Men, Masculinity, and the Media
Publication Year: 1992
She can bring home the bacon, fry it up in the pan, and please her man: The popular media influence perceptions of women and their role(s) in society. But what of men? Indeed, men and masculinity have been the norm, the yardstick against which women–and the women's movement–have been measured. Although the development of men's studies has gained momentum, little has been published that focuses on the media and their relationship to men as men. Men, Masculinity, and the Media addresses this shortcoming. Scholars from communication studies, sociology, social studies, humanities, and political science investigate past media research on men and masculinity. They also examine how the media serve to construct masculinities, how men and their relationships have been depicted, and how men respond to ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Considering Men and the Media
Part One: Past Study on Men and the Media
- Chapter 2: Masculinity as Fact: A Review of Empirical Mass Communication Research on Masculinity
- Chapter 3: Masculinity as Signs: Poststructuralist Feminist Approaches to the Study of Gender
Part Two: Case Studies of Media and Masculinities
- Chapter 4: Metal Men and Glamour Boys: Gender Performance in Heavy Metal
- Chapter 5: Superman/Superboys/Supermen: The Comic Book Hero as Socializing Agent
- Chapter 6: Beer Commercials: A Manual on Masculinity
Part Three: Representations of Men's Relationships
- Chapter 7: Buddies and Pals: A History of Male Friendships on Prime-Time Television
- Chapter 8: From Good Times to the Cosby Show: Perceptions of Changing Televised Images among Black Fathers and Sons
- Chapter 9: Masculinity and Machismo in Hollywood's War Films
Part Four: Men, Media, and the Gender Order
- Chapter 10: When Men put on Appearances: Advertising and the Social Construction of Masculinity
- Chapter 11: Men and the News Media: The Male Presence and its Effect
- Chapter 12: Images of Men in Sport Media: The Social Reproduction of Gender Order
Part Five: Reading Mediated Masculinity
Research on Men and Masculinities Series[Page ii]
MICHAEL S. KIMMEL, SUNY Stony Brook
Contemporary research on men and masculinity, informed by recent feminist thought and intellectual breakthroughs of women's studies and the women's movement, treats masculinity not as a normative referent but as a problematic gender construct. This series of interdisciplinary, edited volumes attempts to understand men and masculinity through this lens, providing a comprehensive understanding of gender and gender relationships in the contemporary world. Published in cooperation with the Men's Studies Association, a Task Group of the National Organization for Men Against Sexism.
Editorial Advisory Board
Maxine Baca Zinn Robert Brannon Cynthia Cockburn Jeff Hearn Martin P. Levine William Marsiglio David Morgan Joseph H. Pleck
- Maxine Baca Zinn
- Robert Brannon
- Cynthia Cockburn
- Jeff Heam
- Martin P. Levine
- William Marsiglio
- David Morgan
- Joseph H. Pleck
- Robert Staples
- Bob Blauner
- Harry Brod
- R. W. Connell
- Clyde Franklin II
- Gregory Herek
- Robert A. Lewis
- Michael A. Messner
Volumes in this Series
Steve Craig (ed.)
MEN, MASCULINITY, AND THE MEDIA
Peter M. Nardi (ed.)
Christine L. Williams (ed.)
DOING WOMEN'S WORK: Men in Nontraditional Occupations
Jane C. Hood (ed.)
MEN, WORK, AND FAMILY
Harry Brod and Michael Kaufman (eds.)
Edward H. Thompson, Jr. (ed.)
OLDER MEN'S LIVES
William Marsiglio (ed.)
Donald Sabo and David Frederick Gordon (eds.)
MEN'S HEALTH AND ILLNESS
Cliff Cheng (ed.)
MASCULINITIES IN ORGANIZATIONS
Lee H. Bowker (ed.)
MASCULINITIES AND VIOLENCE
Copyright © 1992 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Avengers West Coast, Box of Alpha Flight, The Cannonball, Captain America, Captain Britain, The Daredevil, Excalibur, Fantastic Four, Incredible Hulk, New Mutants, The Punisher, Spider-Man, Wolverine, X-Factor, X-Men, and X-Tinction Agenda are trademarked and copyrighted by Marvel Entertainment Group, Inc., and used with permission.
Batman, Superman, and Wonder Woman are trademarked and copyrighted by DC Comics and used with permission.
For information address:
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Men, masculinity, and the media / edited by Steve Craig.
p. cm. — (research on men and masculinities; vol. 1)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8039-4162-5 (cl). — ISBN 0-8039-4163-3 (pb)
1. Men in mass media. 2. Masculinity (Psychology) I. Craig, Steve, 1947- .II. Series.
98 99 00 01 02 03 04 11 10 9 8 7 6
Sage Production Editor: Judith L. Hunter
An anthology is, of course, a group effort, and many people had a hand in helping to produce the words that follow. On behalf of the contributors, I would like to thank all those who assisted the authors with the preparation of their chapters.
In addition, special appreciation goes to Elizabeth George, who spent many tedious hours working to combine all the chapter bibliographies into a single list. Scholars who find the composite reference list a valuable source for their future research owe her their thanks.
As series editor, Michael Kimmel made many suggestions and contributions that have served to strengthen the work. In addition, his theoretical perspectives on men's studies formed the essential framework necessary to unify scholars from different traditions and backgrounds under a central theme. His enthusiasm and encouragement were also much appreciated.
At Sage, Mitch Allen was the guide who helped navigate the maze of seemingly endless details that must be attended to before a volume reaches the reader. I am grateful for his straightforward advice and assistance.
Finally, thanks also go to the University of Maine, which supported this project in several important ways.[Page x]
This volume inaugurates the Sage Series on Men and Masculinity Research. The purpose of the series is to gather together the finest empirical research in the social sciences that focuses on the experiences of men in contemporary society.
Following the pioneering research of feminist scholars over the past two decades, social scientists have come to recognize gender as one of the primary axes around which social life is organized. Gender is now seen as equally central as class and race, both at the macro, structural level of the allocation and distribution of rewards in a hierarchical society, and at the micro, psychological level of individual identity formation and interpersonal interaction.
Social scientists distinguish gender from sex. Sex refers to biology, the biological dimorphic division of male and female; gender refers to the cultural meanings that are attributed to those biological differences. Although biological sex varies little, the cultural meanings of gender vary enormously. Thus we speak of gender as socially constructed; the definitions of masculinity and femininity as the products of the interplay among a variety of social forces. In particular, we understand gender to vary spatially (from one culture to another); temporally (within any one culture over historical time); and longitudinally (through any individual's life course). Finally, we understand that different groups within any culture may define masculinity and femininity differently, according to subcultural definition; race, ethnicity, age, class, sexuality, and region [Page xii]of the country all affect our different gender definition. Thus it is more accurate to speak of “masculinities” and “femininities” than to posit a monolithic gender construct. It is the goal of this series to explore the varieties of men's experiences, remaining mindful of specific differences among men, and also aware of the mechanisms of power that inform both men's relations with women and men's relations with other men.
If masculinity is socially constructed, one of the primary elements in that construction is the representations of manhood that we see daily in the mass media. The media portray a wide variety of masculine images, informing us about the positive characteristics toward which we should aspire and warning against the negative facets of personality that we must avoid. Media representations tell us who we are, who we should be, and who we should avoid.
Steve Craig's volume, Men, Masculinity, and the Media, gathers together articles that deal with a variety of topics and a variety of media. Empirical articles range from discussions of men's friendships on primetime television and in war movies, to images of men in comic books, beer commercials, and heavy metal music videos. Throughout, there is a concern with two dominant themes in the recent social science literature on masculinities: power and difference. Several articles underscore that media representations of ideal manhood serve to perpetuate gender inequality; others explore the intersection of gender inequality with other forms of inequality, such as race or ethnicity. Other authors note the variety of images of men, and the ways in which other features of social life are called into play in the service of the construction of representation of masculinity. Masculinities are constructed through media representation, these essays suggest; changing the definitions of manhood will require a serious confrontation with images of power as well as structural realities of power in social life.Series Editor
References[Page 233]Abel, E., & Abel, E.K. (Eds.). (1983). The signs reader: Women, gender and scholarship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Action Comics. (1990, November). New York: DC Comics1979) Blacks’ attitudes and behaviors toward television. Communication Research, 6(4), 437–462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009365027900600403, & (1979). Media logic. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1971). Lenin and philosophy (B. Brewster. Trans.). London: Monthly Review.(1987) Television sound. In H.Newcomb (Ed.), Television: The critical view (4th ed.) (pp. 566–584). New York: Oxford University Press.(Amazing Spider-Man. (1990) Issues number 340, 341, 342. New York: Marvel Comics.1987) Reflections on “Magnum, P.I.” In H.Newcomb (Ed.), Television: The critical view (4th ed.) (pp. 112–125). New York: Oxford University Press.(1987) From menace to messiah: The history and historicity of Superman. In D.Lazere (Ed.), American media and mass culture (pp. 124–138). Berkeley: University of California Press.(1989) Working class culture in the electronic age. In I.Angus & S.Jhally (Eds.), Cultural politics in contemporary America (pp. 135–150). New York: Routledge.(1987) Alcoholic-beverage advertising: Its content and impact. Advances in Substances Abuse (SuppL)1, 267–287.(1983, May). Demographics, system constraints and sense making: An exploration of information seeking and use. Paper presented at the International Communication Association Convention, Dallas, TX., ft (1986) The look of the sound. In T.Gitlin (Ed.), Watching television (pp. 111–135). New York: Pantheon.(1985). Men's studies: A selected and annotated interdisciplinary bibliography. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited.(1976) The inexpressive male: A tragedy of American society. In D.S.David & R.Brannon (Eds.), The forty-nine percent majority: The male sex role (pp. 55–57). Boston: Addison-Wesley., & ([Page 234]1983). Images of life on children's television: Sex roles, minorities and families. New York: Praeger.(1977) The effects of sex typing and sex appropriateness of model behavior on children's imitation. Child Development, 48, 721–725. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128683, , , & (1988). Putting on appearances: Gender and advertising. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.(1972). Mythologies (A.Lavers, Ed. and Trans.). New York: Hill & Wang. (Original work published 1957).(1974). S/Z (R. Miller, Trans.). New York: Hill & Wang.(1975). Pleasure of the text (R. Miller, Trans.). New York: Hill & Wang.(1986). The World War II combat film: Anatomy of a genre. New York: Columbia University Press.(1990) Issue number 456. New York: DC Comics.(1970). La societé de consommation: Ses mythes. ses structures [Consumer society: Its myths, its structures], Paris: S.G.P.P.(1983). Simulacra and simulations (P. Foss, P. Patton, & P. Bertchman, Trans.). New York: Semiotext(e). (Originally published 1981).(1988). America (C. Turner, Trans.). London & New York: Verso.(Baumrind, D. (Ed.). (1973) Authorization vs. authoritative parental control. In M.Scarr-Salapatek & P.Salapatek (Eds.), Socialization. Columbus, OH: Charles Merrill.1986). Habits of the heart: Individualism and commitment in American life. New York: Harper & Row., , , , & (1987). Bond and beyond: The political career of a popular hero. New York: Methuen., & (1983). News: The politics of illusion. New York: Longman.(1982) Research perspectives on the portrayals of Afro-American families on television. In A.Jackson (Ed.), Black families and the medium of television. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.(1987). Is the rectum a grave?October 43, 197–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3397574(1986) Foreword inF.Fannon (Ed.), Black skin, white masks (C. Lom, Trans.). London: Pluto.(Blue, C. (Ed.). (1989) Structuralist analysis: Bill Cosby and recording ethnicity. In M.Real, Super media: A cultural studies approach. London: Sage.1984, September). Superheroes, super sellers. Madison Avenue, pp. 16, 18.(1983). The sporting woman. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics., & (1981). Impact of racism on white Americans. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1986) Sex role stereotyping in the Sunday comics: Ten years later. Sex Roles. 14(3/4), 141–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00288245, & (1988) The portrayal of men and women in U.S. television commercials: A recent content analysis and trends over 15 years. Sex Roles, 18(9/10), 595–609. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287963, & (1989). Masculinity and power. New York: Basil Blackwell.(1983). Cary Grant: Comedy and male desire. Newcastle upon Tyne: Tyneside Cinema.(1987) Introduction: Themes and theses of men's studies. In H.Brod (Ed.), The making of masculinities: The new men's studies. Boston: Allen & Unwin.([Page 235]1981). The complete directory to prime time network TV shows: 1946-present (rev. ed.). New York: Ballantine., & (1979). He A she: How children develop their sex-role identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall., & (Broughton, I. (Ed.). (1986). Producers on producing: The making of film and television. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.1990) The manifest content of pornography. In D.Zillman & J.Bryant (Eds.), Pornography: Research advances and policy considerations (pp. 25–56). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (1986) Race and gender in music videos: The same beat but a different drummer. Journal of Communication, 36(1), 94–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1986.tb03041.x, & (1990). Television and women's culture: The politics of the popular. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1984) The political economy of the television (super) text. Quarterly Review of Film Studies9(3), 175–182.(1973). The parade's gone by…. London: Abacus.(1990) Challenges to male hegemony in sport. In M.A.Messner & D.Sabo, Sport, men. and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives (pp. 173–184). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.(1989) Research on the study of television and gender. In B.Dervin & M.Voigt (Eds.), Progress in communication sciences, Vol. IX (pp. 1–41). Norwood, NJ: Ablex., & (1983) “Fantasy Island”: Marketplace of desire. Journal of Communication, 33(1), 67–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1983.tb02375.x, , & (1990) The affirmative character of U.S. cultural studies. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 7, 169–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039009360171, , & (1988) Paralysis in motion: Jerry Lewis's life as a man. Camera Obscura, 17, 195–205.(1985) The mass media and sex-role socialization. In J.R.Dominick & J.E.Fletcher (Eds.), Broadcasting research methods (pp. 267–295). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.(1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge.(1980). Women and the mass media: Sourcebook for research and action. New York: Human Sciences., & (1991). Class and gender in four decades of TV families: Plus ça change…. Unpublished manuscript.(1980). Prime-time television: Content and control. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1990) Prime-time fathers: A study in continuity and change. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 7(3), 275–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039009360179(1978). A rumor of war. New York: Ballantine.(1990) America's tragic metaphor: Our twentieth-century combatants as frontiersmen. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 9, 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639009383897(1987) Hard and heavy: Toward a new sociology of masculinity. In M.Kaufman (Ed.), Beyond patriarchy: Essays by men on pleasure, power and change (pp. 139–192). Toronto: Oxford University Press., , & (1984). No future: Youth and society. London: Heinemann.(1985). Urban rhythms: Pop music and popular culture. New York: St. Martin's Press.([Page 236]Chapman, R., & Rutherford, J. (Eds.). (1988). Male order: Unwrapping masculinity. London: Lawrence & Wisehart.1989) Reported proclivity for coercive sex following repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D.Zillman & J.Bryant (Eds.), Pornography: Research advances and policy considerations (pp. 159–184). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (1975) Reactions to marital roles in commercials. Journal of Advertising Research, 15(4), 45–49.(1978). The reproduction of mothering: Psychoanalysis and the sociology of gender. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1988) Genre and gender in the structure of music preference. Communication Research15(3), 282–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009365088015003004, & (1990, July/August). The image. American Photography, p. 82., & (1986). Sport in society: Issues and controversies. St. Louis: Times Mirror/Mosby.(1982) The influence of televised models on toy preference in children. Sex Roles, 8(10), 1075–1080. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00291001, , & (1989). Ball the wall: Nik Cohn in the age of rock. London: Picador.(1979) Television and the children of ethnic minorities. Journal of Communication, 29(1), 104–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1979.tb01688.x, & (1989) The rhetorical limits of polysemy. Critical Studies in Mass Communication6(2), 103–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295038909366739(1987). Gender and power: Society, the person and sexual politics. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.(1990). Love fast and die young: The construction of masculinity among young working-class men on the margin of the labour market. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Sociology, Macquarie University, Australia.(1990, April). The sons of Aerosmith. Metal Musician, p. 62.(1989) Face-ism and primetime television. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 33(2), 209–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838158909364075(1979) Doctor or nurse: Children's perception of sex-typed occupations. Child Development, 50, 590–593. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129442, , & (1972). Societal acceptance of the female athletes as seen through the analysis of content of a sports magazine. Unpublished manuscript (cited in Boutlier & SanGiovanni, 1983).(1974) Women in TV commercials. Journal of Communication, 24(2), 110–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1974.tb00375.x, & (1987, March). Marketing American masculinity: Mythology and flow in the Super Bowl telecasts. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Popular Culture Association, Montreal.(1990, November). The male image in network television commercials: A content analysis comparing three day parts. Paper presented at the convention of the Speech Communication Association, Chicago, IL.(1989). Home, home on the remote: Is male fascination with TV technology creating male domination of family entertainment?Media & Values, 48, 2–5.(1985). The official Honeymooners treasury. New York: Perigee., & (1980) Race, racial attitudes and adolescent perceptions of black television characters. Journal of Broadcasting, 24(4) 549–560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838158009364007([Page 237]David, D.S., & Brannon, R. (Eds.). (1976). The forty-nine percent majority: The male sex role. Boston: Addison-Wesley.1990) Positioning: The discursive production of selves. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 20(1), 43–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5914.1990.tb00174.x, & Harré, R. (1982) Sexist bias in eight newspapers. Journalism Quarterly, 59(3), 456–460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908205900316(1987) The technology of gender. In T.De Lauretis (Ed.), Technologies af gender: Essays on theory, film andfiction (pp. 1–30). Bloomington: Indiana University.(1988) Together we stand, divided we fall”: Social criticism and the sociology of sport and leisure. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5(4), 342–354.(1990). An examination of popular music preferences and functions by the contemporary popular music audience. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio University.(1992) Music, musicians, and communication: A personal voice in a common language. In J.Lull (Ed.), Popular music and communication (2nd ed., pp. 33–48). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1989). Rethinking communication (vols. 1 & 2). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., , O’ , & (Detective Comics. (1990) Issues number 622, 623. New York:DC Comics.1984) Feminist film criticism: An introduction. In M.A.Doane, P.Mellencamp, & L.Williams (Eds.), Re-vision: Essays in feminist film criticism (pp. 1–15). Los Angeles: American Film Institute., , & (1975) A gender profile of children's educational TV. Journal of Communication. 24(2), 110–118.(1979) The portrayal of women in prime time, 1953–1977. Sex Roles, 5, 405–411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287316(1972) The image of women in network TV commercials. Journal of Broadcasting, 16, 259–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838157209386349, & (1990) Conversion as persuasive convention in American war films. In P.Loukides & L.Fuller (Eds.), Beyond the stars II: Plot convention in American popular film (pp. 36–52). Bowling Green, OH: Popular Press.(1987). The question of pornography: Research findings and policy implications. New York: Free Press., , & (1975) Black children's perceptions of favorite television characters as models of anti-social behavior. Journal of Broadcasting, 19(2) 153–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838157509363776(1977) Black, white, white gifted and emotionally disturbed children's perceptions of the reality in television programming. Human Relations, 30(7), 609–621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872677703000703, & (1974) Heroine of the daytime serial. Journal of Communication, 24(2), 130–137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1974.tb00378.x(1981) Sex-role stereotyping on prime-time television. The Journal of Genetic Psychology. 138, 253–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221325.1981.10534139(1980) Sex differences in reinforcement and punishment on prime-time television. Sex Roles, 6(5), 683–694. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287489, & (1981) Children's perception of media-portrayed sex roles. Sex Roles, 7, 379–389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00288066, , , , , & (1990, April). Monsters of guitar. Metal Musician, p. 49.(1979). A man's place: Masculinity in transition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1983). Friends for life: The psychology of close relationships. New York: St. Martin's Press.([Page 238]1990, July/August). The bottom line from the top down. Columbia Journalism Review, pp. 30–32., , , , & (1988) Denial of power in televised women's sports. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5, 1–21., & (1990). Gender stereotyping in televised sports. Los Angeles: The Amateur Athletic Association of Los Angeles., & , & (1985a). Television and sex-role acquisition 1: Content. British Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 101–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1985.tb00669.x(1985b). Television and sex-role acquisition 2: Effects. British Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 191–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1985.tb00680.x(1984) Challenging traditional sex-role stereotypes via careers education broadcasts: The reactions of young secondary school pupils. Journal of Educational Television, 10, 211–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1358165840100104, & (1981). Pornography: Men possessing women. New York: Perigree.(1987) Women and television: An overview. In H.Baeher & G.Dyer (Eds.), Boxed in: Women and television (pp. 6–16). New York: Pandora.(1982). Challenging the men. New York: University of Queensland.(1982) Don't look now—the male pin-up. Screen, 23(3–4), 61–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/screen/23.3-4.61(Dyer, R. (Ed.). (1984). Gays and film. New York: Zoetrope.1985). Male sexuality in the media. In A.Metcalf & M.Humphries (Eds.), The sexuality of men (pp. 28–43). London: Pluto.(1988) White. Screen, 29(4), 44–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/screen/29.4.44(1986). What a man's gotta do: The masculine myth in popular culture. London: Paladin/Grafton.(1988) The romance of patriarchy: Ideology, subjectivity, and postmodern feminist cultural theory. Cultural Critique, 10, 19–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1354105(1986). Travels in hyperreality. London: Picador.(1969). The revolt of the black athlete. New York: Free Press.(1973). The sociology of sport. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.(1987) Race in contemporary American sports. In A.Yiannakis, T.McIntyre, M.Melnick, & D.Hart (Eds.), Sport sociology: Contemporary issues (pp. 194–197). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.(1983). The hearts of men: American dreams and the flight from commitment. New York: Anchor.(1984) Sex-role differences in children's identification with counter-stereotypical televised portrayals. Sex Roles, 10(5/6) 417–430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287558(1984). Television comedy series: An episode guide to 153 TV sitcoms in syndication. Jefferson, NC: McFarland., & (1987) The educational experiences of intercollegiate student-athletes. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 11(2), 15–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019372358701100102(1989) The de-athleticization of women: The naming and gender marking of collegiate sport teams. Sociology of Sport Journal, 6, 362–370., & Baca (1964). Shadow and act. New York: Random House.(1988). Deceptive distinctions: Sex, gender, and the social order. New Haven: Yale University Press; New York: Russell Sage.(1970). Black skin, white masks. London: Paladin. (Original work published 1952.)(Fantastic Four. (1983, 1985). New York: Marvel Comics.1988, November 9). For sale: A stable of superheroes. Washington Post, p. Bl.(1974). The liberated man. New York: Random House.([Page 239]1976) The politics of vulnerability. In D.S.David & R.Brannon (Eds.), The forty-nine percent majority: The male sex role. Boston: Addison-Wesley.(1976) Vietnam and the cult of toughness in foreign policy. In D.S.David & R.Brannon (Eds.), The forty-nine percent majority: The male sex role. Boston: Addison-Wesley.(1989) Images of men in media research. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 6(2). 215–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295038909366747(1988) Images of women in television advertising. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 32(2), 231–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838158809386697, , & (1989) Beyond the domino theory: Vietnam and metaphors of sport. Journal of American Culture, 12, 79–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-734X.1989.1204_79.x(1970). Love and death in the American novel. London: Paladin.(1986). Him/her/self. Sex role in modern America (2nd ed.). Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1982) A content analysis of beverage alcohol advertising, #2: Television advertising. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 43, 964–989., & (1983) The advertising and alcohol abuse issue: A cross media comparison of alcohol beverage advertising content. In M.Burgeon (Ed.), Communication yearbook (pp. 850–872). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1986) Television: Polysemy and popularity. Critical Studies in Mass Communication3(4), 391–408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295038609366672(1987a). Television culture. London: Methuen.(1987b). British cultural studies and television. In R.Allen (Ed.), Channels of discourse (pp. 254–289). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina.(1978). Reading television. London: Methuen. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203356623, & (1984, September). Heavy metal superheroes. Musician, p. 58.(1985) Thighs and whiskers: The fascination of “Magnum, P.l.”Screen, 26(2), 42–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/screen/26.2.42(1990) The great American football ritual: Reproducing race, class, and gender inequality. Sociology of Sport Journal, 7(2), 111–135.(1979). The history of sexuality. Volume one. New York: Vintage. (Original work published 1976).(1980). The history of sexuality, volume I: An introduction (R. Hurley, Trans.). New York: Vintage.(1985). Varieties of sexual experience: An anthropological perspective on human sexuality. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files Press, Inc.(Frenzied rock ‘n’ roll fans snatched up fire hoses. (1956, September 10). Manchester Guardian.1977). On sexuality: Three essays on the theory of sexuality and other works (A.Richards, Ed.). Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.(1978) Male and female roles in the lyrics of three genres of contemporary music. Sex Roles, 4(1), 51–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00288376, & (1989, August). Functional aspects of adolescent socialization through deviant subcultures: Field research in heavy metal. Paper presented at a meeting of the American Sociological Association, San Francisco.(1975) Traditional sex-role development and amount of time spent watching television. Developmental Psychology, 11, 109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076133, & (1986) Sex-role stereotyping in British radio advertisements. British Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 165–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1986.tb00715.x, & ([Page 240]1989) Gender stereotypes in Italian television advertising. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 33(2), 175–185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838158909364071, & (1961). The insecure offenders: Rebellious youth in the welfare state. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.(1986, Fall). White privilege and looking relations: Race and gender in feminist film theory. Cultural Critique, 59–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1354334(1989) A feminist paradigm for communication research. In E.L.Dervin, B.Dervin, L.Grossberg, B.O’Keefe, & E.Wartella (Eds.), Rethinking communication, vol. 2: Paradigm exemplars (pp. 75–87). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1988) Sliding off the stereotype: Gender difference in the future of television. In E.A.Kaplan (Ed.), Postmodernism and its discontents (pp. 146–162). London & New York: Verso.(1979). Deciding what's news. New York: Vintage.(1985). In a man's world: Father, son, brother, friend, and other roles men play. New York: New American Library.(1972) Violence in TV drama: Trends and symbolic functions. In G.A.Comstock & E.A.Rubinstein (Eds.), TV and social behavior (vol. 1). Washington DC: Government Printing Office.(1977). Television: The new state religion?Etcetera, pp. 145–150.(1989) A generalized graphic model of communication. In J.Comer & J.Hawthorn (Eds.), Communication studies (pp. 17–18). London: Edward Arnold. (Original work published 1956).(1990). Media, censorship and democratic values: Challenges for the 1990's. Panel and workshop presentations, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA.(1986). Television's mean world: Violence profile. No. 14–15. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School for Communications of Pennsylvania., , , & (1982). A choice of heroes. The changing faces of American manhood. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.(1986). A cycle of outrage. New York: Oxford University Press.(1988) Sex role in advertising: A comparison of television advertisements in Australia, Mexico and the United States. Journal of Marketing, 52, 75–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1251266(1983). Inside prime time. New York: Pantheon.(1986) We build excitement. In T.Gitlin (Ed.), Watching television (pp. 136–156). New York: Pantheon.(1987) Prime time ideology: The hegemonic process in television entertainment. In H.Newcomb (Ed.), Television: The critical view (pp. 507–532). New York: Oxford University Press.(1979). Gender advertisements. New York: Harper & Row. (Originally published 1976).(1990, January). Father time: Who's on the op-ed page?Mother Jones, p. 51.(1990, December 18). Free MTV!: It's not the nipple. Madonna's new clip threatens the sexual order of music video. Village Voice, p. 52.(1986) Television and the new black man: Black male images in prime-time situation comedy. Media, Culture and Society, 9(2), 223–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344386008002007(1984) Malfunction: A contribution to the debate on masculinity in the cinema. Screen, 25(4–5), 36–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/screen/25.4-5.36(1978). Learning about minorities from television. Paper presented at the Association for Education in Journalism Convention, Seattle, WA., & ([Page 241]1980) Black family interactions on television. In B.Greenberg (Ed.), Life on television: Content analysis of U.S. television drama (pp. 173–181). Norwood, NJ: Ablex., & (1980) Trends in sex-role portrayal on television. In B.Greenberg (Ed.), Life on television: Content analysis of U.S. television drama (pp. 65–88). Norwood, NJ: Ablex., , & (1980) The demographics of fictional TV characters. In B.Greenberg (Ed.). Life on television: Content analysis of U.S. television drama (pp. 35–46). Norwood, NJ: Ablex., , , & (1983) Sport and the mass media: General overview. Arena Review, 7(2), 1–6.(1987) Relections on the feminist critique of objectivity. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 11(1), 8–18.(1989) Out of the mainstream sexual minorities and the mass media. In E.Seiter, H.Borchers, G.Kreutzner, & E.Worth (Eds.), Remote control: Television, audiences and cultural power (pp. 130–149). London: Routledge.(1987) Intersections of power: Criticism, television, gender. Communication, 9, 273–287., & (1989). Sexual supervisions: Three French feminists. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.(1983). Class, sports, and social development. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.(1986). Television and sex role stereotyping. London: John Libbey.(1987). Marketing booze to blacks. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest., , & (1957) The new burdens of masculinity. Marriage and Family Living, 19, 231. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/348873(1990) How should we theorize gender in the context of sport? In M.A.Messner & D.Sabo, Sport, men, and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives (pp. 223–240). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.(1980) Encoding/decoding. In S.Hall, D.Hobson, A.Lowe, & P.Willis (Eds.), Culture, media, and language: Working papers in cultural studies, 1972–79 (pp. 128–138). London: Hutchinson.(1982) Culture, the media and the ideological “effect.” In J.Curran, M.Gurevitch, & J.Wollacott (Eds.), Mass communication and society (pp. 315–348). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1988) Brave new world. Marxism Today, pp. 24–29.(1989) Ideology and communication theory. In B.Dervin, L.Grossberg, B.O’Keefe, & E.Wartella (Eds.), Rethinking communication (vol. 1): Paradigm issues (pp. 40–52). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1990). One hundred years of homosexuality: And other essays on Greek love. New York: Routledge.(1990). Hegemonic masculinity in thirtysomething. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 7(3), 231–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039009360176(1986) Pleasure, ambivalence, identification: Valentino and female spectatorship. Cinema Journal, 25(4), 6–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1225080(1989). The science question in feminism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(1986, March). An interview. The Crisis, 93(3), 30–35, 45.(1984). The endangered black family: Coping with the unisexualization and coming extinction of the black race. San Francisco: Black Think Tank., & ([Page 242]Hargreaves, J.A. (Ed.). (1982). Sport, culture and ideology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.1986). Sex role-stereotyping in British television advertisements at different times of the day: An extension and refinement of Manstead & McCulloch (1981). British Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 155–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1986.tb00714.x, & (1984) Encouraging signs: TV and the power of dirt, speech, and scandalous categories. In W.Rowlands & B.Watkins (Eds.), Interpreting television: Current research perspectives (pp. 119–141). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1976) Sex-role pressures and the socialization of the male child. In D.S.David & R.Brannon (Eds.). The forty-nine percent majority: The male sex role. Boston: Addison-Wesley.(1986) A conflict of reasons and remedies. The Crisis, 93(3), 36–41, 46–47.(1987). The gender of oppression: Men, masculinity, and the critique of Marxism. New York: St. Martin's Press.(1988, March). Speaking the unspeakable: The historical development of organizations and men's sexuality in the public domain. Paper presented at the British Sociological Association Annual Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland.(1989) Reviewing men and masculinities—or mostly boys’ own papers. Theory, Culture & Society, 6(4), 665–689. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327689006004009(1992). Men in the public eye. The construction and deconstruction of public men and public patriarchies. London/New York: Unwin Hyman/Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203310748(Hearn, J., & Morgan, D. (Eds.). (1990). Men, masculinities & social theory. Boston: Unwin Hyman.1990) Representing television. In P.Mellencamp (Ed.), Logics of television: Essays in cultural criticism (pp. 267–302). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.(1980) Sex typing of common behaviors on television. In B.Greenberg (Ed.), Life on television: Content analysis of U.S. television drama (pp. 89–96). Norwood, NJ: Ablex., & (1987) The new species that seeks new language: On sexism in language and language change. In J.Penfield (Ed.), Women and language in transition (pp. 3–27). Albany: State University of New York Press.(1972). NOW says: TV commercial insults women. The New York Times Magazine, pp. 13, 48–51., & (May 28,1987, April). That certain subject. Channels, p. 43f.(1988). On bended knee: The press and the Reagan presidency. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.(1983). The role of rock. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall., & (1984). The television myth and the American mind. New York: Praeger.(1990, November 21). No more masculists, please! [Letter to the editor], San Francisco Sentinel, p. 8.(1972). Rip off the big game. New York: Anchor.(1980) School for sexism. In D.F.Sabo Jr., & R.Runfola, (Eds.), Jock: Sports and male identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1984) Do high school athletics pay? The effects of varsity participation on socioeconomic attainment. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5(4), 15–25., , & (1989) Are you on the “Nightline” guest list?New York: Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting., & ([Page 243]1983) Men and women as portrayed in the lyrics of contemporary music. Popular Music and Society, 9(2), 19–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007768308591210, & (1985). Speculum de I'autre femme [Speculum of the other woman](G. Gill, Trans.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. (Original work published 1974).(1988). Hollywood and the box office 1895–1986. London: Macmillan.(1989, January 22). Calling the plays in black and white. The Boston Globe, pp. A30–A33.(1983). The booze merchants: The inebriating of America. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest., , & (1983). Feminist politics and human nature. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allenheld.(1983) Power and knowledge: Towards a new critical synthesis. Journal of Communication, 33(3), 342–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1983.tb02434.x(1989) Gender and the information society: A socially structured silence. Journal of Communication, 39(3), 196–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1989.tb01052.x(1990) Feminist materialism: The challenge of dialogically-based theories of democracy. In ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.(1987) Men in feminism: Odor di uomo or compagnons de route? In A.Jardine & P.Smith (Eds.), Men in feminism (pp. 54–61). New York: Methuen. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203361900(1989). The remasculinization of America: Gender and the Vietnam war. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.(1988) Star trek rerun, reread, rewritten: Fan writing as textual poaching. Critical Studies in Mass Communication5(2), 85–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295038809366691(1989) Cultural studies and the sports/media complex. In L.A.Wenner (Ed.), Media, sports and society (pp. 70–93). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1988, February). TV's top mom and dad. Ebony, pp. 29–34.(1988). Women through time: Who gets covered?Journalism Quarterly, 65(4), 889–897. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908806500408, & (1982). Positive images: Breaking stereotypes with children's television. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1984) Sex-role stereotyping of nurses and physicians on prime-time television. Sex Roles, 10(7/8), 533–553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287262, & (1988) Media coverage of the female athlete before, during, and after Title IX: Sports Illustrated revisited. Journal of Sport Management, 2, 87–99.(1987). Rocking around the clock: Music television, postmodernism & consumer culture. London: Methuen.(1985) The real men on TV—and the wimps. TV Guide, pp. 4–8.(1987). Beyond patriarchy: Essays by men on pleasure, power and change. Toronto: Oxford University Press.(1983) Feminism, science, and democracy. Democracy, 3(2), 50–58.(1981). The Andy Griffith Show. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair.(Kimmel, M. (Ed.). (1987a). Changing men: New directions in research on men and masculinity. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.1987b). The contemporary “crisis” of masculinity in historical perspective. In H.Brod (Ed.), The making of masculinities: The new men's studies (pp. 121–153). Boston: Allen & Unwin.(1987c). The cult of masculinity: American social character and the legacy of the cowboy. In M.Kaufman (Ed.), Beyond patriarchy: Essays by men on power, pleasure and change (pp. 235–249). Toronto: Oxford University Press.([Page 244]1987d). Rethinking “masculinity”: New directions in research. In M.S.Kimmel (Ed.), Changing men: New directions in research on men and masculinity (pp. 9–24). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1990). Sonny's virtues: The gender negotiations of Miami Vice. Screen, 31, 281–295.(1985). Race relations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1962). Heroes, villains, and fools: The changing American character. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1987) The new masculinity of gay men, and beyond. In M.Kaufman (Ed.), Beyond patriarchy: Essays by men on pleasure, power, and change (pp. 120–138). Toronto: Oxford University Press.(1981) Still typecast after all these years: Sex role portrayals in television advertising. International Journal of Women's Studies, 4, 497–506., , , , & (1976) Violence and the masculine mystique. In D.S.David & R.Brannon (Eds.), The forty-nine percent majority: The male sex role. Boston: Addison-Wetley.(1986, May). Living with He-Man. Young Children, pp. 3–9., , & (1988). The postmodern scene: Excremental culture and hyperaesthetics. London: Macmillan., & (1982a). The body in the machine. In A.Kuhn (Ed.), Women's pictures: Feminism and cinema (pp. 109–128). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1982b). Women's pictures: Feminism and cinema. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1985) Lawless seeing. In A.Kuhn (Ed.), The power of the image: Essays on representation and sexuality (pp. 19–47). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1989) The body and cinema: Some problems for feminism. Wide Angle11(4), 52–61.(1974). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1977a). Ecrits. A selection (A. Sheridan, Trans.). London: Tavistock. (Original work published 1966).(1977b). The four fundamental concepts of psychoanalysis (A. Sheridan, Trans.). (Original work published 1973). London: Hogarth.(1990) Professional sports: The 1990 racial report card. Center for the Study of Sport in Society Digest, 2(2), 4–5., & (1981) Television uses and gratifications among black children, teenagers and adults. Journal of Broadcasting, 25(2), 203–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838158109386443, & (1990). Unreliable sources. New York: Lyle Stuart., & (1989) Violence, death and masculinity. Vietnam Generation, 1, 168–189.(1990, Fall). This year's role model. Newsweek [Special Issue], pp. 44–47.(Legends of the Dark Knight. (1990) Issue number 12. New York. DC Comics.1989) The new man: That's entertainment. Media & Values, 48, 8–11.(1977) Women and blacks on prime-time television. Journal of Communication, 27, 70–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1977.tb01858.x(1978) Dominant or dominated? Women on prime time television. In G.Tuchman, A.K.Daniels, & J.Benet (Eds.), Hearth and home: Images of women in the mass media (pp. 51–68). New York: Oxford University Press.(1984) The Chicago Tribune sports page, 1900–1975. Sociology of Sport Journal, 1(4), 299–313., & ([Page 245]1967). Tally's corner. Boston: Little, Brown.(1986, Summer/Fall). Masculinity in the movies:To Live and Die in L.A., CineAction!, pp. 35–44., & (1991, February 7). Is “Cheers” worth $120 million?Los Angeles Times, pp. D1, D6.(Livingstone, S., & GreenG. (1986) Television advertisements and the portrayal of gender. British Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 149–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1986.tb00713.x1990). Rhetorical and ideological conservatism in thirtysomething. Critical Studies in Mass Communications, 7(3), 249–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039009360177(1989) Sex role messages in television commercials: An update. Sex Roles, 27(11/12), 715–724. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00289804(1984). Olympic television: A descriptive history of the interdependence of media and sports in the Summer Olympic Games, 1956–1984. Paper presented at the meetings of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Anaheim, CA., & (1989) Out of focus; images of women and men in newspaper photographs. Sex Roles, 20(3/4), 121–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287986(1982) How families select television programs: A mass observational study. Journal of Broadcasting, 26, 801–811. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838158209364049(1988) Constructing rituals of extension through family television viewing. In J.Lull (Ed.), World families watch television (pp. 237–259). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1985) Role portrayals in British magazine advertisements. European Journal of Marketing, 19(7), 37–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000004724(1990, April). Gender and relationships: A developmental account. American Psychologist, pp. 513–520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.4.513(1987). Who shot the sheriff? The rise and fall of the television Western. New York: Praeger.(1987) A feminist/political approach: “Pleasures under patriarchy.” In J.M.Geer & W.O'donohue (Eds.), Theories of human sexuality (pp. 65–90). New York: Plenum.(1983) Sex role stereotyping in children's advertising: Current and past trends. Journal of Advertising, 13(2), 34–42., & (1980) A longitudinal content analysis of sexual violence in the best-selling erotica magazines. Journal of Sex Research, 16, 226–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224498009551079, & (1974) Televised models of female achievement. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 4(4), 365–374., & (Mangan, J., & Walvin, I. (Eds.). (1987). Manliness and morality: Middle class masculinity in Britain and America, 1800–1940. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.1981) Sex-role stereotyping in British television advertisements. British Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 171–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1981.tb00529.x, & (1978). Women as TV experts: The voice of authority?Journal of Communication, 28(1), 159–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1978.tb01580.x, , , , , & (1990, December). TV rules: The making of the viewing class[Review of Television and the crisis of democracy. Democracy and the mass media, and See how they run: Electing the president in the age of mediaocracy. Voice Literary Supplement, pp. 23–24.(1985). Advertising the American dream: Making way for modernity, 1920–1940. Berkeley: University of California Press.([Page 246]1989) Action-adventure as ideology. In I.Angus & S.Jhally (Eds.), Cultural politics in contemporary America (pp. 182–197). New York: Routledge.(1976) The fetishism of commodities. In P.Connerton (Ed.), Critical sociology: Selected readings (pp. 73–89). Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.(1988) Male and female created they them: The depiction of gender in the advertising of traditional women's and men's magazines. Women's Studies International Forum, 11(2) 127–144., & (1985) Image and influence: Women in public television. Journalism Quarterly, 62(1), 147–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908506200126(1984, July). America's black population: A statistical view, 1970–1982. [U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census Special Publication]. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office., & (1988) The roles of black fathers in the socialization of black children. In H.P.McAdoo (Ed.), Black families. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452226026(1990) Cultural argument and organizational constraint in the comic book industry. Journal of Communication, 40(1), 55–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1990.tb02251.x(1976) Television and sex-role stereotyping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6(4), 329–351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1976.tb02409.x, & (1975) The portrayal of men and women in American television commercials. The Journal of Social Psychology, 97, 209–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1975.9923340, & (1978) Machismo in media research: A critical review of research on violence and pornography. Social Problems. 25(5), 544–555. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800103(1975) Television as a source of learning sex-role stereotypes. In S.Cohen & T.J.Comiskey (Eds.), Child development: Contemporary perspectives. Ithaca, IL: Peacock.(1980) Television viewing and the learning of sex-role stereotypes. Sex Roles, 6(2), 179–188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287341, & (1975) Feminism, femininity and the television series: A content analysis. Journal of Broadcasting, 19, 259–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838157509363786(1983). Ladies of the evening: Women characters of prime-time television. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow.(1990, November). A decade of agency: The challenge of changing sport. Keynote address at the meeting of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport, Denver, CO.(1970). From plantation to ghetto. New York: Hill & Wang., & (1977). Big bad wolves: Masculinity in the American film. New York: Pantheon.(1985) Situation and simulation: An introduction to “I Love Lucy.”Screen, 26(2), 30–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/screen/26.2.30(1987) Female roles in radio advertising. Journalism Quarterly, 64(1), 145–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908706400120, & (1988) Race, sexual politics and black masculinity: A dossier. In R.Chapman & J.Rutherford (Eds.), Male order: Unwrapping masculinity (pp. 97–164). London: Lawrence & Wishart., & (1987) The meaning of success: The athletic experience and the development of male identity. In H.Brod (Ed.), The making of masculinities: The new men's studies (pp. 193–209). Boston: Allen & Unwin.(1988) Sports and male domination: The female athlete as contested ideological terrain. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5(3), 197–211.([Page 247]1990, November). Separating the men from the girls: The gendering of televised sports. Paper presented at the meeting of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport, Denver, CO., , & (1990). Sport, men, and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics., & (1980) The development of girls's sex-role attitudes. Child Development, 51, 508–514. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129285(1980). An examination of the male sex role model in prime time television commercials. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 208 437).(Los Angeles Times, VI, pp. 1, 10.(1989, February 6). Koppel, producer challenge report, say show is a news program, not equal-access forum.1975). Channeling children: Sex stereotyping on prime-time TV. Princeton, NJ: Women on Words and Images.(1986) Deride and conquer. In T.Gitlin (Ed.), Watching television (pp. 183–228). New York: Pantheon.(1976) Dramatic TV content and children's sex-role stereotypes. Journal of Broadcasting, 20(1), 35–50., & (1975) The content of news photos: Women's and men's roles. Journalism Quarterly, 52(1), 70–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769907505200112(1983). Men and friendship. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.(1956). The power elite. New York: Oxford University Press.(1984) Self-posed behaviors of females and males in photographs. Sex Roles, 70(7/8), 633–637.(1982). Loving witha vengeance: Mass produced fantasies forwomen. New York: Methuen.(1988). The women who knew too much: Hitchcock andfeminist theory. New York: Methuen.(1990). The incredible shrinking he(r)man: Male regression, the male body, and film, differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies, 2(2), 55–75.(1985). Sexual textual politics: Feminist literary theory. London: Methuen.(1989, September 10). Graduation rate of athletes below 20% at many schools. The New York Times, pp. 45–46.(1981) Gay activists and the networks. Journal of Communication, 37(3), 49–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1981.tb00427.x(1982) Television and adolescents’ sex-role stereotypes: A longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(5), 947–955. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1247(1986). Family television: Cultural power and domestic leisure. London: Comedia.(1988) Domestic relations: The framework of family viewing in Great Britain. In J.Lull (Ed.), World families watch television. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1990, November 15). Morrison responds to critics. San Francisco Sentinel, p. 10.(1984) Measuring a macho personality constellation. Journal of Research in Personality, 18, 150–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566%2884%2990026-6, & (1983) The sex/gender system and the discursive construction of women's subordination. In S.Hanninen & L.Paldan (Eds.), Rethinking ideology: A Marxist debate (pp. 39–143). New York: International General.(1975) Visual pleasure and narrative cinema. Screen, 16(3), 6–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/screen/16.3.6(1981). Afterthoughts on “Visual pleasure and narrative cinema” inspired byDuel in the Sun. Framework, 15/16/17, 12–15.([Page 248]1988) British feminist film theory's female spectators: Presence and absence. Camera Obscura, 20–21, 68–81.(1972 July/August). Sports and the American empire. Radical America, pp. 95, 96, 107–110.(A national disgrace and a challenge to American parents. (1940, October). Childhood Education, 56.1982) “Chariots of fire,” images of men. Screen, 23(3–4), 47–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/screen/23.3-4.47(1983) Masculinity as spectacle: Reflections on men and mainstream cinema. Screen, 24(6), 2–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/screen/24.6.2(NEC Survey. (1990a, Jan/Feb). New England Comics Newsletter.NEC Survey. (1990b, Sept/Oct). New England Comics Newsletter.1983). The producer's medium: Conversations with creators of American TV. New York: Oxford University Press., & (New Mutants. (1985) New York: Marvel Comics.1988) In living color: Race and American culture. In I.Angus & S.Jhally (Eds.), Cultural politics in contemporary America (pp. 111–122) New York: Routledge.(1978a). The effects of television on children's stereotyping of women's work roles. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12., & (1978b). Black children's learning of work roles from television commercials. Psychological Reports, 42., & (O’1983) Introduction: Television and the historian. In J.E.O’Connor (Ed.), American history/American television: Interpreting the video past (pp. xiii–xliii). New York: Frederick Ungar.(O’1978) Update: Sex role messages in television commercials. Journal of Communication, 28(1), 156–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1978.tb01579.x, & O’ (O’1988, January). On femiphobia. Paper presented at the National Conference on the Future of Academic Freedom: Context and Challenge, Gainesville, FL.(O’1983). Key concepts in communication. London: Methuen., , , & (1986) Testing the common wisdom: The social content of video pornography. Canadian Psychology, 27, 22–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079859(1989, October). Superman as social conscience. Paper presented at the Conference on Culture and Communication, Philadelphia, PA., & (1989) Sex-role stereotyping of children and television: A content analysis of the roles and attributes of child characters. Sociological Spectrum, 9, 321–328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02732173.1989.9981893(1988) Introduction—The lady doesn't vanish: Feminism and film theory. In C.Penley (Ed.), Feminism and film theory (pp. 1–24). New York: Routledge.(1988) Male trouble. Camera Obscura, 17, 4–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/02705346-6-2_17-4, & (1977) Some antecedents of children's sex-role stereotypes. Psychological Reports, 40, 463–466. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19126.96.36.1993(1986). Raising hell: The rebels in the movies. London: Columbus.(1980). The American man. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall., & (1982). The myth of masculinity. Cambridge: MIT Press.(1981) Blacks and television: A review of the research literature. Journal of Broadcasting, 25(2) 103–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838158109386436, & (1988). Vision and difference: Femininity, feminism and the histories of art. London: Routledge.(1979). Teaching as a conserving activity. New York: Delacorte.([Page 249]1987). Myths, men and beer: An analysis of beer commercials on broadcast television. Falli Church, VA: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 290 074)., , , & (1987) Traits of perpetrators and receivers of antisocial and prosocial acts on TV. Journalism Quarterly, 64, 382–391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908706400214, & , (1989) Class and gender in the hegemonic process: Class differences in women's perceptions of television realism and identification with television characters. Media, Culture, and Society, 11, 229–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344389011002006(The Punisher. (1990) Issue number 42. New York. Marvel Comics.The Punisher War Journal. (1990) Issue number 24. New York: Marvel Comics.1984). Reading the romance: Women, patriarchy and popular literature. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.(1986) Identifying ideological seams: Mass culture, analytical method and political practice. Communication9(1), 93–124.(1982) Gender displays in portrait photographs. Sex Roles, 8(1), 33–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287672(1977) Extent of covert racial prejudice in pro football announcers’ speech. Journalism Quarterly, 54(1), 20–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769907705400104, & (1970). Behind ghetto walls. Chicago: Aldine.(1987) Sex-role stereotyping in television commercials: A verbal response mode and content analysis. Canadian Journal cf Behavioral Science, 19. 25–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079873, & (1986) Rethinking gender research on communication. Journal of Communication, 36(4), 11–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1986.tb01447.x(1987) Looking to the future: Five questions for gender research. Women's Studies in Communication, 10, 79–86.(1990) Feminist perspectives on popular culture. In J.Downing, A.Mohammadi, & A.Srebemy-Mohammadi (Eds.), Questioning the media: A critical introduction (pp. 231–241). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1990, May 31). Despite the headaches, Skid Row's not complaining. Circus, p. 39.(1979) Racial stereotyping on television: A comparison of the behavior of both black and white television characters. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 465–471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.64.5.465(1983). M∗A∗S∗H: The exclusive, inside story of TV's most popular show. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.(1989, May). Where have all the heroes gone? An analysis of the role of myth in speed metal and the Grateful Dead. Paper presented at a meeting of the International Communication Association, San Francisco., & (1990). Blissed out: The raptures of rock. London: Serpent's Tail.(1976). A history of the cinema from its origins to 1970. London: Allen Lane.(1987) Rereading American literature from a men's studies perspective: Some implications. In H.Brod (Ed.), The making of masculinities: The new men's studies (pp. 289–299). Boston: Allen A Unwin.(1950). The lonely crowd. New Haven: Yale University Press.(1975) The presentation of blacks in television network newscasts. Journalism Quarterly, 54, 50–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769907505200108(1988). Superman: Changing to meet the 19S0's. Unpublished manuscript. University of Maryland, College Park.(1982) The difficulty of difference. Wide Angle, 5(1), 4–15.(1989) Communication: A field of isolated islands of thought. In E.Dervin, L.Grossberg, B.O’Keefe, A.E.Wartella (Eds.), Rethinking communication. Vol. 1: Paradigm issues (pp. 209–210). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.([Page 250]1982) Introduction—II. In J.Mitchell & J.Rose (Eds.), Feminine sexuality. Jacques Lacan and the ecole freudienne (pp. 27–57). London: Macmillan.(1989) The world plays catch-up. Sportsinc: The Sports Business Weekly, 1(1), 6–13.(1989) The popularity of pornography. In A.Ross (Ed.) No respect: Intellectuals and popular culture (pp. 171–208). New York: Routledge.(1990, April). If Guns N’ Roses are outlawed. Metal Musician, p. 32.(1985). Just friends: The role of friendship in our lives. New York: Harper & Row.(1985) Work options for women in women's magazines: The medium and the message. Sex Roles, 12, 535–547. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00288174, & Weston. L. (1987). The celluloid closet: Homosexuality in the movies. New York: Harper & Row.(1990, November). Boring from within: The problem of praxis within sport sociology. Paper presented at the meeting of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport, Denver, CO.(1989, November). The effects of interscholastic athletic participation on postsecondary educational and occupational mobility: A focus on gender and race. Paper presented at the meeting of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport, Washington, DC., , & (1990) Football ritual and the social reproduction of masculinity. In M.A.Messner & D.Sabo (Eds.), Sport, men and the gender order (pp. 115–126). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics., & (Sabo, D., & Runfola, R. (Eds.). (1980). Jock: Sports and male identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.The Women's Sports Foundation. (1989). The women's sports foundation report: Minorities in sports. New York: The Women's Sports Foundation., &1990). Power and ideology in American sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.(1978). Orientalism. New York: Pantheon.(1986) Healers and heartbreakers: Images of women and men in country music. Journal of Popular Culture, 20(3), 147–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1986.2003_147.x(1986) Women's adoption of a business uniform: A content analysis of magazine advertisement. Sex Roles, 15(314), 197–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287484, & (1974). Course in general linguistics. London: Fontana.(1978). Occupational portrayal of men and women on the most frequently mentioned television shows of preschool children. Resource in Education (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 174 156).(1979) Trends in sex roles in television commercials. Journal of Marketing, 43, 79–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1250149, & (1985, November 10). Philosophy in a small balloon. Washington Post: Book World, p. 18.(1984). Advertising, the uneasy persuasion: Its dubious impact on American society. New York: Basic Books.(1986) Sensual surfaces and stylistic excess: The pleasure and politics of “Miami Vice.” Journal of Communication Inquiry, 10(3), 45–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019685998601000305(1987). Articulating the people's politics: Manhood and right-wing populism inThe A-Team. Communication, 9, 379–398.(1971). The athletic revolution. New York: Free Press.([Page 251]198S). Violence and erotic material: The relationship between adult entertainment and rape. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Los Angeles, CA.(1985). Between men: English literature and male homosocial desire. New York: Columbia University Press.(1990). Slow motion: Changing masculinities, changing men. Rutgers, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(1973) World of work: Ethnic and sex representation in TV drama. Journal of Broadcasting, 17, 273–282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838157309363684, & (1964). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press., & (1989) Happiness is a warm gun: Militarized mourning and ceremonial vengeance. Vietnam Generation, 1, 127–151.(1977) Translator's note. In J.Lacan, Ecrits: A selection (pp. xii–xvii). London: Tavistock.(1987) The bonds of men: Problems and possibilities in close male relationships. In H.Brod (Ed.), The making of masculinities: The new men's studies (pp. 213–239). Boston: Allen & Unwin.(1990) Resistance: Pinning down a wandering concept in cultural studies discourse. Journal of Urban and Cultural Studies, 7(1), 87–105.(1982) Marital status in television drama: A case of reduced options. Journal of Broadcasting, 26(2), 585–597. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838158209364027(1989) Fassbinder and Lacan: A reconsideration of gaze, look and image. Camera Obscura, 19, 54–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/02705346-7-1_19-54(1978). The philosophy of money (D. Frisby, Trans.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1981) Male sex roles in magazine advertising, 1959–1979. Journal of Communication, 31(4), 52–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1981.tb00450.x, & (1983) More than fantasy: Political themes in contemporary comic books. Journal of Popular Culture, 77(1), 83–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1983.1701_83.x, & (1984) Violence in the hard-core pornographic film: An historical survey. Journal of Communication, 34(3), 148–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1984.tb02181.x(1976) The social content of pornography. Journal of Communication, 26(1), 16–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1976.tb01351.x(1990). The genetically superior black athlete: Myth or reality?Unpublished manuscript, Washington State University.(1978). Sport in the mass media. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation., & (1975). Looking away: Hollywood and Vietnam. New York: Scribner.(1988) Vas. Camera Obscura, 77, 89–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/02705346-6-2_17-89(1989) Action movie hysteria, or Eastwood bound. Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies, 7(3), 88–107.(1977) Communications: Blindspot of western Marxism. Canadian Journal of Political & Social Theory, 1, 1–27.(1989) A historical overview of female friendships in prime-time television. Journal of Popular Culture, 22(4), 13–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1989.2204_13.x(1985, April 10). DC Comics straightens out its superheroes. USA Today, p. 1.(1985) The missing feminist revolution in sociology. Social Problems, 32(4), 301–316. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800754, & ([Page 252]1978) The myth of the black matriarchy. In D.Wilkerson & R.Taylor (Eds.), The black male in America (pp. 174–189). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.(1989). Evil influences. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.(1979). Be a man! Mate in modem society. New York: Holmes & Meier.(1987) Feminist theories and media studies. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 4(2), 95–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295038709360121(1974) Sex role stereotyping in children's television programs. Developmental Psychology, 10(5), 710–715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0037044, & (1976) Masculinity and the role of the combat soldier. In D.S.David & R.Brannon (Eds.), The forty-nine percent majority: The male sex role (pp. 179–183). Boston: Addison-Wesley., , , , Jr., , , , & (1989) The mediation of nature and culture in beer commercials. New Dimensions In Communications, Proceedings of the 47th Annual New York State Speech Communication Association Conference3, 92–95.(1990, October). The cultural meaning of beer commercials. Paper presented at the Advances in Consumer Research Conference, New York.(1989) Characterizing rock music culture: The case of heavy metal. In S.Frith & A.Goodwin (Eds.), On record: Rock, pop, A the written word (pp. 97–111). New York: Pantheon.(1989) Polysemy, plurality and media studies. Journal of Communication Inquiry13(11), 1–33.(1981) The incidence of sex discrimination, sexual contents and hostility in television humor. Journal of Applied Communication Research9(1), 42–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00909888109360287, & (Superman comics. (1980–1984, 1986–1988). Issues number 1, 10, 15, 17, 21, 22, 26, 346, 348, 350, 352, 358, 362, 370, 373, 374, 376, 377, 385, 387, 388, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 423. New York: DC Comics.Superman slipped into Britain aboard ships carrying GIs. (1987, July 8). Variety, p. 30.1990) The boys of prime time: An analysis of “new” male roles in television. In S.Thomas (Ed.), Studies in communication: Vol. 4. Communication and culture: Language, performance, technology, and media; Selected proceedings from the Sixth International Conference on Culture and Communication, Temple University, 1986 (pp. 285–290). Norwood, NJ: Ablex., & (1989). Prime-time families: Television culture in postwar America. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1987) Gender stereotyping in comic strips. In L.P.Stewart & S.Ting-Toomey (Eds.), Communication, gender and sex roles in diverse interaction contexts (pp. 189–199). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.(1981) A critique of critiques: Radical and feminist writings on sport. Social Forces, 60(2), 341–353.(1986) Gender and social-class coding in popular photographic erotica. Communication Quarterly, 34(2), 103–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463378609369626(1989, April 31). The comic industry: 1989. Comic Buyer's Guide, p. 58.(1990, April 27). The comic industry: 1990. Comic Buyer's Guide, p. 104.(1990). Adventures on prime time: The television programs of StephenJ.Cannell. New York: Praeger.(1970). Men in groups. New York: Random House.(1989). Melodrama, masculinity and the family: thirtysomething as therapy. Camera Obscura, 19, 86–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/02705346-7-1_19-86([Page 253]Tuchman, G. (Ed.). (1974). The TV establishment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Tuchman, G., Daniels, A., & Benet, J. (Eds.). (1978). Hearth and home: Images of women in mass media. New York: Oxford University Press.1990). Television drama: Agency, audience and myth. New York: Routledge.(1989). Preposterous violence. New York: Oxford University Press.(Uslan, M. (Ed.). (1979). America at war: The best of DC war comics. New York: Simon & Schuster.1970) The radicalization of the super heroes. The New Yorker, 3(42), 36–43., & (1960). The rites of passage. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1919). The theory of the leisure class: An economic study of institutions. New York: B.W. Huebsch.(1975) The female image in children's TV commercials. Journal of Broadcasting, 19(3), 301–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838157509363792(1974) Archie Bunker's bigotry: A study in selective perception and exposure. Journal of Communication, 24(1), 36–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1974.tb00353.x, & (1987) Sexism on MTV: The portrayal of women in rock videos. Journalism Quarterly, 64(4), 750–755. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908706400410, , & (1991, February 17). The dawn of “Evening Shade.”Los Angeles Times Calendar, pp. 3, 84, 90.(1990). TV beer commercials and children: Exposure, attention, beliefs, and expectations about drinking as an adult. Washington, DC: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety., , & (1989) Gender stereotypes in wire service sports photos. Newspaper Research Journal, 10(3), 105–114., & (1985) Sex role messages vis-a-vis microcomputer use: A look at the pictures. Sex Roles, 13(3/4), 205–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287911, & (1987). Policing desire: Pornography, AIDS and the media. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(1905). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism (T. Parsons, Trans.). New York: Scribner.(1987). Feminist practice and poststructuralist theory. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.(1985). Sexuality and its discontents: Meanings, myths & sexualities. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203407462(1990, December 22). When gay means loss of revenue. Los Angeles rimes, pp. F1, F5.(1979) Subtle sex-role clues in children's commercials. Journal of Communication, 24(1), 202–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1979.tb01733.x, , , & (1986) Women in popular music: Changing fortunes from 1955 to 1984. Popular Music and Society, 10(4), 73–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007768608591261(1975). The birth of the movies. London: McDonald.(1991) One part alcohol, one part sport, one part dirt, stir gently: Beer commercials and television sports. In L.R.Vande Berg & L.A.Wenner (Eds.), Television criticism: Approaches and applications. New York: Longman.(1987) From voyeur to narcissist: Imaging men in contemporary advertising. In M.Kaufman (Ed.), Beyond patriarchy: Essays by men on pleasure, power and change (pp. 277–297). Toronto: Oxford University Press.(1953). Seduction of the innocent. New York: Rinehard.([Page 254]1980) Why “Gunsmoke” keeps blazing away. In J.S.Harris (Ed.), TV Guide: The first 25 years (pp. 42–43). New York: New American Library.(1957). The organization man. London: Jonathan Cape.(1981). Children, television and sex-role stereotyping. New York: Praeger., , & (1974). Television: Technology and cultural form. New York: Schocken. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203426647(1977). Marxism and literature. New York: Oxford University Press.(1981). A new look at black families. New York: General Hall.(1978) Four classic studies of power relationships in black families: A review and look to the future. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 40(4), 691–706. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351189, & (1989) Disputed territories: Masculinity and social space. Camera Obscura, 19, 4–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/02705346-7-1_19-4(Wolverine. (1990) Issue number 33. New York: Marvel Comics.1987) Raging Bull: The homosexual subtext in film. In M.Kaufman (Ed.), Beyond patriarchy: Essays by men on pleasure, power, and change (pp. 266–276). Toronto: Oxford University Press.(1983). A content analysis of women's and girls' sports articles in selected newspapers. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Iowa.(1986) Fictions and ideologies: The case of situation comedy. In T.Bennett, C.Mercer, & J.Woollacott (Eds.), Popular culture and social relations (pp. 196–218). Philadelphia: Milton Keynes.(X-Factor. (1990) Issue number 59. New York: Marvel Comics.X-Men. (1990) Issues number 270, 271. New York: Marvel Comics.1991). Seeing films politically. Albany: State University of New York Press.(1982) Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In N.Malamuth & E.Donnerstein (Eds.), Pornography and sexual aggression (pp. 115–138). New York: Academic Press., & (1984) Pornography, sexual callousness, and the trivialization of rape. Journal of Communication, 32(4), 10–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1982.tb02514.x, & (1989) Pornography and men's sexual callousness toward women. In D.Zillman & J.Bryant (Eds.) Pornography: Research advances and policy considerations (pp. 95–125). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (1980) Children's television viewing, racial and sex-role attitudes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 10, 281–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1980.tb00710.x, , & (
About the Contributors[Page 268]
Diane Barthel is Associate Professor of Sociology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. She is the author of Putting on Appearances: Gender and Advertising and Amana: From Pietist Sect to American Community. Besides gender and the media, her interests include the cross-cultural study of architectural symbolism and historic preservation, at both the community and societal level.
Venise T. Berry is an Assistant Professor of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Iowa. She received her Ph.D. from The University of Texas at Austin, with a major in Radio, Television, and Film and a minor in Ethnomusicology. Her research interests focus on black youth in several areas of concern, such as academic motivation, televised images, and cultural perceptions of the pop and/or rap music experience.
Steve Craig is an Associate Professor of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Maine. He received his Ph.D. from Florida State University and has worked professionally in the broadcasting and print media. His research on military broadcasting, media law, and television criticism has appeared in several anthologies and journals. His current interest is in television and gender, and he recently completed a content analysis of gender images in television commercials.
[Page 269]David Croteau is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Sociology at Boston College. He has written and taught about the news media and is a member of Boston College's Media Research and Action Project. His current research is focused on the role of class in contemporary American political culture.
Stan Denski is Director of Telecommunications and Assistant Professor of Communication and Theatre at Indiana University at Indianapolis. He teaches in the area of media theory and video production. He received his doctorate in mass communication from Ohio University. His articles have appeared in Popular Music A. Society and Tracking: Popular Music Studies. He is currently completing work on two books: Critical Media Pedagogy: Media Studies and the (Re)Production of Culture (with David Sholle) and Authenticity in Cultural Studies (coedited with Jenny Nelson and David Sholle).
Ralph R. Donald is a Professor of Communication and Chairman of the Department of Communications at the University of Tennessee at Martin. He earned his Ph.D. at the University of Massachusetts, his B.A. and M.A. at California State University, Fullerton. A popular cultural critic, his research centers on themes, issues, and propaganda found in war films. Recent works include such topics as the “conversion” plot convention in war films, the “ugly American syndrome” in Vietnam war combat films, the inversion of American cultural myths in Vietnam war combat films, antiwar themes in narrative war pictures, and a historical reassessment of the symbiotic relationship between Hollywood and Washington during World War II.
Fred J. Fejes received his Ph.D. in communication in 1982 from the Institute of Communication Research at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. He has taught at Wayne State University, the University of Illinois-Chicago and is currently an Associate Professor at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton, Florida. He is author of Imperialism, Media, and the Good Neighbor: New Deal Foreign Policy and United States Shortwave Broadcasting to Latin America and co-editor with Jennifer Slack of Ideology of the Information Age. His current research interests include the role of the media in the construction of gender and social class identity.
[Page 270]Robert Hanke received his Ph.D. in 1987 from the Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania. He is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Louisville, where he teaches courses in media studies. He has published articles in Communication and Critical Studies in Mass Communication, and his research interests include the social dimensions of media culture and cultural politics.
Jeff Hearn is Senior Lecturer in Applied Social Studies, University of Bradford. His publications include The Gender of Oppression, “Sex” at “Work, ” The Sexuality of Organization, and Men, Masculinities and Social Theory. He is also Series Editor of Critical Studies on Men and Masculinities (HarperCollins) and Co-Convener of the Violence, Abuse and Gender Relations Research Unit, University of Bradford.
William Hoynes is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Sociology at Boston College and a member of the Boston College Media Research and Action Project. He is the Coordinator of the Communications and Media Studies Program at Tufts University, where he teaches about the news media. His current research examines the politics of public television in the United States.
Sue Curry Jansen is Associate Professor and Head of Communications Studies at Muhlenberg College and Cooperative Professor of Communications at Cedar Crest College, Allentown, Pennsylvania. Her publications include Censorship: The Knot That Binds Power and Knowledge.
Antonio Melechi studied Humanities at Manchester Polytechnic and graduated in Critical and Cultural Theory at the University of Wales, Cardiff. He is currently working at the Unit for Law and Popular Culture, Manchester Polytechnic, researching Anglo-Italian cultural relations. He has previously published in New Statesman and Society and Marxism Today.
Norma Pecora is Assistant Professor of Mass Communication at Em-erson College, Boston. Her special interests are in the mass communi-cation and entertainment industry and its place in American culture. In that context, she studies the relationship of children to the media, gender socialization, and the structure of children's entertainment. Her current project is a book on the business of children's television.
[Page 271]Donald Sabo is Associate Professor of Social Science at D’Youville College in Buffalo, New York. His publications include Jock: Sports and Male Identity (with Ross Runfola) and Sport, Men and the Gender Order: Critical Feminist Perspectives (with Michael Messner).
Diana Saco is a Ph.D. candidate in Political Science at the University of Minnesota. Her research interests include social and political identity, popular culture, and international communications.
David Sholle is an Assistant Professor of Communication at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. His papers on media studies, popular culture, and critical pedagogy have appeared in Critical Studies in Mass Communication, the Journal of Urban and Cultural Studies, The Journal of Film and Video, and the Journal of Education. He is currently completing a book with Stan Denski on media education and critical pedagogy.
Lynn C. Spangler is Assistant Professor in the Department of Commu-nication at the State University of New York, College at New Paltz. She received her doctoral degree in mass communication from Wayne State University in 1983. In addition to her research concerning fictional tele-vision relationships, she also writes and directs television documentaries.
Clay Steinman received his Ph.D. from New York University in 1979. He is currently Professor of Communications at California State University, Bakersfield. A recovering journalist, his recent research has focused on gender, racism, and cultural theory. His work has appeared in anthologies and journals, including The Journal of Film and Video and The Nation and, with Mike Budd, in Communication Yearbook 15, Cultural Critique, Television Studies: Textual Analysis, Critical Studies in Mass Communication (also with Robert M. Entman), and The Journal of Communication (also with Steve Craig).
Lance Strate is Assistant Professor of Communications at Fordham University, Bronx, New York. He is co-author with Neil Postman, Christine Nystrom, and Charles Weingartner of Myths, Men, & Beer: An Analysis of Beer Commercials on Broadcast Television, 1987, published by the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. He is currently working on a book on the relationship between media environments and concepts of the hero.