Managing Technological Change: A Strategic Partnership Approach
Publication Year: 2002
Management of technology (MOT) is a field of study dedicated to the planning and ongoing assessment of technology in organizations, incorporating the innovation, development, and engineering processes into one discipline. Managing Technological Change: A Strategic Partnership Approach fills a critical void by presenting an integrative, strategic, and participative approach to technology management from a multi-industry perspective.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Technology's Perils and Promise: The Need for Technology Management
- Technological Change: Four Real-Life Scenarios
- Learning Elementary School
- Community Police
- The Brownvale Story
- The Technological Change
- Technology Decision Making
- Impact on Job Content
- Job Training
- Implementation and Outcomes
- The Amcar Corporation
- Plant-Level Labor-Management Cooperation
- Employee Input in Product Design
- Performance Outcomes
- Lessons Learned
- The Need for Technology Management
- Systems Integration
- The Nature of Technology
- The Nature of Management
- The Value of Technology Management
- Chapter 2: Strategic Partnership: A Working Definition
- Strategic Technology Planning
- Definition and First Steps
- Amcar Example
- Technology's Strategic Advantage
- Strategic Planning Steps
- Participation and Partnership
- Early Advocates of Participative Management
- Cooperation versus Partnership
- Strategic Partnership Defined
- Examples of Strategic Partnerships
- Labor's Interest in Technology Partnerships
- Chapter 3: An Integrative Framework for Technological Change
- Technology Adoption Life Cycle
- An Integrative Systems Approach to Technology Adoption
- Systems Theory: An Overview
- Sociotechnical Systems Theory
- Industrial Relations Theory
- Case Study: Professional Paper Company—Westward Mill
- Case Study: Shiny Metal
- Chapter 4: Assessing the Need and Readiness for Change
- Technology Needs Analysis
- Reasons for Acquiring New Technology
- Variance Analysis Methodology
- Technology Needs Analysis Questions
- Shopping for Technology
- Cost-Benefit Analysis
- Seven-Step Technology Cost-Benefit Justification Process
- Readiness for Change Assessment
- Why Measure Change Readiness?
- How to Measure Change Readiness
- Pragmatic Issues
- Inclusive Needs Assessment
- Chapter 5: Organizational Barriers to Integrated Change
- Identifying Organizational Variables
- Macro-Level Organizational Variables
- Micro-Level Organizational Variables
- What Influences Attitudes Toward New Technology?
- Brownvale Plant Revisited
- Overcoming Resistance to Change
- Chapter 6: Designing and Implementing Strategic Change
- Social Constructivism and Technology Design
- Participative Technology Design
- Theory and Practice: United States and Europe
- United Kingdom
- Case Study: From the U.S. Health Care Industry
- The Importance of “Skilled Know-How”
- Prerequisites to Participatory Design
- Technology Implementation Design
- Multilevel Team Structure and Function
- Case Study: Good Health
- Lessons Learned
- Chapter 7: Training and Technological Change
- Training's Contribution to High-Performance Workplaces
- Training Program Design
- Who Will Conduct the Training?
- Steps in Training Program Design
- Training Needs Assessment and Analysis
- Training Design
- Program Content Development
- Training Delivery
- Evaluation and Revision
- Long-Range Training Strategy
- Successful Training Partnerships
- Creating a Learning Organization
- Chapter 8: Evaluating and Managing Change for Optimal Performance
- Conducting the Technology Evaluation
- Basic Evaluation Questions
- Evaluation Measures and Methods
- Technology Evaluation in Practice
- Ongoing Technology Management
- Institutionalizing a Strategic Partnership Approach to Change
- The Strategic Partnership Payoff
- Reviewing the Steps of a Strategic Partnership Approach to Technology Management
Copyright © 2002 by Carol Joyce Haddad
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Haddad, Carol Joyce.
Managing technological change : a strategic partnership approach / Carol Joyce Haddad.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-2563-5 (cloth) – ISBN 0-7619-2564-3 (pbk.)
1. Technological innovations--Management. 2. Organizational change--Management. 3. Technology--Management. I. Title.
HD45 .H23 2002
02 03 04 05 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Marquita Flemming
Editorial Assistant: MaryAnn Vail
Copy Editor: Jonathan Preimesberger
Production Editor: Claudia A. Hoffman
Indexer: Molly Hall
Cover Designer: Janet Foulger
The importance of managing the process of technological change is now well-recognized in theory and in practice. Organizations in all sectors of the economy have learned by trial and error that merely investing in new technology, without careful planning and ongoing assessment, does not necessarily result in improved business performance. As a result, the management of technology (MOT) has become a field of study in its own right—a hybrid grafted from the disciplines of engineering and business management.
Yet existing books on technology management are generally very applied and narrow in focus, emphasizing the research and development process, the engineering process, or the innovation process in general. Little is said about the organizational dimensions of technological change, and no mention is made of strategy-based partnerships with frontline technology users or their union representatives. Most of the existing technology management literature is also limited to the manufacturing sector. This book fills a critical void by presenting an integrative, strategic, and participative approach to technology management from a multi-industry perspective. This is accomplished by
- defining the concept of strategic partnership and presenting a rationale for its use;
- identifying the steps involved in successful technology planning, acquisition, development, implementation, and assessment;
- presenting an integrative framework that links aspects of systems theory, engineering design theory, adult education theory, and industrial relations theory to each of the aforementioned steps;
- discussing the barriers to rational innovation processes, using illustrative examples from service, public, and manufacturing sector industries; and
- offering illustrative examples of best practice from multiple industries and cross-national perspectives, especially those involving strategic partnerships.
The book combines theory with practice. It first presents interdisciplinary theoretical perspectives such as sociotechnical integration, dynamic systems, strategic innovation, user-centered design, and participative management models. These theories undergird the applied dimensions of this book, which offers practical guidelines for “good practice” technological change. Case study examples from industrial sectors, such as education, law enforcement, health care, and manufacturing, illustrate key concepts and approaches. A number of these case studies are based on my work as an action-researcher, consultant, and evaluator. Other cases have been conveyed to me by practitioners, some of whom have also been students in my graduate courses.
The organization of the book is as follows. Chapter 1 addresses how new workplace technology can improve performance—and how it can have the opposite effect when it is not properly planned and introduced with the participation of key stakeholders. Chapter 2 defines the concept of strategic partnership and, using illustrative examples, explains how it differs from simple labor-management cooperation and from strategic planning.
Chapter 3 presents an overview of the steps involved in technology planning, acquisition or development, implementation and assessment. The theoretical underpinnings of each of these steps come from systems theory, concurrent engineering, and industrial relations theory. Chapter 4 lists the elements of the needs assessment process and explains how technology and business goals factor into this process. It includes a discussion of cost justification procedures, as well as methods for determining an organization's “readiness for technological change.”
Chapter 5 addresses ways of identifying and eliminating organizational barriers to technological change, such as organizational culture, poor labor relations, and employee feelings of disenfranchisement. Results of case study and survey research performed by the author in this area are provided. Chapter 6 offers a rationale for representative “design teams” and suggests methods for selection, operation, and interaction of such teams with the rest of the organization. It further outlines methods for implementing strategy-based change, using a partnership approach.
Chapter 7 discusses the importance of training and organizational learning to successful technology adoption and use. It offers practical guidance on training program design, draws from the theories of adult education, and highlights examples of successful training partnerships. Chapter 8 promotes the necessity for ongoing evaluation and monitoring to ensure that the technological change continues to meet organizational, business, and performance objectives. It also identifies ways of institutionalizing the strategic partnership approach to change.
[Page xi]I hope that managers, engineers, union representatives, and students will derive value from this work, and that it offers a unique contribution to the fields of technology and business management.[Page xii]
The students in my graduate courses in technology management at Eastern Michigan University have served over the years as sounding boards for the concepts presented herein. Six students—Karren Johnson, Paula Martin, Gladys Howard, Lance Williams, and Dorothy McAllen—contributed research material from which five of the case studies were based; Rick Pomorski alerted me to innovative technology acquisition practices in his workplace; and alumna and health care professional Carol Fletcher offered valuable feedback on the elements contained in Table 4.2. John Santomauro, director of the Canton Department of Public Safety, contributed an illustrative example of proactive needs assessment.
Eastern Michigan University provided me with a sabbatical leave, during which the majority of this book was written. I thank those colleagues who wrote letters in support of this competitively awarded leave—Paul Kuwik, Alphonso Bellamy, Denise Tanguay, and Timothy Doyle of Eastern Michigan University, Jeffrey Liker of the University of Michigan's Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, and Ulrich Juergens of the Science Center Berlin for Social Research. I am also grateful to Robert Quinn of the University of Michigan Business School, whose endorsement of the book project at its inception served as a motivating vote of confidence.
A number of academics and practitioners were willing to serve as reviewers, offering valuable feedback on a draft of the manuscript. Special thanks is owed to Jeffrey Liker of the University of Michigan; William Cooke, director of the Fraser Center for Workplace Issues at Wayne State University; Richard Badham of the University of Wollongong; Narcyz Roztocki of the State University of New York New Paltz; Robert Brewster of Visteon Automotive Systems; and Rachel Apgar of Pilot Industries, Inc.
Throughout the writing process I was cheered on by loving family members and friends, in particular Margot I. Duley whose daily encouragement and intellectual mentoring were and are invaluable to my spirit and my psyche; George and Evelyn Haddad, George Haddad Jr., [Page xiv]and Mary, Michael, and Alexander Raveane who have supported and encouraged this and all of my professional endeavors; and Joyce and Hy Kornbluh who provided steadfast support in the midst of Hy's terminal illness.
I am also indebted to Marquita Flemming of Sage Publications for her faith in this project and sound advice throughout the entire product life cycle, and to editorial staff members Claudia Hoffman, Jon Preimesberger, and all members of the Sage staff who played important roles in the book production process.
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About the Author[Page 146]
Dr. Carol Haddad is a professor in the Department of Interdisciplinary Technology at Eastern Michigan University, where she teaches graduate courses and conducts research on workplace technology and training partnerships. Her externally funded research projects have included a study of sector-based labor-management training partnerships in three Canadian industries (automotive parts, steel, and electrical/electronics); evaluation of an NIST-MEP-sponsored pilot program to expand union leader awareness of and involvement in industrial modernization; and evaluation with two other faculty members of a training program designed to promote integration of instructional technology in K-12 classroom curricula.
Dr. Haddad is also a consultant to organizations on technological change, training practices, and evaluation research. Her clients have included the IAM; IBEW and AT&T; the State of Michigan; the CWA; the UAW-Chrysler, UAW-Ford, and UAW-GM joint training centers; the Canadian Steel Trade and Employment Congress; and the USWA Canada and Algoma Steel. She lectures frequently to and conducts workshops for audiences in the United States, Canada, and Europe.
Her prior work history includes serving as a tenured faculty member in the School of Labor and Industrial Relations at Michigan State University, director of the Labor and Technology Program at the Industrial Technology Institute, senior researcher and project manager with the American Society for Training and Development, trainer for the Department of Education and Training of the American Arbitration Association, and public sector union staff member. She holds a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan and an M.S. degree from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.