Markets and Malthus: Population, Gender, and Health in Neo-Liberal Times
Publication Year: 2010
The decennial International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) that took place in Cairo in 1994 has been described as historic and revolutionary. It rejected top-down demographically driven population control programs, emphasizing instead reproductive health and rights for women, and for men. This volume explores the ideas and institutions that framed the Cairo consensus and traces their trajectories sixteen years down the line. Why were Third World feminists profoundly critical of the Cairo consensus and process? How has the health of people around the world been affected by neo-liberal economic policies? The intervening years have also seen the global rise of anti-feminisms and fundamentalisms targeting women's bodies and rights. What have these meant for women's rights, including reproductive rights?
The book presents detailed case studies ranging ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Population, Health, and Gender in Neo-Liberal Times
- Chapter 2: A Decade and More after Cairo: Women's Health in a Free Market Economy
- Chapter 3: Liberal Ends, Illiberal Means: National Security, “Environmental Conflict,” and the Making of the Cairo Consensus
- Chapter 4: The Politics of Abortion: A Note
- Chapter 5: An Entangled Skein: Neo-Malthusianisms in Neo-Liberal Times
- Chapter 6: Neo-Liberal Development and Reproductive Health in India: The Making of the Personal and the Political
- Chapter 7: A Decade after Cairo in Latin America: An Overview
- Chapter 8: Redefining and Medicalizing Population Policies: NGOs and Their Innovative Contributions to the Post-Cairo Agenda
- Chapter 9: Structural Adjustment, Impotence, and Family Planning: Men's Voices in Egypt
- Chapter 10: What Has Happened in Africa since Cairo?
- Chapter 11: Reproductive Health, Family Planning, and HIV/AIDS: Dangers of (Dis)Integration in Tanzania and Uganda
- Chapter 12: China's Population Policies: Engendered Biopolitics, the One-Child Norm, and Masculinization of Child Sex Ratios
Copyright © Mohan Rao and Sarah Sexton, 2010
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
First published in 2010 by
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Markets and Malthus: population, gender, and health in neo-liberal times/edited by Mohan Rao and Sarah Sexton.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Population—Economic aspects. 2. Women—Economic conditions. 3. Population policy. 4. Malthus, T. R. (Thomas Robert), 1766–1834. 5. Neoliberalism. I. Rao, Mohan, 1953– II. Sexton, Sarah.
ISBN: 978-81-321-0297-7 (HB)
The SAGE Team: Rekha Natarajan, Sushmita Banerjee, and Sanjeev Kumar Sharma
Cover Design by Shoili Kanungo
Mohan Rao would like to dedicate this book to his parents, Kapila and B.V.R. Rao, the most gentle, the rarest of parents; and to Imrana Qadeer, equally rare, teacher, and friend. They taught him that love and knowledge increases as it is shared, something neo-classical economists simply cannot understand.
Sarah Sexton would like to dedicate this book to her colleagues, Larry Lohmann and Nicholas Hildyard, without whom this book would not have been possible—but who sometimes are just two too menny …[Page vi]
List of Tables[Page ix]
- 10.1 The poorest growing poorer, the richest getting (much) richer, GNP per person (US$) 246
- 10.2 Life expectancy at birth in selected sub-Saharan African countries 246
- 10.3 Maternal mortality rates per 100,000 live births for selected sub-Saharan African countries 247
- 10.4 Maternal mortality ratios, 2000 (adjusted rates), and lifetime risk of maternal death 248
- 10.5 Deliveries with skilled attendant (percent) in selected sub-Saharan African countries 249
- 10.6 AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis in selected sub-Saharan African countries 250
- 10.7 Public expenditure on health and military expenditure as a percentage of GDP for selected sub-Saharan African countries 252
- 10.8 Physicians per 100,000 population 1988–1992 and most recent year, and annual population growth rate (percent) 1975–2003, for selected African countries 253
- 10.9 Married women of childbearing age using contraception (percent) in selected sub-Saharan African countries 254
- 10.10 Public expenditures on health per capita (US$) in selected sub-Saharan African countries, most recent year 256
- 10.11 Percentage distribution of professional health staff by level of facility (late 1990s) 257
- 10.12 Skilled emigration from African countries, 2000 258
- 10.13 Emigration factors for physicians from African countries 259
- 10.14 Losses per person from subsoil assets, timber resources, non-timber forest resources, protected areas, cropland, and pastureland, 2000 261 [Page x]
List of Abbreviations[Page xi]
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome BNP British Nationalist Party CDC Centers for Disease Control CSIS Center for Strategic and International Studies CSMCH Centre of Social Medicine and Community Health CWPE Committee on Women, Population, and Environment DAWN Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era DISH Delivery of Improved Services for Health DPP Decentralized Participatory Planning ECSP Environmental Change and Security Project EPS Environment, Population, and Security ERSAP Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment Program FDA Food and Drug Administration G–7 Group of 7 (Seven of the world's leading countries that meet periodically to achieve a cooperative effort on international economic and monetary issues.) GDP Gross Domestic Product HERA Health Empowerment Right and Accountability HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus HMIS Health Management Information System ICPD International Conference on Population and Development ICPD International Conference on Population and Development IMF International Monetary Fund IMR Infant Mortality Rate INGO International Non-governmental Organizations IPPF International Planned Parenthood Federation IUD Intrauterine Device IVF In Vitro Fertilization IWHC International Women's Health Coalition [Page xii] JCRC Joint Clinical Research Center LACWHN Latin American and Caribbean Women's Health Network MTP Medical Termination of Pregnancy NEP New Economic Policies NGO Non-governmental Organizations NPP National Population Policy NSC National Security Council OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development PGSI Pew Global Stewardship Initiative PHN Population, Health, and Nutrition Office POA Program of Action PRB Population Reference Bureau PRI Panchayati Raj Institutions RCH Reproductive and Child Health Program RSS Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh SAP Structural Adjustment Program STD Sexually Transmitted Diseases STI Sexually Transmitted Infections TB Tuberculosis TFA Target Free Approach TFR Total Fertility Rate TRCHS Tanzania Child Health Facility Survey UDHS Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey UN United Nations UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund USAID United States Agency for International Development VHP Vishva Hindu Parishad WAD Women and Development WEDO Women's Environment and Development Organization WHO World Health Organization WICEJ Women's International Coalition for Economic Justice WID Women in Development WGNRR Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights WTO World Trade Organization
About the Editors and Contributors[Page 338]
Mohan Rao is Professor at the Centre of Social Medicine and Community Health, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He is a medical doctor, specialized in public health. He works on health and population policy, and the history and politics of health. His publications include From Population Control to Reproductive Health: Malthusian Arithmetic (2004), Disinvesting in Health: The World Bank's Health Prescription (edited, 1999), and The Unheard Scream: Reproductive Health and Women's Lives in India (edited, 2004).
Sarah Sexton works with The Corner House, a non-profit research and solidarity group based in Dorset, UK that aims to support democratic and community movements for environmental and social justice. As part of its solidarity work, The Corner House carries out analyses, research, and advocacy with the aim of linking issues, of stimulating informed discussion and strategic thought on critical environmental and social concerns, and of encouraging broad alliances to tackle them. She is currently working on the political economy of the global biotechnology industry, and its implications for women.
Kamran Asdar Ali, a medical doctor, is also an anthropologist. He is currently Associate Professor of Anthropology at University of Texas, Austin. His publications include Planning the Family in Egypt: New Bodies New Selves (2002), and several writings on gender issues and on working-class politics in Pakistan.
Marlene Fried is Professor of Philosophy at Hampshire College where she is also the Director of the Civil Liberties and Public Policy Program, a program for reproductive rights education and activism. She is a long-time reproductive rights activist, was the founding president and continues to serve on the board of the National Network of Abortion Funds, and is on the board of the Abortion Access Project. She has worked on abortion access internationally on the board of the Women's Global Network [Page 339]for Reproductive Rights and through the Johannesburg Initiative, an international abortion access and advocacy project. She has spoken and written extensively on abortion rights and access. Her edited volume includes From Abortion Rights to Reproductive Freedom: Transforming a Movement (1999). She is co-author with Jael Silliman, Loretta Ross, and Elena Gutiérrez of Undivided Rights: Women of Color Organizing for Reproductive Justice (2004).
Susan Greenhalgh is a population specialist and Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Irvine. She was formerly a China specialist at the Population Council. Among her many publications are Governing China's Population: From Leninist to Neoliberal Biopolitics (with Edwin A. Winckler, 2005), Under the Medical Gaze: Facts and Fictions of Chronic Pain (2001), Situating Fertility: Anthropology and Demographic Inquiry (edited, 1995), Contending Approaches to the Political Economy of Taiwan (edited with Edwin A. Winckler, 1988). Her forthcoming publication is Just One Child: Science and Policy in Deng's China. She is a leading figure in the field of critical anthropology and demographic anthropology.
Betsy Hartmann is Director of the Population and Development Program and Professor of Development Studies at Hampshire College. A longstanding activist in the international women's health movement, she writes and speaks frequently on international population, development, environment and security issues in activist, academic, and policy venues. She is the author of Reproductive Rights and Wrongs: The Global Politics of Population Control (1995) and two political thrillers, The Truth about Fire (2002) and Deadly Election (2008), and co-author with James Boyce of A Quiet Violence: View from a Bangladesh Village (1983). She is co-editor with Banu Subramaniam and Charles Zerner of the anthology Making Threats: Biofears and Environmental Anxieties (2005).
Sumati Nair contributed to Chapter 2 of this book while working with Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights (WGNRR). WGNRR is an autonomous network of groups and individuals in every continent which aims to achieve and support reproductive rights for women.
[Page 340]Lisa Ann Richey is Associate Professor of Development Studies in the Department of Society and Globalisation at Roskilde University, Denmark. She is the author of Population Politics and Development: From the Policies to the Clinics (2008), which examines the interactions between global population discourse and local family planning practices across Africa against a backdrop of neo-liberal models of development and the dominant focus on HIV/AIDS.
Martha Rosenberg is a psychoanalyst, feminist, president of Reproductive Rights Forum (Foro por los Derechos Reproductivos), member of the Coordination Committee of CoNDeRS (National Consortium for Reproductive and Sexual Rights), and member of the National Campaign for Legal, Safe and Free Abortion Rights in Argentina. She is co-author of Hospitalized Abortion, A Reproductive Rights Matter, A Public Health Problem (1996), and editor of the Spanish version of Barbara Klugman and Debbie Budlender, Strategies for Abortion Access: A Study in 11 Countries (2005). She is author of numerous articles and essays published in compilations and specialized reviews about gender, subjectivity, reproductive rights, and sexual education policies.
Susanne Schultz is a political scientist based in Berlin, Germany. She is a long-standing activist in internationalist and feminist movements. Her Ph.D. focused on international population policies and the NGOization of women's health movements, looking, in particular, at Latin America. She currently works with a Gen-ethisches Netzwerk (Gene-ethical Network) which provides critical information on all aspects of genetic engineering and reproductive medicine.
Rachel Simon-Kumar is Senior Lecturer, Department of Societies and Cultures, The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. She teaches women's and gender studies (feminist political theory, gender, and development program), and is developing the Department's post-graduate program on health and policy. Her current research interests are in gender and policy in the New Zealand public sector and Asian migrant health. She is the author of Marketing Reproduction? Ideology and Population Policy in India (2006).
[Page 341]Meredeth Turshen, Professor at the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University, holds a D.Phil. in Comparative Politics from the University of Sussex in England. She has authored three books: The Political Ecology of Disease in Tanzania (1984), The Politics of Public Health (1989), and Privatizing Health Services in Africa (1999), and edited many others: Women and Health in Africa (1991), Women's Lives and Public Policy: The International Experience (1993), What Women Do in Wartime: Gender and Conflict in Africa (1998), African Women's Health (2000), and The Aftermath: Women in Postconflict Transformation (2002). She serves as Co-Chair of the Association of Concerned Africa Scholars, as Treasurer of the Committee for Health in Southern Africa, and as contributing editor of the Review of African Political Economy.