Mentoring New Teachers
Publication Year: 2008
This latest edition draws upon research to illustrate essential mentoring behaviors. Provides new tools such as classroom observation methods, teacher mentor standards, and learning styles assessment.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Support for Mentoring
- Effective Mentors are Made, Not Born
- Mentoring is not Evaluating
- Mentoring's Role in Induction
- The Mentor's Primary Role
- What Mentors Do: The Four Mentoring Functions
- Teacher Mentor Standards
- Chapter 1: Relating
- Establishing Trust
- Exercise 1.1: How You Act When You Trust
- Exercise 1.2: Behaviors That Elicit Trust
- Paying Attention to Thoughts and Feelings
- Exercise 1.3: Relive the Experience
- The Student Teacher Dilemma
- Communicating Nonverbally
- Exercise 1.4: The Power of Body Language
- A Checklist of Relating Behaviors
- A Mentoring Relationship is a Serving Relationship
- Chapter 2: Assessing
- The Nontraditional New Teacher
- Generic Needs of New Teachers
- Exercise 2.1: Stuff That Makes Novices Nervous
- Specific Needs of Your Mentee
- Exercise 2.2: Get the Students' Perspective
- Gathering Resources
- Exercise 2.3: A Treasure Hunt for Resources
- Exercise 2.4: This is Us
- Your Mentee's Learning Preferences
- Modes of Communication
- Pictures, Words, and Feelings
- Chapter 3: Coaching
- Coaching Assumptions
- The Coaching Cycle
- The Preobservation Conference
- Exercise 3.1: Ask Clarifying Questions
- The Initial Classroom Visit
- Focused Classroom Observations: When and How
- Focused Observations
- Data Collection
- Some Observation Considerations
- The Postobservation Conference
- Exercise 3.2: Avoiding Embedded Negatives
- When to Show and Tell
- Exercise 3.3: Sharing Your Expertise
- Coaching Adults
- Exercise 3.4: How Adults Learn
- Criteria for Giving Useful Feedback
- Criteria for Receiving Feedback
- Chapter 4: Guiding
- Guiding Your Mentee's Journey: A Decision-Making Process
- Identifying Your Mentee's Problems
- Guiding Principles
- The Unwilling and Unable Mentee
- Coaching Strategies
- Relating Strategies
- The Moderately Willing and Somewhat Able Mentee
- Coaching Strategies
- Relating Strategies
- The Competent and Confident Mentee
- Coaching and Relating Strategies
- The All-of-the-Above Mentee
- Exercise 4.1: Help James Assess His Students
- Exercise 4.2: Practice Choosing the Appropriate Behavior
- From Mentor-Mentee to Peer-Peer
- Chapter 5: Mentoring's Legacy: Career-Long Professional Development
- Teacher's Inquiry Process
- TIP in Action
- From TIP to MIP
- Chapter 6: Tips and Observations
- Set Ground Rules Early
- Help Change Happen
- Avoid Information Overload
- Share Decision Making
- Know When to Intervene
- Mentoring, Remediating, and Peer Review
- Maintain the Relationship
- Don't Forget Content
- What is Your Mentee Asking for?
- Know When to Wean
- Find Time to Mentor
- Earn Points toward Teacher Recertification
- Reflect on Your Mentoring
- Consider Multiple Mentors
- Build a Mentoring Community
- Find Networking Opportunities
- Remember, Student Learning is the Goal
- Pass the Torch
Copyright © 2008 by Corwin Press
All rights reserved. When forms and sample documents are included, their use is authorized only by educators, local school sites, and/or noncommercial or nonprofit entities that have purchased the book. Except for that usage, no part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Mentoring new teachers/Hal Portner; foreword by Gerald N. Tirozzi.—3rd ed.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 978-1-4129-6008-3 (cloth: acid-free paper)
ISBN 978-1-4129-6009-0 (pbk.: acid-free paper)
1. Mentoring in education—United States. 2. First year teachers—United States. 3. Teachers—In-service training—United States. I. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
08 09 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Dan Alpert
Associate Editor: Desirée Enayati
Production Editor: Veronica Stapleton
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Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
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Graphic Designer: Scott Van Atta
Hal Portner has a long and impressive career in the field of education. His background as a teacher, school district administrator, State Department of Education staff member, and consultant in higher education presents him as an educator eminently qualified to address the important issues underlying the preparation and induction of new teachers.
I had the pleasure of working closely with Mr. Portner in my role as Connecticut's Commissioner of Education (1983–91). He played a key role in the implementation of the state's Education Enhancement Act, passed in 1986, which dramatically raised teacher salaries as standards for the profession. In particular, he assisted in designing and implementing professional development activities and programs and the mentorship and induction model for new teachers. He also served as the coordinator of the Connecticut Institute for Teaching and Learning—which became Connecticut's major vehicle and catalyst for offering comprehensive, sustained professional development for teachers and administrators.
It is gratifying for me to see Mr. Portner utilize his expertise and hands-on involvement in writing a timely, instructive, and important book on mentoring new teachers. The book provides direction and guidance that clearly outlines how to be a mentor. The important areas of coaching, guiding, relating, and assessing are presented within a conceptual and practical framework. In effect, the author provides a workbook approach in the mentorship learning process, which draws the reader into an interactive mode. Mr. Portner's efforts are user-friendly.
The reader will be impressed with the author's practical and concrete suggestions and recommendations, his reference to a variety of techniques, and his use of learning style inventories. The various techniques described are presented in an open-ended manner, [Page x]challenging the reader to further explore and expand on the myriad ideas presented.
This book will be of great service and utility to teachers who are presently serving as mentors, as well as teachers who are considering their involvement as mentors of teachers. School administrators, especially school principals, will benefit from the book as they plan induction and orientation programs for new staff, as well from its potential to engage more teachers as role models and guides for those new to the profession. Teacher-educators will find Mr. Portner's work a valuable resource or supplementary text in supervision and evaluation courses.
The induction of new teachers is arguably the most important component of a long-term comprehensive model of teacher growth and development. Regardless of the quality of the preparation of a first-year teacher, it is ultimately that initial day, week, month, and year that often predict success or failure in the classroom. Quality mentorship by experienced teachers can provide much needed support, assistance, and guidance in the formative years of teaching. To this end, Mr. Portner has made a significant contribution to the profession of teaching.Executive Director National Association of Secondary School Principals
Preface to Third Edition[Page xi]
Because you are reading this, I assume that you are someone who is a mentor, is going to be doing some mentoring, hasn't yet decided whether you want to be a mentor, trains and/or otherwise supports mentors, has or would like to have a mentor (that would make you a mentee), or is just plain curious about mentoring.
Not many years ago, few educators would have fit into any of the above categories. Mentoring—if it existed at all in the culture of a school—was initiated either as an informal response to a new teacher seeking help or as assistance offered to a new teacher by an experienced colleague willing to share his or her expertise. In contrast, other professionals, like doctors and lawyers, and tradespeople, like plumbers and electricians, have been inducted into their respective fields through formal internships or by serving as apprentices “paying their dues”—both examples of programs in which novices are formally paired with mentors.
Although mentoring beginning teachers is not a new idea, over the past decade or two it has come of age—or at least experienced its adolescence. Its surge in growth has been marked with some moments of angst, but more often with emerging maturity. The evolution of mentoring can be measured not only by its maturation, but also by its proliferation.
As more and more schools and districts are establishing formal teacher induction and mentoring programs, committed leaders are seeking and drawing more and more upon proven and effective strategies and materials. I am pleased that since publication of its first edition and continuing through its second, this book, Mentoring New Teachers, has been among those most frequently used as a resource to support their efforts to develop strong programs.
[Page xii]I first became aware of the need for a new edition of Mentoring New Teachers when individuals and groups who read and used the book suggested that although the original material remains “right on target and extremely practical,” some modifications and additions that reflect recent enhancements in mentoring knowledge and practice would make the publication even more useful. Distinguished educators who reviewed the 2003 second edition of the book at the behest of Desirée Enayati, my editor at Corwin Press, provided insightful suggestions, as did Desirée herself. This feedback was gratefully received, and together with insights from my own recent experiences in and research about mentoring, provided the focus of and material for this third edition. This upgrade contemporizes previous material and adds a substantial number of new and updated strategies, exercises, resources, and concepts. Among these additions are sections on
- The nontraditional new teacher
- Classroom observation methods and instruments
- Tools to assess learning styles
- Teacher Mentor Standards
- Mentoring's role in induction
- Mentoring student teachers
- Linking mentoring to career-long professional development
I have also updated and expanded the annotated bibliography of mentoring-related publications. Hopefully, this extensive resource will entice readers to expand their thinking about mentoring and provide practitioners with additional ways to apply the skills, behaviors, and understandings associated with effective mentoring.Who Should Read This Book
This book is primarily for the person who already is a mentor and wants to hone his or her skills, who is going to be doing some mentoring and wants to do it well, or who hasn't yet decided whether to be a mentor and wants to know more about what mentors do.
Mentoring New Teachers is intended as a (1) self-instruction, how-to workbook for a serving or prospective mentor; (2) sourcebook for participants in and leaders of mentor training programs; (3) supplementary text for a seminar or a graduate-level course in educational [Page xiii]leadership; and (4) practical resource for a school district's administrators, staff development coordinators, and mentoring teams. Its focus is on the mentoring behaviors associated with four critical mentoring functions: relating, assessing, coaching, and guiding. A series of exercises—supplemented by anecdotes, commentary, and examples—spans several chapters. I have designed these exercises to help the reader develop practical mentoring behaviors and construct his or her own understanding of the critical mentoring functions.Overview of the Contents
I have organized the elements of what it takes to be a successful mentor of new teachers into eight components: an introduction that sets the stage, four chapters that present the details of what mentors do, a fifth chapter that links mentoring to career-long professional development, a sixth chapter that suggests ways to tweak the mentoring environment, and a collection of resources that provide rich supplementary materials. After reading this book, working through its exercises, and examining its resources, you will have gained a comprehensive perspective of mentoring, a set of basic mentoring skills and tools, and a variety of practical strategies for applying mentoring's functional behaviors.
The introduction discusses what mentors do and why. It elicits from your own and others' experiences the behaviors consistent with good mentoring. Four critical mentoring functions—relating, assessing, coaching, and guiding—are introduced. The introduction emphasizes the importance of training experienced teachers to use the behaviors associated with these functions and clarifies the differences, as well as similarities, between mentoring and supervising.
Chapter 1, “Relating,” stresses the important part a relationship plays in the mentoring process. Through a set of introspective exercises, you learn ways to establish trust and to pay attention to such nonverbal communication as thoughts, feelings, and body language—behaviors that help build and maintain a professionally productive relationship with a mentee. It also elaborates on the issue of confidentiality and provides insight associated with mentoring student teachers.
Chapter 2, “Assessing,” provides you with a variety of ways to gather and diagnose data about a mentee's teaching, learning, and [Page xiv]acculturation needs and preferences. The specific needs of the non-traditional new teacher are discussed. Exercises and suggestions help you determine how your mentee receives and processes information. The chapter describes how the assessing function can help you make informed mentoring decisions.
Chapter 3, “Coaching,” familiarizes you with classroom observation and pre- and postobservation conferencing strategies. A series of exercises clarifies and provides the opportunity to practice behaviors that you need to help a mentee reflect on his or her performance and make decisions about his or her teaching.
Chapter 4, “Guiding,” provides ways to wean a mentee from dependence on a mentor. The chapter systematically guides you through the process of directing a mentee's journey from unseasoned neophyte to self-reliant practitioner. It discusses and provides opportunities to practice diagnosing a mentee's ability and motivation levels in relation to a given situation and to use appropriate behaviors both to address the situation and move the mentee to a higher level.
Chapter 5, “Mentoring's Legacy,” honors mentoring's responsibility to introduce new teachers to career-long professional development. Featured is a case study of a new teacher going through a structured process that builds his capacity to take responsibility for his own career-long professional growth.
Chapter 6, “Tips and Observations,” offers a variety of actions and understandings that make mentoring more effective and more gratifying.
The resources at the end of the book include a peer-reviewed set of Teacher Mentor Standards (Resource A); an instrument for determining preferred learning styles (Resource B); the Mentor Inquiry Process—a professional development self-guide for experienced mentors (Resource C); the Connecticut Competency Instrument, which describes the teaching competencies expected of a beginning teacher that are observable in the teacher's classroom (Resource D); and an extensive annotated bibliography of mentoring-related publications (Resource E).Acknowledgments
It is with a great deal of gratitude and appreciation that I acknowledge the time, energy, and considerable expertise the following colleagues devoted to the critical review, field testing, and application [Page xv]of material in this manuscript. Their comments, suggestions, and insights were most appropriate and many were incorporated into the final version.
- Christine L. Brown, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Glastonbury, Connecticut Public Schools
- William Collins, PreK–6 School Principal, Massachusetts
- Kaye Dean, Elementary School Principal, Arizona
- Randall Furash-Stewart, Middle School Teacher, Orange, MA, and The Teachers' Loft, Holyoke, MA
- Tom Ganser, Director of the Office of Field Experiences and Associate Professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at University of Wisconsin–Whitewater
- Norma Gluck, Regent Emeritus, New York State Department of Education
- Judy Katzman, Adjunct, Neag School of Education, University of Connecticut
- Priscilla Miller, Director, Center for Teacher Education and Research, Westfield (MA) State College
- Robert Pauker, Educational Consultant
- Sue Teece, Induction and Mentoring Coordinator, and the entire Mentoring Team at the William E. Norris School, Southampton, MA
I especially wish to thank my wife, Mary, for her patience and support and Dr. Gerald N. Tirozzi, Executive Director, National Association of Secondary School Principals, for his advice, encouragement, and support over the years.Northampton, MA
Corwin Press gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:
- Kathy Grover, Assistant Superintendent
- Clever R-V School District
- Clever, MO
- Jo Lane P. Hall, Lead Teacher
- Center for Knowledge [Page xvi]
- Richland School District
- Columbia, SC
- Debra Pitton, Professor of Education
- Gustavus Adolphus College
- Saint Peter, MN
- Denise Rives, Educational Consultant
- Region 18 Education Service Center
- Midland, TX
- Erin Rivers, English Teacher
- Shawnee Mission North
- Overland Park, KS
- Joy Rose, Retired Principal
- Westerville, OH
- Sharilyn C. Steadman, Assistant Professor
- Florida State University
- Tallahassee, FL
About the Author[Page xvii]
Hal Portner is a former K–12 teacher and administrator. He was Assistant Director of the SummerMath program for high school women and their teachers at Mount Holyoke College; and for 24 years, he was a teacher and then administrator in two Connecticut public school districts. He holds an MEd from the University of Michigan and a sixth-year Certificate of Advanced Graduate Study in education administration from the University of Connecticut. For three years, he was with the University of Massachusetts EdD Educational Leadership Program. From 1985 to 1995, he was a member of the Connecticut State Department of Education's Bureau of Certification and Professional Development, where, among other responsibilities, he served as Coordinator of the Connecticut Institute for Teaching and Learning and worked closely with school districts to develop and carry out professional development and teacher evaluation plans and programs.
Portner writes, develops materials, trains mentors, facilitates the development of new-teacher and peer-mentoring programs, and consults for school districts and other educational organizations and institutions. In addition to Mentoring New Teachers, he is the author of Training Mentors Is Not Enough: Everything Else Schools and Districts Need to Do (2001); Being Mentored: A Guide for Protégés (2002); and Workshops That Really Work: The ABCs of Designing and Delivering Sensational Presentations (2005); and editor of Teacher Mentoring and Induction: The State of the Art and Beyond (2005)—all published by Corwin Press.[Page xviii]
Resource A: Teacher Mentor Standards[Page 97]Core Propositions
Effective mentors are committed to their protégés' professional development.
Effective mentors understand how their protégés learn and act on the belief that their protégés can learn to teach better. They adjust their practice based on observation and knowledge of their protégés' interests, abilities, skills, and knowledge.
Effective mentors incorporate current research in and theories of relating, assessing, coaching/guiding, and supporting in their practice. They are aware of the influence of context and culture on behavior. They facilitate development of their protégés' instructional ability, content knowledge, and understanding of student learning.
Effective mentors know, apply, monitor, and adjust their mentoring strategies.
Effective mentors have a specialized knowledge base, honed application skills, and a varied assortment of adjustment strategies. They appreciate how knowledge in their craft is created, organized, linked to other teacher induction efforts, and applied to real-world settings.
Effective mentors understand where difficulties are likely to arise and modify their practice accordingly. Their mentoring repertoire allows them to create multiple paths to problem identification and solution. They are adept at bringing protégés to the point at which they can pose and solve their own problems.
Effective mentors think systematically about their mentoring practice and learn from experience.
Effective mentors are models of accomplished, self-reliant educators, exemplifying the attributes they seek to inspire in protégés—the capacities that are prerequisites for intellectual growth: the [Page 98]abilities to reason and take multiple perspectives, be creative and take risks, and adopt an experimental and problem-solving orientation.
Effective mentors draw on their knowledge of adult development; subject matter knowledge, curriculum, and pedagogy; and their understanding of their protégés in order to make principled and informed judgments about sound practice. Their decisions are not only grounded in the literature, but also in their experience.
Striving to strengthen their effectiveness, effective mentors critically examine their practice and seek to expand their repertoire; deepen their knowledge; sharpen their judgment; and adapt their field application to new findings, ideas, and theories.Teacher Mentor StandardsStandard I: Context
Effective mentors plan and monitor their behaviors relative to physical and psychological settings that reflect local culture and environment. Mentor activities are appropriately and effectively timed and are aligned with the mission and goals of the school and district. Mentors intentionally act to make their mentoring relationships examples of the kind of norms and positive colleagueship desired in the wider culture of their organization.Standard II: Content
Effective mentors incorporate into their practice applications designed to meet the assessed professional needs of their protégés. These strategies are based on the principles of adult learning, teacher development, interpersonal communication, coaching, and best practices in mentoring. Wherever possible, mentors use models of effective instruction of students with their protégés, so the protégé experiences the engaging power of effective instruction.Standard III: Process
Effective mentors gather formal and informal data that describes their protégés' professional performance and how it is evolving based on a model of teacher development that is grounded in research. They [Page 99]apply their knowledge base, application skills, and mentoring expertise based on analysis of those data with the goal of facilitating the protégé's development.Standard IV: Adjustment
Effective mentors continually seek to add to their knowledge base and application skills. They regularly collect and reflect on data about the protégé's professional growth, the resulting student learning, and their influence on these factors. They modify their practice to ensure that their mentoring is developmentally appropriate for the protégé and to improve protégé and student performance.Standard V: Collaboration
Effective mentors know that the diverse strengths of a team effort exceed those of any individual. Therefore, they assess their own mentoring strengths and support and promote the involvement of others in their protégés' development, and then they monitor the effectiveness of the array of assistance and facilitate increasing the team's impact. They also help varied communities understand the role of teacher induction and mentoring and—to the extent possible—they involve these communities in the process.Standard VI: Contribution
Effective mentors seek out and participate in opportunities to advance knowledge and contribute to improving practice among mentoring colleagues and within the field of mentoring.Source: © 2002 by Hal Portner, Jean Casey, Ann Claunch, and Barry Sweeny. Unpublished.
Resource B: Learning Style Inventory: Discovering How You Learn Best[Page 100]
Human beings possess five senses—seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting, and smelling. We use these senses to acquire information about the world around us. But we do not all rely on these senses in the same way or to the same degree. This is also true in the acquisition of knowledge. To gain a better understanding of yourself as a learner, you need to evaluate the way you prefer to learn. We all should develop a learning style that will enhance our learning potential. The following evaluation, based on the Barsch Learning Style Inventory, is a short, quick way of assessing your learning style.Table B.1 Assessing Your Learning Style
[Page 102]To determine your learning style preference score, match your responses to the questions above with the corresponding item number below. Place the point value on the line next to the number. Finally, add the points in each column to obtain the preference scores under each heading. For example, if you responded to Question 1 with Sometimes, then place a three (3) in the space corresponding to item number 1 in the middle (Auditory) column.Table B.2 Determining Your Preference Score
Resource C: Mentor's Inquiry Process for Experienced Mentors[Page 103]
The Mentor's Inquiry Process (MIP) is a guide to assist you, an experienced mentor, to enhance and fine-tune your mentoring knowledge, skills, and effectiveness. MIP will help you identify a mentoring-related independent study project and plan the steps you will take to carry it out. Since MIP is a process that allows you to take responsibility for your own learning, you will set your own parameters and time line.
The questions below are intended to stimulate reflection about your mentoring experiences and your thinking about what aspect(s) of your mentoring role you would like to develop further. You might want to write your reflections and thoughts in your journal.
- What, to you, is the most enjoyable aspect of mentoring? Why?
- What is the most stressful? Why?
- Is your mentee motivated by and cooperative in the process? What makes you think so?
- If you were to describe your major responsibility as a mentor, what would you say?
- Do you know enough about your mentees and their classroom performance to mentor them effectively?
- Which of your mentoring abilities is the strongest? Weakest?[Page 104]
- Do you have a good handle on your mentee's professional needs and what to do to help him/her address them?
- How do you
- decide how you will work with your mentee?
- evaluate the effectiveness of your mentoring?
- use technology and other resources in the mentoring process?
- involve other people in your mentoring?
- incorporate your work as a mentor with other aspects of your work as an educator?
Note: Even though this process can be done independently, you are encouraged to collaborate with your mentoring colleagues in both its planning and implementation stages.Focus
Reflect on the way things are now in comparison with the way you would like them to be. If there is a difference between these two conditions, and that difference bothers you, you probably have identified a significant focus for your project. Write below, in the form of a question, the general focus or topic you would like to pursue. For example: How might I add structure to the classroom observation process?
______What Will it Be like?
Imagine that you have successfully solved the problem. Describe that ideal situation. What is happening differently than before? What do you see, hear, smell, taste, feel while carrying it out? What are [Page 105]others saying and doing? What are you saying and doing? Using present tense, write your description below.
Consider the gaps that need to be filled in your abilities, knowledge, skills, and/or understandings in order to address your focus question and to be more specific in how you envision the results of your project. For example: What kind of observation instruments are there? How can I find out how other mentors structure their classroom observations?
List several activities you will undertake that will fill those gaps and lead to the realization of your idealized situation. For each activity, estimate start and end dates and list the resource(s) you will consult to accomplish the task. This log will serve as a handy reminder and checklist. You will have the satisfaction of crossing off each activity as it is completed.
______[Page 106]What are Your Chances of Completing the Activities?
Do you have or can you get what you might need to complete your inquiry in the time you've allowed? Consider the following resources. Will you have enough …
- Access to people (who, when, how)?
- Materials (what and who supplies them)?
- Equipment (school's, yours, others)?
- Literature/research (Internet, library, other sources)?
- Time (personal, professional)?
- Personal wherewithal (mental, physical, emotional)?
______[Page 107]When Do You Want it?
What is a realistic date by which you would like to have the inquiry completed?Costs
What expenses may be involved? For example:
Does it Represent a Worthwhile Challenge?
- Travel ______
- Fees ______
- Materials/equipment ______
- Substitutes ______
- Other ______
Can you honestly say that although completing the inquiry will take some effort and stretching, it is achievable and worthwhile?
- Your project should be specific and observable.
- It should be realistic and achievable.
- It should be undertaken because you believe that it will add to the value to your mentoring efforts.
- As you carry out your independent study, you may need to add, omit, or alter certain activities or even the project itself. By all means, do so.
- The rest is up to you. The time and energy devoted to this need not be excessive, but it will be effective if well planned and implemented.
Resource D: The Connecticut Competency Instrument[Page 108]
The Connecticut Competency Instrument (CCI) was developed and validated during the late 1980s and early 1990s for the purpose of assessing the teaching competencies of a beginning teacher that are observable in the teacher's classroom.
There are several assumptions embodied in the holistic approach represented by the CCI that are important for mentors of new teachers to understand if they intend to use the instrument to inform their mentoring behaviors. These assumptions are the following:
- Effective teaching can take many forms.
- Critical dimensions of teacher performance that promote learning can be defined across diverse educational contexts.
- The competence of beginning teachers as decision makers can be differentiated from that of experienced teachers.
- Effective teaching is sensitive to cultural diversity.
- Effective teaching must be judged in the context of the teacher's objectives.
- Professional judgment is vital to teacher assessment.
The CCI consists of ten indicators organized into three clusters of competencies that can be thought of holistically as aspects of the instructional process. The clusters are (a) management of the classroom environment, (b) instruction, and (c) assessment of students' understanding. In each of these areas, the focus of the instrument is primarily teacher behavior, but the impact on student behavior in the classroom is also critical.
Following is the text of the CCI, reprinted with permission from the Connecticut State Department of Education.[Page 109]I. Management of the Classroom EnvironmentIA. The Teacher Promotes a Positive Learning Environment
The teacher is responsible for the nature and quality of teacher-student interactions in her or his classroom. The teacher's perception of students and their abilities directly affects students' responses, motivation, and achievement. The teacher's interactions with students should be positive and designed to enhance the learning environment. The beginning teacher, therefore, establishes and maintains a positive learning environment by creating a physical environment conducive to learning and maintaining both positive teacher-student and student-student interactions.Defining Attributes
There are three defining attributes of promoting a positive learning environment. They reflect the use of a variety of techniques for promoting positive teacher-student interactions and a physical environment that is conducive to learning:
IB. The Teacher Maintains Appropriate Standards of Behavior
- Rapport: The teacher establishes rapport with all students by demonstrating patience, acceptance, empathy and/or interest in students through positive verbal and non-verbal exchanges. The teacher avoids sarcasm, disparaging remarks, sexist and racial comments, scapegoating and physical abuse. The teacher also exhibits her or his own enthusiasm for the content and for learning and maintains a positive social and emotional atmosphere in the learning environment.
- Communication of expectations for academic achievement: The teacher creates a climate that encourages all students to achieve. Expectations for success may be explicitly verbalized or communicated through the teacher's approach to assigning tasks, rewarding student effort and providing help and encouragement to all students.
- Physical environment: To the extent it is under her or his control, the teacher establishes a physical environment that is safe and conducive to learning.
Research shows that effective teachers use management practices that include concrete, functional and explicit rules and standards that [Page 110]are established early in the school year and maintained throughout the year. Fitting consequences should be applied to both appropriate and inappropriate behaviors. Teachers' standards or rules may vary, but their use in the management of behavior should assist in effectively facilitating the teaching-learning process in the classroom. The beginning teacher will maintain these standards through clear and consistent expectations for appropriate student behavior.Defining Attribute
There is one defining attribute for the process of maintaining appropriate standards for behavior:
IC. The Teacher Engages the Students in the Activities of the Lesson
- Rules and standards of behavior are maintained: Either through explicit statements of rules or through responses to student behavior, the teacher communicates and reinforces appropriate standards of behavior for the students. The teacher applies fitting consequences when student behavior is either appropriate (i.e., consistent with the standards) or inappropriate. Even though a teacher's standards may vary, they should have the effect of facilitating student learning. A pattern of appropriate behavior indicates that rules and standards have been previously communicated to the students. A pattern of inappropriate behavior indicates that rules and standards of behavior are not being maintained.
The amount of time students spend on the tasks of the lesson is important because it is a reflection and outcome of the teacher's management and instructional skills. Research consistently shows that the amount of time students spend successfully engaged in activities relevant to the lesson objectives is positively related to student achievement. Conversely, time spent disengaged or off-task is associated with low achievement gains. This indicator assesses the engagement of students in the activities of the lesson.Defining Attributes
There are two defining attributes for engagement of students:
ID. The Teacher Effectively Manages Routines and Transitions
- Student engagement: The beginning teacher engages a clear majority (at least 80 percent) of the students in the activities of the [Page 111]lesson. Engagement is defined as students' involvement in lesson activities consistent with the teacher's expectations or directions. Although a high rate of engagement is expected, it is acceptable for students to be momentarily off-task from time to time during a lesson.
- Re-engagement: When students are persistently off-task, the teacher must attempt to bring them back on task. A variety of strategies may be used. A teacher's attempt to re-engage a student need not be successful; however, when unsuccessful, the teacher must make additional attempts to re-engage the student.
How teachers allocate and manage the administrative and organizational activities of the classroom has a direct bearing on the amount of time that is available for instruction, and the quality of that instruction. Whereas Indicator IC is concerned with the amount of instructional time in which students are actually engaged in learning activities, Indicator ID deals with how the teacher manages the non-instructional time. It is expected that the beginning teacher will effectively use the time allocated for instruction by managing routines and transitions to support the purposes of instruction.
Classroom routines are non-instructional, organizational, administrative or repetitive activities such as roll-taking, pencil-sharpening or the distribution of materials and equipment, although the latter may be in preparation for subsequent instruction. Transitions are non-instructional organizational or administrative moves from one classroom activity or context to another. Transitions may occur between instructional activities as well as between an instructional and a non-instructional activity.Defining Attribute
There is one defining attribute of the management of routines and transitions:
- Effectiveness: The teacher should provide effective routines and transitions that reflect planning, established norms and a sense of structure. When appropriate, resources and materials should be organized and available. In addition, the amount of time spent on routines and transitions should be appropriate for their purpose and [Page 112]the makeup of the class. Depending upon the nature and purpose of a routine or transition, proceeding too quickly may be as detrimental as taking too much time with the non-instructional activities.
Assessor judgment about the acceptability of teacher performance on the instruction indicators rests heavily on the clarity of the teacher's objectives. Beginning teachers must have clear and specific objectives for their lessons or for all learning activities. (Indicators IIA, IIB, IIC, and IID relate directly to the lesson objective.) It is important, therefore, for beginning teachers to fully understand what the students are expected to learn and clearly convey that understanding to assessors through the Pre-Assessment Information Form and Pre-Observation Interview. The Post-Observation Interview gives teachers an opportunity to indicate any changes made in their objectives or activities during the course of the lesson, or any unexpected classroom occurrences that could impact the observation.
There are frequent references to lesson elements within the indicators of the instruction cluster. These are discrete parts of a lesson, the beginnings or endings of which may be indicated by a change in activity, topic, or instructional arrangement.IIA. The Teacher Presents Appropriate Lesson Content
Research shows that teaching is most effective when content is both accurate and at a level of difficulty or complexity appropriate for the learners. The competent beginning teacher should demonstrate mastery of the subject matter through the representation and delivery of accurate content. The content of the lesson should also be aligned with the objectives of the lesson. Content includes, but is not limited to, lesson materials, student discussion, activities, practice, modeling, demonstrations, teacher presentation, and teacher questioning.Defining Attributes
There are three defining attributes for assessing the lesson content:
IIB. The Teacher Creates a Structure for Learning
- Choice of content: The content must be aligned with the lesson objectives. Teachers should not significantly deviate from the lesson content as specified in the objectives, unless the objectives or activities are modified during the lesson.[Page 113]
- Level of difficulty: The lesson content must be at a level of difficulty (neither too easy nor too hard) that is suitable for the level of students' cognitive development. Content should also be at an appropriate level for the students' social, emotional and/or physical development. The teacher will use vocabulary and language appropriate to the learners. The appropriate level of difficulty may differ among students, and often the appropriateness may be judged by student responses and behavior.
- Accuracy: The lesson content must be accurate. Infrequent, minor inaccuracies not significantly related to the content should not be considered in the rating of this defining attribute.
The beginning teacher is responsible for providing the structure in which learning occurs. A consistent research finding is that when teachers appropriately structure instructional information, student achievement is increased. Research shows that initiations facilitate student understanding. Research suggests that closures assist students in integrating and processing information, and practitioners and education specialists believe it is an important part of lesson structure. Lesson elements are discrete parts of a lesson, the beginnings or endings of which may be indicated by a change of activity, topic or instructional arrangement.Defining Attributes
There are two defining attributes of creating a structure for learning:
IIC. The Teacher Develops the Lesson to Promote Achievement of the Lesson Objectives
- Initiations: Initiations must relate to lesson objectives and help students anticipate or focus on the lesson content. The beginning teacher will provide initiations at the beginning of the lesson or between significant instructional elements throughout the lesson. Frequently, initiations preview what is to be learned, why it is to be learned, or how it relates to past or future learning. Initiations have a role in motivating students. Initiations may be explicit statements or may occur through established instructional activities or teacher modeling tied to the lesson objectives. Simply stating the activities in which the students will engage is not sufficient for initiation.[Page 114]
- Closures: Closures must relate to lesson objectives and help students understand the purpose of the lesson content. The beginning teacher is responsible for closure at the end of the lesson or between significant instructional elements throughout the lesson. Simply restating lesson objectives is not sufficient for closure.
Development is the heart of the lesson and the key to establishing meaning for students and achieving lesson objectives. It is in developing the lesson that the teacher organizes instructional activities and materials to enhance students' learning of lesson content. Effective development motivates and moves students toward the lesson objectives. In an effectively developed lesson, related elements are manifestly linked to each other, and the materials and instructional arrangements contribute to the lesson's momentum. Lesson elements are discrete parts of a lesson, the beginnings or endings of which may be indicated by a change of activity, topic or instructional arrangement.Defining Attributes
There are two defining attributes of effective lesson development.
IID. The Teacher Uses Appropriate Questioning Strategies
- Lesson development: Effective lesson development (a) provides an underlying order within and among lesson elements, (b) manifests a link between related lesson elements, and (c) leads students to learn the content of each element.
Effective lesson development integrates these three components into a conceptual whole that establishes meaning for students and moves them toward achieving the lesson objective(s). The content of the lesson element(s) must be related to the lesson objective(s).
- Use of instructional arrangements and materials: Materials and instructional arrangements must purposefully support the development of the lesson. They should be used to promote student interest and involvement in the lesson.
Questioning is an important aspect of instruction that stimulates and develops students' thinking and helps communicate what is to be [Page 115]learned. Questioning strategies also involve students, encourage the exchange of ideas or information between and among students and assist students in meeting the lesson objectives. Questioning may be explicit and verbal or may be implicitly embedded in lesson materials or activities. When using explicit questioning, the competent beginning teacher waits for and listens to student answers, effectively responds and incorporates those answers into the lesson. Questioning may be explicit and verbal or may be implicitly embedded in lesson materials or activities. Questioning includes any activity the teacher uses to obtain student oral, written or non-verbal responses to the content of the lesson.Defining Attributes
There are three defining attributes that are applied to assess questioning:
IIE. The Teacher Communicates Clearly, Using Precise Language and Acceptable Oral Expressions
- Cognitive level: The level of questioning must be appropriate to the lesson objectives. If the teacher is seeking recall of basic facts or concepts, then questions of a lower cognitive level are appropriate. If the teacher's purpose is to stimulate higher-level thinking, such as analysis and evaluation, then questions of a higher cognitive level are appropriate. In many lessons, a variety of questioning levels will be appropriate.
- Responding to students: The teacher should respond to student replies, failures to answer, questions, and/or comments. Where appropriate, the teacher builds upon student contributions to work toward the lesson objectives. Responses may include waiting, clarifying, refocusing, acknowledging correct responses, providing corrective feedback, extending, or prompting.
- Opportunities for student involvement: Opportunities for student involvement must be provided by allowing all students an opportunity to answer the question(s) and seeking answers from a variety of students. Opportunities may include student-initiated questions and tasks as well as teacher-initiated questions. Appropriate use of wait time allows all students an opportunity to become involved in questioning activity.
The quality of teacher communication is important for student learning. Teachers should provide clear presentations and explanations [Page 116]of the lesson content. Precise communication and clear speech should serve to enhance student understanding. Teachers are expected to model acceptable oral expressions.Defining Attributes
There are three attributes that define acceptable teacher communication:
III. Assessment of Student Progress
- Precision of communication: Precision of communication refers to the communication of meaning. The teacher must communicate in a coherent manner, avoiding vagueness and ambiguity that interfere with student understanding. Precision of communication includes giving directions.
- Clarity of speech: Clarity of speech refers to the technical quality of communication. This consists of the teacher's articulation, volume and rate of delivery, which must not interfere with student understanding.
- Oral expressions: A pattern of unacceptable oral expressions must be avoided. Incorrect grammar and slang should be avoided; however, it is acceptable for teachers selectively to use current popular phrases or slang to make a point, establish rapport or enhance the learning. Vulgarity should be avoided.
Assessor judgment about the acceptability of teacher performance on the assessment indicator rests heavily on the clarity of the teacher's objectives. Consequently beginning teachers must have clear and specific objectives for their lessons for all learning activities. It is important, therefore, for beginning teachers to fully understand what the students are expected to learn and to clearly convey that understanding to assessors through the Pre-Assessment Information Form and Pre-Observation Interview. The Post-Observation Interview gives teachers an opportunity to indicate any changes in planned objectives or activities made as a result of monitoring.IIIA. The Teacher Monitors Student Understanding of the Lesson and Adjusts Instruction When Necessary
The importance of monitoring and adjusting is underscored by research on teaching. More learning will occur when teachers [Page 117]regularly monitor their students' understanding and adjust instruction when appropriate. The two components support one another in promoting student understanding; appropriate adjustment is contingent upon sufficient monitoring and should not be viewed separately. The beginning teacher should monitor students' understanding at appropriate points in the lesson and adjust her or his teaching when the resulting information indicates it is necessary to do so. Lesson elements are discrete parts of a lesson, the beginnings or endings of which may be indicated by a change of activity, topic or instructional arrangement.Defining Attributes
The Indicator has two defining attributes:
Source: Reprinted with permission from the Connecticut State Department of Education.
- Monitoring for understanding: The purpose of monitoring is to see that students are understanding the lesson content and moving toward the lesson objectives. Toward this end, the teacher must check the level of understanding of a variety of students at appropriate points during the lesson. These points include (but are not limited to) the completion of a lesson element and after an adjustment resulting from monitoring.
- Adjusting when necessary: The teacher must use appropriate strategies to adjust his or her teaching when monitoring or spontaneous student response indicates that students are misunderstanding or failing to learn. Strategies for adjustment may include representing information, re-explaining a concept, asking different types of questions, and/or slowing the pace of instruction. The teacher will also use appropriate strategies to adjust when monitoring indicates that students have mastered the concepts being taught. Such strategies may include accelerating the pace of instruction, providing enrichment activities, and/or moving on to new material. When monitoring indicates that adjustment is necessary but not possible within the lesson, the teacher must acknowledge to the students the need for adjustment at a later time.
Resource E: Annotated Bibliography[Page 118]
The publications I have chosen to include in this bibliography are selected from among the many books and articles about induction and mentoring written over the last two and a half decades. The selection also includes writings that, although not specifically about mentoring, illustrate and expand upon the research and models that inform the functional behaviors associated with mentoring new teachers.
I have made this an annotated bibliography, rather than simply a list of references, because I want to entice you, the reader, to inquire further into various aspects of mentoring. It provides a comprehensive and panoramic view of what is available should you want to increase your knowledge base and sharpen your mentoring effectiveness.2005). Cultivating high-quality teaching through induction and mentoring. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.(
The material in this book is built around the recognition of the challenges facing beginning teachers in general and the special challenges imposed on new teachers teaching in an urban setting. Bartell draws upon her long-time involvement with the California Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment program to provide both a vision and set of strategies that translate induction policy into practice. In the course of the book, she provides insights into stages of teacher development, identifies characteristics of effective induction programs, and describes examples of best practices in mentoring. Additional chapters focus on standards-based teaching, reflective practices, and standards-driven assessment.2000). Mentoring beginning teachers. York, ME: Stenhouse., , , & (
Mentoring Beginning Teachers is organized around the discussion of a series of key questions: Why be part of a mentoring experience? Why do we need mentors? How do I prepare to be a mentoring guide and coach? How do I address classroom management challenges? How do I encourage reflection and professional development?
In the process of answering these questions, the authors provide examples of teachers' journal entries, anecdotes, and reflective writings. They also include recommendations for mentor/beginning teacher pairings, questions to open collegial conversations, and prompts to encourage teacher reflection. Finally, drawing from their own experiences, a group of mentors respond to questions from novices with practical ideas and suggestions supported by sound theoretical principles.[Page 119]2003). Mentoring across boundaries. York, ME: Stenhouse., & (
Part I of this book discusses and makes suggestions about some of the typical concerns of mentoring providers, such as choosing and supporting good mentors. It is Part II, however, that adds much less discussed, yet just as critical, dimensions that impact the mentoring process: the school environment and the personal and interpersonal challenges that may arise in the relationship between mentor and mentee. Specific issues the authors explore include age, gender, and culture in the mentoring relationship; new teachers in urban or rural settings; veteran teachers in new schools; working with at-risk students; and using technology to support mentoring.2003). New teacher induction: How to train, support, and retain new teachers. Mountain View, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications., & (
“First and foremost, we have written this book to share the stories of successful programs with you and provide you with a basic how-to approach—a blueprint for structuring [Page 120]a successful new teacher induction program” (p. vi). This is how Annette L. Breaux, a public school curriculum coordinator, and Harry K. Wong, a highly regarded speaker and educator, describe the purpose of their book. New Teacher Induction carries out their stated intention and does so in a colorful and reader-friendly format.
The stories of more than 30 successful programs, including several in countries other than the United States, are described through the book—many in detail, others as vignettes. Photographs, graphs, and forms illustrate and clarify many of the examples. The authors emphasize the importance of a comprehensive, coherent, and sustained induction program and provide details for structuring such a system. The elements of a successful induction program are described, along with a process for its implementation.
A sampling of frequently asked questions and an extensive reference section are included. The references consist of journal articles, examples of induction structures, information materials, and data tables.
Throughout the book, the authors convey their belief that “the inability to attract and retain highly qualified teachers is the most significant problem we face in education today, because without effective teachers, our children cannot receive quality education” (p. vi).2001). Supporting beginning teachers: How administrators, teachers, and policymakers can help new teachers succeed. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory [Available from http://www.nwrel.org], & (
The Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory is one of ten research and development regional educational laboratories supported by contracts with the United States Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement. This booklet is the sixteenth in a series of “hot topic” reports produced by the Northwest Lab to address current educational concerns. Supporting Beginning Teachers contains a discussion of research and literature, implications for policy and practice, and a sampling of how Northwest educators are addressing the issue.
[Page 121]Specifically, the booklet contains sections discussing the benefits of providing mentoring support and implementing a formal program. Also discussed are ways individuals can contribute to the program, suggestions for beginning teachers, special considerations for rural schools, supporting bilingual and minority teachers, consideration for policymakers, and teacher union support. Descriptions of mentoring programs in Montana, Washington, and Oregon are included as well.2007). From first-year to first-rate: Principals guiding new teachers (, & (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Although this book is written for administrators who want to develop an effective induction plan for first-year teachers, much of the material and discussion applies equally to the role and function of the mentor. The authors look at the diversity of beginning teachers and what those differences imply in terms of induction. They go on to identify problems beginning teachers face and examine the varied social cultures of schools and the difficulties teachers may encounter as they try to adapt their to specific school contexts. Guidelines for helping new teachers and supporting mentors are presented. The authors also outline a plan for integrating induction and career-long development.1995). Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(
Applying the principles of adult learning, Brookfield tells teachers how they can reframe their teaching by examining their practices from the perspectives of their own experiences as teachers and learners, the perceptions of their students and colleagues, and the lessons of theory. Throughout the book, he describes strategies and practical approaches to critical reflection, including the use of teaching diaries, role model portfolios, participant learning portfolios, structured critical conversation, and the Good Practices Audit—a process in which teachers search their experiences for good responses to common problems they encounter. Brookfield devotes a chapter to negotiating the risks and apparent contradictions of critical reflection and ends his book with an argument for the creation of a culture of reflection.[Page 122]1993). The art of helping ((7th ed.). Amherst, MA: Human Resource Development Press.
Robert Carkhuff's helping process begins with what he calls “the most profound step: relating interpersonally” and culminates with “empowering people to actualize their own human potential” (p. i). The seventh edition discusses the helping process in terms of the helpee's and helper's contribution to the process. The author also describes and provides examples of four helping skills—attending, responding, personalizing, and initiating—to which the main body of his book is devoted. A comprehensive list of feeling words appears in the appendix.2006). Induction malfunction: Leaving teachers behind. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.(
This comprehensive study showcases what happens to novice teachers, specifically at a Florida charter middle school, when a mentored induction program is purposefully and neglectfully disbanded. The book documents the points of view of three novice teachers who—despite efforts to collaborate, grow professionally together, and take lessons learned from the first year into the next—witness firsthand how easily promises made can be broken, how easily the building of collaborative bridges can be burned, and how hard incorporating highly regarded education theories into practice can be. By recording in detail the yearlong experience of these novice teachers, Chernyak paints a picture of realism about their trials and tribulations in terms of their professional lives and growth in an environment lacking collaborative support.1987). Learning styles: Implications for improving education practices. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 4. Washington, DC: Association for the Study of Higher Education., & (
Claxton and Murrell examine various approaches to understanding how people learn and classify these approaches in terms of personality, information processing, social interaction, and instructional methods. The authors then describe models that have been developed in each of the four classifications and discuss their potential applications.
[Page 123]Personality models discussed include Herman A. Witkin's Field Dependence-Independence Dimension of Cognitive Style, which determines the extent to which a person is influenced by the surroundings and the ramifications of that degree of influence; the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which considers the ways in which people take in information and how they choose to make decisions; the Reflection Versus Impulsivity model, which contrasts the tendency to reflect over alternative solution possibilities with the tendency to select impulsively; the Omnibus Personality Inventory, which measures long-term intellectual, interpersonal, and social-emotional development; and the Holland Typology of Personality, which posits six personality types: Realistic, Investigative, Social, Conventional, Enterprising, and Artistic.
Information processing models discussed are those by Gordon Pask, who looks at the way people approach learning in terms of holistic versus serialistic strategies; by Siegle and Siegle, who describe a continuum ranging from factual to conceptual learning preferences; by Schmeck, who classifies information processors by devoting more attention to the meaning and classification of an idea suggested by a symbol rather than to the symbol itself; by David Kolb, whose experiential learning model describes learning as a four-step cyclic process incorporating concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation; and by Anthony Gregorc, who postulates that learning occurs both through concrete experience and abstraction, either randomly or sequentially.
Social interaction models were developed by Mann et al., who categorize learners into eight behavioral clusters: compliant, anxious-dependent, discouraged workers, independent, heroes, snipers, attention seekers, and silent; by Grasha and Reichmann, who classify learners as independent, dependent, collaborative, competitive, participant, or avoidant; by Fuhrmann and Jacobs, whose model involves dependent, collaborative, and independent styles; and by Eison, who identifies style in terms of attitude toward grading and learning.
Instructional preference models discussed are by Joseph Hill, who maps and interprets the learning style preferred by the learner, such as symbols, culture, influence, memory, cognition, teaching style, and decision making; and by Albert Canfield, who is concerned [Page 124]with conditions of learning (affiliation, structure, achievement, and eminence) and the content of learning (numerics and logic, language, things, and people).
The authors suggest that by understanding our own and others' learning preferences, we can become, and help others become, more active participants in the learning process.1993). A conceptual framework to guide the development of teacher reflection and decision making. Journal of Teacher Education, 44(1), 45–54., & (
The authors have developed what they term “a conceptual framework that portrays the mental processes [of teachers who are] reflective decision makers” (p. 45). As part of the process of reflective decision making, Colton and Sparks-Langer see teachers considering the immediate and long-term social and ethical implications of their decisions.
The article touches on cognitive psychology, critical theory, and theories of motivation and caring, the background theories upon which the framework is based. It then presents the framework itself, which integrates cognitive, critical, and personal characteristics. The authors identify seven categories of knowledge in a reflective teacher: content, students, pedagogy, context, prior experiences, personal views and values, and scripts. The framework also identifies three categories of action related to decisions: planning, implementation, and evaluation. The authors contend that knowledge and meaning are constructed as teachers interpret reality in light of their professional knowledge base; that feelings have an influence on the ability to reflect; and that efficacy, flexibility, social responsibility, and consciousness supported by a collegial environment drive and support teacher reflection.2002). The mentor's handbook. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers., & (
Although The Mentor's Handbook addresses several aspects of mentoring, its major contribution is to the refinement of one of the basic mentoring functions—coaching. It does so through a Cycle of Conferencing organizer that guides the mentor through [Page 125]the process of deciding what to observe during a classroom visit, collecting relevant data during that observation, and using the collected data to improve teaching. Five methods for gathering observation data (Word for Word, Keeping Track of Time, Mapping the Classroom, Measuring Methodology, and The Sights and Sounds of the Classroom) are presented in a clear and logical format. The authors provide examples of the application of these methods and suggestions about how they can be linked to teaching standards and professional development.2002). Cognitive coaching (, & (2nd ed.). Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.
This truly comprehensive work—probably more than any other—has provided practitioners with the vocabulary, historical perspective, strategies, and ideal of the coaching cycle that forms the backbone of contemporary mentoring. The authors describe cognition and instruction in depth, as well as coaching basics—for which they provide a well-stocked toolbox of techniques. Costa and Garmston discuss the element of trust in the coaching process and offer ways to develop and maintain it. Among the resources provided are twelve principles of constructivism that the authors argue guide cognitive coaches.1988). Another set of eyes: Conferencing skills, trainer's manual. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development., , , & (
The authors present and discuss the techniques needed for effective cognitive coaching. Included are the conferencing skills of questioning, listening, paraphrasing, and probing for specificity. Activities that provide opportunities for practice are provided and a supplementary videotape is available.1998). Finding one's way: How mentoring can lead to dynamic leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press., & (
This book was written for school leaders who want to develop and enhance leadership qualities in themselves and others by means of [Page 126]the mentoring process. The authors see mentoring as having three functions: the development of knowledge, skills, behaviors, and values; career satisfaction, awareness, and advancement; and attention to personal and emotional well-being.
The authors discuss such pragmatic concerns as mentor selection and training and provide an overview of mentoring as a career-long process. Although the focus of the book is on the socialization and mentoring of principals and assistant principals, it also is relevant to teachers.Cullingford, C. (Ed.). (2006). Mentoring in education: An international perspective. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
This book is an academic critique of the concept and application of mentoring in Europe, the United States, and the Middle East. The contributing authors examine empirical studies, including case studies and analysis of current practice, with an eye to comparing differences between the theoretical and everyday realities of mentoring as it is practiced in various countries.2000). The mettle of a mentor. Journal of Staff Development, 21(4), 18–22., & (
The authors of this article identify and discuss six competencies of an effective mentor: understand the mentor role, initiate the relationship, establish a climate of peer support, model reflective teaching practices, apply and share effective classroom management strategies, and encourage and nurture an appreciation of diversity.1980). Neuro-linguistic programming: Vol. 1., The study of the structure of subjective experience. Cupertino, CA: Meta., , , , & (
In the early 1970s, Richard Bandler and John Grinder, by virtue of collecting and analyzing the communication styles and structures of successful psychotherapists, found themselves in possession of what they saw as a set of powerful and effective communication models. This book generalizes these models for use in other areas of human communication—specifically, business, law, and education.
[Page 127]The introduction and several chapters of the book describe in detail the structure and system of Neuro-Linguistic Programming, the mechanics and implications of its strategies, the form and content of its utilization in various settings, and rules of thumb in designing and redesigning its form.
Chapter 3, “Elicitation,” and Chapter 4, “Utilization,” are the two chapters most applicable to mentoring new teachers. Chapter 3 goes into detail about eye movements as assessing cues to sensory modalities and also describes the assessing cues of gestures, breathing, posture, muscle tone, vocal tone, and tempo of speech. Chapter 4 introduces pacing. Briefly, pacing is the process of feeding back to another person, through your own behavior, the behaviors and strategies that you have observed in them—that is, going into their model of the world and becoming synchronized with their own internal process—thereby building rapport and trust.2005). Mentoring new special education teachers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press., & (
This book focuses on the challenges facing the new special education (SPED) teacher and the specific support a mentor can provide such as collaborating with general educators, making accommodations, individualized education programs, and instructional strategies. Also discussed are issues of identifying and training SPED mentors. Most chapters conclude with Web sites for mentors and what-if questions for mentors to consider.2007). Mentoring new teachers through collaborative coaching: Linking teacher and student learning. San Francisco: WestEd., & (
The first chapter in this book concentrates on the conceptual shift of mentor-as-buddy to mentor-as-learner. It touches on the steps in developing a mentor program and discusses the elements of an effective program. Chapter 2 is about the mentor's role and responsibility, Chapter 3 puts into perspective the teacher's first year, and the fourth chapter takes the reader through the collaborative coaching cycle. A companion Facilitation and Training Guide provides activities, training agenda, and other resources to guide the designing and implementation of effective mentor professional development.[Page 128]1970). Body language. New York: M. Evans.(
Kinesics, as the author calls the study of body language, is based on the behavioral patterns of nonverbal communication. It can include any nonreflexive or reflexive movement of a part or all of the body, used by a person to communicate an emotional message to the outside world. Using a number of anecdotes and examples, Fast shows how both the delivery and reception of body language can greatly enhance and enrich verbal communication. He also warns that the cultural nuances of body language can lead to misinterpretation.
Included in Fast's survey of the topic are considerations of such aspects of body language as social and public space; facial expressions; touch; posture; eye contact; the movement and positioning of arms, legs, and hands; and how people—often unconsciously—may contradict as well as support their words with their behavior.2000). Mentoring in schools: A handbook of good practice. London: Kogan Page Ltd., and Herndon, VA: Stylus Publishing.(
The author is a lecturer and researcher at the University of Bath in England; consequently, the section titled “Further Reading” in this book includes many pertinent titles not usually found in reference or resource listings in American publications. The book's 20 chapters are divided into five parts: Developing Your Mentoring, The Process of Mentoring, Mentoring in the School Context, Contexts for Mentoring, and Developing Competence Through Mentoring. Included among these five sections are chapters dealing with, for example, structured mentoring, giving feedback, engaging in reflective practice, planning lessons with your mentee, mentoring within a subject area, and appraising competence. Each chapter ends with a summary of good practice.2000). Teacher to teacher: A guidebook for effective mentoring. Westport, CT: Heinemann.(
In Teacher to Teacher, Fraser describes and draws upon the experiences and principles that have developed and guided her as a successful mentor. The book suggests ways for a mentor to [Page 129]establish and nurture a mentoring relationship and help mentees with classroom management. The author also addresses the importance of reflection in the mentoring process; helping the mentee with the application of learning theories, especially active learning, in the classroom; and guiding the mentee on ways to work productively with parents.2000). How to help beginning teachers succeed (, & (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
The authors begin by identifying six pervasive difficulties many beginning teachers encounter that are major causes of the high rate of teacher attrition: unclear expectations, inadequate resources, isolation, role conflict, difficult work assignments, and reality shock. They go on to suggest twelve specific needs imbedded in those difficulties and postulate that the way to address those needs is through a beginning teacher assistance program.
Discussed in this book are ways to develop such a program. Chapters deal with the selection of mentors, needs assessments, forms, and summative program evaluation. A listing of selected resources for practitioners is included.2000). Peer coaching for educators ((2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
Peer Coaching for Educators presents in detail a five-step process for what the author describes as “a simple, nonthreatening structure designed for peers to help each other improve instruction or learning situations” (p. 2). The steps, which can also apply to coaching new teachers, are (1) request a visit, (2) visit, (3) review notes and list some possibilities, (4) talk after the visit, and (5) process review.
Also discussed is peer coaching's relationship to teaching portfolios, evaluation and supervision systems; how peer coaching can change school culture; and the roles of the various players involved in a peer coaching program.Graham, P., Hudson-Ross, S., Adkins, C., McWhorter, P., & Stewart, J. (Eds.). (1999). Teacher/mentor: A dialogue for collaborative learning (Practitioner Inquiry Series). New York: Teachers College Press.[Page 130]
Teacher/Mentor chronicles and draws insights from several years of experience by a group of teacher-educators, middle and high school teachers, and preservice teacher candidates working to remodel teacher education. Although its focus is on the teacher/mentor dynamics within the secondary school language arts milieu, much of the material relates to other levels and subject areas. Some of the situations presented in the book describe guidelines, activities, and problem-solving methods used. Other scenarios discuss relationships among mentors and student/beginning teachers. The book is written from the perspective of the teachers involved in the collaboration and provides a realistic taste of their mission and methods, as well as the outcomes of their efforts.1990). Induction of experienced teachers into a new school site. Journal of Staff Development, 11(4), 28–31.(
This article from the National Staff Development Council's informative journal highlights differences between novice teachers and experienced newcomers and suggests six areas that principals (and I would add mentors) need to address with experienced teachers who are new to the school: (1) a realistic view of the school, (2) the emotional aspects involved in the transition, (3) the informal socialization process, (4) appropriate reallocation of tasks, (5) involvement in important tasks, and (6) the provision of regular feedback.2005). What successful mentors do. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press., , & (
This book is subtitled 81 Research-Based Strategies for New Teacher Induction, Training, and Support. The authors present each of these strategies using the same format: the strategy itself, what the research says about it, how it can be applied, precautions and possible pitfalls, and reference sources. The strategies are grouped into ten sections or chapters, allowing the reader to readily pick and choose—if so desired—rather than read the book sequentially. The first chapter contains approaches for [Page 131]choosing the best strategies. The others have to do with what mentors need to know about new teachers to help them succeed. Groupings of strategies include supporting new teachers as they interact with students, manage classrooms and curriculum, evaluate students, develop teaching styles, work with special needs and diverse students, use technology, and develop relationships with parents and community.Hiemstra, R., & Brockett, R. G. (Eds.) (1994). Overcoming resistance to self-direction in adult learning. New directions for adult and continuing education, 64. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
One of the tasks of a mentor is to help mentees take increasing responsibility for their own learning. The intent of this publication is to help readers understand some of the sources of resistance to self-directed learning and to identify strategies to overcome such resistance. The eleven chapters are written by people who have carried out research related to self-direction in learning in a variety of settings. They explore myths that contribute to resistance; discuss key terms, strategies, and techniques for overcoming resistance; examine the literature related to the topic; propose portfolio assessment as a particular strategy; describe how self-directed learning has been used in continuing education by various professional groups, including physicians and architects, and for career advancement by power utility employees; describe how technology and psychometric instruments have been used to enhance and measure individualized learning; and suggest several aspects of the learning process over which learners can assume some control.2002). Being an effective mentor: How to help beginning teachers succeed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.(
After a discussion of the mentor's qualifications, role, training, and programmatic issues, Jonson asks readers to recall their pre-service training and first days of teaching. She provides and illustrates a variety of mentoring strategies, discusses phases of adult learning and of mentoring relationships, and presents some pitfalls and payoffs of being a mentor. Resources include month-by-month mentoring activities, mentor-mentee action plans, a framework of teaching competencies, a first-day checklist, and a supervisory beliefs inventory.[Page 132]1984). Experiential learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(
Kolb builds on the concept of experiential learning as it emerged in the works of Dewey, Lewin, and Piaget and analyzes its contemporary applications in education, organization development, management development, and adult development. Of special interest to mentors are Chapters 4—“Individuality in Learning and the Concept of Learning Styles”—and 7—“Learning and Development in Higher Education.” Kolb's Learning Style Indicator is described and discussed at length in Chapter 4, and the consequences of matches and mismatches between learning style and teaching styles in Chapter 7.1994). Using reflective questioning to promote collaborative dialogue. Journal of Staff Development, 15(1), 16–21., & (
Lee and Barnett contend that reflective questioning—a technique in which one person prepares and asks questions that are designed to provide opportunities for the respondent to explore his or her knowledge, skills, experiences, attitudes, beliefs, and values—is a skill that can be developed and used by educators with peers, clients, supervisors, students, and mentees.
This article, based on the authors' experiences teaching the skill, includes information about the origin of the strategy, describes various forms of reflective questioning, delineates conditions that support its use, and provides guidelines for formulating and asking reflective questions.2001). Mentoring matters: A practical guide to learning focused relationships. Sherman, CT: MiraVia LLC. (Distributed by Christopher-Gordon Publishers, in Norwood, MA), & (
In Mentoring Matters, Wellman and Lipton emphasize a critical aspect of mentoring that, unfortunately, is often underplayed by other authors: combining mentoring behaviors with contemporary teaching-learning theories. The book's nine sections provide [Page 133]strategies and tools to effectively support that concept. For example, Section I anticipates the month-by-month needs of new teachers and emphasizes the need for balance between support and challenge. Other sections offer a continuum of most-to-least directive stances for mentor-mentee interactions; present structured strategies to guide planning, reflection, and problem solving; provide tools to enhance mentoring skills, create emotional safety, and encourage complex thinking; and suggest ways to support the growth of mentees throughout their developmental stages. The publication contains a rich and varied collection of supportive resources, including rubrics for assessing the mentoring relationship, standards for beginning teachers, and portfolio development ideas.1990). Mentor-teacher preparation inventory and guide for planning and action. Boston: The Massachusetts Field Center for Teaching and Learning.(
This is a self-assessment instrument for teachers who plan to serve as mentors and is designed to be used before a mentorship begins. The instrument is divided into two sections. The first asks the teacher to summarize personal qualities and professional skills using a Likert-type scale. In the second section, the teacher uses the first section's descriptors to assess mentor preparation needs and plan for acquiring additional skills and knowledge.Massachusetts Teachers Association & Massachusetts Field Center for Teaching and Learning. (1990). The first year. Boston: Author.
In May 1990, the Massachusetts Teachers Association, in collaboration with the Massachusetts Field Center for Teaching and Learning, convened a group of first-year teachers to identify their needs. This is the 23-page report of the results of that process. The report is divided into two sections. The first summarizes the written and oral responses of the new teachers to open-ended questions about their preparation, experiences, successes, and failures. It then makes recommendations and offers advice to new teachers in general. The second section examines where the new teachers learned the skills and acquired the knowledge necessary to teach and how they would redesign the [Page 134]components that went into their preparation. Of special interest to mentors are the new teachers' reactions to their introduction to the school community; their formal orientation; and their relationships with administrators, veteran teachers, school staff, teachers union, and parents.2002). 10 traits of highly effective teachers: How to hire, coach, and mentor successful teachers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.(
10 Traits of Highly Effective Teachers is written with the results-oriented administrator and instructional leader in mind, especially those who want to enhance their ability to recognize and nurture effective teachers. The ten traits that the author has identified fall into three distinct categories: personal traits that signify character; teaching traits that get results; and intellectual traits that demonstrate knowledge, curiosity, and awareness. Each trait is described in terms of its critical attributes, research that links the trait to student achievement, and how mentees can be encouraged in their efforts to become effective teachers through application of these traits.
Resources include a set of graphic organizers, a list of the ten traits with their descriptions, a collection of teacher-candidate interview questions incorporating the traits, and a set of reflective exercises for each trait that can be used by individual teachers or study groups.1990). Fostering critical reflection in adulthood. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass., & Associates. (
When confronting new learning situations, adults bring their past experiences, prejudices, and assumptions. Because of this, they often have difficulty seeing new alternatives and adapting to change. This publication presents some specific exercises for helping adult learners reexamine deeply ingrained ways of thinking. The methods presented are based on what the authors call critical reflection, which they describe as recognizing the assumptions underlying one's beliefs and behaviors and trying to judge and justify their rationality in relation to the new learning. In addition to discussing traditional ways to stimulate reflection, [Page 135]such as journal writing, the authors present several less familiar processes including metaphor analysis, video analysis, and concept mapping—a schematic device for representing the relationships among sets of concepts.1994). Mentoring: A resource and training guide for educators. Andover, MA: The Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast and Islands., , , , , , , & (
This comprehensive training guide for mentoring was developed by staff from state education agencies in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont and staff from The Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast and Islands. Eight school districts piloted the guidebook and provided feedback for its modification.
The publication contains five sections: (1) Understanding Critical Components of a Mentoring Program, (2) Developing a Mentoring Program, (3) Preparing Mentor-Teachers, (4) Statistics and Stories, and (5) The Launch—Teacher Induction as the Crucial Stage of the Professional Development Journey. Each section briefly reviews the research and literature on that topic; suggests additional resources; and includes relevant activities supported by directions, handouts, and masters for overheads. Taken together, the 800-page loose-leaf compendium provides a systematic structure for planning, implementing, and sustaining a mentoring program in the public schools.Odell, S. J., & Huling, L. (Eds.). (2000). Quality mentoring for novice teachers. Bloomington, IN: Kappa Delta Phi.
The National Commission on Professional Support and Development for Novice Teachers was established in 1996 by the Association of Teacher Educators and Kappa Delta Phi International Honor Society in Education with the objective of making recommendations for improving and enhancing the policy, practice, and process of mentoring preservice and novice teachers. This publication summarizes the recommendations made by that commission, contains a summary of current induction programs in the United [Page 136]States, conceptualizes and furnishes background information on quality mentoring, and provides a mentoring framework to guide the development and assessment of quality mentoring practice.
The mentoring framework is organized into six dimensions: program purposes; school, district, and university cultures and responsibilities; mentor selection and mentor/novice matching; mentor preparation and development; mentor roles and practice; and program administration, implementation, and evaluation. Each dimension is discussed in depth and supplemented by activities to assist universities and school systems in studying the mentoring process.1999). The California mentor/teacher role: Owners’ manual. Kent, WA: Books For Educators.(
Based on her extensive work with the California State Department of Education and other educational experiences, the author provides thoughtful discussions about the role of the mentor, what makes a mentor effective, and the mentoring process in general. Descriptions of mentoring concerns such as working with adults in terms of brain-based learning, effective communication styles for adults, and various coaching models are supplemented by the judicious use of graphics and reinforced with reflective exercises. An extensive glossary defines the specialized terms and concepts used throughout the book.2006). Mentoring in action. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.(
Subtitled A Month-by-Month Curriculum for Mentors and Their New Teachers, this book walks the mentoring pair through a full year of exercises. Each month's activities are structured under sections labeled Plan, Connect, Act, Reflect, and Set Goals. The book's appendix provides a unique set of templates for quality conversations with new teachers in blocks of time ranging from five minutes to two hours.2006). Mentoring novice teachers: Fostering a dialogue process ((2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Mentoring Novice Teachers uses examples, role play, and especially dialogue to lead the reader through various mentoring skills and behaviors. Much of the book's emphasis is on the development [Page 137]of the mentoring relationship through trust and communication. Other areas discussed include the diverse needs of the mentee, developing a mentoring framework, data gathering techniques, and program evaluation. A variety of forms and sample action plans support the text.2007). Coaching and mentoring first year and student teachers (, & (2nd ed.). Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.
This book begins with a discussion of current mentoring attitudes and behaviors. The authors devote the major portion to eight “competency training modules” that are structured to present key factors mentors encounter in the coaching process. These modules are (1) Understanding the Coaching and Mentoring Role, (2) Promoting Collaborative Learning, (3) Nurturing the Novice: Active Cogitative Coaching, (4) Developing Your Performance-Coaching Skills, (5) Modeling and Coaching Effective Teaching Standards, (6) Modeling and Coaching Effective Classroom Management Standards, (7) Displaying Sensitivity to Individual Differences Among Learners, and (8) Willingness to Assume a Redefined Professional Role. Each module contains quotes the authors call “knowledge base highlights,” references they term “coaching boosters,” relevant exercises, and coaching and mentoring activities. The nine appendices include a variety of forms, templates, and checklists that support the book's focus.2001). Training mentors is not enough: Everything else schools and districts need to do. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.(
Training Mentors Is Not Enough postulates that a truly viable and effective mentoring program is tailored to the specific culture and beliefs of the local district and its schools; is built upon a broad base of commitment and participation from all stakeholders; is designed, implemented, managed, assessed, and nurtured within a formal structure of collaborative problem solving and decision making; and receives ongoing support and resources including provision for the ongoing professional development of its people.
[Page 138]The author identifies and discusses the key elements necessary to achieve these conditions: achieving commitment; putting commitment to work; working within the larger system; roles and responsibilities; policies, procedures, and particulars; professional development for newly trained mentors; and evaluating a fledgling mentoring program. Activities, strategies, and examples are provided for each element, along with explicit suggestions for customizing, planning, implementing, and managing them.2002). Being mentored: A guide for protégés. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.(
The focus of Being Mentored is on the understandings, skills, and behaviors needed by the potential teacher, the student teacher, and the new teacher who expect to profit from being a recipient in the mentoring process.
Discussion, activities, anecdotes, and examples center on such issues as how protégés can contribute to the development and maintenance of mentoring relationships; take responsibility and be proactive in the mentoring process; take advantage of invitations to observe others teach; ask for and receive help; identify what it is they need to learn and how to make decisions about their own professional development; seek out and create opportunities to exchange information and support with their peers; learn by trying something new or doing something differently; critically examine the implications of their experiences in order to learn; and contribute to their schools' programs, procedures, and culture.
Also featured is an annotated compendium of publications and Internet sites of special interest to new teachers.Portner, H. (Ed.). (2005). Teacher mentoring and induction: The state of the art and beyond. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
The twelve chapters of this book are grouped into three sections. Part I, Developing and Designing Induction and Mentoring Programs, describes the developmental processes, organizational structures, and philosophical underpinnings that make up exemplary teacher induction programs.
[Page 139]In Chapter 1, Tom Ganser explains that mentoring programs already have a history that can, in some cases, offset the need to reinvent the wheel when creating new programs or enhancing existing ones and emphasizes the exciting opportunities current research and experience presents for developing even more effective induction and mentoring programs.
In Chapter 2, Mark Bower describes the two-year program development process.
In Chapter 3, Harry Wong documents a variety of programs that eschew teacher retention as their primary goal and focus on teacher effectiveness and student learning.
In Chapter 4, Ellen Moir describes the Santa Cruz New Teacher Project (SCNTP) and what replicating SCNTP in several districts throughout the United States has taught us about the essential components of an effective induction program and the role of mentors.
In Chapter 5, Hal Portner contends that a major task for induction and mentoring program developers is to plan for program survival so that it can sustain and expand its vitality and positive impact on teaching and learning. He presents a set of three principles—systems-thinking, collaborative-doing, and committed-leading—that provide a framework that developers can use for creating the conditions needed to do so.
Part II, Mentoring Constructs and Best Practices, focuses on significant and emerging aspects within the larger context of induction and mentoring.
In Chapter 6, Jean Casey and Ann Claunch trace the five stages of mentor development from novice to expert: predisposition, disequilibrium, transition, confidence, and efficacy.
In Chapter 7, James Rowley articulates the qualities of the good mentor. Rowley discusses institutional resistance to mentor-as-coach, stresses the value of the process, asks policymakers to reflect on where their state or school district program is at the present time in terms of their readiness to embrace the practice.
In Chapter 8, Barry Sweeny argues that people who lead and participate in induction and mentoring programs must purposefully redefine the way they and their institutions use professional [Page 140]time. He offers a variety of strategies for finding, making, and funding time for induction and mentoring and provides examples illustrating the application of some of those strategies.
In Chapter 9, Laura Lipton and Bruce Wellman emphasize the power of mentoring relationships to foster improved student learning. They define the three functions of learning-focused relationships—offering support, creating challenge, and facilitating a professional vision—that distinguish them from other types of possible interaction.
Part III, Connecting Induction and Mentoring to Broader Issues, looks beyond individual programs and practices and examines their extended relationships and interactions.
In Chapter 10, Susan Villani maintains that school communities need to nurture leadership in many different ways if schools are to offer the opportunities for students and adults to learn and achieve at new heights. She suggests that induction and mentoring programs have the potential, perhaps more than any other initiative, to both cultivate and provide opportunity for such leadership.
In Chapter 11, Janice Hall contends that state support of local induction and mentoring is essential. She compares the involvement of states between 1998 and 2004, draws conclusions based on that comparison, and suggests ways such support can be strengthened.
In Chapter 12, Ted Britton and Lynn Paine describe the salient features of comprehensive teacher induction programs they have studied extensively in five countries: China (limited to the city of Shanghai), France, Japan, New Zealand, and Switzerland. Britton and Paine suggest that U.S. induction and mentoring programs in general can benefit greatly by taking a critical look at the components that make up those successful programs.
Each chapter ends with an exercise designed to guide readers through reflecting on the possibilities of applying the chapters' material to their own programs. Finally, Dennis Sparks reminds us that strong induction programs are the starting point of a continuum of professional learning that can extend across a teacher's career.[Page 141]Reinarz, A. G., & White, E. R. (Eds.). (2001). Beyond teaching to mentoring. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 85. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
“Mentoring as Metaphor” by Diane Enerson—the first of eleven articles/chapters by authors from academia—sets the tone of this book by advocating mentoring as a way to focus attention on the learner and on the process of learning. Although the volume examines how college and university faculty might mentor their students, much of the writing can be applied equally well to the mentoring of student teachers and beginning K–12 teachers. For example, one contributing pair of authors addresses stereotypes that can affect mentoring relationships and discusses how mentoring can promote understanding of diversity.2006). Inducting and mentoring teachers new to the district. Westwood, MA: Ribas Publications.(
This book is a synthesis of the author's years of practical experience recruiting, hiring, and inducting new teachers; running district orientation programs; and implementing building support teams. Ribas discusses information and details important dates and times that are important to a new teacher's success. He describes and illustrates classroom management plans and expectations, mentor training, and standards-based lesson planning. The mentor's role in helping mentees to work effectively with parents is also included. Other sections deal with observing and conferencing with mentees and planning for recruitment and induction of teachers new to the school or district.2003). Induction: Connecting teacher recruitment to retention. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press., , , & (
As the subtitle suggests, this book is written for administrators, teachers, and school board members who participate in recruiting, hiring, developing, and retaining new teachers. The authors present the process in a multiyear “blueprint” composed of five interlocking “building blocks.” The blueprint for each block focuses on its goals, participants, and objectives.
[Page 142]Block 1 has to do with preparing to recruit and retain; Block 2 with recruiting, interviewing, and selecting new staff; Block 3 with the first-year sequence of orientation, mentoring, professional development, and supervising new teachers; Block 4 with creating lasting connections during Years 2 and 3; and Block 5 with best practices for retaining high-quality professional staff.1999). The good mentor. Educational Leadership, 56(8), 20–22.(
The author identifies and discusses six basic qualities of the good mentor and suggests implications these qualities have for entry-year program design and mentor training. The six qualities are (1) commitment to the role of mentoring; (2) accepting of the beginning teacher; (3) skilled at providing instructional support; (4) effective in different interpersonal contexts; (5) modeler of a continuous learner; and (6) communicator of hope and optimism.2006). Becoming a high performance mentor: A guide to reflection and action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.(
In this book, Rowley articulates further the concepts he defined and communicated in earlier publications that focused on the essential characteristics of the good mentor. Among other devices in this publication, he incorporates vignettes, inventories, models, and questions for reflection to describe quality mentoring, mentor/mentee commitment, acceptance and understanding, patterns of communication, cognitive coaching, teacher learning, and inspirational behavior.2000). High performance mentoring kit. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press., & (
Produced primarily for use as a mentor training workshop system, this set of multimedia materials also contains a variety of pertinent concepts and practical material of direct interest to the practicing mentor, such as mentoring styles and behaviors and when to use them. The kit contains a comprehensive facilitator's guide; videotapes of discussions, mentoring strategies, and case studies; a CD-ROM with PowerPoint slides; and a participant's notebook.[Page 143]2003). Maximum mentoring. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press., & (
Covering pretty much all bases, this book takes the reader through the steps of specifying roles, rights, and responsibilities of mentors; understanding unique concerns of student and novice teachers; building relationships; collaborating with university supervision; tending to first-week details; articulating a vision of education; observation and feedback; implementing summative evaluation; working with a teacher in trouble; and growing as a professional. Topics are supported by exercises, forms, checklists, and activities.2007). Beyond mentoring: Comprehensive induction programs: How to attract, support, and retain new teachers (, , & (2nd ed.). Wellesley, MA: Teachers.
The authors present a detailed map for planning a comprehensive induction program for beginning teachers in their first three years of practice. The process's seven components take the reader through the design and management of the program; criteria for selecting and matching mentors with mentees; training, supervision, and support of mentors; services for beginning teachers; budget and policy issues; leadership and whole staff support; and program assessment. Strategies for maintaining and sustaining induction programs are presented along with the influence of induction in the development of a professional learning community. Appendices provide a sample plan, program calendar, and surveys; ideas for providing recognition; and a district self-assessment tool.Scherer, M. (Ed.). (1999). A better beginning: Supporting and mentoring new teachers. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
This anthology of over two dozen pieces by experienced educators—many of them mentors of new teachers—is an outgrowth of the May 1999 theme issue of Educational Leadership, “Supporting New Teachers.”
The six sections in A Better Beginning examine the needs of new teachers, new teacher induction, mentoring, comprehensive [Page 144]reforms, communication and instructional competencies, and attention to fellow practitioners.
The issues discussed in the various sections of the anthology include such topics as support programs for novices, the stages that new teachers go through during their first year of teaching, descriptions of a variety of induction models and mentoring programs, and ways to expand a new teacher's repertoire of teaching strategies.2008). Leading the teacher induction and mentoring program ((2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Leading the Teacher Induction and Mentoring Program addresses new teacher induction and mentoring mainly from the viewpoint of those who are responsible for its effectiveness. The book identifies and discusses various mentoring approaches and structures (e.g., formal/informal, individual/team, fulltime/part-time), developing programs and activities as well as people, and strategies for supporting and sustaining induction and mentoring programs. Sweeny uses the Concerns-Based Adoption Model as the basis for clarifying not only beginning teachers' needs, but also those of mentors and induction program designers. He details the gradual implementation of induction programs; describes the components of a “High Impact” induction program; examines mentoring roles and characteristics and their implications; and illustrates exemplary mentor training strategies. The author links induction and mentoring to goals for improved teaching practice and increased student achievement. Sample schedules, templates, and forms supplement many of the book's chapters.1995). Mentoring bilingual teachers. Occasional Papers in Bilingual Education, 12. Washington, DC: The National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education., & (
After a brief discussion of mentoring, the paper reviews the history and nature of mentoring bilingual teachers, examining how and why such mentoring differs from mainstream models. It goes [Page 145]on to point out and discuss at length such salient issues as certification match. It examines the impact of content on the mentor-mentee relationship, highlights concerns about the language and culture of instruction, looks closely at the correlation between language and cognitive development, and touches on the issue of transformation and power relationships. Although the paper does not go into mentoring in other content areas, the principles discussed may be generalized to apply to most disciplines.1999, May). Get on the team: An alternative mentoring model. Classroom Leadership Online, 2(8). [Available from http://www.ascd.org/](
This article discusses, describes, and advocates reciprocal, collegial teaming as an alternative mentoring model.2003). The mentoring year. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press., & (
This book presents a month-by-month litany of activities, strategies, rubrics, checklists, and templates for supporting new teachers during their first year.2000). The mentor's guide: Facilitating effective learning relationships. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(
The Mentor's Guide combines discussion and workbook-like elements to take the reader through processes that range from assessing one's readiness to become a mentor to ways to bring a mentoring relationship to a natural conclusion.
Eight chapters provide a framework for this journey. They start with a self-assessment and discussion of learning style and move on to preparing the environment for mentoring; understanding and progressing through the phases of a mentoring relationship; establishing mentoring goals, priorities, and action plans; listing protocols for addressing stumbling blocks; enabling the mentee; coming to closure; and regenerating personal growth through mentoring. An appendix presents a variety of tools and guidelines for those who administer and supervise mentoring programs.
References[Page 146]2006, February 14). Schools, recruiters try to define traits of future students. The Wall Street Journal, p. B6.(1975). The structure of magic. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books, Inc., & (2003). New teacher induction: How to train, support, and retain new teachers. Mountain View, CA: Harry K. Wong., & (2001). Supporting beginning teachers: How administrators, teachers, and policymakers can help new teachers succeed. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory., & (2007). From first year to first rate (, & (3rd ed.). Thousands Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.2002). The mentor's handbook. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers., & (1988). Another set of eyes: Conferencing skills, trainer's manual. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development., , , & (2007, August 27). With turnover high, schools fight for teachers. The New York Times. Retrieved on August 27, 2007, from http://www.nytimes.com(1980). Neuro-linguistic programming: Vol. 1, The study of the structure of subjective experience. Cupertino, CA: Meta., , , , & (2007). Mentoring new teachers through collaborative coaching. San Francisco: WestEd., & (1969). Concerns of teachers: A developmental conceptualization. American Education Research Journal, 6, 207–226.(1996). Preparing mentors of beginning teachers: An overview for staff developers. Journal of Staff Development, 17(4), 8–11.(2005). Promoting quality programs through state-school relationships. In H.Portner (Ed.), Teacher mentoring and induction: The state of the art and beyond (pp. 213–223). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.([Page 147]1974). So you want to know your leadership style?Training and Development Journal, 28(2), 1–15., & (2005). Development of an instrument: Mentoring for effective primary science teaching. Science Education, 89(4), 657–674. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sce.20025, , & (2007). Ask Ellen. Retrieved June 29, 2007, from http://www.edu topia.org/ask-ellen-june-2007(National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. (1989). What teachers should know and be able to do: The five core propositions of the National Board. Retrieved April 5, 2002, from http://www.nbpts.org/UserFiles/File/what_teachers.pdfNational Center for Education Statistics. (1997). Teacher professionalization and teacher commitment: A multilevel analysis. Retrieved September 1, 2007, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/97069.pdfNational Commission on Teaching and America's Future. (2007). High teacher turnover drains school and district resources. Retrieved August 27, 2007,2006). Mentoring in action. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.(2001). Training mentors is not enough: Everything else schools and districts need to do. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.(2002). Being mentored: A guide for protégés. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.(2005a). Success for new teachers. American School Board Journal, 192(10), 30–33.(Portner, H. (Ed.) (2005b). Teacher mentoring and induction: The state of the art and beyond. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.2005c). Workshops that really work: The ABCs of designing and delivering sensational presentations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.(2006, March). Teacher Mentor Standards. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Mentoring Association Conference, Chicago, IL., , , & (2006). Inducting and mentoring teachers new to the district. Westwood, MA: Ribas Publications.(2000). High performance mentoring facilitator's guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.(2007). Beyond mentoring: Comprehensive induction programs: How to attract, support, and retain new teachers (, , & (2nd ed.). Wellesley, MA: Teachers.2001). History of the Olympics (a lesson plan). Retrieved October 20, 2006, from http://www.lessonplanspage.com:80/printables/PSSHistoryOfTheOlympicsFullPlan25.htm([Page 148]2007). Teacher retention (a blog entry). Retrieved June 10, 2007, from http://blogs.edweek.org/teachers/new_terrain/2007/07/why_do_teachers_stay_1.html(2005). Afterword: The gift that one generation of educators gives the next. In H.Portner (Ed.), Teacher mentoring and induction: The state of the art and beyond (pp. 241–244). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.(2005). Mentoring. A matter of time and timing. In H.Portner (Ed.), Teacher mentoring and induction: The state of the art and beyond (pp. 129–148). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.(2007). Leading the teacher induction and mentoring program ((2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.1999). The first days of school. Mountain View, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications., & (