Marketing Ethics & Society


Lynne Eagle & Stephan Dahl

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  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    About the Contributors

    Stephan Dahl is Senior Lecturer in Marketing at Hull University Business School in England and Adjunct Associate Professor of Marketing at James Cook University. His research interests include health and social marketing, cross-cultural marketing and online/social media marketing, and he has published widely in national and international journals as well as authoring a text on Social Media Marketing (Sage, 2015). Dr Dahl’s current focus is on the role of social marketing to increase physical activity, online Word of Mouth and marketing, using social networks and marketing green issues.

    Debra M. Desrochers is Senior Lecturer in Marketing & Business Strategy at Westminster Business School. Her research focuses on the impact of marketing activities and practices on the consumer, with significant attention on the policy issues surrounding food marketing. She is associate editor of the Journal of Consumer Affairs and on the Editorial Review Board of the Journal of Public Policy & Marketing. Her research has been published in the Journal of Retailing and the Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, and presented at numerous national and international conferences. She has served as a visiting scholar at the Federal Trade Commission and contributed to a research project on children’s exposure to television advertising, with a particular emphasis on food advertising.

    Lynne Eagle is Professor of Marketing at James Cook University. Her research interests include marketing communication effects and effectiveness, including trans-disciplinary approaches to sustained behaviour change in social marketing/health promotion/environmental protection campaigns; the impact of persuasive communication on children; and the impact of new, emerging and hybrid media forms and preferences and the use of formal and informal communications channels. She has published in a wide range of academic journals, including the Journal of Advertising and European Journal of Marketing, led the development of both Marketing Communications and Social Marketing texts and contributed several book chapters for other texts, as well as writing commissioned social marketing expert papers and presenting numerous research papers at international conferences. She is on the editorial board of several journals.

    Mustafa Ebrahimjee is a general practitioner and partner at the Pall Mall Surgery in Leigh-on-Sea, Essex. Dr Ebrahimjee’s research interests include the prevention of health problems and pro-active patient engagement, and he has participated in and published on research projects related to physical activity of the elderly and social marketing interventions in these areas. He is also a qualified trainer, teaching future doctors who wish to train as GPs. He brings extensive experience of medical practice both in the UK and abroad, and speaks English, Kiswahili, Gujarati, Hindi and Urdu.

    David R. Low is Dean of the College of Business, Law and Governance and Professor of Business at James Cook University. He has a wide variety of both industry and academic senior management and boardroom experience. His research interests include cross cultural issues; country of origin studies; ethnicity, social media, social marketing, market orientation, firm performance and e-marketing; and innovation, SMEs and the use of technology in business value chains. David has recently co-edited a book on E-Novation and Web 2.0.

    Tracey Mahony is Lecturer and PhD candidate in the discipline of Marketing at James Cook University. Her research interests focus on the efficacy of regulation of new and emerging electronic media, brand community development and the use of social media in developing economies. She has a wide variety of industry management experience in business and law, has lectured in Accounting, Management and Business Negotiation subjects, and has extensive experience in developing course material for undergraduate and postgraduate students.

    Kathleen Mortimer is Associate Professor of Marketing Communications at Northampton Business School, University of Northampton. She is also chair of the Marketing Communications SIG of the Academy of Marketing and Deputy Editor of the Journal of Marketing Communications. Her research focuses on advertising and marketing communications, and she has published widely in numerous scholarly journals, including the European Journal of Marketing, Journal of Services Marketing, Journal of Marketing Communications and Journal of Customer Behaviour.

    Nadine Waehning-Orga is Lecturer in Marketing at York St John University. She previously worked and completed her PhD at Hull University. Her research interests include consumer behaviour; cross cultural issues; regional product purchase motives; international marketing; and marketing for SMEs. Her expertise is not just focused on the academic side of businesses; she is also a Managing Director of the international marketing consultancy Initio Marketing ( Additionally she is a Chartered Marketer and an active member in the local branch.

    Fannie Yeung is Lecturer in Marketing at Hull University Business School in England. Her research interests centre on the impact of ethics on consumer behaviour with a particular focus on financial products and services. Her interest in financial products and services stems from her many years of professional experience working with a number of leading multinational organisations in the financial services industry prior to joining academia. Fannie has also worked on a number of consultancy projects for clients both in the UK and overseas.

  • Glossary


    computer-based games containing embedded advertising.

    Alcohol moderation campaigns

    promotional activity aimed at encouraging people to drink no more than recommended daily amounts and to not get drunk.


    ‘alternative globalisation’ focusing on supporting cooperation and interaction across developed and developing countries.


    caused by people (rather than naturally occurring).

    Anthropomorphic marketing

    marketing strategies whereby a product, service or brand appears to take on human characteristics such as ‘talking’ directly to individual consumers.


    strictest form of non-consumption, where all forms of consumption are avoided as far as possible.


    movement against global capitalist forces (see also Alter-globalisation).

    Anti-social behaviour

    behaviour that may harm or alarm others, including creating a public nuisance (such as vandalism, graffiti, excess noise, etc.).


    the practice of paying people to create false grassroots support for an organisation or brand.


    learned and relatively consistent evaluations of products, services or behaviours. Usually attitudes have three components: cognitive (based on actual knowledge acquired), affective (emotions or feelings) and conative (likelihood that an individual or group will behave in a particular way, such as the intention to make a specific purchase or behave in a specific way).

    Bait and switch tactics

    tactics whereby a specific product is offered at a low price, but when potential buyers try to make a purchase, the advertised product is not available and they are offered more expensive alternatives instead.

    Behavioural economics

    see Nudge.

    Behaviourally Targeted Advertising (BTA)

    advertising targeting specific potential purchasers on the basis of their behaviour, such as web-browsing activity. Advertisements will be displayed based on the sites visited or searches made.

    Big Data

    large and complex sets of data requiring more than traditional data processing methods for analysis – now used frequently to refer to data sets derived from Internet and social media-based activity.

    Binge drinking

    consumption of large amounts of alcohol in a short period of time.


    technology that enables short-range connections between electronic devices such as smartphones, computers, etc.

    Boomerang effects

    unintended effects from attempts to persuade people to change behaviours, where behaviour changes in the opposite direction to that intended.


    avoiding specific products, often to achieve a social or political outcome.

    Brand communities

    a community or group formed on the basis of their use of, and loyalty towards, a specific brand.

    Brand equity

    a measure of the strength of consumers’ attachment to a brand.

    Brand image

    perceptions regarding a brand’s personality, strengths and weaknesses.


    giving money, gifts or anything perceived by the receiver as being of value in order to influence the receiver’s behaviour, such as purchases or preferential treatment. Regarded as a crime, but subject to different definitions of what is acceptable and unacceptable behaviour across cultures.

    Business-to-Business Marketing (B2B)

    marketing activity involving transactions (e.g. sales) between businesses, such as between two manufacturers, a manufacturer and a wholesaler or retailer or between a wholesaler and a retailer, as opposed to business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions.


    intentionally engaging in the consumption of specific products to support a social cause (opposite of boycotts).

    Carbon offsetting

    schemes designed to compensate for or counterbalance the production of carbon emissions – this may be a tax or other financial contribution, or the production of products that use rather than emit carbon.

    Cause-related marketing

    involves a marketer becoming involved in the promotion of a specific cause, such as the reduction of poverty, improvement of health and well-being within developing countries or the eradication of a specific disease.

    Celebrity philanthropy

    involves celebrities endorsing a specific cause and supporting fundraising activity for the cause such as making public appearances at fundraising events, discussing the cause with the media or making well-publicised donations.

    Choice architecture

    see Nudge.

    Choice editing

    process of limiting consumers’ choices of undesirable products, for example by imposing taxation or making certain choices unavailable (see also Nudge).

    Citizenship-based consumption

    consumers using collective power to achieve socio-environmental outcomes.

    Cloud computing

    in the marketing context, the use of third party organisations to store data such as customer information or profiles.

    Codes of ethics

    formal lists of acceptable ethical behaviours for individuals or organisations.

    Codified legislation

    formal legislation governing the behaviour of a specific group of individuals such as a profession, e.g. accountancy, medicine.


    preventing people from acting in certain ways, or forcing them to act in specific ways without consideration of their wishes.

    Cognitive abilities

    the ability of individuals to understand the information available and to be able to process the information and make decisions regarding whether or how to react to it. This may be age-related or linked to functional literacy issues, or to overall intellectual abilities.

    Cognitive development

    the way in which the ability to understand, process and act on information, including the persuasive intent behind marketing activity, develops with age.

    Commercial media literacy

    the achievement of a greater understanding of the persuasive intent behind persuasive communication such as advertising.

    Communicative Approaches

    approach for resolving ethical conflicts by combining normative and relativist approaches by resolving differences through dialogue.

    Comprehensive Model of Consumer Action

    a complex model of understanding consumer actions developed by Bagozzi.

    Conflict of interest

    situations that arise when a core interest, such as obligations to employers to act in a specific way – e.g. with honesty – is influenced and at times overridden by a secondary interest such as personal gain.


    see Teleology.

    Consistency theory

    theory asserting that individuals tend to behave in ways consistent with their personal norms and beliefs.

    Conspicuous consumption

    consumption with the purpose of displaying wealth or status, e.g. through the purchase of luxury goods.


    the acquisition, use and disposal of goods or services.

    Content restrictions

    restrictions on the contents of advertising, e.g. regulation about claims that can be made for a specific product or product category.

    Corporate Social Responsibility

    a management approach designed to show an organisation’s commitment to the social environment in which it operates.


    vouchers or other documents that entitle customers to a discount on future purchases.

    Dark tourism

    tourism activity where the focus is on visiting sites which are associated with death or human suffering, such as battlefields, mass burial sites, etc. Also termed Thanotourism.

    Data mining

    extraction of information from a set of data for use in business decisions such as the use of customer historical purchase patterns in order to tailor future promotional activity to meet their needs.


    marketing strategies and tactics aimed at reducing demand for goods and services.


    an ethical framework that focuses on intentions and holds that there are ethical ‘absolutes’ that are universally applicable, with the focus on means or intentions.


    direct marketing such as face-to-face contact or promotion of pharmaceutical products to doctors or other medical professionals with the intention of providing specific details about the benefits of a product or service, or showing how it can be used; for example, focusing on specific conditions the drug is indicated for.

    Direct-to-Consumer Advertising/DTCA

    advertising or other forms of promotional activity of prescription medications by pharmaceutical companies direct to potential consumers, even though the only access to the medication is via a prescription from a medical professional such as a doctor.

    Disposition theory

    suggests that enjoyment of media often results in strong feelings which may be positive or negative regarding specific characters or the situations portrayed.

    Distributive justice

    assignments of benefits and burdens from all activity according to some (usually implicit rather than clearly stated and agreed by all parties) standard of fairness.


    a complex combination of living organisms including plants and animals, together with the physical environment in which they exist.

    Education events

    specific education events, such as dinners or presentations, where certain drugs, sponsored by a pharmaceutical company, are presented to health care professionals.


    an ethical framework, a subset of Teleology, in which the benefits to the individual undertaking action are stressed and the impact on other people is de-emphasised.

    Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)

    a dual process theory of processing of information, consisting of a central and a peripheral route. A central route operates when individuals are highly interested or motivated to pay attention to the message. A peripheral route operates when interest and motivation are low.

    Environmental factors

    in social marketing, factors such as economic conditions or social factors that may positively or negatively influence people’s behaviours.

    Environmental management

    management of the natural environment, particularly in relation to the impact human activity may have on it, such as the depletion of natural resources or pollution.

    Fair Trade

    a movement begun in the 1960s in order to offer better trading conditions for small producers and workers in developing countries through guaranteed minimum pricing for produce, minimum labour standards and capacity building.


    conveying a (sometimes false) image of a company as a responsible purchaser of Fair Trade/sustainable products, but actually overselling the organisation’s commitment to Fair Trade principles.

    False positive

    incidence where a medical or other test shows a positive result, despite the medical condition not being present.

    Fast moving consumer goods (FMCG)

    that is, frequently purchased products such as groceries.


    public gatherings, often organised via social media, at which people perform a specific act for a short time and then disperse.


    fake blogs.

    Forbidden fruit

    unintended effects of attempts to manipulate behaviours which result in the behaviour itself becoming more attractive.

    Franchising/franchisee and franchisor

    business arrangements where an organisation (the franchisor) contracts with other firms, individuals or groups (franchisees) to offer products and services under its brand names.

    Generic drugs

    drugs marketed under their chemical name as opposed to branded drugs without advertising; generally cheaper than branded drugs and usually only marketed once a patent for a branded drug has expired.

    Ghost blogging/ghost tweeting

    writing blog posts or tweets on behalf of the stated author without disclosing the true authorship.

    Greenhouse gases

    any of the gases, including carbon dioxide, whose absorption of solar radiation is held to be responsible for the ‘greenhouse effect’, i.e. warming of the earth’s average temperature.

    Green consumption

    practice of consumption reduction and emphasising sustainable and environmentally friendly consumption practices.


    tactics designed to mislead consumers regarding the pro-environmental stance of an organisation or the environmental benefits of a product or service it markets.

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

    the total market value of all final goods and services produced in a country in a given year, equal to the total consumer, investment and government spending, plus the value of exports, minus the value of imports.

    Group influences

    see Social norms.


    Global Positioning System: a satellite-based navigation system.

    Guerrilla marketing

    promotion through social networks to promote and popularise a product, service or idea. Traditional mass media are not used. See also Stealth marketing.

    Health education

    activity that seeks to inform the individual on the nature and causes of health/illness and that individual’s personal level of risk associated with their lifestyle-related behaviour.

    Health promotion

    activity designed to promote health/healthier lifestyles, usually based on single messages sent to wider population groups rather than being specifically targeted at individual population segments.

    Health tourism

    tourism with the primary aim of seeking medical treatment abroad.

    Hierarchy of Effects models

    suggest that people pass through clearly defined stages of response to advertising messages (e.g. AIDA, i.e. Awareness, Interest, Desire and Action).

    House brands

    brands marketed under the name of a retailer rather than the organisation actually manufacturing the products. Also referred to as Own Label brands.

    Hybrid communication

    new, mostly electronic communication forms that blend advertising and entertainment.

    Illicit drugs

    drugs such as heroin or cocaine that are illegal.

    Information deficit

    lack of knowledge about an issue – held (incorrectly) to be a direct barrier to attitude and behaviour change. However, a gap between attitudes and behaviours is well documented. Information is necessary, but does not of itself provide sufficient conditions for change behaviour.

    Informed consent

    provision of information to research participants or to individuals, groups or communities of the objectives of research or social marketing interventions prior to activity commencing.

    In-game advertising

    advertising content integrated into electronic games as part of the game itself.

    Inoculation theory

    holds that it is possible to immunise people against pressures generated via media content or advertising to act in particular ways or to consume products such as tobacco.


    involvement of more than one discipline area, such as social marketing psychology and public health or environmental management, in the design and development of social marketing interventions.

    Justice tourism

    aims at promoting mutual understanding between tourists and host communities that have encountered oppression in the past, such as Palestine.


    laws that are universally binding on all citizens and organisations.


    how individuals live, including interests, activities and decisions such as quality of diet, amount of exercise undertaken, alcohol consumption levels and decisions regarding smoking and other factors that may impact positively or negatively on health and overall well-being.

    Lifestyle drugs

    medications used to treat non-medical conditions, often because the underlying conditions for these drugs have become medicalised.

    Location-based media

    a component of social networking services that delivers content to mobile devices such as smartphones based on where the user is physically located at the time.

    Loss leader

    selling a specific product at or below cost price in order to draw in customers who will purchase other full price products.

    Low involvement processing

    processing of persuasive communication with the use of very little cognitive processing. This is not a subconscious or unconscious process.


    the belief that advertising is a strong force that is capable of making people act in ways they would not normally do.

    Manufacturer brands

    brands manufactured and marketed under the name of the manufacturing organisation or its brands (see house brands).


    content that comprises material from multiple sources, such as different websites.


    the desire to possess things for more than their purely functional attributes, such as for status.

    Media literacy

    the ability to access, analyse, evaluate and communicate messages in a wide variety of forms.


    process through which previously non-medical human conditions and problems become defined, diagnosed, studied and treated as medical conditions.

    Medical tourism

    involves travelling to locations, usually in developing countries, where medical services are cheaper than in developed countries (see also Health tourism).

    Mere exposure effects

    responses to repeated persuasive communication based on passive exposure to messages rather than active consideration of the message content.


    provision of very small financial loans to people, usually in developing countries, to enable them to set up small businesses.

    Mindful consumption

    tempered consumption practice based on motivations of caring for oneself, the community and nature.

    Moral licensing effects

    effect where a consumer feels he or she has acquired an imaginary licence for bad behaviour following previous good or ethical behaviour.

    Multi-level marketing (MLM)

    marketing strategies whereby products or services are distributed or sold through a number of different supply chain levels. Agents at a high level in MLM distribute products to lower level agents in return for commission or other forms of payment. Payment is also made for recruiting other agents.

    Near-field communication

    technology that enables communication between devices such as transport fare payments or other small amounts via enabled smartphones.

    New media

    originally a term used to describe Internet-based communication. Now used to describe any digital device allowing content access, feedback and user-generated content.


    avoidance of consumption or consumption temperance.

    Norm-activation model

    a model linking pro-social and altruistic behaviour to personal norms.


    ethical behaviour based on perceived, usually ridgid, norms.


    perceived standards of behaviour, often divided into ‘injunctive’ (what is perceived as being approved or disapproved) and ‘descriptive’ (what appears to be actually occurring) components.

    Nudge (see also Behavioural economics)

    a range of non-legislatory interventions based on altering the contexts (‘choice architecture’) in which behaviour decisions occur. Choice architecture is claimed to alter behaviours in predictable ways through the options intentionally made available or not.

    OTC/over the counter

    non-prescription medication available over the counter without a consultation.

    Open source marketing

    marketing practice where customers create their own advertising campaigns for a product or service, rather than marketers.

    Own-label brands

    see House brands.


    policies that take decision making away from individuals and places governments or their agencies in the position where decisions are made, as a father might do for young children, hence ‘pater’ or ‘father’, on a population’s behalf without consultation or their consent.

    Patriotic consumption

    consumption based on patriotic or ethnocentric principles.

    Personal financial incentives

    financial incentives such as cash payments made to individuals to encourage behaviour change.


    a term originally attributed to Aristotle and referring to practical wisdom – knowing how, when, where and in what way to apply theories, frameworks and other factors in ethical decision making.

    Physician-targeted marketing

    sales rep visits to doctors or GPs, where the health professional is presented with new drugs or explained the benefits of prescribing certain drugs.

    Pious consumption

    consumption based on principles derived from religious works or doctrines.

    Ponzi schemes

    illegal investment schemes named after Charles Ponzi who used a scheme in the 1920s.

    Predatory marketing

    marketing activity that is aimed at gaining a significant market share advantage over competitors, or forcing them to leave the market entirely.

    Preventable illness

    illnesses that are caused or aggravated by personal actions and lifestyles, such as smoking, excess alcohol consumption or inactive lifestyles.

    Price collusion

    strategy whereby two or more firms who are dominant in a specific market collectively set and maintain prices at a higher level that would have applied if there had been free competition. This is not only unethical, but also, in many countries, illegal.

    Price discrimination

    a strategy whereby the price of goods or services is different for different groups of people or for different distribution systems, such as online versus conventional retail outlets.

    Price gouging

    a strategy whereby a firm sets the price for goods or services at a level that is seen as unreasonably high.

    Price skimming

    a strategy where a higher price is charged at the time a new product or service is introduced to a market, before competitive activity is likely to drive prices down.


    the creation of goods and services, historically considered separate from consumption.


    work done at no or reduced cost such as the preparation of advertising material for a no-profit organisation.

    Product placement

    the insertion of a recognisable branded product into the content or background of a range of media broadcasting formats.

    Product restrictions

    restrictions on the advertising of specific products or product categories, e.g. restrictions on advertising of tobacco products.

    Profits, People and Planet reporting

    see Triple Bottom Line.

    Public good

    see Social good.


    obvious, and recognised, exaggeration of a product’s benefits such as in advertisements.

    Push notifications

    notification of new content updates, messages or other activity.

    Pyramid selling

    strategies whereby people make a financial investment in return for a license to recruit others to the scheme, with the promise of high financial returns. Illegal in many countries.


    occurs when direct or potential perceived threats to personal freedom, such as consumption of specific products or engaging in particular behaviours, are detected and resisted. Furthermore, people may then become motivated by the perceived threat itself, rather than the actual consequences of the threat, to assert their freedom and regain control of their own decision making and thereby of their threatened freedom.

    Rebound effects

    effect where a positive behaviour results in a negative behaviour.


    a period of temporary economic decline during which trade and industrial activity are reduced, generally identified by a fall in GDP in two successive quarters.

    Regressive (taxes)

    taxes that impact most severely on those with the least financial resources.


    is always subservient to legislation, being used to implement legislation, and is usually ‘local’ in focus, such as applying only to a specific industry sector. Regulation can never be used as an alternative to law, or to supersede legal rulings. It may be enforceable by a governmental authority, or by industry bodies, i.e. self-regulation.

    Relationship-based sales

    sales activity that moves beyond mere immediate transactions to build long-term positive relationships between buyer and seller.

    Relativist Approaches

    approaches for resolving ethical issues based on the assumption that there is no universal set of ethical principles, and that individual cultures or groups have their own moral guidelines and perception.

    Responsible consumption

    a combination of green consumption and socially conscious consumption practices.

    Sales tax

    tax applied at the point of purchase – called ‘Value Added Tax’ (VAT) in some countries, ‘Goods and Services Tax’ (GST) in others.


    providing samples of products, such as providing samples to prospective clients.


    a technique used by marketers to split a population up into homogeneous groups (i.e. groups with similar characteristics) so that the marketer may concentrate on meeting the needs of each segment as well as possible. Different segments may have different attitudes, believes, behaviours and media usage habits, thus focusing on meeting the needs of specific segments can be more effective than trying to communicate to the entire population with one strategy and set of messages.


    perceived or actual ability of an individual or group to change behaviour or undertake a specific course of action.


    perceptions of oneself and one’s unique identity relative to others (including groups).


    regulation of business behaviour of members of an industry sector by its own members who set desired standards for the behaviour of their sector members.

    Service-Dominant Logic (S-DL)

    a framework first developed by Vargo and Lusch in the early 2000s. It holds that service is the fundamental basis for exchange, that service provision is a part of goods distribution, that all economies are service economies and that customers co-create value.

    Sex tourism

    travel and tourism with the specific intent of engaging in sexual activity.

    Sharing economy

    economic model based on temporary, rented ownership of goods, rather than full and exclusive ownership (e.g. car clubs).

    Simultaneous media usage

    the use of two or more media forms simultaneously, such as watching television or listening to the radio while simultaneously using the Internet or mobile devices.

    Single action bias

    focusing positive behaviour on a single action rather than several, or on several connected behaviours or actions.

    Slack packaging

    the practice of using large packages to visually overstate the quantity of product the package contains.

    Slotting allowances

    lump sum payments made by manufacturers to retailers, especially, but not restricted to, the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector in return for shelf space (‘slots’).

    Social advertising

    a component of social marketing focused on the use of advertising or wider forms of marketing communication. Seldom used on its own, but often a prominent part of overall social marketing activity.

    Social contract theory

    the belief that an implicit contract exists between the state and/or organisations and individuals or groups regarding rights and responsibilities as a member of society.

    Social good (also termed Public good)

    the target of social marketing – i.e. not to make commercial sales, but rather to improve the health or well-being of individuals, communities or wider population groups through improving positive behaviours and minimising negative behaviours.

    Social identity

    a person’s perception of their identity within a social group of importance to them, such as peer groups, friends, etc.

    Social marketing

    interventions aimed at influencing behaviours that benefit individuals and communities for the greater social good.

    Social media

    websites and applications that enable users to access, share or create content for users within social networks, i.e. networks of people connected to each other because of similar interests.

    Socially conscious consumption

    focus on the consumption of socially desirable products – and avoidance or boycotts of undesirable products or organisations.

    Social norms

    perceptions regarding desirable behaviours – may be based on what individuals perceive others as doing or on what they believe those whose views are important to the individual believe individuals should do.


    Self Regulatory Organisation (see Self-regulation).

    Spillover effect

    effect of one behaviour on another, usually a following behaviour.

    Stakeholder theory

    holds that there are groups beyond shareholders to whom an organisation has obligations; however which groups should be included as stakeholders is open to debate.

    Stealth marketing (closely related to Guerrilla marketing)

    tactics used to promote products or services in ways that will not be immediately obvious to recipients as promotional activity, such as paying people to write positive reviews in blogs or via Twitter, or to use a product in a highly visible manner.

    Subliminal advertising

    advertising messages presented in a way whereby people are not consciously aware of them. See also Low involvement processing.

    Supply chain

    the organisations involved in all stages of the provision of products and services, from the provision of raw ingredients or components, transportation, warehousing, and final production and delivery, or access to the finished product or service. Closely linked to Value chain which focuses on the value added by each member of the supply chain.


    consumption of goods and services that can continue over time without the degradation of natural, physical, human and intellectual capital. Increasingly linked to Triple bottom line reporting.

    Tax revenue

    income gained by governments through taxes such as income tax or from taxes placed on the sale of products or services and included in the purchase price.

    Teleology (also called Consequentialism)

    focuses on the outcomes or effects of actions and is usually divided into two sections, Utilitarianism and Egoism.


    see Dark tourism.

    Theory of Planned Behaviour

    theory for understanding different norms, drivers and motives leading to specific behavioural outcomes.


    an organisation, group or individual that operates in ways that will encourage potential customers to visit websites or physical stores.

    Transaction-based sales

    sales situations where the emphasis is on completing a specific transaction with no consideration of the implications for future sales opportunities such as through building trust and confidence and thus long-term positive relationships between buyer and seller.

    Transit media

    advertising on the outside of vehicles such as buses or trucks.

    Triple bottom line

    corporate reporting of an organisation’s performance incorporating economic, social and environmental impacts over a specific period of time. Also referred to as Profits, People and Planet (PPP) reporting.


    in the context of marketing, an expectation that a supplier, retailer or other member of a supply chain will treat others, including customers, honestly and fairly.

    User-generated content

    a term encompassing the use of a range of media to enable people to place their own content on websites, such as social media activity, product or service review sites, etc.

    Unsustainable consumption

    consumption that uses raw ingredients or other resources that cannot be renewed at a rate that will keep up with consumption – thus eventually leading to lack of availability of the products concerned.


    socio-economic or environmental factors that may act as barriers to, or potential enablers of, sustained behaviour change.


    an ethical framework, a subset of Teleology, in which behaviour is ethical if it results in the greatest good for the greatest number.

    Value-added promotion

    promotional activity that increases a product’s or service’s perceived value to potential customers such as ‘buy one, get one half price’ offers, or the provision of free extended warranties.

    Value-Belief-Norm theory

    theory linking participation in causes or the consumption of products to underlying personal values.

    Value chain

    see Supply chain.


    decisions based on the perception of what is right or best in the interests of individuals or population groups without consideration of whether the targeted groups share these values or agree with the proposed actions. Often the values are implicit rather than being clearly stated.


    see Sales tax.

    Viral marketing

    marketing strategies whereby information about goods or services is passed from one Internet or mobile device user to others who then pass it on to others in their networks.

    Volunteer tourism

    involves tourists volunteering to take holidays where they work to help restore environments or work on projects aimed at alleviating poverty in the groups or communities in which tourists base themselves.


    websites developed collaboratively by users.

    Wildlife tourism

    tourism activity such as cruises to watch dolphins or whales, or visits to wildlife reserves where the focus is on close encounters with wildlife in as close to their natural environment as possible.

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