Masculinities, Gender Relations, and Sport

Books

Edited by: Jim McKay, Michael A. Messner & Don Sabo

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Research on Men and Masculinities Series

    Series Editor: Michael S. Kimmel, Suny Stony Brook

    Contemporary research on men and masculinity, informed by recent feminist thought and intellectual breakthroughs of women's studies and the women's movement, treats masculinity not as a normative referent but as a problematic gender construct. This series of interdisciplinary, edited volumes attempts to understand men and masculinity through this lens, providing a comprehensive understanding of gender and gender relationships in the contemporary world. Published in cooperation with the Men's Studies Association, a Task Group of the National Organization for Men Against Sexism.

    Editorial Advisory Board
    Maxine Baca ZinnRobert Staples
    Robert BrannonBob Blauner
    Cynthia CockburnHarry Brod
    Jeff HearnR. W. Connell
    Martin P. LevineClyde Franklin II
    William MarsiglioGregory Herek
    David MorganRobert A. Lewis
    Joseph H. PleckMichael A. Messner

    Volumes in this Series

    • Steve Craig (ed.)

          MEN, MASCULINITY, AND THE MEDIA

    • Peter M. Nardi (ed.)

          MEN'S FRIENDSHIPS

    • Christine L. Williams (ed.)

          DOING WOMEN'S WORK: Men in Nontraditional Occupations

    • Jane C. Hood (ed.)

          MEN, WORK, AND FAMILY

    • Harry Brod and Michael Kaufman (eds.)

          THEORIZING MASCULINITIES

    • Edward H. Thompson, Jr. (ed.)

          OLDER MEN'S LIVES

    • William Marsiglio (ed.)

          FATHERHOOD

    • Donald Sabo and David Frederick Gordon (eds.)

          MEN'S HEALTH AND ILLNESS

    • Cliff Cheng (ed.)

          MASCULINITIES IN ORGANIZATIONS

    • Lee H. Bowker (ed.)

          MASCULINITIES AND VIOLENCE

    • Nancy Lesko (ed.)

          MASCULINITIES AT SCHOOL

    • Peter M. Nardi (ed.)

          GAY MASCULINITIES

    • Jim McKay, Michael A. Messner, and Don Sabo (eds.)

          MASCULINITIES, GENDER RELATIONS, AND SPORT

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    Jim dedicates this book to John Carlos and Tommie Smith, whose extraordinary grace and courage under pressure—on and off the track—at the 1968 Olympic Games will always be an inspiration for activists both inside and outside sports. Mike dedicates this volume to Larry Wenzel—inspirational professor, passionate advocate of social justice, and fellow San Francisco Giants fan. Don dedicates this book to Eva Auchincloss, Linda Bunker, Deborah Slaner Larkin, and Carol Oglesby—each a beacon of energy and a visionary in the women's sports movement.

    Acknowledgments

    We are especially grateful for the scholarly support and friendships within the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport. Special thanks to Michael Kimmel, an indefatigable editor and guiding force behind the study of masculinities.

    Series Editor's Foreword

    The nation's recent love affair with the magnificent performance of the U.S. women's soccer team as it won the World Cup provided a revealing glimpse into the ways by which sport has become one of the primary sites of the reproduction of gender relations. A variety of promotional efforts transformed those gifted athletes from “soccer moms” to “soccer mamas” in David Letterman's felicitous phrasing, their femininity assured because of their wholesome sensuality and the persistent (and insistent) references to their heterosexuality. If excellence in sports is equated with masculinity, then the phrase “woman athlete” is almost an oxymoron—to the extent that one is a woman, one cannot excel at sports; to the extent that one excels at sports, one cannot be a real woman.

    Such a historical moment of transformation, then, sets in stark relief the ways in which sports is a site for the demonstration and proof of manhood. Sports has become both metaphor and reality of American masculinity—its language dominates other discourses as metaphor, while sports have become increasingly important among young boys as the arena of demonstration and proof.

    This volume, edited by three of the leading scholars at the intersection of masculinity studies and sports studies, offers a fascinating and important articulation of the state of the field. Each part of the volume examines a particularly significant arena, from the mechanisms by which masculinity is interwoven into sports, both as participant and observer, to the specific ways in which violence is encoded into athletic masculinity. The final section offers some interesting, if partial, approaches to uncoupling gender performance from athletic performance, or at least some of the more visible ways in which this entangled identity can begin to be disentangled. In the era of sports dominance of American culture, during the reign of the athlete as de facto role model, this process is even more urgent.

    MICHAEL S.KIMMEL

    Series Editor

  • References

    Abelove, H., Barale, M. A., et al. (Eds.). (1993). The lesbian and gay studies reader. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Adam, B. (1978). The survival of domination: Inferiorization and everyday life. New York: Elsevier North-Holland.
    Adam, B. D. (1995). The rise of the lesbian and gay liberation movement. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Adams, M. L. (1993). To be an ordinary hero: Male figure skaters and the ideology of gender. In T.Haddad (Ed.), Men and masculinities (pp. 163–181). Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press.
    Adler, P., Kless, S. J., & Adler, P. (1992). Socialization to gender roles: Popularity among elementary school boys and girls. Sociology of Education, 65, 169–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2112807
    Albert, E. (1991). Riding a line: Competition and cooperation in the sport of bicycle racing. Sociology of Sport Journal, 8, 341–361.
    Altheide, D. L. (1996). Qualitative media analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Anderson, C. (1997). Violence on television commercials during nonviolent programming: The 1996 Major League Baseball playoffs. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 1045–1046. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1997.03550130011003
    Anderson, D. (1993). Cultural diversity on campus: A look at collegiate football coaches. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 17, 61–66.
    Andrews, D. (1993). Desperately seeking Michel: Foucault's genealogy, the body, and critical sport sociology. Sociology of Sport Journal, 10, 148–167.
    Andrews, D. (Ed.). (1996a). Deconstructing Michael Jordan: Reconstructing post-industrial America [Special issue]. Sociology of Sport Journal, 13 (4).
    Andrews, D. (1996b). The fact(s) of Michael Jordan's blackness: Excavating a floating racial signifier. Sociology of Sport Journal, 13, 125–158.
    Andrews, D. (in press). All-consumed bodies: Baudrillard, hyperreality, and the cybernetic construction of the postmodern body. In C.Cole, J.Loy, & M.Messner (Eds.), Exercising power: The making and remaking of the body. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Andrews, D., Carrington, B., Mazur, Z., & Jackson, S. (1996). Jordanscapes: A preliminary analysis of the global popular. Sociology of Sport Journal, 13, 428–457.
    Araton, H. (1992, January 2). Shameful: How corporate America dumped Magic. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 30.
    Archetti, E. (1994). Masculinity and football: The formation of national identity in Argentina. In R.Giulianotti & J.Williams (Eds), Game without frontiers: Football, identity and modernity (pp. 225–243). Aldershot, UK: Arena.
    Arms, R. L., Russell, G. W., & Sandilands, M. L. (1979). Effects on the hostility of spectators of viewing aggressive sports. Social Psychology Quarterly, 42, 275–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3033771
    Baca Zinn, M. (1975). Political familism: Toward sex role equality in Chicano families. International Journal of Chicano Studies Research, 6, 13–26.
    Baca Zinn, M. (1982). Chicano men and masculinity. Journal of Ethnic Studies, 10 (2), 29–44.
    Baca Zinn, M., & Dill, B. T. (1996). Theorizing difference from multiracial feminism. Feminist Studies, 22, 321–331.
    Bairner, A. (1995, November). Soccer, masculinity and violence in Northern Ireland: Between hooliganism and terrorism. Paper presented at the 16th annual meeting of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport, Sacramento, CA.
    Bairner, A. (1986). The battlefield of ideas: The legitimation of political violence in Northern Ireland. European Journal of Political Research, 14, 633–649. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1986.tb00853.x
    Bairner, A. (1994). The end of pitched battles. The peace process and sport in Northern Ireland. Causeway, 1 (3), 62–66.
    Balsamo, A. (1995). Forms of technological embodiment: Reading the body in contemporary culture. Body and Society, 1, 215–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357034X95001003013
    Barak, G. (Ed.). (1996). Representing O. J.: Murder, criminal justice and mass culture. New York: Harrow & Herston.
    Bartky, S. L. (1988). Foucault, femininity, and the modernisation of patriarchal power. In I.Diamond & L.Quimby (Eds.), Feminism and Foucault: Reflections on resistance (pp. 61–85). Boston: Northeastern University Press.
    Bartky, S. (1998). Foreword. In T.Digby (Ed.), Men doing feminism (pp. xi-xiv). Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Bataille, G. (1985). Visions of excess: Selected writings, 1927–1939 (A.Stoekl, Ed.; A.Stoekl, C. R.Lovitt, & D. M.Leslie, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Bell, D. (1990). Acts of union. Youth culture and sectarianism in Northern Ireland. New York: Macmillan.
    Bem, S. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 155–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0036215
    Bem, S. (1975). Sex role adaptability: One consequence of psychological androgyny. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 634–643. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0077098
    Benedict, J. (1997). Public heroes, private felons: Male athletes and crimes against women. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
    Benedict, J., & Klein, A. (1997). Arrest and conviction rates for athletes accused of sexual assault. Sociology of Sport Journal, 14, 86–94.
    Benton, T. (1991). Biology and social science: Why the return of the repressed should be given a (cautious) welcome. Sociology, 25, 1–30.
    Berkowitz, L., & Frodi, A. (1979). Reactions to a child's mistakes as affected by her/his looks and speech. Social Psychology Quarterly, 42, 420–425. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3033814
    Berkowitz, L., & LePage, A. (1967). Weapons as aggression-eliciting stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 202–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0025008
    Bird, S. (1996). Welcome to the men's club: Homosociality and the maintenance of hegemonic masculinity. Gender and Society, 10, 120–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124396010002002
    Birrell, S. (1978). Achievement related motives and the woman athlete. In C.Oglesby (Ed.), Women and sport: From myth to reality (pp. 143–172). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.
    Birrell, S. (1984). Separatism as an issue in women's sports. Arena Review, 8, 21–29.
    Birrell, S., & Cole, C. (1990). Double fault: Renee Richards and the construction and naturalization of difference. Sociology of Sport Journal, 7, 1–21.
    Birrell, S., and Richter, D. (1994). Is a diamond forever? Feminist transformations of sport. In S.Birrell & C.Cole (Eds.), Women, sport, and culture. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Blais, M. (1995). In these girls hope is a muscle. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.
    Bloom, G., & Smith, M. (1996). Hockey violence: A test of the cultural spillover theory. Sociology of Sport Journal, 13, 65–76.
    Blumer, H. (1971). Social problems as collective behavior. Social Problems, 18, 298–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1971.18.3.03a00020
    Bly, R. (1990). Iron John: A book about men. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
    Boeringer, S. D. (1996). Influences of fraternity membership, athletics, and male living arrangements on sexual aggression. Violence Against Women, 2, 134–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801296002002002
    Bordo, S. (1989a). The body and the reproduction of femininity: A feminist appropriation of Foucault. In S.Bordo (Ed.), Gender/Body/Knowledge (pp. 13–33). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Bordo, S. (1989b). Gender/Body/Knowledge. A. Jaggar. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Bordo, S. (1990). Reading the slender body. In M.Jacobus, E. F.Keller, & S.Shuttleworth (Eds.), Body/Politics: Women and the discourses of science (pp. 83–111). Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Bordo, S. (1993). Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western culture, and the body. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Boswell, A., & Spade, J. (1996). Fraternities and collegiate gang rape: Why are some fraternities more dangerous places for women?Gender & Society, 10, 133–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124396010002003
    Bouchard, P., & St-Amand, P. (1996). Garçons et filles: Stéréotypes et réussite scolaire [Boys and girls: Stereotypes and academic success]. Montréal, Canada: Les Editions du remue-ménage.
    Boulton, M., & Smith, P. (1992). The social nature of play fighting and play chasing: Mechanisms and strategies underlying cooperation and compromise. In J.Barkow, L.Cosmides, & J.Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 429–450). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bourdieu, P. (1980). The aristocracy of culture. Media, Culture, and Society, 2, 225–254.
    Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste (R.Nice, Trans.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1979)
    Boyd, T. (1997a). Am I Black enough for you? Popular culture from the 'hood and beyond. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Boyd, T. (1997b). The day the niggaz took over: Basketball, commodity culture, and black masculinity. In A.Baker & T.Boyd (Eds.), Out of bounds: Sports, media, and the politics of identity (pp. 123–144). Bloomington: University of Indiana Press.
    Boyle, M., & McKay, J. (1995). You leave your troubles at the gate: A case study of the exploitation of older women's labor and leisure in sport. Gender & Society, 9, 556–576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124395009005004
    Brackenridge, C. (1997). “He owned me basically …”: Women's experience of sexual abuse in sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 32, 115–130.
    Brackenridge, C., & Kirby, S. (1997). Playing safe: Assessing the risk of sexual abuse to elite child athletes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 32, 407–418.
    Braidotti, R. (1994). Nomadic subjects: Embodiment and sexual difference in contemporary feminist theory. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Brandes, S. (1980). Metaphors of masculinity: Sex and status in Andalusian folklore. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Brod, H. (Ed.). (1987). The making of masculinities: The new men's studies. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Brooks, D. D., Alhouse, B., & Tucker, D. (1996–1997). African American male head coaches: In the “red zone,” but can they score?Journal of African American Men, 2, 93–112.
    Brown, N. O. (1966). Love's body. New York: Random House.
    Brubaker, B. (1994, November 20). Violence against women poses problem for NFL, its players. The Buffalo Evening News, p. A-10.
    Bruce, S. (1992). The red hand: Protestant paramilitaries in Northern Ireland. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bryant, J., Comisky, P., & Zillman, D. (1981). The appeal of rough-and-tumble play in televised professional football. Communication Quarterly, 29, 256–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463378109369413
    Bryson, L. (1987). Sport and the maintenance of masculine hegemony. Women's Studies International Forum, 10, 349–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395%2887%2990052-5
    Burton-Nelson, M. (1994). The stronger women get, the more men love football: Sexism and the American culture of sports. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace.
    Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Butler, J. (1993). Bodies that matter: On the discursive limits of “sex.”Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Cahn, S. K. (1994a). Coming on strong: Gender and sexuality in twentieth century women's sport. New York: Free Press.
    Cahn, S. (1994b). Crushes, competition, and closets: The emergence of homophia in women's physical education. In S.Birrell & C.Cole (Eds.), Women, sport, and culture (pp. 327–340). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Canaan, J. (1991). Is “doing nothing” just boys' play? Integrating feminist and cultural studies perspectives on working-class young men's masculinity. In S.Franklin, C.Lury, & J.Stacey (Eds.), Off centre: Feminism and cultural studies (pp. 109–125). New York: HarperCollins.
    Canadian Centre for Drug-Free Sport. (1993). Final report of the National School Survey on Drugs and Sport. Ottawa: Fitness and Amateur Sport Canada.
    Carey, E. (1995, Nov. 21). Youths' drinking accidents dip: Study. Toronto Star, p. A3.
    Carlson, M., Marcus-Newhall, A., & Miller, N. (1990). The effects of situational aggressive cues: A quantitative review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 622–633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.58.4.622
    Carrigan, T., Connell, B., & Lee, J. (1985). Toward a new sociology of masculinity. Theory and Society, 14, 551–604. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00160017
    Carrington, B. (2000). Double consciousness and the black British athlete. In K.Owusu (Ed.), Black British culture and society (pp. 133–156). Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Cashmore, E. (1990). Making sense of sport. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Champagne, J. (1995). The ethics of marginality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Chancer, L. (1998). Playing gender against race through high-profile crime cases: The Tyson/Thomas/Simpson Pattern of the 1980s. Violence Against Women, 4, 100–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801298004001007
    Chase, S. E. (1988). Making sense of “the woman who becomes a man.” In A.Todd & S.Fisher (Eds.), Gender and discourse: The power of talk (pp. 275–295). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Clarke, J. (1978). Football and working class fans: Tradition and change. In R.Ingham (Ed.), Football hooliganism: The wider context (pp. 37–60). London: Inter-Action Imprint.
    Coakley, J. (1993). Sport and socialization. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 21, 169–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00003677-199301000-00006
    Coakley, J. (1994). Sport in society (
    5th ed.
    ). St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby.
    Coakley, J. (1997). Sport in society: Issues and controversies (
    5th ed.
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Coakley, J. J. (1998). Sport in society: Issues and controversies (
    6th ed.
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Cole, C. (1993). Resisting the canon: Feminist cultural studies, sport, and technologies of the body. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 17, 77–97.
    Cole, C. L., & Andrews, D. L. (1996). Look, it's NBA Showtime! A Research Annual. Cultural Studies, (1), 141–181.
    Cole, C. L., & Denny, H., III. (1994). Visualizing deviance in post-Reagan America: Magic Johnson, AIDS and the promiscuous world of professional sport. Critical Sociology, 20 (3), 123–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089692059402000307
    Cole, C. L., & Hribar, A. (1995). Celebrity feminism: Nike style post-Fordism, transcendance, and consumer power. Sociology of Sport Journal, 12, 347–369.
    Cole, C., & King, S. (1998). Representing Black masculinity and urban possibilities: Racism, realism and Hoop Dreams. In G.Rail & J.Harvey (Eds.), Sport and postmodern times: Gender, sexuality, the body and sport (pp. 49–86). Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Collins, P. H. (1990). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York: HarperCollins.
    Collins, P. H. (1999). Moving beyond gender: Intersectionality and scientific knowledge. In J.Lorber, M. M.Ferree, & B.Hess (Eds.), Revisioning gender (pp. 261–284). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Collinson, D. L. (1988). Engineering humor: Masculinity, joking and conflict in shop-floor relations. Organization Studies, 9, 181–199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068800900203
    Collinson, D., & Hearn, J. (1994). Naming men as men: Implications for work, organization and management. Gender, Work and Organization, 1, 2–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.1994.tb00002.x
    Coltrane, S. (1994). Theorizing masculinities in contemporary social science. In H.Brod & M.Kaufman (Eds.), Theorizing masculinities (p. 60). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243627
    Condit, M. (1989). The rhetorical limits of polysemy. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 103–133.
    Connell, R. (1983). Which way is up? Essays on sex, class, and culture. Sydney, Australia: Allen and Unwin.
    Connell, R. W. (1987). Gender and power: Society, the person, and sexual politics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Connell, R. W. (1990). An iron man: The body and some contradictions of hegemonic masculinity. In M.Messner & D.Sabo (Eds.), Sport, men, and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives (pp. 83–96). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Connell, R. W. (1992). Sport and war: Rites of passage in male institutions. In M.Kimmel & M.Messner (Eds.), Men's lives (pp. 176–182). New York: Macmillan.
    Connell, R. W. (1993). The big picture: Masculinities in recent world history. Theory and Society, 22, 597–625.
    Connell, R. W. (1995). Masculinities. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Cornell, D. (1992). The philosophy of the limit. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Coulter, C. (1995, February). Class, ethnicity and political identity in Northern Ireland. Paper presented at the Contemporary Protestantism in Ireland conference, Queen's University, Belfast, Northern Ireland.
    Crimp, D. (1990). AIDS demographics. Seattle, WA: Bay.
    Crimp, D. (1993). Accommodating Magic. In M.Garber, J.Matlock, & R.Walkowitz (Eds.), Media spectacles (pp. 255–264). Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Cronin, M. (1997). Which nation, which flag? Boxing and national identities in Ireland. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 32, 131–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/101269097032002002
    Crosset, T. (1990). Masculinity, sexuality, and the development of early modern sport. In M.Messner & D.Sabo (Eds.), Sport, men and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives (pp. 45–54). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Crosset, T. W. (1995). Outsiders in the clubhouse: The world of women's professional golf. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Crosset, T., & Beal, B. (1997). The use of “subculture” and “subworld” in ethnographic works on sport: A discussion of definitional distinctions. Sociology of Sport Journal, 14, 73–85.
    Crosset, T., Benedict, J., & McDonald, M. A. (1995). Male student athletes reported for sexual assault: Survey of campus police departments and judicial affairs offices. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 19, 126–140.
    Crosset, T., Ptacek, J., McDonald, M., & Benedict, J. (1996). Male student athletes and violence against women: A survey of campus judicial affairs offices. Violence Against Women, 2, 163–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801296002002004
    Crowell, N., & Burgress, A. (Eds.). (1996). Understanding violence against women. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10204-000
    Currie, D. H., & Raoul, V. (Eds.). (1992). The anatomy of gender: Women's struggle for the body. Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University Press.
    Curry, T. J. (1991). Fraternal bonding in the locker room: A profeminist analysis of talk about competition and women. Sociology of Sport Journal, 8, 119–135.
    Curry, T. (1993). A little pain never hurt anyone: Athletic career socialization and the normalization of sports injury. Symbolic Interaction, 16, 273–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/si.1993.16.3.273
    Curry, T. (1996, November). Beyond the locker room: Sexual assault and the college athlete. Presidential address at the annual meeting of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport, Birmingham, AL.
    Curry, T. (1998). Beyond the locker room: Campus bars and college athletes. Sociology of Sport Journal, 15, 205–215.
    Curry, T., & Jiobu, R. (1995). Do motives matter? Modeling gambling on sports among athletes. Sociology of Sport Journal, 12, 21–35.
    Curry, T., & Strauss, R. (1994). A little pain never hurt anybody: A photo-essay on the normalization of sport. Sociology of Sport Journal, 11, 195–208.
    Davies, B. (1989). Frogs and snails and feminist tales: Preschool children and gender. Sydney, Australia: Allen and Unwin.
    Davies, B. (1993). Shards of glass. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.
    Davis, L. (1987). A postmodern paradox? Cheerleaders at women's sporting events. Arena Review, 4 (2), 124–133.
    Davis, L. R. (1990). Male cheerleaders and the naturalization of gender. In M.Messner & D.Sabo (Eds.), Sport, men and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives (pp. 153–161). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Davis, L. R. (1997). The swimsuit issue and sport: Hegemonic masculinity in Sports Illustrated. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Davis, P. (1992). Ethical and moral issues in boxing. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 20–21, 48–63.
    Davis, T. (1995). The myth of the superspade: The persistence of racism in college athletics. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 22, 615–698.
    DeKeseredy, W., & Kelly, K. (1995). Sexual abuse in Canadian university and college dating relationships: The contribution of male peer support. Journal of Family Violence, 10, 41–53.
    Deleuze, G. (1992, Winter). Postscript on the societies of control. October, 59, 3–7.
    Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (1983). Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (1987). A thousand plateaus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Derrida, J. (1978). Writing and difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Derrida, J. (1987). The truth in painting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    De Vault, M. L. (1990). Talking and listening from women's standpoint: Feminist strategies for interviewing and analysis. Social Problems, 37, 701–721.
    Dews, P. (1987). Logics of disintegration: Post-structuralist thought and the claims of critical theory. London: Verso.
    Dimaggio, P. (1982). Cultural entrepreneurship in 19th century Boston: The creation of an organizational base for high culture. Media, Culture, and Society, 4, 194–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344378200400104
    Disch, L., & Kane, M. J. (1996). When a looker is really a bitch: Lisa Olsen, sport, and the heterosexual matrix. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 21, 278–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/495067
    Donnerstein, E., & Linz, D. (1986). Mass media, sexual violence, and male viewers: Current theory and research. American Behavioral Scientist, 29, 601–618. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000276486029005007
    Drake, B., & Pandey, S. (1996). Do child abuse rates increase on those days on which professional sporting events are held?Journal of Family Violence, 11, 205–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02336941
    Dryden, S. (1997, February 28). Editorial. The Hockey News, p. 2.
    Dubbert, J. (1979). A man's place: Masculinity in transition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Duberman, M. (1993). Stonewall. New York: Plume.
    Duberman, M. (Ed.). (1997). A queer world: The Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies reader. New York: New York University Press.
    Duncan, M. C. (1990). Sports photographs and sexual difference: Images of women and men in the 1984 and 1988 Olympic Games. Sociology of Sport Journal, 7, 22–42.
    Duncan, M. C., & Hasbrook, C. A. (1988). Denial of power in televised women's sports. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5, 1–21
    Duncan, M. C., Messner, M. A., & Jensen, K. (1994). Gender stereotyping in televised sports: A follow-up to the 1989 study. Los Angeles: Amateur Athletic Foundation.
    Dunning, E. (1986). Sport as a male preserve: Notes on the social sources of masculinity and its transformations. In N.Elias & E.Dunning (Eds.), Quest for excitement: Sport and leisure in the civilizing process (pp. 267–283). Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.
    Dunning, E. G. (1990). Sociological reflections on sport, violence and civilization. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 25, 65–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/101269029002500107
    Dunning, E. (1994). Sport as a male preserve: Notes on the social sources of masculine identity and its transformations. In S.Birrell & C.Cole (Eds.), Women, sport, and culture. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Dunning, E., Murphy, P., & Williams, J. (1988). The roots of football hooliganism. An historical and sociological study. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Dunning, E., & Sheard, B. (1979). Barbarians, gentlemen and players. New York: New York University Press.
    Duquin, M. (1978). The androgynous advantage. In C. A.Oglesby (Ed.), Women and sport: From myth to reality (pp. 89–106). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.
    Durie, J. (1992, March 21–22). Safe sex eludes rich and famous. The Weekend Australian, p. 10.
    Dussart, F. (1992). The politics of female identity: Walpiri widows at Yeundumu. Ethnology, 31, 337–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3773425
    Dutton, K. (1995). The perfectible body: The Western ideal of male physical development. New York: Continuum.
    Dworkin, S. L., & Messner, M. A. (1999). Just do … what? Sport, bodies, gender. In J.Lorber, M. M.Ferree, & B.Hess (Eds.), Revisioning gender (pp. 341–364). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Dworkin, S. L., & Wachs, F. L. (1998). “Disciplining the body”: HIV positive male athletes, media surveillance, and the policing of sexuality. Sociology of Sport Journal, 15, 1–20.
    Dyson, M. E. (1993). Be like Mike? Michael Jordan and the pedagogy of desire. Cultural Studies, 7, 64–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502389300490061
    Eames, R. (1995, May 17). Free to open new doors. Guardian, p. 17.
    Early, G. (1994). The culture of bruising: Essays on prizefighting, literature, and modern American culture. Hopewell, NJ: Ecco.
    Eastman, S. T., & Land, A. M. (1997). The best of both worlds: Sports fans find good seats at the bar. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 21, 156–178.
    Ebert, T. (1992–1993). Ludic feminism, the body, performance, and lab or: Bringing materialism back into feminist cultural studies. Cultural Critique, 23, 5–50.
    Ebert, T. (1996). Ludic feminism and after: Postmodernism, desire, and labor in late capitalism. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Edwards, H. (1973). Sociology of sport. Belmont, CA: Dorsey.
    Ehrenreich, B. (1983). The hearts of men: American dreams and the flight from commitment. New York: Doubleday.
    Eisenstein, Z. (1994). The color of gender: Reimaging democracy. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Elias, N., & Dunning, E. (1986). Quest for excitement: Sport and leisure in the civilizing process. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.
    Ellison, L., & Mackenzie, S. (1993). Sports injuries in the database of the Canadian hospitals injury reporting and prevention program—An overview. Chronic Diseases in Canada, 14, 96–104.
    Elson, J. (1991, November 25). The dangerous world of wannabes. Time, 59–60.
    ESPN. (1996, November). ESPNET Sports Zone Showdown topic: Athletes and violence against women. Bristol, CT: Author.
    Falk, P. (1994). The consuming body. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250648
    Fasler, S. (1976). Sport accidents: 1963–1973 statistics. Praventivmedizin, 21, 296–301.
    Faulkner, R. R. (1973). On respect and retribution: Toward an ethnography of violence. Sociological Symposium, 9, 17–36.
    Featherstone, M. (1991). The body in consumer culture. In M.Featherstone, M.Hepworth, & B. S.Turner (Eds.), The body: Social processes and cultural theory (pp. 170–197). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Featherstone, M., & Burrows, R. (1995). Cultures of technological embodiment: An introduction. Body and Society, 1 (3–4), 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357034X95001003001
    Featherstone, M., Hepworth, M., & Turner, B. (Eds.). (1991). The body: Social processes and social theory. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Felshin, J. (1974). The triple option for women in sport. Quest, 17, 36–40.
    Fine, G. A. (1987). With the boys: Little League baseball and preadolescent culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Fine, G., & Sandstrom, K. L. (1988). Knowing children: Participant observation with minors. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Fishman, R. (1991). Calypso cricket: Inside story of the 1991 Windies tour. Sydney, Australia: Margaret Gee.
    Fiske, J. (1994). Media matters: Everyday culture and political change. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Fitzclarence, L. (1990). The body as commodity. In D.Rowe & G.Lawrence (Eds.), Sport and leisure: Trends in Australian popular culture (pp. 96–108). Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace.
    Flax, J. (1987). Postmodernism and gender relations in feminist theory. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 12, 621–643. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494359
    Foley, D. (1990). The great American football ritual: Reproducing race, class, and gender inequality. Sociology of Sport Journal, 7, 111–134.
    Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Vintage.
    Foucault, M. (1980). The history of sexuality: Vol. I. An introduction. New York: Vintage.
    Foucault, M. (1983). The subject and power. In H.Dreyfus & P.Rabinow (Eds.), Michel Foucault: Beyond structuralism and hermeneutics (pp. 208–226). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Foucault, M. (1985). The uses of pleasure: The history of sexuality. New York: Vintage.
    Fritner, M. P., & Rubinson, L. (1993). Acquaintance rape: The influence of alcohol, fraternity membership and sports team membership. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 19, 272–284.
    Gallagher, C., & Lacqueur, T. (1987). The making of the modern body. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Gallop, J. (1988). Thinking through the body. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Game, A. (1991). Undoing the social: Towards a deconstructive sociology. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
    Garber, M. (1992). Vested interests: Cross-dressing and cultural anxiety. New York: HarperCollins.
    Gatens, M. (1988). Towards a feminist philosophy of the body. In B.Caine, E.Grosz, & M.de Lepervanche (Eds.), Crossing boundaries (pp. 59–70), Sydney, Australia: Allen and Unwin.
    Ghaill, M. (1994). The making of men. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    Giddens, A. (1976). New rules of sociological method. New York: Warner.
    Gilder, G. (1973). Sexual suicide. New York: Quadrangle.
    Gilder, G. (1986). Men and marriage. Gretna: Pelican.
    Gillespie, N., Lovett, T., & Garner, W. (1992). Youth work and working class youth culture. Rules and resistance in west Belfast. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
    Gillett, J., White, P., & Young, K. (1996). The prime minister of Saturday night: Don Cherry, the CBC, and the cultural production of intolerance. In H.Holmes & D.Taras (Eds.), Seeing ourselves: Media power and policy in Canada (pp. 59–72). Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace.
    Gilmore, D. (1990). Mankind in the making: Cultural concepts of masculinity. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Gitlin, T. (1987). Television's screens: Hegemony in transition. In D.Lazere (Ed.), American media and mass culture: Left perspectives (pp. 240–265). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Giulianotti, R. (1993). Soccer casuals as cultural intermediaries. In S.Redhead (Ed.), The passion and the fashion: Football fandom in the new Europe (pp. 153–205). Aldershot, UK: Avebury.
    Glasser, A. (1992). Men and muscles. In M.Kimmel & M.Messner (Eds.), Men's lives (pp. 287–297). New York: Macmillan.
    Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine.
    Gmelch, G., & San Antonio, P. M. (1998). Groupies and American baseball. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 22, 32–45.
    Goffman, I. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday.
    Goldberg, J. (Ed.). (1994). Reclaiming Sodom. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Goldlust, J. (1987). Playing for keeps: Sport, the media and society. Melbourne, Australia: Longman Cheshire.
    Goldman, R. (1996). Sign wars: The cluttered landscape of advertising. New York: Guilford.
    Goldman, R., & Papson, S. (1998). Nike culture. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Goldstein, J. H., & Arms, R. L. (1971). Effects of observing athletic contests on hostility. Sociometry, 34, 83–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786352
    Goodey, J. (1997). Boys don't cry: Masculinities, fear of crime and fearlessness. British Journal of Criminology, 37, 401–418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjc.a014177
    Gorn, E. J. (1986). The manly art: Bare-knuckle prize fighting in America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Gorn, E. J., & Goldstein, W. (1993). A brief history of American sports. New York: Hill & Wang.
    Gray, C. H. (Ed.). (1995). The cyborg handbook. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Green, T. (1996). The dark side of the game. New York: Warner.
    Greendorfer, S. (1978). The role of socializing agents in female sport involvement. Research Quarterly, 48, 304–310.
    Griffin, P. (1998). Strong women, deep closets: Lesbians and homophobia in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Grosz, E. (1987). Notes towards a corporeal feminism. Australian Feminist Studies, 5, 1–16.
    Gruneau, R. (1991). Sport and “esprit de corps”: Notes on power, culture and the politics of the body. In F.Landry, M.Landry, & M.Yerles (Eds.), Sport: The third millennium (pp. 168–185). Laval, Canada: Les Presses de L'université Laval.
    Gruneau, R., & Whitson, D. (1994). Hockey night in Canada: Sport, identities and cultural politics. Toronto, Canada: Garamond.
    Guthrie, S. R., & Castelnuovo, S. (1992). Elite women bodybuilders: Model of resistance or compliance?Play and Culture, 5, 378–400.
    Gutmann, M. (1996). The meanings of macho in Mexico City. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Habermas, J. (1983). Modernity: An incomplete project. In H.Foster (Ed.), The anti-aesthetic: Essays on postmodern culture (pp. 3–15). Seattle, WA: Bay.
    Halbert, C. (1997). Tough enough and woman enough: Stereotypes, discrimination, and impression management among women professional boxers. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 21, 7–36.
    Hall, M. A. (1978). Sport and gender: A feminist perspective on the sociology of sport (Sociology of Sport Monograph Series). Ottawa: Canadian Association of Health, Physical Education and Recreation.
    Hall, M. A. (1988). The discourse on gender and sport: From femininity to feminism. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5, 330–340.
    Hall, S. (1981). Notes on deconstructing “the popular.” In R.Samuel (Ed.), People's history and socialist theory (pp. 227–240). Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Hall, S. (1985). Signification, representation, ideology: Althusser and the post-structuralist debates. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 2, 91–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295038509360070
    Halperin, D. M. (1995). Saint Foucault: Towards a gay hagiography. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Hanke, R. (1992). Redesigning men: Hegemonic masculinity in transition. In S.Craig (Ed.), Men, masculinity and the media (pp. 185–198). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Hanna, J. L. (1988). Disruptive school behavior. New York: Homes & Meier.
    Haraway, D. (1991). Simians, cyborgs and women: The reinvention of nature. London: Free Association Books.
    Haraway, D. (1997). Modest_Witness@Second_Millennium. FemaleMan Meets_OncoMouse: Feminism and Technoscience. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Harding, S. (1986). The science question in feminism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Harding, S. (1998). Can men be subjects of feminist thought? In T.Digby (Ed.), Men doing feminism (pp. 171–196). Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Hare, N. (1973). The occupational culture of the black fighter. In J.Talamini & C.Page (Eds.), Sport and society: An anthology. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Hargreaves, J. (1986a). Sport, power and culture. Cambridge, MA: Polity.
    Hargreaves, J. (1986b). Where's the virtue? Where's the grace: A discussion of the social production of gender through sport. Theory, Culture and Society, 3, 109–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276486003001010
    Hargreaves, J. (1994). Sporting females: Critical issues in the history and sociology of women's sport. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Hargreaves, J. (1997). Women's sport, development and cultural diversity: The South African experience. Women's Studies International Forum, 20, 191–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-5395%2897%2900006-X
    Harris, D. V. (Ed.). (1972, August). Women and Sport: Proceedings from the national research conference (Pennsylvania State University HYPER Series No. 2). Pennsylvania State University.
    Harris, S. M. (1992). Black masculinity and same sex friendships. Western Journal of Black Studies, 16, 74–81.
    Harvey, J., & Sparks, R. (1991). The politics of the body in the context of modernity. Quest, 43, 164–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1991.10484020
    Harvey, S. J. (1996). The construction of masculinity among male college volleyball players. Journal of Men's Studies, 5, 131–151.
    Harvie, S., & Sugden, J. (1994). Sport and community relations in Northern Ireland. Jordanstown, Ireland: University of Ulster.
    Harwood, V., Oswell, D., et al. (Eds.). (1993). Pleasure principles: Politics, sexuality and ethics. London: Lawrence & Wishart.
    Hassrick, R. (1962). The Sioux: Life and customs of a warrior society. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
    Hawkes, G. L. (1995). Dressing-up—Cross-dressing and sexual dissonance. Journal of Gender Studies, 4, 261–270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09589236.1995.9960612
    Haynes, R. (1993). Every man (?) a football artist: Football writing and masculinity. In S.Redhead (Ed.), The passion and the fashion: Football fandom in the new Europe (pp. 55–76). Aldershot, UK: Avebury.
    Hearn, J. (1992). Men in the public eye: The construction and deconstruction of public men and public patriarchies. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203310748
    Hearn, J., & Collinson, D. L. (1994). Theorizing unities and differences between men and between masculinities. In H.Brod & M.Kaufman (Eds.), Theorizing masculinities (pp. 97–118). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243627
    Hearn, J., & Morgan, D. (1990). Men, masculinities and social theory. In J.Hearn & D.Morgan (Eds.), Men, masculinities and social theory (pp. 1–18). Winchester, MA: Unwin Hyman.
    Hearn, J., & Parkin, W. (1995). “Sex” at “work”: The power and paradox of organisation sexuality (Rev. ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Hearn, J., Sheppard, D. L., Tancred-Sherrif, P., & Burrel, G. (Eds.). (1989). The sexuality of organization. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Heikkala, J. (1993). Discipline and excel: Techniques of self and body and the logic of competing. Sociology of Sport Journal, 10, 397–412.
    Hekma, G., Oosterhuis, H., et al. (Eds.). (1995). Gay men and the sexual history of the political left. New York: Harrington Park Press.
    Herdt, G. (Ed.). (1996). Third sex, third gender: Beyond sexual dimorphism in culture and history. New York: Zone.
    Heskin, K. (1980). Northern Ireland, a psychological analysis. New York: Macmillan.
    Heywood, L. (1998). Bodymakers: A cultural anatomy of women bodybuilders. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Hoberman, J. (1984). Sport and ideology. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Hoberman, J. (1997). Darwin's athletes: How sport has damaged black America and preserved the myth of race. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Hoch, P. (1979). White hero black beast. London: Pluto.
    Hochschild, A. (1979). Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. American Journal of Sociology, 85, 551–575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/227049
    Hochschild, A. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Hockey teams' bad dreams. (1991, December 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (syndicated fromThe New York Times), p. 7.
    Hole, J. (1992, January 25). Outrage as basketballers shun Magic. The Sydney Morning Herald, pp. 1–2.
    Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. (1992). Overcoming patriarchal constraints: The reconstruction of gender relations among Mexican immigrant women and men. Gender and Society, 6, 398–415.
    Hondagneu-Sotelo, P., & Messner, M. A. (1994). Gender displays and men's power: The “new man” and the Mexican immigrant man. In H.Brod & M.Kaufman (Eds.), Theorizing masculinities (pp. 200–218). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243627
    hooks, b. (1992). Black looks: Race and representation. Boston: South End.
    Horrocks, R. (1994). Masculinity in crisis: Myths, fantasies and realities. New York: Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230372801
    Hume, P., & Marshall, S. (1994). Sports injuries in New Zealand: Exploratory analyses. New Zealand Journal of Sports Medicine, 22, 18–22.
    Hutcheon, L. (1989). The politics of postmodernism. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203426050
    Ingram, G. B., Bouthillette, A.-M., et al. (Eds.). (1997). Queers in space: Communities, public spaces, sites of resistance. Seattle, WA: Bay Press.
    Irigaray, L. (1985). Speculum of the other woman (G. C.Gill, Trans.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Isenberg, M. (1988). John L. Sullivan and his America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Jackson, D. (1990). Unmasking masculinity: A critical autobiography. Winchester, MA: Unwin Hyman.
    Jackson, S. (1998a). Life in the (mediated) Faust lane: Ben Johnson, national affect and the 1988 crisis of Canadian identity. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 33, 227–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/101269098033003001
    Jackson, S. (1998b). A twist of race: Ben Johnson and the Canadian crisis of racial and national identity. Sociology of Sport Journal, 15, 21–40.
    Jackson, S., Andrews, D., & Cole, C. (1998). Race, nation and authenticity of identity: Interrogating the “everywhere” man (Michael Jordan) and the “nowhere” man (Ben Johnson). Journal of Immigrants and Minorities, 17 (1), 82–102.
    Jameson, F. (1984). Postmodernism or the cultural logic of late capitalism. New Left Review, 146, 53–92.
    Jardine, A., & Smith, P. (1987). Men in feminism. New York: Methuen. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203361900
    Jarvie, G. (1993). Sport, nationalism and cultural identity. In L.Allison (Ed.), The changing politics of sport (pp. 58–83). Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
    Jefferson, T. (1997). The Tyson rape trial: The law, feminism and emotional “truth.”Social and Legal Studies, 6, 281–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/096466399700600206
    Jefferson, T. (1998). On muscle, “hard men,” and “Iron” Mike Tyson: Reflections on desire, anxiety and the embodiment of masculinity. Body and Society, 4, 77–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357034X98004001005
    Jenkins, R. (1982). Hightown rules. Growing up in a Belfast housing estate. Leicester, UK: National Youth Bureau.
    Jenkins, R. (1983). Lads, citizens and ordinary kids: Working-class youth life-styles in Belfast. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Jhally, S. (1989). Cultural studies and the sports/media complex. In L. A.Wenner (Ed.), Media, sports, and society (pp. 41–57). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Johnson, E., & Johnson, R. (1991, November 18). I'll deal with it. Sports Illustrated, 22.
    Jones, R. (1997). A deviant sports career: Toward a sociology of unlicensed boxing. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 21 (1), 37–52.
    Jordan, E., & Cowan, A. (1995). Warrior narratives in the kindergarten classroom. Gender and Society, 9, 727–743. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124395009006006
    Jordan, T. (1995). Collective bodies: Raving and the politics of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. Body and Society, 1 (1), 125–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357034X95001001008
    Jung, C. (1959). The archetypes and the collective unconsciousness: Collected works (R. F. C.Hull, Trans.). New York: Pantheon.
    Kane, M. J. (1988). Media coverage of the female athlete before, during, and after Title IX: Sports Illustrated revisited. Journal of Sport Management, 2, 87–99.
    Kane, M. J. (1995). Resistance/transformation of the oppositional binary: Exposing sport as a continuum. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 19, 191–218.
    Kane, M. J. (1996). Media coverage of the post Title IX athlete: A feminist analysis of sport, gender, and power. Duke Journal of Gender Law and Policy, 3, 95–127.
    Kane, M. J., & Disch, L. J. (1993). Sexual violence and the reproduction of male power in the locker room: The “Lisa Olsen incident.”Sociology of Sport Journal, 10, 331–352.
    Kane, M. J., & Lenskyj, H. (1998). Media treatment of female athletes: Issues of gender and sexualities. In L.Wenner (Ed.), MediaSport: Cultural sensibilities and sport in the media age (pp. 186–201). Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Kane, M. J., & Snyder, E. (1989). Sport typing: The social “containment” of women in sport. Arena Review, 13, 77–96.
    Kantor, G. K. (1993). Refining the brushstrokes in portraits on alcohol and wife assaults. In Alcohol and interpersonal violence: Fostering multidisciplinary perspectives (NIAAA Monograph No. 24, NIH Publication No. 93–3496, pp. 281–290). Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    Kaplan, E. A. (1987). Rocking around the clock: Music television, postmodernism, and consumer culture. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Katz, J. (1995a). Advertising and the construction of violent white masculinity. In G.Dines & J. M.Humez (Eds.), Gender, race and class in media: A text reader (pp. 133–141). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Katz, J. (1995b). The invention of heterosexuality. New York: Penguin.
    Katz, J. (1995c). Reconstructing masculinity in the locker room: The Mentors in Violence Prevention project. Harvard Educational Review, 65 (2), 163–174.
    Katz, J. (1997, May). Scoring points: Current programs and policies. Paper presented at the conference The Rise of the Sports Hero: Tackling the Issue of Violence Against Women, Bentley College, Waltham, MA.
    Kidd, B. (1990). The men's cultural centre: Sports and the dynamic of women's oppression/men's repression. In M.Messner & D.Sabo (Eds.), Sport, men and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives (pp. 31–44). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Kidd, B. (1996). The struggle for Canadian sport. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
    Kimbrell, A. (1995). The masculine mystique: The politics of masculinity. New York: Ballantine.
    Kimmel, M. S. (1987a). Changing men: New directions in research on men and masculinity. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Kimmel, M. S. (1987b). Men's responses to feminism at the turn of the century: 1880–1920. Gender and Society, 1, 261–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124387001003003
    Kimmel, M. (1990). Baseball and the reconstitution of American masculinity, 1880–1920. In M.Messner & D.Sabo (Eds.), Sport, men and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives (pp. 55–66). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Kimmel, M. S. (Ed.). (1991). Men confront pornography. New York: Meridian.
    Kimmel, M. (1992). Reading men: Men, masculinity, and publishing. Contemporary Sociology, 21, 162–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2075409
    Kimmel, M. (1995a). Clarence, William, Iron Mike, Tailhook, Senator Packwood … and us. In M.Kimmel & M.Messner (Eds.), Men's lives (
    3rd ed.
    , pp. 497–506). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Kimmel, M. (1995b). Series editor's introduction. In D.Sabo & D.Gordon (Eds.), Men's health and illness: Gender, power, and the body (pp. vii-viii). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243757
    King, S. (1993). The politics of the body and the body politic: Magic Johnson and the ideology of AIDS. Sociology of Sport Journal, 10, 270–285.
    Kipnis, L. (1993). Ecstasy unlimited: On sex, capital, gender, and aesthetics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Kirk, D. (Ed.). (1993). The body, schooling and culture: A reader. Geelong, Australia: Deakin University Press.
    Kirk, D. (1994). Physical education and regimes of the body. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, 30 (2).
    Kirk, D., & Spiller, B. (1994). Schooling the docile body: Physical education, schooling and the myth of oppression. Australian Journal of Education, 38 (1), 78–95.
    Klein, A. (1991). Sugarball: The American game, the Dominican dream. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Klein, A. (1993). Little big men: Bodybuilding subculture and gender construction. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Klein, A. (1995a). Life's too short to die small. In D.Sabo & D.Gordon (Eds.), Men's health and illness: Gender, power, and the body (pp. 105–120). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243757
    Klein, A. (1995b). Tender machos: Masculine contrasts in the Mexican baseball league. Sociology of Sport Journal, 12, 370–388.
    Klein, A. (1996). Borderline treason: Nationalisms and baseball on the Texas-Mexican border. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 20, 296–313.
    Klein, A. (1997). Baseball on the border: A tale of two Laredos. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Koss, M., & Cleveland, H. (1996). Athletic participation, fraternity membership and date rape: The question remains—Self selection or different causal processes?Violence Against Women, 2, 180–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801296002002005
    Koss, M., & Gaines, J. (1993). The prediction of sexual aggression by alcohol use, athletic participation, and fraternity affiliation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8, 94–108.
    Kroker, A., Kroker, M., & Cook, D. (1989). Panic encyclopedia: The definitive guide to the postmodern scene. New York: Macmillan.
    Kruger, A., & Riordan, J. (Eds.). (1996). The story of worker sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Kujala, U., Taimela, S., Antii-Poika, I., Orava, S., Tuominen, R., & Myllynen, P. (1995). Acute injuries in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, and karate: Analysis of national registry data. British Medical Journal, 311, 1465–1468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.311.7018.1465
    Laberge, S. (1996, September). La mixité dans les cours d'éducation physique au secondaire: Un contexte émancipatoire ou aliénant pour les adolescentes [Coeducation in high school physical education classes: An emancipating or alienating context for adolescent girls]. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Feminist Research, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Lafrance, M. (1998). Colonizing the feminine: Nike's intersections of postfeminism and hyperconsumption. In G.Rail & J.Harvey (Eds.), Sport and postmodern times: Culture, gender, sexuality, the body and sport (pp. 281–300). Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Lamar, L., & Kite, M. (1998). Sex differences in attitudes toward gay men and lesbians—A multidimensional perspective. Journal of Sex Research, 35, 189–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224499809551932
    Lancaster, R. (1992). Life is hard: Machismo, danger, and the intimacy of power in Nicaragua. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Lasch, C. (1979). The culture of narcissism. New York: Norton.
    Lefkowitz, B. (1997). Our guys: The Glen Ridge rape and the secret life of the perfect suburb. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Lehne, G. (1980). Homophobia among men: Supporting and defining the male role. In M.Kimmel & M.Messner (Eds.), Men's lives (pp. 120–132). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Leichliter, J. S., Meilman, P. W., Presley, C. P., & Cashin, J. R. (1998). Alcohol use and related consequences among students with varying levels of involvement in college athletics. Journal of American College Health, 46, 257–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448489809596001
    Lenskyj, H. (1986). Out of bounds: Women, sport and sexuality. Toronto, Canada: Women's Press.
    Lenskyj, H. (1990). Power and play: Gender and sexuality issues in sport and physical activity. International Journal for Sociology of Sport, 25, 236–245.
    Lenskyj, H. (1992a, November). I am but you can't tell. Paper presented at the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport, Toledo, OH.
    Lenskyj, H. (1992b). Sexual harassment: Female athletes' experiences and coaches' responsibilities. Science Periodical on Research and Technology in Sport, 12, 1–5.
    Lenskyj, H. (1992c). Unsafe at home base: Women's experience of sexual harassment in university sport and physical education. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 1, 19–33.
    Leonard, G. (1974). The ultimate athlete: Re-visioning sports, physical education, and the body. New York: Viking.
    Levin, D. M. (1985). The body's recollection of being: Phenomenological psychology and the deconstruction of nihilism. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Lewis, J. (1997). What counts in cultural studies?Media, Culture, and Society, 19, 83–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344397019001006
    Lewis, O. (1961). The children of Sanchez: Autobiography of a Mexican family. New York: Vintage.
    Lipsyte, R. (1993, January 31). Violence translates at home. New York Times, p. S5.
    Lorber, J. (1994). Paradoxes of gender. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Lorber, J., & Farrell, S. (1991). Principles of gender construction. In J.Lorber & S.Farrell (Eds.), The social construction of gender (pp. 7–11). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Loy, J. (1992, November). The dark side of agon: Fratriarchies, performative masculinities, sport involvement and the phenomenon of gang rape. Presidential address at the annual meeting of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport, Toledo, OH.
    Loy, J. (1995). The dark side of agon: Fratriarchies, performative masculinities, sport involvement and the phenomenon of gang rape. In K. H.Beffe & A.Ruffen (Eds.), International Sociology of Sport: Contemporary issues (Festschrift in honor of Gunther Luschen, pp. 69–81). Stuttgart, Germany: Verlag Stephanie Naglschmid.
    Loy, J., Andrews, D., & Rinehart, R. (1993). The body in culture and sport. Sport Science Review, 2, 69–91.
    Lukenbill, G. (1995). Untold millions: Positioning your business for the lesbian and gay consumer market. New York: Harper Business.
    Lule, J. (1995). The rape of Mike Tyson: Race, the press and symbolic stereotypes. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 12, 176–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039509366930
    Lyotard, J.-F. (1984). The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    MacAloon, J. (1992). The ethnographic imperative in comparative Olympic research. Sociology of Sport Journal, 9, 104–130.
    Mahoney, M. (1990). Legal images of battered women: Redefining the issue of separation. Michigan Law Review, 90, 1–93.
    Majors, R. (1990). Cool pose: Black masculinity in sports. In M.Messner & D.Sabo (Eds.), Sport, men and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives (pp. 109–114). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Majors, R. (1992). Cool pose: The proud signature of black survival. In M. S.Kimmel & M. A.Messner (Eds.), Men's lives (pp. 131–134). New York: Macmillan.
    Majors, R., & Billson, J. M. (1992). Cool pose: The dilemmas of black manhood in America. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Malamuth, N. (1986). Predictors of naturalist sexual aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 953–962.
    Malamuth, N., Linz, D., Hearvey, C. L., Barnes, G., & Acker, M. (1995). Using the confluence model of sexual aggression to predict men's conflict with women: A ten year follow up study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 353–369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.2.353
    Malamuth, N., Sockloskie, R., Koss, P., & Tanaka, T. (1991). Characteristics of aggressors against women: Testing a model using a national sample of college students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 670–681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.59.5.670
    Mandell, N. (1988). The least-adult role in studying children. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 16, 433–467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891241688164002
    Manning, T. (1996). Gay culture: Who needs it? In M.Simpson (Ed.), Anti-gay (pp. 98–117). London: Cassell.
    Marcuse, H. (1969). Eros and civilization, London: Sphere.
    Marshall, P. D. (1997). Celebrity and power: Fame in contemporary culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    McBride, J. (1995). War, battering, and other sports: The gulf between American men and women. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities.
    McChesney, R. W. (1989). Media made sport: A history of sports coverage in the United States. In L. A.Wenner (Ed.), Media, sports, and society (pp. 49–69). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    McCutcheon, T., Curtis, J., & White, P. (1997). The socio-economic distribution of sport: Multivariate analyses for the general Canadian population. Sociology of Sport Journal, 14, 57–73.
    McDonald, M. G. (1996). Michael Jordan's family values: Marketing, meaning and post-Reagan America. Sociology of Sport Journal, 13, 344–365.
    McKay, J. (1991). No pain, no gain? Sport and Australian culture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    McKay, J. (1992). Sport and the social construction of gender. In G.Lupton, T.Short, & R.Whip (Eds.), Society and gender: An introduction to sociology (pp. 245–266). New York: Macmillan.
    McKay, J. (1993). “Marked men” and “wanton women”: The politics of naming sexual “deviance” in sport. Journal of Men's Studies, 2 (1), 69–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.3149/jms.0201.69
    McKay, J. (1995). “Just do it”: Corporate sports slogans and the political economy of “enlightened racism” discourse. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 16, 191–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0159630950160203
    McKay, J. (1997). Managing gender: Affirmative action and organizational power in Australian, Canadian, and New Zealand sport. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    McKay, J., & Huber, D. (1992). Anchoring images of technology and sport. Women's Studies International Forum, 15, 205–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395%2892%2990101-Z
    McKay, J., & Rowe, D. (1997). Field of soaps: Rupert v. Kerry as masculine melodrama. Social Text, 50, 69–86.
    McKay, J., & Smith, P. (1995). Exonerating the hero: Frames and narratives in media coverage of the O. J. Simpson story. Media Information Australia, 75, 57–66.
    McLanahan, S., & Glass, J. (1985). A note on the trend in sex differences in psychological stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 26, 329. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136656
    McWilliams, M., & McKiernan, J. (1993). Bringing it out in the open: Domestic violence in Northern Ireland. London: HMSO.
    Melnick, M. (1992, May-June). Male athletes and sexual assault. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 32–35.
    Mendoza, V. (1962). El machismo en México [Machismo in Mexico]. Cuadernos del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Folklóricas (Buenos Aires), 3, 75–86.
    Mercer, K. (1992). Skin head sex thing: Racial difference and the homoerotic imaginary. New Formations, 16, 1–23.
    Mercer, K., & Julien, I. (1988). Race, sexual politics and black masculinity: A dossier. In R.Chapman & J.Rutherford (Eds.), Male order: Unwrapping masculinity (pp. 97–164). London: Lawrence & Wishart.
    Merva, M., & Fowles, R. (1992). Effects of diminished economic opportunities on social stress: Heart attacks, strokes, and crime. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.
    Messerschmidt, J. W. (1993). Masculinities and crime: Critique and reconceptualization of theory. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Messner, M. A. (1988). Sport and male domination: The female athlete as contested ideological terrain. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5, 197–211.
    Messner, M. (1990a). Boyhood, organized sports and the construction of masculinities. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 18, 416–444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124190018004003
    Messner, M. A. (1990b). Masculinities and athletic careers: Bonding and status differences. In M.Messner & D.Sabo (Eds.), Sport, men and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives (pp. 97–108). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Messner, M. (1990c). Men studying masculinity: Some epistemological questions in sport psychology. Sociology of Sport Journal, 7, 136–153.
    Messner, M. (1990d). When bodies are weapons: Masculinity and violence in sport. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 25, 203–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/101269029002500303
    Messner, M. (1992a). Like family: Power, intimacy, and sexuality in male athletes' friendships. In P.Nardi (Ed.), Men's friendships. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Messner, M. A. (1992b). Power at play: Sports and the problem of masculinity. Boston: Beacon.
    Messner, M. A. (1993). “Changing men” and feminist politics in the United States. Theory and Society, 22, 723–737. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00993545
    Messner, M. (1994). Women in the men's locker room? In M.Messner & D.Sabo (Eds.), Sex, violence and power in sport (pp. 42–52). Freedom, CA: Crossing.
    Messner, M. A. (1996). Studying up on sex. Sociology of Sport Journal, 13, 221–237.
    Messner, M., Duncan, M. C., & Jensen, K. (1993). Separating the men from the girls: The gendered language of televised sports. Gender and Society, 7, 121–137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124393007001007
    Messner, M. A., Duncan, M. C., & Wachs, F. L. (1996). The gender of audience-building: Televised coverage of women's and men's NCAA basketball. Sociological Inquiry, 66, 422–439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1996.tb01185.x
    Messner, M. A., & SaboD. (Eds.). (1990). Sport, men and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Messner, M. A., & Sabo, D. (Eds.). (1994). Sex, violence and power in sports: Rethinking masculinity. Freedom, CA: Crossing.
    Messner, M. A., & Solomon, W. S. (1993). Outside the frame: Newspaper coverage of the Sugar Ray Leonard wife abuse story. Sociology of Sport Journal, 10, 119–134.
    Miller, K. E., Sabo, D., Farrell, M. P., Barnes, G. M., & Melnick, M. J. (1998). Athletic participation and sexual behavior in adolescents: The different worlds of boys and girls. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 39, 108–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2676394
    Miller, R. (1992, September 5–6). Can Tyson beat the rape rap?The Weekend Australian Review, p. 3.
    Miller, T. (1990). Sport, media and masculinity. In D.Rowe & G.Lawrence (Eds.), Sport and leisure: Trends in Australian popular culture (pp. 74–95). Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace.
    Miller, T. (1993). The well-tempered self: Citizenship, culture and the postmodern subject. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Miller, T. (1997). Sport and violence: Glue, seed, state, or psyche?Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 21, 235–238.
    Mirandé, A. (1982). Machismo: Rucas, chingasos, y chingaderas [Machismo: Songs, ballads, and singers]. De Colores, 6 (1), 17–47.
    Mirandé, A. (1988). Que gacho es ser macho: It's a drag to be a macho man. Aztlan, 17 (2), 63–89.
    Mirandé, A. (n.d.). Latino masculinity: Machos, hombres, y chingones. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Moore, H. (1994). A passion for difference. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Moran, M. (1996, April 19). Athletic aid ending for Phillips victim. New York Times, pp. B11, B16.
    Morgan, D. (1981). Men, masculinity, and the process of sociological enquiry. In H.Roberts (Ed.), Doing feminist research (pp. 83–113). Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Morgan, D. (1992). Discovering men. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Morgan, D. (1994). Theater of war: Combat, the military, and masculinities. In H.Brod & M.Kaufman (Eds.), Theorizing masculinities (pp. 165–182). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243627
    Morris, J., Everitt, M., Pollard, R., Ghave, S., & Semmence, A. (1980). Vigorous exercise in leisure time: Protection against coronary heart disease. Lancet, 2, 1207–1210.
    Morrison, T., & Brodsky Lacour, C. (1997). Birth of a nation 'hood: Gaze, script, and spectacle in the O. J. Simpson case. New York: Pantheon.
    Morton, D. (Ed.). (1996). The material queer: A LesBiGay Studies reader. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Mueller, F., Cantu, R., & Van Camp, S. (1996). Catastrophic injuries in high school and college sports. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Ndalianis, A. (1995). Muscle, excess and rupture: Female bodybuilding and gender construction. Media Information Australia, 75, 13–23.
    Nelson, M. B. (1994). The stronger women get, the more men love football: Sexism and the American culture of sports. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace.
    Nelson, S. (1984). Ulster's uncertain defenders. Belfast, Northern Ireland: Black-staff.
    Nicholl, J., Coleman, P., & Brazier, J. (1994). Health and health care costs and benefits of exercise. Pharmaco Economics, 5, 109–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00019053-199405020-00005
    Nicholl, J., Coleman, P., & Williams, B. (1993). Injuries in sport and exercise. London: Sports Council.
    Nicholl, J., Coleman, P., & Williams, B. (1995). The epidemiology of sports and exercise-related injury in the United Kingdom. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 232–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.29.4.232
    Nielsen, J. M. (1990). Introduction. In J. M.Nielsen (Ed.), Feminist research methods: Exemplary readings in the social sciences (pp. 1–37). Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Nixon, H. L. (1994a). Coaches' views of risk, pain, and injury in sport with special reference to gender differences. Sociology of Sport Journal, 11, 79–87.
    Nixon, H. L. (1994b). Social pressure, social support, and help seeking for pain and injuries in college sports networks. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 13, 340–355.
    Nixon, H. L., II. (1996a). Exploring pain and injury attitudes and experiences in sport in terms of gender, race, and sports status factors. Journal of Sports and Social Issues, 20, 33–41.
    Nixon, H. L. (1996b). The relationship of friendship networks, sports experiences, and gender to expressed pain thresholds. Sociology of Sport Journal, 13, 78–87.
    Nixon, H. L., II. (1997). Gender, sport, and aggressive behavior outside sport. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 21, 379–391.
    Nixon, H. L., & Frey, J. H. (1996). A sociology of sport. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Oates, J. (1995). On boxing. Hopewell, NJ: Ecco.
    O'Farrell, J. (1995, May). The long road home. Fortnight, p. 339.
    Oglesby, C. A. (Ed.). (1978). Women and sport: From myth to reality. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.
    O'Neill, J. (1990). AIDS as a globalizing panic. In M.Featherstone (Ed.), Global culture: Nationalism, globalization and modernity. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Ortner, S. (1996). Making gender: The politics and erotics of culture. Boston: Beacon.
    Padilla, R. (1991). Qualitative analysis with HyperQual. Chandler: Author.
    Paredes, A. (1967). Estados Unidos, México, y el machismo [The United States, Mexico, and machismo]. Journal of Inter-American Studies, 9 (1), 65–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/165157
    Parker, R. (1991). Bodies, pleasures, and passions: Sexual culture in contemporary Brazil. Boston: Beacon.
    Pascal, E. (1992). Jung to live by: A guide to the practical applications of Jungian principles for everyday life. New York: Warner.
    Patton, C. (1990). Inventing AIDS. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Paz, O. (1961). The labyrinth of solitude (L.Kemp, Trans.). New York: Grove.
    Pearson, C. S. (1991). Awakening the heroes within: Twelve archetypes to help us find ourselves and transform our world. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco.
    Phelan, S. (1994). Getting specific: Postmodern lesbian politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Phillips, S. P., & Schneider, M. S. (1993). Sexual harassment of female doctors by patients. New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 1933–1939. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199312233292607
    Poole, M. (1996). Being a man and becoming a nurse: Three men's stories. Journal of Gender Studies, 5, 39–47.
    Probyn, E. (1987). The anorexic body. In A. M.Kroker (Ed.), Body invaders: Panic sex in America (pp. 201–212). Montreal, Canada: New World Perspectives.
    Pronger, B. (1990). The arena of masculinity: Sport, homosexuality, and the meaning of sex. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Pronger, B. (1992). The arena of masculinity: Sport, homosexuality, and the meaning of sex. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.
    Pronger, B. (1995a). Eros, thanatos: The emerging body in a postmodern psychology of science. In B.Babich, D.Bergoffen, & S.Glynn (Eds.), Continental and postmodern perspectives in the philosophy of science (pp. 247–253). Aldershot, UK: Avebury.
    Pronger, B. (1995b). Rendering the body: The implicit lessons of gross anatomy. Quest, 47 (4), 1–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1995.10484168
    Pronger, B. (1998). Post-sport: Transgressing boundaries in physical culture. In G.Rail & J.Harvey (Ed.), Sport and postmodern times: Culture, gender, sexuality, the body and sport. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Ptacek, J. (1998). Why do men batter? In R. K.Bergen (Ed.), Intimate violence (pp. 181–195). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Pyke, K. D. (1996). Class-based masculinities: The interdependence of gender, class, and interpersonal power. Gender & Society, 10, 527–549. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124396010005003
    Rail, G. (1990). Physical contact in women's basketball: A first interpretation. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 25, 269–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/101269029002500402
    Rail, G. (1992). Physical contact in women's basketball: A phenomenological construction and contextualization. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 27, 1–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/101269029202700101
    Rail, G., & Harvey, J. (1995). Body at work: Michel Foucault and the sociology of sport. Sociology of Sport Journal, 12, 164–179.
    Ramazanoglu, C. (1992). What can you do with a man? Feminism and the critical appraisal of masculinity. Women's Studies International Forum, 15, 339–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395%2892%2990002-D
    Ramos, S. (1962). Profile of man and culture in Mexico (P.Earle, Trans.). Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Real, M. R., & Mechikoff, R. A. (1992). Deep fan: Mythic identification, technology, and advertising in spectator sports. Sociology of Sport Journal, 9, 323–339.
    Reasons, C. (1985). Ideology, law, public opinion, and worker's health. In D.Gibson & J.Baldwin (Eds.), Law in a cynical society (pp. 42–61). Calgary, Canada: Carswell.
    Reasons, C., Ross, I., & Patterson, C. (1981). Assault on the worker: Occupational health and safety in Canada. Toronto, Canada: Butterworth.
    Rees, C. R., Howell, F. M., & Miracle, A. W. (1993). Do high school sports build character? A quasi-experiment on a national sample. In A.Yiannakis, T. D.McIntyre, & M. J.Melnick (Eds.), Sport sociology: Contemporary themes (
    4th ed.
    , pp. 420–428). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
    Reid, E. (1997, September). My body, my weapon, my shame. GQ, pp. 361–367.
    Reijner, J., & Veltuijsen, J. (1989, November). Economic aspects of health through sport. In Sports, an economic force in Europe (Conference proceedings, pp. 76–90). UK: Lilleshall.
    Reinharz, S. (1992). Feminist methods in social research. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Robinson, L. (1998). Crossing the line: Sexual assault in Canada's national sport. Toronto, Canada: McLelland & Stewart.
    Rodman, D. (with Keown, T.). (1996). Bad as I wanna be. New York: Dell.
    Rodman, D. (with Silver, M.). (1997). Walk on the wild side. New York: Bantam.
    Rogers, S. F. (1994). Sportsdykes: Stories from on and off the field. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Rosaldo, R. (1993). Culture and truth: The remaking of social analysis. Boston: Beacon.
    Rosenbaum, A., & Hoge, S. K. (1989). Head injury and marital aggression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 1048–1051.
    Rosenbaum, A., Hoge, S. K., Adelman, S., Warnken, K., Fletcher, K., & Kane, R. (1994). Head injury in partner-abusive men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 1187–1193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.62.6.1187
    Roulston, C. (1997). Gender, nation, class: The politics of difference in Northern Ireland. Scottish Affairs, 18, 54–68.
    Rowe, D. (1994). Accommodating bodies: Celebrity, sexuality and “tragic Magic.”Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 18, 6–26.
    Rowe, D. (1997). Apollo undone: The sports scandal. In J.Lull & S.Hinerman (Eds.), Media scandals: Morality and desire in the popular culture marketplace (pp. 203–221). Cambridge, MA: Polity.
    Rowe, D., & McKay, J. (in press). Sport: Still a man's game. Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies.
    Rubey, D. (1991). Voguing at the carnival: Desire and pleasure on MTV. South Atlantic Quarterly, 90, 871–906.
    Rutherford, J. (1992). Men's silences: Predicaments in masculinity. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Ryan, B. (1992, December 14). The two and only. Sports Illustrated, 46.
    Saal, F. E., Johnson, C. B., & Weber, N. (1989). Friendly or sexy? It may depend on whom you ask. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 13, 263–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1989.tb01001.x
    Sabo, D. (1994). Pigskin, patriarchy and pain. In M.Messner & D.Sabo (Eds.), Sex, violence and power in sports: Rethinking masculinity (pp. 82–88). Freedom, CA: Crossing.
    Sabo, D. (1997). The Women's Sports Foundation gender equity report card: A survey of athletic opportunity in American higher education. East Meadows, NY: Women's Sports Foundation.
    Sabo, D. (1999). Understanding men's health: A gender sensitive and woman-centered approach. Working paper prepared for the Gender and Health Equity Workshop, Global Health Equity Initiative. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies.
    Sabo, D., & Gordon, D. (1995). Re-thinking men's health and illness. In D.Sabo & D.Gordon (Eds.), Men's health and illness: Gender, power, and the body (pp. 1–22). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243757
    Sabo, D., & Jansen, S. C. (1994). Seen but not heard: Black men in sports media. In M.Messner & D.Sabo (Eds.), Sex, violence and power in sports: Rethinking masculinity (pp. 169–184). Freedom, CA: Crossing.
    Sabo, D., & Jansen, S. C. (1998). Prometheus unbound: Constructions of masculinity in sports media. In L.Wenner (Ed.), MediaSport: Cultural sensibilities and sport in the media age (pp. 221–232). Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Sabo, D., & Messner, M. (1994). Changing men through changing sports: An eleven-point strategy. In M.Messner & D.Sabo (Eds.), Sex, violence and power in sports: Rethinking masculinity. Freedom, CA: Crossing.
    Sabo, D., & Panepinto, J. (1990). Football ritual and the social reproduction of masculinity. In M.Messner & D.Sabo (Eds.), Sport, men and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives (pp. 115–126). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Sabo, D., & Runfola, R. (1980). Jock: Sports and the male identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Sage, G. (1990). Power and ideology in American sport: A critical perspective. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Sales, R. (1995, February). Gender and Protestantism in Northern Ireland. Paper presented at the Contemporary Protestantism in Ireland conference, Queen's University, Belfast, Northern Ireland.
    Sammons, J. T. (1988). Beyond the ring: The role of boxing in American society. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Sanday, P. (1981). The socio-cultural context of rape: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Social Issues, 37, 5–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1981.tb01068.x
    Sanday, P. (1990). Fraternity gang rape: Sex, brotherhood, and privilege on campus. New York: New York University Press.
    Sanday, P. (1996a). Rape-prone versus rape-free campus cultures. Violence Against Women, 2, 191–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801296002002006
    Sanday, P. (1996b). A woman scorned: Acquaintance rape on trial. New York: Doubleday.
    Sawyer, R. (1993). “We are but women”: Women in Ireland's history. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203223826
    Scannell, V. (1967). Boxing. In R.Slovenko & J.Knight (Eds.), Motivations in play, games and sports (pp. 496–502). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Schact, S. P. (1996). Misogyny on and off the “pitch”: The gendered world of male rugby players. Gender & Society, 10, 550–566.
    Schultz, N. (1975). The semantic derogation of woman. In B.Thorne & N.Henley (Eds.), Language and sex: Difference and dominance. New York: Newbury House.
    Schulze, L. (1990). On the muscle. In J.Gaines & C.Herzog (Eds.), Fabrications: Costume and the female body. (pp. 59–78). Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Schwartz, M., & Nogrady, C. (1996). Fraternity membership, rape myths, and sexual aggression on a college campus. Violence Against Women, 2, 148–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801296002002003
    Scraton, S., Fasting, K., Pfister, G., & Bunuel, A. (1999). It's still a man's game? The experiences of top-level European women footballers. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 34, 99–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/101269099034002001
    Segal, L. (1990). Slow motion: Changing masculinities, changing men. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Sheard, K., & Dunning, E. (1973). The rugby football club as a male preserve. International Review of Sport Sociology, 3–4, 5–21.
    Sherrod, D. (1987). The bonds of men: Problems and possibilities in close male friendships. In H.Brod (Ed.), The making of masculinities (pp. 89–102). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Shilling, C. (1991). Educating the body: Physical capital and the production of social inequalities. Sociology, 25, 653–672. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038591025004006
    Shilling, C. (1993). The body and social theory. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446215470
    Shirlow, P., & McGovern, M. (1995, February). Post-Fordism, sectarianism and the political economy of Ulster loyalism. Paper presented at the Contemporary Protestantism in Ireland conference, Queen's University, Belfast, Northern Ireland.
    Shropshire, K. L. (1996). In black and white: Race and sports in America. New York: New York University Press.
    Siegal, A. (1989). The effects of anabolic steroids. Your Patient's Fitness, 2, 7–12.
    Simpson, M. (Ed.). (1996). Anti-gay. London: Cassell.
    Simson, V., & Jennings, A. (1992). The lords of the rings: Power, money and drugs in the modern Olympics. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Sinfield, A. (1994). Cultural politics—Queer reading. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Sloop, J. M. (1997). Mike Tyson and the perils of discursive constraints: Boxing, race, and the assumption of guilt. In A.Baker & T.Boyd (Eds.), Out of bounds: Sports, media, and the politics of identity (pp. 102–122). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Smith, M. (1987). Violence in Canadian amateur sport: A review of literature (Report for the Commission for Fair Play). Ottawa: Government of Canada.
    Smith, M. (1991). Violence and injuries in ice hockey. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 1, 104–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00042752-199104000-00005
    Snyder, E. (1994). Interpretations and explanations of deviance among college athletes: A case study. Sociology of Sport Journal, 3, 231–248.
    Sommers, C. (1995). Who stole feminism?New York: Touchstone/Simon & Schuster.
    Sontag, S. (1989). AIDS and its metaphors. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
    Sorensen, C., & Sonne-holm, S. (1980). Social costs of sport injuries. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 14, 24–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.14.1.24
    Special report: Crime and sports. (1995, December 27). Los Angeles Times, pp. A1, A12, C3-C10.
    Spender, D. (1980). Man made language. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Sports Council. (1991). Injuries in sport and exercise. London: Author.
    Spradley, J. P. (1980). Participant observation. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Stanley, J. (1977). Paradigmatic woman: The prostitute. In D.Shores & C.Hines (Eds.), Papers in language variation. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
    Stanway, A. (1993). The art of sexual intimacy. New York: Carroll & Graf.
    Staples, R. (1982). Black masculinity: The black male's role in American society. San Francisco: Black Scholar Press.
    Statistics Canada. (1995). Accidents in Canada. Ottawa: Author.
    Stillion, J. M. (1995). Premature death among males. In D.Sabo & D.Gordon (Eds.), Men's health and illness: Gender, power, and the body (pp. 46–68). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243757
    Stockdale, M. S. (1993). The role of sexual misperceptions of women's friendliness in an emerging theory of sexual harassment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 42, 84–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1993.1006
    Stone, A. R. (1991). Would the real body please stand up: Boundary stories about virtual culture. In Cyberspace first steps. M.Benedikt.
    Strathern, A. (1971). The rope of Moka. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558160
    Sugden, J. (1987). The exploitation of disadvantage: The occupational sub-culture of the boxer. In J.Home, D.Jary, & A.Tomlinson (Eds.), Sport, leisure and social relations. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Sugden, J., & Bairner, A. (1988). Sectarianism and soccer hooliganism in Northern Ireland. In T.Reilly, A.Lees, K.Davids, & W. J.Murphy (Eds), Science and football (pp. 572–78). London: Spon.
    Sugden, J., & Bairner, A. (1993). Sport, sectarianism and society in a divided Ireland. Leicester, UK: Leicester University Press.
    Swift, E. M. (1991, November 18). Dangerous games. Sports Illustrated, 40–43.
    Synnott, A. (1993). The body social: Symbolism, self and society. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Tatchell, P. (1996). It's just a phase: Why homosexuality is doomed. In M.Simpson (Ed.), Anti-gay. London: Cassell.
    Tator, G., Edmonds, V., & Lapczak. (1993). Ontario catastrophic sports: Recreational injuries survey, July 1-June 30, 1992. Toronto, Canada: Toronto Hospital, Toronto Western Division.
    Theberge, N. (1987). Sport and women's empowerment. Women's Studies International Forum, 10, 387–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395%2887%2990056-2
    Theberge, N. (1994). Toward a feminist alternative to sport as a male preserve. In S.Birrell & C.Cole (Eds.), Women, sport, and culture. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Theberge, N. (1995). Gender, sport, and the social construction of community: A case study from women's ice hockey. Sociology of Sport Journal, 12, 389–403.
    Theberge, N. (1997). It's part of the game: Physicality and the production of gender in women's hockey. Gender and Society, 11, 69–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124397011001005
    Thompson, S. (1994). Challenging the hegemony: New Zealand women's opposition to rugby and the reproduction of a capitalist patriarchy. In S.Birrell & C.Cole (Eds.), Women, sport, and culture (pp. 213–220). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Thompson, S. (1999). Mother's taxi: Sport and women's labor. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Thorne, B. (1993). Gender play. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Thorne, B., & Henley, N. (Eds.). (1985). Language, gender and society. New York: Newbury House.
    Tomlinson, A., & Yorganci, I. (1997). Male coach/female athlete relations: Gender and power relations in competitive sport. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 21, 134–155.
    Toscana, G., & Windau, J. (1994, October). The changing character of fatal work injuries. Monthly Labor Review, 17.
    Treichler, P. (1987). AIDS, homophobia and biomedical discourse: An epidemic of signification. Cultural Studies, 1, 263–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502388700490221
    Treichler, P. (1988). AIDS, gender and biomedical discourse: Current contests for meaning. In E.Fee & D.Fox (Eds.), AIDS: the burden of history (pp. 190–266). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Treichler, P. (1991). AIDS and HIV infection in the Third World: First World chronicles. In E.Fee & D.Fox (Eds.), The contemporary historiography of AIDS (pp. 187–210). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Trujillo, N. (1991). Hegemonic masculinity on the mound: Media representations of Nolan Ryan and American sports culture. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 8, 290–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039109366799
    Trujillo, N. (1995). Machines, missiles, and men: Images of the male body on ABC's Monday Night Football. Sociology of Sport Journal, 12, 403–423.
    Turner, B. (1984). The body and society: Explorations in social theory. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.
    Turner, B. (1991). Recent developments in the theory of the body. In M.Featherstone, M.Hepworth, & B.Turner (Eds.), The body: Social processes and social theory (pp. 1–35). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Tyler, S. (1996). Post-modern ethnography: From document of the occult to occult document. In J.Clifford & G.Marcus (Eds.), Writing culture. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (1991, October 28). Multiple jobholding unchanged in May 1991. Washington, DC: Department of Labor.
    U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (1992, August 19). Worker displacement increased sharply in recent recession. Washington, DC: Department of Labor.
    Vaid, U. (1995). Virtual equality: The mainstreaming of gay and lesbian liberation. New York: Anchor.
    Vertinsky, P. (1995). The “racial” body and the anatomy of difference: Anti-Semitism, physical culture, and the Jew's foot. Sport Science Review, 4 (1), 38–59.
    Volkwein, K., Frauke, I., Schnell, F., Sherwood, D., & Livezey, A. (1997). Sexual harassment in sport: Perceptions and experiences of American female student-athletes. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 32, 283–295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1012690297032003005
    Wachs, F. L., & Dworkin, S. L. (1997). There's no such thing as a gay hero: Magic = hero, Louganis = carrier: Sexual identity and media framing of HIV positive athletes. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 21, 335–355.
    Wacquant, L. (1992). The social logic of boxing in Black Chicago: Toward a sociology of pugilism. Sociology of Sport Journal, 9, 221–254.
    Walk, S. (1994). Information and injury: The experiences of student athletic trainers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University.
    Walk, S. (1997). Peers in pain: The experiences of student athletic trainers. Sociology of Sport Journal, 14, 22–56.
    Wallace, M. (1991). Black macho and the myth of the superwoman. London: Verso.
    Wallenfeldt, E. C. (1994). The six-minute fraternity: The rise and fall of NCAA tournament boxing, 1932–60. New York: Praeger.
    Wann, D. L. (1993). Aggression among highly identified spectators as a function of their need to maintain positive social identity. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 17, 134–143.
    Wann, D. L., Schrader, M. P., & Adamson, D. R. (1996, November). The cognitive and somatic anxiety of sport spectators. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport, Birmingham, AL.
    Ward, S. K., Chapman, K., Cohn, E., White, S., & Williams, K. (1991). Acquaintance rape and the college coed social scene. Family Relations, 40, 65–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585660
    Warner, M. (Ed.). (1993). Fear of a queer planet: Queer politics and social theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Warshaw, R. (1988). I never called it rape. New York: Harper & Row.
    Watney, S. (1989). Policing desire: Pornography, AIDS, and the media. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Weeks, J. (1985). Sexuality and its discontents: Meanings, myths, and modern sexualities. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203407462
    Weinberg, S., & Arond, H. (1969). The occupational culture of the boxer. In J.Loy & S.Kenyon (Eds.), Sport, culture, and society. New York: Macmillan.
    Weinstein, M. (1995). Culture/flesh: Explorations of post-civilized modernity. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Weinstein, M., Smith, M. D., & Wiesenthal, D. (1995). Masculinity and hockey violence. Sex Roles, 33, 831–847. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01544782
    Welch, M. (1997). Violence against women by professional football players. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 21, 393–411.
    Wells, J. (1991, November 16–17). Fire them up Fred, before they go to pot. The Weekend Australian, p. 70.
    Wenner, L. A. (1989). Media, sports, and society: The research agenda. In L. A.Wenner (Ed.), Media, sports, and society (pp. 13–48). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Wenner, L. A. (1996). The sports bar: Masculinity, alcohol, sports, and the mediation of public space. In S. J.Drucker & G.Gumpert (Eds.), Voices in the street: Explorations in gender, media, and public space (pp. 71–100). Creskill, NJ: Hampton.
    Wenner, L. (Ed.). (1998a). MediaSport: Cultural sensibilities and sport in the media age. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Wenner, L. A. (1998b). The sports bar: Masculinity, alcohol, sports, and the mediation of public space. In G.Rail & J.Harvey (Eds.), Sport and postmodern times: Gender, sexuality, the body and sport (pp. 301–332). Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Wernick, A. (1991). Promotional culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    West, C., & Zimmerman, D. (1987). Doing gender. Gender and Society, 1, 125–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891243287001002002
    West, C., & Zimmerman, D. H. (1991). Doing gender. In J.Lorber & S.Farrell (Eds.), The social construction of gender (pp. 13–37). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Wheaton, B., & Tomlinson, A. (1998). The changing gender order in sport? The case of windsurfing subcultures. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 22, 252–274.
    White, G. F., Katz, J., & Scarborough, K. E. (1992). The impact of professional football games upon violent assaults on women. Violence and Victims, 7 (2), 157–171.
    White, P., & Gillett, J. (1994). Reading the muscular body: A critical decoding of advertisements in Flex magazine. Sociology of Sport Journal, 11, 18–39.
    White, P. G., & Vagi, A. B. (1990). Rugby in the 19th century British boarding-school system: A feminist psychoanalytic perspective. In M.Messner & D.Sabo (Eds.), Sport, men and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives (pp. 67–78). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    White, P., Young, K., & Gillett, J. (1995). Bodywork as a moral imperative: Some critical notes on health and fitness. Loisir et Société, 18, 159–182.
    Whitson, D. (1984). Sport and hegemony: On the construction of the dominant culture. Sociology of Sport Journal, 1, 64–78.
    Whitson, D. (1990). Sport in the social construction of masculinity. In M.Messner & D.Sabo (Eds.), Sport, men and the gender order: Critical feminist perspectives (pp. 19–29). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
    Williamson, J. (1988). AIDS and perceptions of the grim reaper. Metro, 80, 2–6.
    Wilson, B. (1997). “Good Blacks” and “bad Blacks”: Media constructions of African-American athletes in Canadian basketball. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 32, 177–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/101269097032002005
    Wright, J. (1991). Gracefulness and strength: Sexuality in the Seoul Olympics. Social Semiotics, 1, 49–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10350339109360328
    Yates, P. D. (1987). A case of mistaken identity: Interethnic images in multicultural England. In G.Spindler & L.Spindler (Eds.), Interpretive ethnography of education (pp. 195–220). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Young, K. (1990, August). Treatment of sports violence in the Canadian mass media (Report to Sport Canada's Applied Sport Research Programme). Ottawa: Government of Canada.
    Young, K. (1993). Violence, risk, and liability in male sports culture. Sociology of Sport Journal, 10, 373–396.
    Young, K. (1997). Women, sport, and physicality: Preliminary findings from a Canadian study. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 32, 297–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1012690297032003006
    Young, K., & Smith, M. (1988–1989). Mass media treatment of violence in sport and its effects. Current Psychology: Research and Reviews, 7, 298–312.
    Young, K., & White, P. (1995). Sport, physical danger and injury: The experiences of elite women athletes. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 19, 45–61.
    Young, K., & White, P. (1998). Threats to sport careers: Elite athletes talk about injury and pain. In J.Coakley & P.Donnelly (Eds.), Inside sports (pp. 203–213). Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Young, K., White, P., & McTeer, W. (1994). Body talk: Male athletes reflect on sport, injury, and pain. Sociology of Sport Journal, 11, 175–194.
    Yount, K. R. (1991). Ladies, flirts, and tomboys: Strategies for managing sexual harassment in an underground coal mine. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 19, 396–422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124191019004002
    Zaricznyj, B., Shattuck, L., Mast, T., Robertson, R., & D'elia, G. (1980). Sports-related injury in school-aged children. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 8, 318–324.
    Zillmann, D., & Bryant, J. (1982). Pornography, sexual callousness, and the trivialization of rape. Journal of Communication, 32, 10–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1982.tb02514.x
    Zillmann, D., & Bryant, J. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In N.Malamuth & E.Donnerstein (Eds.), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

    About the Editors and Contributors

    Jim McKay teaches courses on gender and popular culture in the Department of Anthropology and Sociology at the University of Queensland. He is the Editor of the International Review for the Sociology of Sport. His most recent book is Managing Gender: Affirmative Action and Organizational Power in Australian, Canadian, and New Zealand Sport (1997).

    Michael A. Messner is Associate Professor of Sociology and Gender Studies at the University of Southern California. His books include Power at Play: Sports and the Problem of Masculinity (1992), Sex, Violence, and Power in Sports: Rethinking Masculinity (1994), and Politics of Masculinities: Men in Movements (1997). He has conducted several studies on gender in televised sports, and is a Past President of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport.

    Don Sabo, PhD, is Professor of Sociology at D'Youville College in Buffalo, New York, and an Adjunct Associate Professor of Sociology at the State University of New York at Buffalo. He has authored numerous articles and five books, most recently with David Gordon, Men's Health and Illness: Gender, Power and the Body (winner of the Choice magazine Most Outstanding Academic Book Award for 1996). He lectures about issues ranging from gender equity in athletics, sport and masculinity, men's violence, and physical activity and health. His next book, Confronting Prison Masculinities, is being published by Temple University Press. Professor Sabo coauthored the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports report Physical Activity and Sport in the Lives of Girls (1997). He has directed several nationwide studies including the Women's Sports Foundation Gender Equity Report Card: A Survey of Athletic Opportunity in American Higher Education (1997) and the Women's Sports Foundation Report: Sport and Teen Pregnancy (1998).

    Mathieu Albert, PhD, has worked for 10 years as a performance arts critic for Le Devoir. He has completed research and publications on the epistemology of historical knowledge associated with performance arts and, more recently, on extreme sports. Having completed a dissertation at the Université de Montréal on the impact of neoliberalism on social science research, he is currently a postdoctoral fellow at the Interuniversity Center for Research on Science and Technology in Montréal. His recent research focuses on the transformation of Canadian universities in the context of global economic restructuring.

    Alan Bairner teaches politics at the University of Ulster in Jordanstown, Northern Ireland. He is coauthor of Sport, Sectarianism and Society in a Divided Ireland (1993) and joint editor of Sport in Divided Societies (1998). He has written numerous articles on sport in Ireland, Scotland, and Sweden and on the relation between sport and identity. His particular interests are masculinity and the role of sport in the construction and reproduction of national identities, on which theme he is completing a monograph for the State University of New York Press.

    Todd Crosset, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Sport Studies in the Sport Management Program at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He did his doctoral work in sociology at Brandeis University. His academic interests in sport management include gender issues, elite athletes, ethics, and coach-athlete relations. His book Outsiders in the Clubhouse, about life on the LPGA golf tour, won the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport book of the year award in 1995. Prior to arriving at the University of Massachusetts, he held positions as a head coach of swimming at Northeastern University and assistant athletic director at Dartmouth College. While an undergraduate at the University of Texas, Austin, he was an All-American swimmer and a member of the National Championship Team.

    Timothy Jon Curry, PhD, is Associate Professor of Sociology at the Ohio State University. He earned his doctorate from the University of Washington and is a Past President of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport and a member of the American Sociological Association, among other association memberships. He teaches courses in the sociology of sport, American society, and deviancy. He has published articles on various aspects of mass communication, sport, leisure, gender, and society. He has written three books, Sports: A Social Perspective, Introducing Visual Sociology, and Sociology for the Twenty-First Century. He currently is researching stadium controversies and urban renewal.

    Laurence de Garis, PhD, at the time he wrote his chapter, was a Research Consultant at the University of Connecticut's Laboratory for Sport, Leisure and Tourism. When not writing about boxing, he prefers to be in the ring himself, where he is an active professional wrestler. Drawing on his experiences in the ring, he also frequently writes about professional wrestling and ethnographic research.

    Michelle D. Dunbar is a graduate student at the University of Southern California. Her main research interest is in exploring how popular culture and the media influence individuals' ideas about race, gender, and class and how those ideas gets translated into social action. Her dissertation builds on the chapter presented here, extending the analysis of race, class, and masculinity in the image of Dennis Rodman to include audience research that seeks to find the meanings that viewers make of mediated sports figures.

    Shari Lee Dworkin is a PhD candidate in the Department of Sociology at the University of Southern California (USC). Her substantive areas of research include gender, sexuality, and sport/fitness/bodies. Some of her published works include “Disciplining the Body: HIV Positive Male Athletes, Media Surveillance and the Policing of Sexuality,” Sociology of Sport Journal, 15 (1998), coauthored with Faye Linda Wachs; and (coauthored with Michael Messner) “Just Do … What? Sport, Bodies, Gender,” in Judith Lorber, Myra Marx Ferree, and Beth Hess (Eds.), Revisioning Gender (1999). She currently teaches courses in social theory and gender in the California State University system.

    Philip M. Gray (PhD, State University of New York at Buffalo) is Associate Professor of Sociology at D' Youville College. As a Vietnam combat veteran, his past research interests have included posttraumatic stress disorder. His current research focuses on domestic violence issues. He is active in the AAUP-D' Youville College Chapter.

    Othello Harris is Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Physical Education, Health, and Sport Studies at Miami University, Ohio. He is a sport sociologist and book review editor for the Sociology of Sport Journal. His research interests focus on race and sport.

    Cynthia A. Hasbrook, PhD, is Professor and Chair of the Department of Human Kinetics at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. She is a sport sociologist, editor of Sociology of Sport Journal, and a member of the Board of Directors of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport. Her primary research has focused on social factors affecting children's physicality, and she recently concluded a 3-year ethnographic study of a culturally diverse and working-class group of elementary school children in which the children's constructions of gender, physicality, and sexuality were examined.

    Alan M. Klein, PhD, is Professor of Sociology-Anthropology at Northeastern University in Boston. He is author of Sugarball: The American Game, The Dominican Dream (1991), Little Big Men: Bodybuilding Subculture and Gender Construction (1993), and Baseball on the Border: A Tale of Two Laredos (1997). He is currently working on a book on globalization and baseball.

    Suzanne Laberge, PhD, is a full professor in the Department of Kinesiology at the Université de Montréal. She teaches in sociology of sport and is mainly known for her neo-Bourdieusian and feminist analyses of gender, class, and health practices. She has published in a variety of journals, notably Sociology of Sport Journal, Society and Leisure, and Sociologie et Sociétés, on issues associated with extreme sports, doping in sport, and nationalism and elite sport. Her most recent research focuses on gender, cultural styles, and health practices.

    Toby Miller is Associate Professor of Cinema Studies at New York University. He is the author of The Well-Tempered Self (1993), Contemporary Australian Television (with S. Cunningham, 1994), The Avengers (1997), Technologies of Truth (1998), and Popular Culture and Everyday Life (with A. McHoul, 1998) and the coeditor of SportCult (with R. Martin, 1999), Film and Theory: An Anthology (with R. Stam, 1999), and A Companion to Film Theory (with R. Stam, 1999). He currently edits the journals Social Text and Television & New Media and is a former editor of the Journal of Sport and Social Issues.

    Linda A. Moore (M.Ed., State University of New York at Buffalo) has taught elementary school around the country and currently works in the field of curricular materials for teachers.

    Brian Pronger, PhD, is the author of The Arena of Masculinity: Sports, Homosexuality and the Meaning of Sex. He has published articles on gender, sexuality, and sport as well as postmodern studies of the body, science, and physical fitness. He teaches philosophy in the faculty of Physical Education and Health at the University of Toronto.

    David Rowe, PhD, teaches Media and Cultural Studies in the Department of Leisure and Tourism Studies at the University of Newcastle, Australia. His books include Popular Cultures: Rock Music, Sport, and the Politics of Pleasure (1995), Tourism, Leisure, Sport: Critical Perspectives (edited with Geoffrey Lawrence, 1998), and Sport, Culture and the Media: The Unruly Trinity (1999).

    Faye Linda Wachs is Visiting Assistant Professor at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles. Some of her published works include “There's No Such Thing as a Gay Hero: Sexual Identity and Media Framing of HIV Positive Athletes” (1997) in Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 21(4): 335–355 (coauthored with Shari Lee Dworkin) and “I Was There: Gender, Power, and Discourse in the World of Co-ed Softball,” in A. Bolin and J. Granskog (Eds.), Bodies in Motion: Women, Culture, and Exercise/Sport (in press). She teaches courses in methods, sport, and gender. She and Shari Lee Dworkin are working on an ongoing research project that analyzes men's and women's fitness magazines.

    Stephan R. Walk earned PhDs in both sociology and physical education and exercise science from Michigan State University. He currently is Assistant Professor in the Division of Kinesiology and Health Promotion at California State University-Fullerton. Specializing in the sociology of sport, his research centers on the normalization of risk, pain, and injury in sport and the social dynamics at work in systems of athlete health care. His work has appeared in the Sociology of Sport Journal as well as in books on the epidemiology of sports injuries and sports medicine.

    Philip White is Professor of Kinesiology at McMaster University in Canada. He is coeditor (with Kevin Young) of Sport and Gender in Canada (forthcoming) and conducts research in various areas of the sociology of sport. He coaches the varsity men's rugby program at McMaster and the Ontario women's rugby program.

    Kevin Young is Senior Research Fellow in the Department of Physical Education, Sports Science, and Recreation Management at Loughborough University, UK. He has published on a variety of sports-related topics and is coeditor, with Philip White, of Sport and Gender in Canada (1999). He has served on the editorial boards of Sociology of Sport Journal and Avante, and on the executive board of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport. He is currently Vice President of the International Sociology of Sport Association.


    • Loading...
Back to Top