An assertion introduces a cognitive reason. The discourse-historical method uses assertion, like predication, to refer to an explicit attribution of properties and modes of behaviour.
    • Cluster sampling This is a form of multi-stage sampling and denotes a procedure in which the sample focuses not on individual elements but on clusters (as subsets of the population). Within these randomly selected clusters all elements must then be investigated. The procedure is admittedly more economical but subject to sampling errors greater than purely random sampling. For example, if one wishes to investigate political speeches, the individual clusters could consist of parliamentary speeches, electoral speeches, the speeches of party officials, etc.
    • Coding In text analysis coding means that text phenomena are related to individual concepts. That is, a connection is established between concrete text extracts (units of analysis) and certain more abstract categories. In grounded theory coding is the general term for the conceptualization of data. In this theory, coding means that the investigator asks questions about categories and their contexts and offers provisional answers (or hypotheses).
    • Communicative competence In the sense of the ethnography of speaking (Dell Hymes) this term refers to all those abilities of speakers which enable them to communicate appropriately in a speech community. This knowledge includes rules of linguistic and sociolinguistic communication, rules of interaction, and also those cultural rules which determine the context and the content of communicative events and processes of interaction. Communicative competence guarantees that what is structurally possible (in a given language), feasible and appropriate to particular situations, functions and contexts will be linked to actually occurring cultural behaviour. (See also acceptability, grammaticality.)
    • Constituents In a Chomskyan type of grammar (or constituent grammar) sentences are composed of phrases, which may be sub-categorized, according to syntactic function, into verbal, nominal and prepositional phrases. These phrases are then understood as the central, meaningful components of texts.
    • Context In text linguistics context means the situational environment (speech situation, setting, attitude, experience, etc.) which is external to the text. In pragmalinguistics the notion of context refers to (a) the linguistic means by which an utterance is localized in a concrete situation, lexical expressions, (b) the linguistic means which make an utterance a text (pronominalization, anaphora, cataphora, theme-rheme, etc.), (c) any non-verbal resources (gestures, facial expressions), and (d) all extralinguistic features of the communicative situation (age, gender, profession, level of education, etc.). The text-linguistic use of the term context is more usual.
    • Concept indicator modelConcepts are abstractive terms and labels that are attached to individual events. If such events are attached to individual concepts (or categories), they then function as empirical indicators of the concepts.
    • Cotext This term is used to refer to the linguistic environment which precedes or follows a concrete text location. According to Glück (1993) cotext denotes the text-internal linguistic context which precedes or follows a text location, as opposed to the text-external situational context. PetöUfi (1971) uses cotext to refer to the grammatical and semantic representation of the textual surface (textual structure) which achieves a denotative correspondence (‘world structure’) by means of interpretation.
    • Deduction (Latin deducere — to proceed, to derive from some origin.) A deductive conclusion proceeds from the general to the particular. From a general premise a particular case is inferred. For example, if one assumes that women (as opposed to men) attribute their career more to circumstances than to their own ability, one may expect that, in the analysis of a particular conversation where a woman is talking about her career, this feature will be found. One cannot, on the other hand, be surprised to find this confirmed. The conclusions deriving from deductions are true if the premises are true, and so deductions — provided that the rules of logic are obeyed — offer no new discoveries. They do not extend the knowledge of the investigator. Research which follows the principles of critical rationalism (K. Popper) is basically organized along deductive lines; from theories (systems of general assertions), hypotheses (explanations) are derived whose validity must then be critically tested on specific cases of empirically observed data. This procedure is also characterized as ‘rule governed’. Text analysis may be said to follow the deductive principle if schemata of categories are first developed and texts are then examined to determine in what form and with what frequency these theoretical constructs occur. (See abduction, induction.)
    • Deep structure Different methods of text analysis attempt to reconstruct in texts a variously defined deep structure. This underlies the idea that in text production a latent meaning is pursued of which the text producer is not always aware. This ‘meaning’ is variously conceptualized according to different theoretical perspectives. In narrative semiotics it corresponds to ‘fundamental values’, while in DTA it is a question of latent perception schemata. (Cf. surface structure.)
    • Deictic procedure This term is used in functional pragmatics to refer to that type of linguistic act by which speakers draw the attention of listeners to an object in their common sphere of reference, that is to say, in their speaking situation. Deictic procedures are indicative in meaning.
    • Deixis Deictic or indexical expressions refer to the extralinguistic reality and acquire their meaning only with reference to the speech situation in which they are uttered. Examples of deictic expressions are personal pronouns (I, you, etc.), demonstratives (this, that and so on) or adverbs (here, now).
    • Disclaimer Reservations or disclaimers weaken speech contributions. They may relate to differing units of communication. ‘If you don't mind’, for example, is a disclaimer to the listeners. The disclaimer realized in ‘I am not a computer specialist’, on the other hand, relates to the speaker.
    • Discourse representation This is a term elaborated in the course of historical discourse studies of post-war anti-Semitism (Projektteam 1989, Wodak et al. 1990) to indicate the reproduction of utterances of third parties. This may happen in a number of very different ways: for example in direct or indirect speech. By such devices speakers can express their distance from, or proximity to, the utterance and/or legitimize their own opinion by reference to third parties. Discourse representations are typical of media texts.
    • Evocations This refers to that kind of textual allusion which is based less on the reproduction of lexical elements than on special effects. Evocations in newspaper articles, for instance, can stimulate associations with other text types such as fairy tales or detective stories.
    • Exothesis In functional pragmatics this refers to the verbalization of some mental element such as, for instance, a sign of incomprehension. Speakers may exothesize the mental element ‘incomprehension’ with the question, ‘what does that mean?’
    • Grammaticality This is the central explanatory concept of Chomsky's (1965) mode of linguistic analysis, which is independent of the act of communication. Chomskyan generative grammars are tested by their capacity to generate a set of particular sentences and by the coincidental generation of new sentences. Grammatical competence means the cognitive ability of speakers to produce structurally correct or acceptable (see acceptability) sentences (see also communicative competence).
    • Hermeneutics This is the art of explaining cultural manifestations, particularly texts, which should ensure the general validity and adequacy of the interpretations and processes of comprehension. Here, in contrast to the (causal) explanations of the natural sciences, it is a question of grasping and producing meaning relations. Human behaviour is always taken to be meaningful. An important element is the hermeneutic circle: the meaning of one part can only be understood in the context of the whole, but this in turn is only accessible from its component parts.
    • Heuristic (Greek heurisko — find.) This is a collective term for various search and discovery techniques, or for the study of these procedures. Heuristic procedures permit the acquisition of knowledge by systematic discovery, in which, of course, (unlike algorithmic procedures) there is no guarantee of any solution. Heuristic procedures, such as experiments in reasoning or incrementalism, normally make use of so-called heuristic principles, such as analogy, abstraction and the set-up of aspiration levels. Heuristic procedures, rules and instruments are used in methods of text analysis to discover new variables and to generate hypotheses.
    • Induction (Latin inducere — to draw or lead; inductivus — suitable as precondition.) Inductive conclusions proceed from individual cases to a generalization. One derives general pronouncements from individual observations, proceeds from data and arrives at hypotheses. This type of procedure is therefore described as ‘data-driven’. For example, it is determined in the course of a study that, in a conference, contributions are more often adopted if they contain pictorial expressions. It is then concluded that the prominence of contributions is substantially influenced by the choice of memorable keywords. Such generalizing conclusions are susceptible to error. In a particular case the conclusion could, for instance, be influenced by the fact that other considerations (such as the position of the speakers, the length of contributions, sympathy with the audience, etc.) were not taken into account. Inductive conclusions belong to the permanent repertoire of research techniques, provided the investigator proceeds from samples to the (total) population. Text analyses follow the inductive principle when general categories are distilled from transcripts. One example of this is the open coding of the grounded theory. (See abduction, deduction.)
    • Inference The statistics of inference are concerned with drawing conclusions for some population from the results of a sample. Conclusions of this kind are only drawn when a sample is representative of an entire population about whom statements may (or should) be made on the basis of sample results.
    • Isotopy The concept of isotopy is central to the structural semantics of Algirdas J. Greimas (1983). For him the concept refers to the cluster of redundant semantic categories which underlie discourse. Examples are the isotopy of space and time by means of which the environment of an action and movement are characterized along the time axis. Isotopies indicate iterativity in a syntagmatic chain of classemes and guarantee the homogeneity of the discourse utterance. The concept was borrowed from chemistry.
    • Metaphor/metaphorical lexeme A metaphor is a linguistic image based on some similarity between two objects or concepts. It is formed through the transference of some word to a counterfactual meaning. An example of a metaphor is ‘sharp criticism’ (or ‘blunt statement’). The term metaphorical lexeme refers to individual words which form metaphors.
    • Modality This is a semantic-pragmatic category. It indicates the orientation of a speaker to an utterance. Modality may be expressed by syntactic means (declarative, interrogative), verb form (active/passive), or by various other linguistic means such as adverbs (hopefully, fortunately) or modal verbs (may, can, must, should).
    • Multi-stage sample This denotes a multiple random sample at different hierarchical levels within a population. If this procedure is selected in preference to a pure random sample, it is normally for economic reasons. For example, one could take a random sample from all the states of the USA. From this sample a number of cities would be selected. A random sample of all the newspapers appearing in those cities would then be taken and, finally, from these newspapers, a random sample of articles would be taken for analysis. The sampling error increases according to the number of stages, but this may be countered by combining this procedure with a stratified sample.
    • Norm respect This refers to the adherence to generally applicable and binding norms. For the type of organization to be found in our textual examples, norm respect is realized in the statement ‘Each one of us works with the greatest dedication’.
    • Phonology This linguistic sub-discipline investigates the sound system of a given language. Phonology proceeds from the smallest elements of the language that distinguish meaning, the phonemes. The research emphases are different in the various schools of phonology, such as functional phonology (Trubetzkoy and the Prague School), generative phonology (Chomsky), or natural phonology (Dressler).
    • Predication This is the process of attributing or denying to the subject of a sentence (things, persons or events) the properties or modes of behaviour which are expressed in the predicate. The discourse-historical method examines predication, like assertion, as the explicit attribution of properties and modes of behaviour with regard to the categorization and typification of groups.
    • Quota sampling This mode of sampling attempts, by means of a conscious rather than a random selection, to bring the characteristics of the sample closer to those of the population. This technique is rather controversial but frequently used in public opinion surveys. It predetermines percentages of particular categories or combinations of features (quotas) and uses these to control the selection of the subjects of study. There are two preconditions: first, the distribution of the predetermined variables over the whole population must be known; and secondly, the variables must be relevant to the research questions. The investigation is then representative for no more than those predetermined variables.
    • Random sample A pure random sample requires the availability of a list which indicates all the elements of a total population. Only on this basis (for example by the use of random numbers) can a purely random selection of units of investigation be made. Since it is very unlikely that all the elements of a population can be identified (and even where they can, the researcher rarely has access to the relevant documents), pure random samples are very rare. Linguistic investigations which meet all the necessary criteria are almost never encountered.
    • Reliability In the classical theory of testing, reliability is one of the central criteria used to indicate the extent to which the results of some measurement (or test) may be trusted. In essence the requirement that a measurement should show the highest possible degree of reliability conveys the idea that the procedure used should measure what it is intended to measure as accurately and constantly as possible, and in a way which may be replicated by other investigators. For instance, in content analysis the measurement of agreement between different coders is often taken as a measure of reliability. Quantitative research has developed a range of checking procedures which often, however, cannot be used in their original form in interpretative research. The reliability of some part of a questionnaire or a test is therefore assessed by repeated application of the test (test-retest method) or by comparing the results of some other equally valid procedure (parallel test). A high degree of reliability is seen as a necessary but not, in itself, sufficient condition for validity. (See validity.)
    • Sample This denotes a set of objects of investigation (e.g. persons, objects or events) which are selected according to certain defined criteria (for instance, a set of copies of daily newspapers determined by the use of random numbers) and which are deemed to be representative of some total population. A sample must be representative if the results achieved are to be transferable to the whole, that is to say, if conclusions are to be drawn about the facts in question in the relevant population. Samples are normally judged to be representative; the basic types are random sample, stratified sample, cluster sample (a survey of a number of ‘clusters’ selected at random), and multi-stage sample.
    • Sampling error This denotes some deviation between the ‘true’ value for some variable in the total population and the corresponding value in a sample. It arises through the making of a random sample. For example, if one has quoted an average value for the intelligibility of a series of texts (such as information leaflets for applicants to public authorities), this value will differ from the ‘true’ rate of intelligibility which could only be calculated if all the relevant texts have actually been evaluated.
    • Sapir-Whorf hypothesis The central idea of the hypothesis formulated by Edward Sapir and Benjamin L. Whorf is that a language functions not only as an instrument for the description of experience but also, and more significantly, as a means of defining experience for speakers of that language. In this sense language determines, on the basis of its formal completeness and the unconscious projection of its implicit expectations, the possibilities and the limitations of our experience.
    • Self-assessment This refers to the process of attributing to oneself, in a text, certain positive characteristics, as in ‘our department is highly skilled in this area’.
    • Semantics This term is adopted from Charles W. Morris (1938) who used semantics to refer to that sub-discipline of semiotics which concerns itself with the relationship between signs and objects. In general terms, and leaving aside the specific differences between the various sub-types of linguistic semantics (such as lexical, sentence or text semantics) and the different approaches (such as structural, generative or interpretative semantics, or stereotypic, instructional and referential semantics), we may describe semantics as the theory and practice of meaning analysis.
    • Semiotics Modern semiotics, or the theory of signs, derives from the work of Charles S. Pierce, Charles W. Morris and Ferdinand de Saussure. It is concerned with the use of signs, or semiosis. It consists of three sub-disciplines: semantics (for the relationship between signs and objects), pragmatics (for the relationship of sign and interpreter to the subject of investigation) and syntax (for the formal relation of signs to each other).
    • Speech community Although there is no general agreement in the literature about a definition of speech community, the following criteria — at least in Dell Hymes's ‘ethnography of communication’ — seem to summarize the concept: (a) common use of language, (b) frequency of interaction of a group, (c) shared rules of speaking and interpreting, (d) shared attitudes and values with regard to linguistic form and usage, and (e) shared socio-cultural assumptions.
    • Speech act According to Searle (1969) speech acts are the basic units of human communication. In Searle's extended definition they consist of locutions (the articulation of linguistic elements), propositions (formulations of the content of an utterance) and illocutions, which are the actions performed by speech acts. Various typologies for classifying illocutions have been developed by Austin (1962), Searle (1982) and Wunderlich (1978). To characterize the effect which a speech act has on the listener, the term perlocution (Austin 1962) may be added to these three units.
    • While the act of utterance is understood as the physical activity of a person resulting in some phonic or graphic phenomena, a speech act is the ‘interpretation of such activity in relation to a particular linguistic system, a particular system of behaviour, and to the social situation in which both speakers and interlocutors find themselves’ (Wunderlich 1978: 51). Speech acts (or ‘acts of speaking’) may have the following functions: (a) they replace concrete actions, (b) they prepare for concrete actions, (c) they clarify past concrete actions, (d) they lead to concrete actions, or (e) they establish social facts (Wunderlich 1978: 23). Different orientations in speech act theory (Austin 1962, Searle 1982, Wunderlich 1978) distinguish between the varying functions of speech acts in different ways.
    • Speech event Speech events (or communicative events) are the smallest units of analysis in the ‘ethnography of communication’ (Hymes 1979). A communicative event is defined by a common general goal, a common general theme, and common participants who normally use the same level of language in a common setting and follow the same rules of interaction (Saville-Troike 1989: 27). Hymes (1962: 24f.) gives the following examples of classes of speech event: Sunday morning sermon, inaugural address, pledge of allegiance, heart-to-heart talk, sales talk, talk man-to-man, woman's talk, polite conversation.
    • Stratified sample By stratifying a sample it is possible to reduce the extent of sampling error. The population is divided, according to variables relevant to the investigation, into a number of sub-groups from which random samples can be taken. These samples are proportional to the distribution of the variables in the total population. One precondition of this procedure is that the investigator knows the characteristics of the population, since only then can he or she classify it according to categories which are relevant to the research.
    • Superstructure In Marxist theory this term refers to the totality of political ideas, ideologies, social values and norms. It is essentially determined by the material, economic ‘base’, however, the circumstances of production, also affect this economic base. For Marxist oriented research, or research showing partial Marxist inspiration, this means that any investigation of everyday circumstances must also take into account the superstructure of the relevant historical situation or must, in its interpretation, consider the different forms of social consciousness.
    • Surface structure Surface structure refers to the immediately recognizable and easily accessible forms of texts. This means those structures which are regularly investigated in traditional modes of text analysis, that is such manifest phenomena as themes and linguistic realizations. (Cf. deep structure.)
    • Symbolic interactionism This term was coined by Herbert Blumer to characterize a (microsociological) direction in social research based on the idea that ‘significant symbols’ (G.H. Mead) form the basis of social connections. The definition of social situations is made possible by the use of meaningful symbols (words, gestures, texts, pictures, pictograms, etc.) which thereby form the basis of all interactions (reciprocal acts oriented to one another). Socialization — the process by which an individual comes to terms with his or her environment — is, therefore, the learning of symbols. In sociolinguistics the work of scholars like E. Goffman on frames or impression management has an important status. Moreover, this approach is one of the theoretical foundations of grounded theory, and was also the basis from which ethnomethodology (H. Garfinkel) developed. This latter is significant in text analysis, for example in conversation analysis.
    • Validity In testing theory this denotes one of the central criteria, which give information about the truthfulness of some measurement or test. In essence the requirement that a test shows the highest possible degree of validity implies that the chosen procedure should measure, in accordance with the theoretical concepts, only what one intends or claims to be measuring. Considerations of validity therefore begin with the operationalization of concepts used in research questions and hypotheses. This internal validity must be distinguished from the external form which, in essence, includes the requirement that any results should be valid beyond the immediate sphere of the study. To test different types of validity, a range of classical procedures are available but most of these cannot be used in interpretative types of research. (See reliability.)

    Appendix: Publications and Keywords for Bibliometry

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