Margaret Newman: Health as Expanding Consciousness

Books

Joanne Marchione

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Notes on Nursing Theories

    SERIES EDITORS

    Chris Metzger McQuiston

    Doctoral Candidate, Wayne State University

    Addle A. Webb

    College of Nursing, University of Akron

    Notes on Nursing Theories is a series of monographs designed to provide the reader with a concise description of conceptual frameworks and theories in nursing. Each monograph includes a biographical sketch of the theorist, origin of the theory, assumptions, concepts, propositions, examples for application to practice and research, a glossary of terms, and a bibliography of classic works, critiques, and research.

    • Martha Rogers: The Science of Unitary Human Beings Louette R. Johnson Lutjens
    • Imogene King: A Conceptual Framework for Nursing Christina L. Sieloff Evans
    • Callista Roy: An Adaptation Model Louette R. Johnson Lutjens
    • Dorothea Orem: Self-Care Deficit Theory Donna L. Hartweg
    • Rosemarie Parse: Theory of Human Becoming Sheila Bunting
    • Margaret Newman: Health as Expanding Consciousness Joanne Marchione
    • Paterson and Zderad: Humanistic Nursing Theory Nancy O’Connor
    • Madeleine Leininger: Cultural Care Diversity and Universality Theory Cheryl L. Reynolds and Madeleine M. Leininger
    • Florence Nightingale: An Environmental Adaptation Theory Louise C. Selanders
    • Hildegard E. Peplau: Interpersonal Nursing Theory Cheryl Forchuk
    • Betty Neuman: The Neuman Systems Model Karen S. Reed
    • Ida Jean Orlando: A Nursing Process Theory Norma Jean Schmieding

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Foreword

    I believe Margaret Newman's theory of health is the latest turn in nursing theory and represents some of the most astute thinking in contemporary nursing. In 1987, I was honored to review her book Health as Expanding Consciousness (Watson, 1987), which laid out her evolving theory. Now I am equally honored to do the foreword to Joanne Marchione's fine monograph of Newman's work.

    As Newman continues to take nursing significant steps forward in transforming the old paradigm of science, nursing, and health into the new world of science, nursing, and health, Marchione's clear application of the theory to individual, family, and community health praxis helps us reach yet another level of evolution and “expanding consciousness” with respect to Newman's work.

    Marchione's work reflects several years of continuous experimentation and application of Newman's theory whereby she has had the opportunity to change as the theory has changed. Thus, this book comes after Marchione's sustained theoretical and experiential inquiry and dialogue with the nurse theorist. As such, it represents the latest thinking and translation of Newman's concepts of consciousness, time-space, movement, pattern recognition, pattern, and health as expanding consciousness, to praxis.

    Marchione's lucid and succinct overview of Newman's theory provides both a summary and an intepretation of the theory as well as a conceptual translation that allows one to apply all of the theoretical assumptions and key concepts. She makes the theory live and breath through her straightforward presentation of case studies that transfer theoretical concepts of “pattern of the whole” to concrete application to individual and family health.

    The discussion on praxis research provides an informed, contemporary perspective on the nature of appropriate, productive, and congruent research and methods of inquiry related to Newman's (and others) evolving theory. Marchione's experience and examples invite dialogue with the reader; this, in turn, has the effect of modeling both theory and method through the author-reader exchange that compiles the narrative for the text. This very process thereby mirrors the theory and praxis method being presented. Thus, in an indirect way, engaging with the ideas in the book becomes an exemplar of the very theory of expanding consciousness, which in turn has the effect of verifying and experientially validating the theory.

    This work offers a special invitation for nurses and nursing to come into a new unitary relationship with theory, research, and clinical practice—a form of praxis and process that is dialogic, narrative, and evolving. To come into a new expanding health consciousness—consciousness that is evolving and whole. To come into a new form of holographic science that is pattern laden and unfolding. To come into a new form of nursing that is informed by consciousness, by process, by health and wholeness—a new form of nursing that is overtly value laden and continuous in time and space, yet transcendent of time and space. To come into a new convergence of nursing theory and nursing assessment and praxis that is choosing, communicating, exchanging, feeling, knowing, moving, perceiving, relating, and valuing of process, pattern, and expanding health consciousness. All of these “coming togethers” in Marchione's book help one to see the importance of Margaret Newman's contribution to nursing and the spin-offs her work is bringing to the nursing profession and to the broader health sciences.

    The intellectual and praxis excitement of Newman's and Marchione's work is that they are open, in process, and ready to discover new patterns; they are receptive to exchange to allow emergence of the whole to unfold as this theory continues to evolve. We are all invited to participate in this excitement of unfolding, evolution, and discovery in our unitary transformative praxis of health as expanding consciousness.

    JeanWatson, RN, PHD, FAANProfessor of Nursing and Director of The Center for Human Caring, University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado

    Preface

    Theory development in nursing is the process by which the discipline of nursing is respected as a science and is recognized for its special focus on health and human caring.

    In recent times, several nurse theorists have developed diverse and respected models and theories for nursing, thus contributing to the advancement of nursing science.

    Margaret Newman is one of several internationally renowned nursing theorists who have led the way in the development of nursing science. A current description of Dr. Newman's theory of health is set forth in this text. The concepts, propositions, assumptions, and practice/research applications of the theory are summarized and presented, with the advice that this book is to be viewed as a supplement to Newman's (1979, 1986) primary texts. Primary and recent writings that explicate her theory can be found in the bibliography provided in this book. The references and sources cited in the bibliography serve as means to encourage additional reading.

    This text of Newman's theory of health is one of several in a series, Notes on Nursing Theories, from Sage Publications. The intent of this text is to assist students in nursing to clarify concepts, identify assumptions, relate propositions, and understand practice/research applications of Newman's theory. Nursing faculty may also find this text useful for a succinct and current review of Newman's theory of health.

    My sincere thanks are extended to Dr. Margaret Newman, who so generously consented to review and critique a draft of this text prior to its publication. I am especially grateful to Dr. Newman for encouraging me to engage in an independent study with her at The Pennsylvania State University in 1983, and for her continued support and encouragement over the past several years.

    A special thank-you is extended to Associate Professor Susan Stearns, M.S.N., of the College of Nursing, University of Akron. Her gentle advice and sensitive critiques of several drafts of this text have been vital to the completion of this project.

    JoanneMarchione

    Acknowledgments

    For my family and friends.

    In honor of the memories of my father, my Uncle Tony, and Alfalfa. The spirit and essence of each of these three special relatives were with me as I moved, in an ever-expanding consciousness, to complete this project.

    In gratitude for their unconditional love, loyal friendship, and energizing encouragement, I dedicate this book to my mother, to Tony III, Anthony, Dean, Gloria, Ruby, Pauline, Adam, Angie, Camille, Gregory, Cindy, Sally, Dianne, Lori, Pam, Terri, Bradley, Mark, Ben, Echo, Sandie, Dustin, Erin, Susan, June, Mary, Bob, Gharith, and there are many others.

    Biographical Sketch of the Nurse Theorist: Margaret Newman, RN, PhD, FAAN

    Born: 1933

    Current Position: Professor, School of Nursing, University of Minnesota; Nurse theorist.

    Education: BSHE, Home Economics and English, Baylor University, Texas; BSN, University of Tennessee, Memphis; M.S., University of California, San Francisco; PhD New York University.

    Service on Editorial boards: Advances in Nursing Science, Nursing Science Quarterly, Journal of Prof. Nursing, Nursing Research (Past), Nursing and Health Care (Past), Western Journal of Nursing Research (Past).

    Previous Faculty Positions: University of Tennessee, New York University, The Pennsylvania State University.

    Honors: Fellow, American Academy of Nursing, admitted 1976; Who's Who in American Women; Latin American Teaching Fellow; University of Tennessee, College of Nursing, Outstanding Alumnus Award; New York University, Division of Nursing, Distinguished Alumnus Award.

  • Glossary

    Consciousness

    Consciousness is the informational capacity of the system (individual, family, or community). It is the ability of the system to interact with the environment. Consciousness includes cognitive and affective awareness, and the interconnectedness of the entire living system, which includes growth processes and physiochemical maintenance as well as the immune system, the genetic code, the nervous system, and so on. Consciousness is an indivisible pattern of information that is part of a larger undivided pattern of an expanding universe (Newman, 1986, p. 33; 1990a, p. 38).

    Environment

    Environment is represented as a universe of open systems. Environment is an energy field, and is viewed as the event, situation, or phenomena with which an individual interacts. The pattern of environment-person interaction constitutes health. Manifestations of the environment-person interaction are seen in such observable phenomena as body temperature, pulse, and blood pressure; neoplasms and biochemical variations; regimens of diet, rest, and exercise; social relations, communications, cognition, and emotions (Newman, 1986, p. 13). A comprehensive portrayal of patterns of person-environment interaction can be viewed through the nine assessment dimensions of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association framework; that is, exchanging, communicating, valuing, relating, choosing, moving, perceiving, feeling, and knowing (Kim & Moritz, 1982). In this glossary these terms are defined separately under the concept NANDA Assessment Framework.

    Expanding Consciousness

    Expanding consciousness is the evolving pattern of the whole. Expanding consciousness is the increasing complexity of the living system. Expanding consciousness is characterized by a choice point, an illumination, and pattern recognition, resulting in a transformation and discovery of new rules of a higher level of organization. Expanding consciousness is health (Newman, 1990a, p. 40).

    Health

    Health is the expanding of consciousness. Health is the evolving pattern of the whole of life. (This is the crux of Newman's theory.) Health is a synthesis of disease-non-disease. Health is the process of transformation to higher levels of consciousness (Newman, 1979, p. 58; 1990a, p.40).

    Hegelian Dialectical Logic

    Dialectic is a term derived from the Greek word that means to converse or to discourse. The dialectic that is ascribed to the Greek philosopher Socrates is close to this sense. It refers to his conversational method of argument, involving thought as question and answer. Hegel, a late eighteenth and early nineteenth century philosoper, described a pattern of dialectical logic that thought must follow. Hegel argued that thought proceeds by contradiction and the reconciliation of contradiction. This dialectical logic and overall pattern of thought is one of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. For Hegel, thought is reality, and the laws that thought must follow are also the laws that govern reality (Flew, 1984, p. 94).

    Movement

    Movement is the change occurring between two states of rest. It is an essential property of matter needed to bring about change. Movement represents the choice point in transcending physical determinism. Movement is central to understanding the nature of reality. Movement is a manifestation of consciousness. Movement is an awareness of self and a means of communicating (Newman, 1979, pp. 61–63; 1990a, p. 39).

    NANDA Assessment Framework

    Nurse theorists developed a framework for the North American Nursing Diagnostic Association (NANDA) by delineating nine assessment dimensions for use in nursing diagnosis (Kim & Moritz, 1982). Manifestations of unitary pattern are expressed in the nine dimensions of the NANDA framework. Newman (1986) has recommended that the NANDA assessment framework be used in initial efforts to identify pattern of the whole, and has specifically defined these nine assessment dimensions relative to her theory of health:

    Choosing. Choosing involves the selection of one or more alternatives.

    Communicating. Communicating involves the interchange of information from one system to another.

    Exchanging. Exchanging involves the interchange of energy and matter between person and environment. Exchanging also involves the transformation of energy from one form to another.

    Feeling. Feeling involves a sensing of physical and intuitive awareness.

    Knowing. Knowing is the process of personal recognition of self and world.

    Moving. Moving is the process of rhythmic alternating between activity and rest.

    Perceiving. Perceiving is the process of receiving and interpreting information.

    Relating. Relating is the process of connecting with other persons and with the environment.

    Valuing. Valuing is the process of assigning worth. (Newman, 1986, p. 74).

    Nursing

    Nursing is the act of assisting people to utilize the power that is within them as they evolve toward higher levels of consciousness. Nursing is directed toward recognizing the pattern of the person in interaction with the environment and accepting the interaction as a process of evolving consciousness. Nursing facilitates the process of pattern recognition by a rhythmic connecting of the nurse with the client in an authentic way for the purpose of illuminating the pattern and discovering the new rules of a higher level of organization. Nursing is relating in mutual partnership with a client in the expansion of consciousness (Newman, 1979, p. 67; 1986, p. 68, p. 88; 1990a, p. 40; 1990b, p. 136).

    Pattern

    Pattern is relatedness. Pattern is characterized by movement, diversity, and rhythm. Pattern is a scheme, a design, or framework, a series of acts and aspects regarded as characteristic of persons or environments. Pattern is seen in person-environment interaction. Pattern is recognized on the basis of variation and may not be seen all at once. Pattern unfolds over time with one configuration evolving into the next configuration and so forth. Pattern is key to understanding reality and is manifest in the way one moves, speaks, talks, and relates with others. Pattern identifies the wholeness of the person (Newman 1986a, p. 14; 1990a, p. 40; 1990b, p. 132).

    Pattern Recognition

    Pattern recognition is the insight or instantaneous recognition of a principle, a realization of a truth, or reconciliation of a duality. Pattern recognition illuminates the possibilities for action. Pattern recognition is key to the process of evolving to higher levels of consciousness (Newman, 1983a, p. x-xi; 1990a, p. 40).

    Person

    A person is a dynamic pattern of energy and an open system in interaction with the environment. Persons are identified by their patterns of consciousness. The person does not possess consciousness. The person is consciousness (Newman, 1986a, p. 33; 1990a, p. 40).

    Praxis Research

    Praxis research is a process whereby theory, practice, and research are one. Praxis research requires a mutual relationship between interviewee and researcher within a process of inquiry requiring negotiation, reciprocity, and empowerment. In praxis research, the interviewees gain insight into their pattern and concomitant illumination of their action possibilities. An intersection occurs between the interviewee's self-understanding and the researcher's theoretical stance, which provides a change-enhancing context (Lather, 1986, p. 262; Newman, 1990a, p. 38).

    Space

    Space is inextricably linked with time. There is personal space, inner space, territorial space, shared space, physical and geographical space, maneuverable space, distance-regulating space and life space (Newman, 1979, p. 61).

    Time

    Time is inextricably linked with space. There is subjective time, objective time, time perspective, utilization of time, private time, coordinated time, and shared time (Newman, 1979, p. 61).

    References

    Batey, M. (1991). Response: Research as practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 4(3), 101–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431849100400306
    Bentov, I. (1978). Stalking the wild pendulum. New York: Dutton.
    Bohm, D. (1980). Wholeness and the implicate order. London: Routledge.
    Boyd, C.O. (1990). Critical appraisal of developing nursing research methods. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3(1), 42–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431849000300110
    Cowling, W.R. (1988). Book reviews: Newman, M.A. (1986). Health as expanding consciousness. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1(3), 133–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431848800100309
    Fawcett, J. (1989). Conceptual models of nursing (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.
    Flew, A. (Ed.). (1984). A dictionary of philosophy (2nd ed.). New York: St. Martin's.
    Kalb, K.A. (1990). The gift: Applying Newman's theory of health in nursing practice. In M.E.Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories in practice (pp. 163–186). New York: National League for Nursing.
    Kim, M.J., & Moritz, D.A. (Eds.). (1982). Classification of nursing diagnosis: Proceedings of the third and fourth national conferences. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Klein, S. (1989). Caregiver burden and moral development. Image, 22(2), 94–97.
    Kuhn, T. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions. (2nd ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    Lather, P. (1986). Research as praxis. Harvard Educational Review, 56(3), 257–277.
    Marchione, J.M. (1986a). Application of the new paradigm of health to individuals, families and communities. Special Supplement. In NewmanM. (Ed.), Health as expanding consciousness (pp. 107–134). St. Louis: C. V. Mosby.
    Marchione, J.M. (1986b). Pattern as methodology for assessing family health: Newman's theory of health. In Winstead-FryP. (Ed.), Case studies in nursing theory (pp. 215–240). New York: National League for Nursing.
    Moch, S.D. (1990). Health within the experience of breast cancer. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 15, 1426–1435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.1990.tb01785.x
    Moss, R. (1981). The I that is we. Millbrae, CA: Celestial Arts.
    Newman, M.A. (1966). Identifying patient needs in short-span nurse-patient relationships. Nursing Forum, 5(1), 76–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6198.1966.tb00323.x
    Newman, M.A. (1972). Time estimation in relation to gait tempo. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 34, 359–366. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.1972.34.2.359
    Newman, M.A. (1976). Movement tempo and the experience of time. Nursing Research, 25, 273–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006199-197607000-00013
    Newman, M.A. (1979). Theory development in nursing. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.
    Newman, M.A. (1982). Time as an index of consciousness with age. Nursing Research31, 290–293.
    Newman, M.A. (1983a). Editorial. Advances in Nursing Science, 5(2), x–xi.
    Newman, M.A. (1983b). Newman's health theory. In I.Clements & F.Roberts (Eds.), Family health: A theoretical approach to nursing care (pp. 161–175). New York: Wiley.
    Newman, M.A. (1983c). The continuing revolution: A history of nursing science. In N.L.Chaska (Ed.), The nursing profession: A time to speak (pp. 385–393). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Newman, M.A. (1984). Nursing diagnosis: Looking at the whole. American Journal of Nursing, 84, 1496–1499.
    Newman, M.A. (1986). Health as expanding consciousness. St. Louis: Mosby.
    Newman, M.A. (1987). Patterning. In M.Duffy & N.J.Pender (Eds.), Conceptual issues in health promotion: Report of proceedings of a wingspread conference (pp. 36–50). Indianapolis: Sigma Theta Tau.
    Newman, M.A. (1990a). Newman's theory of health as praxis. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3(1), 37–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431849000300109
    Newman, M.A. (1990b). Shifting to higher consciousness. In ParkerM. (Ed.), Nursing theories in practice (pp. 129–139). New York: National League for Nursing.
    Newman, M.A. (1991). Commentary: Research as practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 4(3), 100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431849100400305
    Newman, M.A., & Gaudiano, J.K. (1984). Depression as an explanation for decreased subjective time in the elderly. Nursing Research, 33(3), 137–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006199-198405000-00004
    Newman, M.A., Lamb, G.S., & Michaels, C. (1991). Nurse case management: The coming together of theory and practice. Nursing and Health Care, 12(8), 404–408.
    Newman, M.A., & Moch, S.D. (in press). Life patterns of persons with coronary heart disease. Nursing Science Quarterly.
    Pearson, B.D. (1988). Book reviews: Newman, M.A. (1986). Health as expanding consciousness. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1(3), 134–136.
    Ray, M.A. (1990). Critical reflective analysis of Parse's and Newman's research methodologies. Nursing Science (Quarterly, 3(1), 44–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431849000300111
    Robinson, K.M. (1990). Predictors of burden among wife caregivers. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice: An International Journal, 4(3), 189–203.
    Rogers, M.E. (1970). An introduction to the theoretical basis of nursing. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.
    Schorr, J.A., Farnham, R.C., & Ervin, S.M. (1991). Health patterns in aging women as expanding consciousness. Advances in Nursing Science, 13(4), 52–63.
    Silva, M.C. (1988). Book Reviews: Newman, M.A. (1986). Health as Expanding Consciousness. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1(3), 136–138.
    Smith, M.C. (1990). Pattern in nursing practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3(2), 57–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431849000300204
    Teilhard de Chardin, P. (1959). The phenomenon of man. New York: Harper & Brothers.
    Watson, J. (1987). Book reviews: Health as expanding consciousness. Journal of Professional Nursing, 3(5), 387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S8755-7223%2887%2980045-5
    West, M.C. (1984). Patterns of health in mothers of developmentally disabled children. Unpublished master's thesis. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.
    Young, A. (1976a). The geometry of meaning. San Francisco: Robert Briggs.
    Young, A.M. (1976b). The reflexive universe: Evolution of consciousness. San Francisco: Robert Briggs.

    Bibliography

    Theory Development—Classic and Contemporary Works
    Newman, M.A. (1979). Theory development in nursing. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.
    Newman, M.A. (1983a). Editorial. Advances in Nursing Science, 5(2), x–xi.
    Newman, M.A. (1983b). Newman's health theory. In I.Clements & F.Roberts (Eds.), Family health: A theoretical approach to nursing care (pp. 161–175). New York: Wiley.
    Newman, M.A. (1984). Nursing diagnosis: Looking at the whole. American Journal of Nursing, 84, 1496–1499.
    Newman, M.A. (1986). Health as expanding consciousness. St. Louis: Mosby.
    Newman, M.A. (1987a). Nursing's emerging paradigm: The diagnosis of pattern. In A.M.McLane (Ed.), Classification of nursing diagnoses: Proceedings of the seventh conference, North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (pp. 53–60). St. Louis: Mosby.
    Newman, M.A. (1987b). Patterning. In M.Duffy & N.J.Pender (Eds.), Conceptual issues in health promotion: Report of proceedings of a wingspread conference (pp. 36–50). Indianapolis: Sigma Theta Tau.
    Newman, M.A. (1989). The spirit of nursing. Holistic Nursing Practice, 3(3), 1–6.
    Newman, M.A. (1990a). Newman's theory of health as praxis. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3(1), 37–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431849000300109
    Newman, M.A. (1990b). Shifting to higher consciousness. In M.E.Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories in practice (pp. 129–139). New York: National League for Nursing.
    Newman, M.A. (1990c). Professionalism: Myth or reality. In N.L.Chaska (Ed.), The nursing profession: Turning points (pp. 49–52). St. Louis: Mosby.
    Newman, M.A. (1991). Commentary: Research as practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 4(3), 100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431849100400305
    Newman, M.A., Lamb, G.S., & Michaels, C. (1991). Nurse case management: The coming together of theory and practice. Nursing and Health Care, 12(8), 404–408.
    Newman, M.A., & Moch, S.D. (in press). Life patterns of persons with coronary heart disease. Nursing Science Quarterly.
    Influencing Sources
    Bentov, I. (1978). Stalking the wild pendulum. New York: Dutton.
    Bohm, D. (1980). Wholeness and the implicate order. London: Routledge.
    Lather, P. (1986). Research as praxis. Harvard Educational Review, 56(3), 257–277.
    Moss, R. (1981). The I that is we. Millbrae, CA.: Celestial Arts.
    Rogers, M.E. (1970). An introduction to the theoretical basis of nursing. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.
    Teilhard de Chardin, P. (1959). The phenomenon of man. New York: Harper & Brothers.
    Young, A.M. (1976a). The geometry of meaning. San Francisco: Robert Briggs.
    Young, A.M. (1976b). The reflexive universe: Evolution of consciousness. San Francisco: Robert Briggs.
    Research and Application References
    Gustafson, W. (1990). Application of Newman's theory of health: Pattern recognition as nursing practice. In M.E.Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories in practice (pp. 141–161). New York: National League for Nursing.
    Kalb, K.A. (1990). The gift: Applying Newman's theory of health in nursing practice. In M.E.Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories in practice (pp. 163–186). New York: National League for Nursing.
    Jonsdottir, H. (1988). Health patterns of clients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Unpublished master's thesis. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
    Marchione, J.M. (1986a). Application of the new paradigm of health to individuals, families and communities. Special Supplement in M. Newman, Health as expanding consciousness (pp. 107–134). St. Louis: Mosby.
    Marchione, J.M. (1986b). Pattern as methodology for assessing family health: Newman's theory of health. In P.Winstead-Fry, (Ed.), Case studies in nursing theory (pp. 215–240). New York: National League for Nursing.
    Moch, S.D. (1988). Health in illness: Experiences with breast cancer(Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota). Dissertation Abstracts International50, 47 b.
    Moch, S.D. (1990). Health within the experience of breast cancer. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 15, 1426–1435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.1990.tb01785.x
    Newman, M.A. (1966). Identifying patient needs in short span nurse-patient relationships. Nursing Forum, 5(1), 76–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6198.1966.tb00323.x
    Newman, M.A. (1972). Time estimation in relation to gait tempo. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 34, 359–366. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.1972.34.2.359
    Newman, M.A. (1976). Movement tempo and the experience of time. Nursing Research, 25, 273–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006199-197607000-00013
    Newman, M.A. (1982). Time as an index of consciousness with age. Nursing Research, 31, 290–293.
    Newman, M.A. (1991). Commentary: Research as practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 4(3), 100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431849100400305
    Newman, M.A., & Gaudiano, J.K. (1984). Depression as an explanation for decreased subjective time in the elderly. Nursing Research, 33(3), 137–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006199-198405000-00004
    Newman, M.A., Lamb, G.L., & Michaels, C. (1991). Nurse case management: The coming together of theory and practice. Nursing and Health Care, 12 (8), 404–408.
    Newman, M.A., & Moch, S.D. (in press). Life patterns of persons with coronary heart disease. (Accepted for publication in. Nursing Science Quarterly).
    Schorr, J.A., Farnham, R.C., & Ervin, S.M. (1991). Health patterns in aging women as expanding consciousness. Advances in Nursing Science, 13(4), 52–63.
    West, M.C. (1984). Patterns of health in mothers of developmentally disabled children. Unpublished master's thesis. The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.
    Critique of Newman's Theory
    Batey, M. (1991). Response: Research as practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 4(3), 101–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431849100400306
    Boyd, C.O. (1990). Critical appraisal of developing nursing research methods. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3(1), 42–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431849000300110
    Cowling, W.R. (1988). Book reviews: Newman, M.A. (1986). Health as expanding consciousness. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1(3), 133–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431848800100309
    Pearson, B.D. (1988). Book reviews: Newman, M.A. (1986). Health as expanding consciousness. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1(3), 134–136.
    Ray, M.A. (1990). Critical reflective analysis of Parse's and Newman's research methodologies. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3(1), 44–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431849000300111
    Silva, M.C. (1988). Book reviews: Newman, M.A. (1986). Health as expanding consciousness. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1(3), 136–138.
    Smith, M.C. (1990). Pattern in nursing practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3(2), 57–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089431849000300204
    Watson, J. (1987). Book reviews: Health as expanding consciousness, Journal of Professional Nursing, 3(5), 387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S8755-7223%2887%2980045-5
    Videotapes
    Helene Fuld Health Trust (Producer), & Fawcett, J. (Interviewer). (1990). Portraits of excellence: Margaret Newman. [VHS videocassette]. Oakland, CA: Studio III.
    Kerr, J. (Director). (1990). Interview of Margaret Newman. Part of a series of Nursing as a Practical Science, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Available from the University of Alberta, Faculty of Nursing.
    Stearns, S. (Producer), & Marchione, J. (Interviewer). (1983). A conversation with Margaret Newman, explaining her theory of health. JVC videocassette. Available from the University of Minnesota, School of Nursing; The Pennsylvania State University, Division of Nursing; and the University of Akron, College of Nursing.

    About the Author

    Joanne Marchione is a scholar of theories related to health and human caring. For more than a decade she has explored theory development and application with students from nursing and other disciplines. She has also mentored and advised faculty on the application of theory and praxis research.

    Professor Marchione received a baccalaureate degree from Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University. Her graduate degrees are in education and anthropology with an emphasis on nursing science. Over the years she has focused on a multicultural approach to the health of families and children. She has studied at many universities in the United States, Europe, and Canada in a continued effort to improve her teaching relative to higher education, theories, cultural diversity, health, child and family health, and nursing. She received certification from the University of Washington to teach parent-child interpersonal and environmental assessment skills.

    She has studied child health, family health, and comparative health systems. She has presented her findings to local, national, and international professional assemblies. Currently, she is studying children in homeless family situations.

Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website