Managing Quality: Managerial and Critical Perspectives

Books

Mihaela Kelemen

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part 1: Theoretical Perspectives on Quality

    Part 2: Practical Approaches to Quality

    Part 3: Consequences of Quality

    Part 4: Case Studies on Quality Management

  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Figures and Table

    Figures
    • 2.1 The PDCA cycle 26
    • 2.2 Pareto chart 31
    • 2.3 Cause-effect diagram 32
    • 2.4 Process flow chart 32
    • 2.5 Check sheet 33
    • 2.6 Histogram 33
    • 2.7 Scatter diagram 34
    • 2.8 Control chart 34
    • 3.1 The quadratic loss function 47
    • 4.1 The gap model 58
    • 5.1 The EFQM excellence model 70
    • 6.1 The relationship between quality costs 80
    • 6.2 Traditional model/optimum quality 81
    • 6.3 The ‘Zero Defects’ Cost Regime 82
    • 6.4 The ‘Continuous Improvement’ Cost Regime 83
    • 7.1 Model of Quality Control 88
    • 7.2 Shewhart's Concept of Statistical Control: (a) processes under control; (b) processes not under control 90
    • 8.1 The quality spiral 102
    • 9.1 The decision-making process in a UK service organization 114
    • 9.2 The customer feedback process in a UK service organization 115
    • 9.3 The internal communication process in a UK service organization 116
    • 9.4 The sales process in a UK service organization 117
    Table
    • 9.1 A comparison of BPR and TQM on key analytical dimensions emphasized in the literature 119

    Acknowledgements

    The idea of writing this book came as I was teaching a group of MBA students three years ago: they asked me to recommend a book on quality management that is both prescriptive and critical of such prescriptions. As such a book did not exist, the students asked me to write it. So here I am, three years later completing this ambitious task: whether my students will find this book meets their expectations remains to be seen. This is what quality is about: it lies in the eyes of the beholder.

    I have been fascinated by the topic of quality since my undergraduate years. In my last year I wrote an undergraduate dissertation on product reliability, as part of the requirements for a BA in applied economics. Since then, my focus has shifted away from the technical and statistical aspects of quality to its softer and more controversial aspects. It was Keith Grint, at Oxford University, who initially introduced me to sociological debates within management. It is thanks to his erudite supervision and wealth of knowledge which he generously shared, that my horizons expanded away from a positivist framework to a more interpretative way of understanding organizations. If it were not for Keith, I would have probably not left my economics paradigm to venture into the dangerous waters of social constructivism.

    Having moved to Keele University in 1996, my understanding of organizational issues widened further to include among others, postmodernist and poststructuralist approaches, discourse analysis, feminism and actor-network-theory. I would like to thank my colleagues for providing such an inspiring and intellectually challenging work environment. In particular, I would like to thank Valerie Fournier for her friendship, moral support and stimulating ideas on theory, research and life in general. It has been immensely rewarding to be her friend and colleague over the past six years. Also, I would like to thank Martin Parker for reading virtually every single piece of work that I have written in the last five years. His careful and critical commentary and genuine belief in my abilities have meant a lot to me. Gordon Pearson deserves special thanks for the countless insightful discussions on organizations, ethics and life. His sense of humour and endless kindness have, on many occasions, brightened up my life. Thanks are also due to Rolland Munro who not only helped me to think through my positioning vis-à-vis poststructuralism with encouragement along the way, but also, as Head of Department, facilitated the timing of my sabbatical leave in such a way that I could match it with a visiting position at the Pennsylvania State University. Many other colleagues in the department deserve special thanks for giving me inspiration to entertain new ideas and explore new areas which proved essential to the completion of the book: Dirk Bunzel, Simon Lilley, Geoff Lightfoot, Peter Armstrong, Gavin Jack and Matthias Klaes must be thanked for such inspiration. Particular thanks are also due to John Hassard (now at UMIST) and Paul Forrester (now at Birmingham University) for their team spirit and encouragement to stay with the discipline of operations and quality management, in my early years at Keele.

    My PhD students, some of whom have already graduated, deserve special acknowledgement for challenging me intellectually and keeping me always alert to what is happening in other fields of research, in particular, Dr Rosmimah Mohd-Roslin, Dr Joanna Papasolomou-Doukakis, Colin Rigby and Andrew Christmas. Andrew Christmas was very kind to also help me with graphical support. My undergraduate and MBA students, too many to be acknowledged by name, have also played an important role as sounding boards for some of my most controversial ideas. Their feedback and suggestions have always been given most careful consideration and have helped me discern what is useful and important to them.

    The empirical research that underpins some of the chapters would not have been possible without the generous financial support from the Horia Georgescu Foundation and Citibank. Patricia Georgescu deserves special thanks for being such a wonderful individual who has done so much for the Romanian cause, in the memory of her husband, Horia, a Romanian diplomat and journalist. Ian Cormack and Malcolm Parker (ex-Citibankers) need special mention for taking an interest in my ideas and academic career. Most of this book was written during my sabbatical at the Pennsylvania State University. I have been fortunate to have had a most wonderful host there: Professor Martin Kilduff who not only orchestrated the mechanics of my sabbatical and ensured that my time at ‘Penn State’ was productive and intellectually stimulating but he and his wife, Conni Johnson, generously welcomed me in their home on so many occasions. To Martin, I owe my reconfigured understanding of post modernism and deconstruction as well as my renewed interest in philosophy.

    I have asked three collaborators to write their own case studies on quality management for this book and would like to take this opportunity to thank them: Dr Joanna Papasolomou-Doukakis whose area of expertise is service marketing, Duthika Perera whose MBA research focused on empowerment and customer satisfaction in the public sector and Joan Durose, an NHS expert and management consultant whose depth and breadth of knowledge on the management of change are hard to match. Joan is also a close friend who has been extremely supportive during past year, particularly as I was going through difficult times caused by illness and death in the family: her positive attitude towards life and generosity as a friend will not be forgotten.

    My closest friends, some of whom have opted for an academic career, while others have chosen the practical world of management, have also contributed immensely to this project. Dr Tima Bansal, from Ivey Business School in Canada has been a constant source of inspiration and moral support, since the time we were completing our doctoral dissertations at Oxford. She took the time to read this book and made insightful comments which sharpened my arguments and improved the logical flow of my thoughts. Marcus Scott deserves special thanks for keeping me in good spirits by constantly challenging some of my taken-for-granted beliefs and e-mailing useful materials for my lectures on feminism. I thank him for finding space in his very busy investment banking schedule to read and make comments on the book. Last, but not least, Dr Gregg Robins, a specialist in banking and Eastern European studies, has been of great help in sharpening my ideas about capitalist ideology, market economies and consumerism. For this and his friendship, I thank him.

    The most important people in making this project come alive are the ex-Sage editor, Rosemary Nixon who has been extremely interested in this book and was instrumental in helping me sign the contract; and Kiren Shoman, the current Sage editor, whom I thank for her enthusiasm, kindness, patience and practical help on getting the book through the publishing hurdles.

    My family: parents, brother, sister-in-law, mother-in-law and brother-in-law must also be thanked for their unconditional and everlasting love and moral support. Without them, I would not be who I am today: special thanks to my parents who have always believed in me and encouraged me to assert my independence of thought from a very early stage.

    This book is dedicated to my husband, Csaba Sinka, for being here, always and forever.

  • Final Remarks

    The cases presented above explore the processes by which quality is constructed, understood, expressed, managed, controlled and portrayed in various organizations by various organizational stakeholders. As such, the result is more messy and complex than the previous chapters might have suggested. Quality is not an objective phenomenon that can be instantly and remotely controlled: although the most powerful organizational members may attempt to do just that. It is a process influenced by and influencing existing power discourses and regimes of truth. As such, although the author is pro-quality, a stance that hopefully comes through clearly in the book, she cannot take quality at its face value and simply regurgitate what quality gurus have said for decades, namely, ‘that quality is good’. The questions that need asking are: ‘What is good?’, ‘Who decides what is good?’, ‘Good for whom?’, ‘Does good come at an easy cost?’, and so on.

    There are no easy answers, yet it is important that one asks these questions rather than simply embrace the missionary message of quality gurus. We live in a consumerist society but this does not automatically lead to better, more fulfilled lives for all of us: work intensification, the exploitation of third world countries, natural resource depletion and other environmental concerns are the price we pay for our daily conveniences. But this is all relative: if we compare standards of living now with standards of living 300 years ago, it is a fact that a much higher proportion of people have access to quality, convenience and value for money. The consumerist discourse could be seen to democratize rather than exploit the ‘masses’, for the ‘masses’ now could have a say in what is going on in the world. People can choose not to buy from companies that are perceived as socially irresponsible. Their voice could be given weight by legislation that protects their rights. Quality and consumerism could be positive forces shaping the society: yet, they could also be manipulated by multinational corporations, governments and powerful individuals. The challenge lies in being aware of and constantly assessing the dangers hidden behind the seductive face of quality.

    Bibliography

    Abbott, L. (1955) Quality and Competition: An Essay in Economic Theory. Westpoint, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Abrahamson, E. (1996) Management fashions, Academy of Management Review, 21: 254–85.
    Abrahamson, E. and Fairchild, G. (1999) Management fashions: lifestyles, triggers and collective learning processes, Administrative Science Quarterly, 44: 708–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2667053
    Ahire, S.L. and Dreyfus, P. (2000) The impact of design management and process management on quality: an empirical investigation, Journal of Operations Management, 18(5), 549–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-6963%2800%2900029-2
    Albert, S. and Wetten, D. (1985) Organizational identity, in L.L.Cummings and B.M.Staw (eds) Research in Organizational Behaviour, vol. 7. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. pp. 263–295.
    Alvesson, M. (1990) Organization: from substance to image?, Organization Studies, 11(3): 373–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069001100303
    Alvesson, M. and Willmott, H. (eds) (1992) Critical Management Studies. London: Sage.
    Alvesson, M. and Willmott, H. (1996) Making Sense of Management: A Critical Introduction. London: Sage.
    American Banker (2001) The tech scene: a new privacy flash point, 3 January.
    Ammons, R.E. and Vujasinovic, V.S. (2000) Times that kill, Trial, 36(12): 52–60.
    Ascari, A., Rock, M. and Dutta, S. (1995) Re-engineering and organizational change: lessons from a comparative analysis of company experiences, European Management Journal13(1): 1–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0263-2373%2894%2900054-B
    Astley, W.G. and Zammuto, R.F. (1992) Organization science, managers, and language games, Organization Science, 3(4): 443–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.3.4.443
    Babicz, G. (2000) ISO changes its quality approach, Quality, 39(6): 56–58.
    Bank, J. (1992) The Essence of Total Quality Management. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall.
    Barnard, C. (1938 [1968]) The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press.
    Barney, J. (1991) Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage, Journal of Management, 17: 99–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920639101700108
    Bass, B.M. (1990) Handbook of Leadership: Theory Research and Managerial Applications,
    3rd edn.
    New York: Free Press.
    Baston, R.G. (1988) Disovered: quality's missing link, Quality Progress, October: 61–4.
    Bauman, Z. (1995) Life in Fragments. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Bayton, J.A. (1958) Motivation, cognition, learning-basic factors in consumer behaviour, Journal of Marketing, 22(3): 282–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1247119
    Beckford, J. (1998) Quality: A Critical Introduction. London: Sage.
    Bendell, T. (1991) The Quality Gurus: What Can they do for your Company?London: DTI.
    Bennis, W. (1993) An Invented Life: Reflections on Leadership and Change. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
    Berggren, E. and Nacher, T. (2000) Why good ideas go bust?, Management Review, 82(2): 32–6.
    Berry, L.L. (1986) Big ideas in services marketing, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Spring: 47–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb008162
    Bigliazzi, M. (1995) A history of managing for quality, Quality Progress, 28(8): 125–9.
    Blackburn, R. and Rosen, B. (1993) Total quality and human resource management: lessons learnt from Baldrige Award-winning companies, Academy of Management Executive, 7(3): 49–79.
    Blair, H., Grey Taylor, S. and Randle, K. (1998) A pernicious panacea: a critical evaluation of business re-engineering, New Technology, Work and Employment, 13(2): 116–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-005X.00045
    Boden, D. (1994) The Business of Talk: Organizations in Action. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bond, S. (2001) When they built the shipTitanic, National Forum, 18(1): 33–8.
    Bowie, N.E. (1999) Business Ethics: A Kantian Perspective. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Brady, D. (2000) Why service stinks, Business Week, 23 October.
    Brown, W. (2000) The great foreign car myth: are Japanese and European cars truly better than American ones, or just better at hiding their defects?, The Washington Post, 29 October.
    Bryman, A. (1992) Charisma and Leadership in Organizations. London: Sage.
    Bucklin, L.P. (1963) Retail strategy and the class of consumer goods, Journal of Marketing, 27: 51–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1248582
    Burke, K. (1966) Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature and Method. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    Burns, J.M. (1978) Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
    Burrell, G. (1996) Normal science, paradigms, metaphors, discourses and genealogies of analysis. In S.R.Clegg, C.Hardy and W.R.Nord (eds) Handbook of Organization Studies., London: Sage. pp. 31–56.
    Caulkin, S. (2002) Running a business is studied to death in UK, The Observer, 13 January: 9.
    Chase, R.B. (1981) The customer contact approach to services: theoretical basis and practical extensions, Operational Research, 29: 698–706.
    Chatterjee, S. and Yilman, M. (1993) Quality confusion: too many gurus, not enough disciples, Business Horizons, 36(3): 15–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0007-6813%2805%2980144-2
    Chia, R. (1996) The problem of reflexivity in organizational research: towards a postmodern science of organization, Organization, 1: 149–78.
    Choi, T.Y. and Behling, O.C. (1997) Top managers and TQM success: one more look after all these years, The Academy of Management Executive11(1): 37–47.
    Chorn, N.H. (1991) Total quality management: panacea or pitfall?, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 21(8): 31–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000000402
    Clegg, S. (1989) Frameworks of Power. London: Sage.
    Conti, R.F. and Warner, M. (1994) Taylorism, teams and technology in re-engineering work-organization, New Technology, Work and Employment9(2): 93–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-005X.1994.tb00053.x
    Coulson, H. (1993) Putting theory into practice: tailoring current cost of quality models to suit your company, IIR Limited Industrial Conference, London, February.
    Coulson-Thomas, C. (1991) Competent directors: boardroom myths and realities, Journal of General Management, 17(1): 1–26.
    Crosby, P.B. (1979) Quality Is Free: The Art of Making Quality Certain. New York: Mentor Books, New American Library.
    Crosby, P.B. (1983) Don't be defensive about the cost of quality, Quality Progress, April: 38–9.
    Crosby, P. (1984) Quality Without Tears: The Art of Hassle-free Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Curtis, N., Kelemen, M. and Oren, J. (1992) Process modelling, Communications of the ACM, 35(9): 75–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/130994.130998
    Czarniawska-Joerges, B. (1990) Merchants of meaning: management consulting in the Swedish public sector. In B.A.Turner (ed.) Organizational Symbolism. Berlin: de Gruyter. pp. 139–150.
    Czarniawska-Joerges, B. (1993) The Three-dimensional Organization: A Constructivist View. Sweden: Studentlitteratur.
    Dahlgaard, S.M.P. (1999) The evolution patterns of quality management: some reflections on the quality, Total Quality Management, 10(4): 473–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0954412997424
    Dahlgaard, S.M.P., Krustensen, K. and Kanji, G.R. (1994) Strategic quality management and quality costs, Advances in Total Quality Management, 5: 111–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09544129400000017
    Dale, B.G. (ed.) (1994) Managing Quality (
    2nd edn
    ). Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall.
    Dale, B.G. and Boaden, R.J. (1994) The use of teams in quality improvement. In B.G.Dale (ed.) Managing Quality (
    2nd edn
    ). Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall. pp. 514–32.
    Dale, B.G. and Shaw, P. (1994) Statistical process control. In B.Dale (ed.) Managing Quality. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall. pp. 469–97.
    Davenport, T.H. (1993) Process Innovation: Re-engineering Work Through Information Technology. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Davenport, T.H. and Short, J.E. (1990) The new industrial engineering: information technology and business process redesign, Sloan Management Review, 31(4) (Summer): 11–27.
    Davis, T.R.V. and Luthans, F. (1980) Managers in action: a new look at their behaviour and operating modes, Organizational Dynamics, 9(1): 64–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616%2880%2990014-5
    Dawson, P. and Webb, J. (1989) New production arrangements: the totally flexible cage, Work, Employment and Society, 3(2): 221–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017089003002006
    de Cock, C. (1998) ‘It seems to fill my head with ideas’: a few thoughts on postmodernism, TQM and BPR, Journal of Management Inquiry, 7(2): 144–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105649269872009
    Deal, T. and Kennedy, A. (1982) Corporate Cultures: The Rite and Rituals of Corporate Life. Harmondsworth, Mx: Penguin.
    Dean, J.W. and Snell, S.A. (1991) Integrated manufacturing and job design: industry effects of organizational inertia, Academy of Management Journal, 34: 776–804. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256389
    Delbridge, R. and TurnbullP. (1992) Human resource maximisation: the management of labour under just-in-time manufacturing systems. In P.Blyton and P.Turnbull (eds) Reassessing Human Resource Management. London: Sage. pp. 56–73.
    Deming, W.E. (1986) Out of Crisis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Dixon, J.R., Arnold, P., Heineke, J., KimJ.S. and Mulligan, P. (1994) Business process re-engineering, California Management Review, Summer: 93–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/41165768
    Doyle, K. (1992) Who's killing total quality management, Incentive (IMK), August: 59.
    Earl, M. (1994) The new and the old business process undersign, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 3(1): 5–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0963-8687%2894%2990003-5
    Eco, U. (1979) The Role of the Reader. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
    Fairclough, N. (1996) Language and Power. Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman.
    Farnworth, N.R. (1994) Strict product liability and its impact on the management of quality. In B.G.Dale (ed.) Managing quality, (
    2nd edn
    ). Hemel Hempstead: Prentice-Hall. pp. 149–62.
    Feeney, A. and Zairi, M. (1996) TQM in healthcare, Journal of General Management, 22(1): 35–47.
    Feigenbaum, A.V. (1951) Quality Control: Principles, Practice and Administration. New York: McGraw-Hill
    Feigenbaum, A.V. (1961) Total Quality Control: Engineering and Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Feigenbaum, A.V. (1983) Total Quality Control. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Flood, R.L. (1993) Beyond TQM. Chichester: Wiley.
    Foucault, M. (1977) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. London: Penguin.
    Foucault, M. (1980) Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon.
    Fournier, V. (1998). Stories of development and exploitation: militant voices in an enterprise culture, Organization, 5(1): 55–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135050849851004
    Fritsche, D.J. and Becker, H. (1984) Linking management behavior to ethical philosophy: an empirical investigation, Academy of Management Journal, 27: 166–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255964
    Gabriel, Y. and Lang, T. (1995) The Unmanageable Consumer. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446213049
    Garvin, D. (1987) Competing on the eight dimensions of quality, Harvard Business Review, 65(6): 101–9.
    Garvin, D.A. (1984) What does product quality really mean?, Sloan Management Review, Fall: 25–43.
    Garvin, D. (1988) Managing Quality: The Strategic and Competitive Edge. New York: Free Press.
    Gaster, L. (1995) Quality in the Public Sector: Managers’ Choice. Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    George, C.S. (1972) The History Of Management Thought. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Giakatis, G. and Rooney, E.M. (2000) The use of quality costing to trigger process improvement in an automotive company, Total Quality Management, 11(2): 155–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0954412006892
    Giakatis, G., Enkawa, T. and Washitani, K. (2001) Hidden quality costs and the distinction between quality cost and quality loss, Total Quality Management, 12(2): 179–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09544120120011406
    Gill, J. and Whittle, S. (1993) Management by panacea: accounting for transition, Journal of Management Studies, 30(2): 281–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1993.tb00305.x
    Gilmore, H.L. (1974) Product conformance cost, Quality Progress, June: 16–19.
    Gioia, D. (1992): at Keele
    Gioia, D. (1999) Personal reflections on the Pinto fires case. In L.K.Trevino and K.A.Nlson (eds) Managing Business Ethics: Straight Talk About How to Do It Right (
    2nd edn
    ). New York: Wiley.
    Gowler, D. and Legge, K. (1983) The meaning of management and the management of meaning: a view from social anthropology. In M.Earl (ed.) Perspectives on Management: A Multidisciplinary Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 197–234.
    Grey, C. and Mitev, N. (1995) Re-engineering organizations: a critical appraisal, Personnel Review, 24(1): 6–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00483489510079066
    Grint, K. (1994) Re-engineering history: social resonances and business process re-engineering, Organization, 1 (1): 179–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135050849400100116
    Grint, K. (1997) Leadership: Classical, Contemporary And Critical Approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Grint, K. and Case, P. (1995) Now where were we? BPR lotus-eaters and corporate amnesia, Paper for the workshop on Critical Studies of Organizational and Management Innovations, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management, Brussels, 8–9 May.
    Grint, K. and Case, P. (1998) The violent rhetoric of re-engineering: management consultancy on the offensive, Journal of Management Studies, 35(5): 557–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00109
    Grint, K. and Willcocks, L. (1995) Business process re-engineering in theory and practice: business paradise regained?, New Technology, Work and Employment, 10(2): 99–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-005X.1995.tb00009.x
    Gronroos, C. (1983) Strategic Management And Marketing In The Service Sector. Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute.
    Guillen, M.F. (1997) Scientific management lost aesthetic: architecture, organization and the Taylorized beauty of the mechanical, ASQ, 42: 682–715. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393654
    Guimares, T. and Bond, W. (1996) Empirically assessing the impact of BPR on manufacturing firms, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 16(8): 5–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01443579610125750
    Gummesson, E. (1991) Truths and myths in service quality, International Journal of Service Industry Management, 2(3): 7–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09564239110007256
    Hall, G., Rosenthal, J. and Wade, J. (1993) How to make re-engineering really work, Harvard Business Review, November-December: 119–30.
    Hall, R.H. (1991) Organizations: Structures, Processes and Outcomes,
    3rd edn.
    Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Hamm, S. and Stepanek, M. (1999) From re-engineering to e-engineering, Business Week, 22 March.
    Hammer, M. (1990) Re-engineering work: don't automate, obliterate, Harvard Business Review, July-August: 104–12.
    Hammer, M. and Champy, J. (1993) Re-engineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution. New York: Harper Business.
    Hammer, M. and Stanton, S. (1999) How process enterprises really work, Harvard Business Review, 77(6): 108–18.
    Hassard, J. and Parker, M. (1993) Postmodernism and Organizations. London: Sage.
    Haywood-Farmer, J. (1987) A conceptual model of service quality, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 8(6): 19–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb054839
    Hegarty, S. (1993) On the quest for quality, Personnel Today, July: 19–22.
    Heller, R. (1993) TQM: the quality makers, Switzerland: Norden Publishing House.
    Hendricks, K.B. and Singhal, V.R. (1997) Does implementing an effective TQM program actually improve operating performance? Empirical evidence from firms that have won quality awards, Management Science, 43(9): 1258–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.43.9.1258
    Hendricks and Singhal (1999) Don't count TQM out: evidence shows implementation pays off in a big way, Quality Progress, April: 35–42.
    Hill, S. (1991) Why quality circles failed but total quality management might succeed, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 29(4): 541–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8543.1991.tb00371.x
    Hill, S. (1995) From quality circles to total quality management. In A.Wilkinson and H.Willmott (eds) Making Quality Critical: New Perspectives on Organizational Change. London: Routledge. pp. 33–53.
    Hogarth, S. (1999) On the horizon, ISO 14000, Manufacturing Engineering, 122(3): 118–28.
    Hopfl, H. (1995) Organizational rhetoric and the threat of ambivalence, Studies in Cultures, Organizations and Societies, 1: 175–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10245289508523454
    Hopper Wruck, K. and JensenM. (1994) Science, scientific knowledge and total quality management, Journal of Accounting and Economics, 18: 274–87.
    Horsted, J. and Doherty, N. (1994) Poles apart?: integrating business process redesign and human resource management, Business Change and Re-engineering, 1(4): 49–56.
    Huczynski, A. (1993) Management Gurus. London: Routledge.
    Hunt, V.D. (1993) Managing Quality: Integrating Quality and Business Strategy. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
    Ishikawa, K. (1985) What is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Jacobs, F.A. and Kamm, C. (1998) The relationship of customer satisfaction to strategic decisions, Journal of Managerial Issues, 10(2): 165–82.
    Janis, I.L. (1972) Victims of Groupthink. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
    Johansson, H.J., McHugh, P., Pendlebury, A.J. and Wheeler, W.A. (1993) Business Process Re-engineering. London: John Wiley.
    Juran, J.M. (ed.) (1979) Juran's Quality Control Handbook (
    3rd edn
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Juran, J.M. (1988) Juran on Planning for Quality. New York: Free Press.
    Juran, J.M., Goyna, F.M. and Bingham, R.S. (eds) (1974) Quality Control Handbook (
    3rd edn
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Kahn, R. (1964) Organizational Stress: Studies in Role Conflict and Ambiguity. New York: John Wiley.
    Kalakota, R. and Robinson, M. (1999) E-Business: Roadmap for Success. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.
    Kanji, G.K. and Asher, M. (1996) Methods for Total Quality Management. London: Sage.
    Keat, R. and Abercrombie, N. (eds) (1991) Enterprise Culture. London: Routledge.
    Kelemen, M. (1998) Total quality management in the UK service sector: a social constructivist study. In S.Clegg, E.Ibarra and L.Bueno (eds) Global Management: Universal Theories and Local Realities. London: Sage.
    Kelemen, M. (2000) Too much or too little ambiguity: the language of total quality management, Journal of Management Studies, 37(4): 483–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00190
    Kelemen, M. (2001) Discipline at work: distal and proximal views, Studies in Cultures, Organizations and Societies, 7: 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10245280108523550
    Kelemen, M., Forrester, P. and Hassard, J. (2000) BPR and TQM: divergence or convergence. In D.Knights and H.Willmott (eds) The Re-engineering Revolution. London: Sage. pp. 154–173.
    Kerfoot, D. and Knights, D. (1995) Empowering the quality worker? In A.Wilkinson and H.Willmott (eds) Making Quality Critical: New Perspectives on Organizational Change. London: Routledge. pp. 219–39.
    Kirkpatrick, I. and Lucio, M. (1995) The uses of ‘quality’ in the British government's reform of the public sector. In I.Kirkpatrick and M.Lucio (eds) The Politics of Quality in the Public Sector. London: Routledge. pp. 16–43.
    Knight, F. (1921) Risk, Uncertainty and Profit. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Knights, D. (2000) Bewitched, bothered and bewildered: the meaning and experience of teamworking for employees in an automobile company, Human Relations, 53(11): 1481–517.
    Knights, D. and McCabe, D. (1998a) ‘What happens when the phone goes wild?”: staff, stress and spaces for escape in a BPR telephone banking work regime, Journal of Management Studies, 35(2): 163–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00089
    Knights, D. and McCabe, D. (1998b) When ‘life is but a dream’: obliterating politics through business process re-engineering, Human Relations, 51(6): 761–98.
    Knights, D. and Willmott, H. (2000) (eds) The Re-engineering Revolution: Critical Studies of Corporate Change. London: Sage.
    Kunda, G. (1992) Engineering Culture: Control and Commitment in a High Tech Corporation. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Lawler III, E.E. (1986) High Involvement Management. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Lawrence, T.B. and Phillips, N. (1998) Commentary: separating play and critique – postmodern and critical perspectives on TQM/BPR, Journal of Management Inquiry, 7(2): 154–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105649269872010
    Lehtinen, U. and Lehtinen, J.R. (1982) Service quality: a study of quality dimensions. Working paper in Service Management Institute, Helsinki, Iceland.
    Levhari, D. and Srinivasan, T.N. (1969) Durability of consumption goods: competition versus monopoly, American Economic Review, March: 102–7.
    Lilley, S.J. and Platt, G.M. (1994) Correspondents’ images of Martin Luther King Jr: an interpretive theory of movement leadership. In T.R.Sarbin and J.I.Kitsuse (eds) Reconstructing the Social. London: Sage. pp. 65–83.
    Ligus, R.G. (1993) Methods to help reengineer your company for improved agility, Industrial Engineering, January.
    Lovelock, C.H. (1992) Managing Services: Marketing, Operations and Human Resources,
    2nd edn.
    Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    McArdle, L., Rowlinson, M., Procter, S., Hassard, J. and Forrester, P. (1995) Total quality management and participation: employee empowerment, or the enhancement of exploitation. In A.Wilkinson and H.Willmott (eds) Making Quality Critical: New Perspectives on Organizational Change. London: Routledge. pp. 156–73.
    McCabe, D. and Wilkinson, A. (1998) The rise and fall of TQM: the vision, meaning and operation of change, Industrial Relations Journal, 29(1): 18–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2338.00076
    McGregor, D. (1975) An uneasy look at performance appraisal, Harvard Business Review, 43: 89–94.
    Maister, D.H. and Lovelock, C.H. (1982) Managing facilitator services, Sloan Management Review, 23(4): 19–31.
    Merino, D.N. (1988) Economics of quality: chosing among prevention alternatives, International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 7: 13–23.
    Merton, R. (1957) Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: The Free Press.
    Meyerson, M. and Martin, J. (1987) Cultural change: an integration of three different views, Journal of Management Studies, 24(6): 623–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1987.tb00466.x
    Millar, C. (1998) The town hall factory: the applicability of manufacturing operations management to public services, Total Quality Management, 9(2–3): 298–301.
    Morgan, G. (1986) Images of Organization. London: Sage.
    Morishima, M. (1982) Why has Japan Succeeded? Western Technology and the Japanese Ethos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511582455
    Morrison, S.J. (1994) Managing quality: a historical review. In B.G.Dale (ed.) Managing Quality (
    2nd edn
    ). Hemel-Hempstead: Prentice Hall. pp. 41–79.
    Muschamp, H. (2000) Fusing beauty and terror: reverence and desecration, New York Times, 31 July.
    Nwabueze, U. (1998) Managing innovation in public services, Total Quality Management, 2(3): 155.
    Oakland, J. (1989) Total Quality Management. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
    Olaru, M. (1999) Managementul Calitatii. Bucharest: Editura Economica.
    Olian, J.D. and Rynes, S.L. (1991) Making total quality work: aligning organizations, performance measures and stakeholders, Human Resource Management, 30: 303–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrm.3930300303
    Oliver, R.L. (1981) What is customer satisfaction?, Wharton Magazine, 5(3): 36–41.
    Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (1985) A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research, Journal of Marketing, 4(4): 41–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1251430
    Para suraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (1988) SERVQUAL: a multiple-item scale for measuring customer perceptions of service quality, Journal of Retailing, 64(1): 12–40.
    Parker, M. (1997) Organization, community, utopia, Studies in Cultures, Organizations and Societies, 4(1): 1–25.
    Paul, R.J., Giaglis, G.M. and Hlupic, V. (1999) Simulation of business processes, The American Behavioural Scientist, 42(10): 1551–70.
    Pearch, C. and Kitka, J. (2000) ISO 9000: 2000: the new kid on the block, Machine Design, 72(14): 30–5.
    Pearson, G. (1995) Integrity in Organizations: An Alternative Business Ethic. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
    Pearson, G. and Parker, M. (2001) The Relevance of Ancient Greeks to Modern Business?: a dialogue on business and ethics, Journal of Business Ethics, 31: 341–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010759312535
    Personnel Today (1994) Cut out the middle men, 22 March.
    Peters, T. (1987) Thriving on Chaos: Handbook for a Management Revolution. London: Macmillan.
    Peters, T.J. and Austin, N. (1985) A Passion for Excellence: The Leadership Difference. London: Collins
    Peters, T. and Waterman, R.H. (1982) In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies. New York: Harper & Row.
    Pettigrew, A. (1979) On studying organizational cultures, Administrative Science Quarterly, 24: 570–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392363
    Pettigrew, A. (1985) The Awakening Giant: Continuity and Change at ICI. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Pfeffer, J. and Koote, A. (1991) Is quality good for you? A critical review of quality assurance in welfare services, Social Policy Paper 5, London: Institute for Public Policy Research.
    Piore, M.J. and Sabel, C.F. (1984) The Second Industrial Divide: Possibilities for Prosperity. New York: Basic Books.
    Pirsig, R.M. (1974) Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. New York: Bantam Books
    Price, F. (1989) Out of Bedlam: management by quality leadership, Management Decision, 27: 15–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000000033
    Ptacek, M. (2000) Bank of America to set up an online B-to-B Market, American Banker, April 5.
    Quinn, J.B. (1978) Strategic Change: logical incrementalism, Sloan Management Review, Fall.
    Rae, S.B., and Wong, K.L. (1996) Beyond Integrity: A Judo-Christian Approach to Business Ethics. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House.
    Rao, C.R. (1989) Statistics and Truth: Putting Chance to Work. Fairland, MD: International Co-operative Publishing House,
    Redman, T. and Grieves, J. (1999) Managing strategic change through TQM: learning from failure, New Technology, Work and Employment, 14(1): 45–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-005X.00052
    Redman, T., Snape, E. and Wilkinson, A. (1995) Is quality management working in the UK?, Journal of General Management, 20(3): 45–59.
    Reed, M. (1995) Managing quality and organizational politics: TQM as a governmental technology. In I.Kirkpatrick and M.Lucio (eds) The Politics of Quality in the Public Sector. London: Routledge. pp. 45–63.
    Rees, C. (1995) Quality management and HRM in the service industry: some case study evidence, Employees Relations, 17(3): 99–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01425459510086938
    Reeves, C.A. and Bednar, D.A. (1994) Defining quality: alternatives and implications, The Academy of Management Review, 19(3): 419–45.
    Regalia, M. (2000) Gridlock (and Greenspan): a vigilant Fed and a mandate-free presidency mean mostly fair skies in 2001, Time Magazine, 18th December.
    Reger, R.K., Gustafson, L.T., DeMarie, S.M. and Mullane, J.V. (1994) Reframing the organization: why implementing total quality management is easier said than done, Academy of Management Review, 19(3): 565–84.
    Reitsperger, W.D. and Daniel, S.J. (1991) A comparison of quality attitudes in the USA and Japan: empirical evidence, Journal of Management Studies, 28: 85–96.
    Remeny, D. and Whittaker, L. (1994) The cost and benefits of BPR, Business Change and Re-engineering, 2(2): 51–65.
    Rice, J. (1992/1993) Cascaded training at Hughes Aircraft help ensure continuous measurable improvement, National Productivity Review, 12(1): 111–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/npr.4040120113
    Robinson, T.L. and Kimod, J.R. (2000) SPC: it's a tool not a cult, Manufacturing Engineering, 124(3): 104–77.
    Rose, N. (1990) Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self. London: Routledge.
    Rothschild, M. (1992) How to be a high IQ company, Forbes, 7 December.
    Russell, S. (2000) ISO 9000: 2000 and the EFQM Excellence Model: competition or co-operation?, Total Quality Management, 11: 4–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09544120050008039
    Samuelson, B.A., Galbraith, C.S. and Maguire, J.W. (1985) Organizational performance and top-management turnover, Organization Studies, 6(3): 275–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068500600304
    Schein, E.H. (1980) Organizational Psychology (
    3rd edn
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Schein, E. (1983) The role of the founder in creating organizational culture, Organizational Dynamics, Summer: 13–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616%2883%2990023-2
    Schmenner, R.W. (1986) How can service business survive and prosper, Sloan Management Review, 27(3): 21–32.
    Schmidt, S.R., Kiemele, M.J., and Cheek Jr. T.F. (1992) Don't let TQM drain you dry without any ROI, Business Week.
    Schonberger, D. (1990) Building a Chain of Customers. New York: Free Press.
    Schonberger, J.R. (1988) Operations Management: Serving the Customer. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
    Seddon, J. (1994) History shooting quality in the foot, Managing Service Quality, 4(4): 9–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09604529410065199
    Selznick, P. (1957) Leadership in Administration. New York: Harper & Row.
    Selznick, P. (1965) TVA and the Grass Roots. New York: Harper & Row.
    Sewell, G. (1998) The discipline of team: the control of team-based industrial work through electronic and peer surveillance, Administrative Science Quarterly, 43: 397–428. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393857
    Sewell, G. and Wilkinson, A. (1992) Environment or Emasculation: A Tale of Workplace Survailance in the Total Quality Organization. In P.Blyton and P.Turnball (eds), HRM: Conflicts and Contradictions. London: Sage. pp. 97–115.
    Shah, K.K.R. and Fitaroy, P.T. (1998) A review of quality cost surveys, Total Quality Management, 9(6): 479–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0954412988406
    Siegel, G.B. and Seidler, E. (1996) Towards a public service blend of human resource management and TQM, International Journal of Public Administration, 19(10): 1781–1810. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01900699608525165
    Shingo, S. (1986) Zero Quality Control: Source Inspection and the Poka-yoke System, Cambridge, MA: Productivity Press.
    Sitkin, S.B. (1995) Learning through failure: the strategy of small losses. In B.M.Staw and L.L.Cummings (eds) Research in Organizational behaviour, Vol. 14. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. pp. 231–66.
    Slack, N., Chambers, S., Harland, C., Harrison, A. and Johnston, R. (1995) Operations Management. London: Pitman Publishing.
    Smedes, L.B. (1991) Choices: Making Right Decisions in a Complex World. San Francisco, CA: Harper.
    Smircich, L. (1983) Concepts of culture and organizational analysis, Administrative Science Quarterly, 28(3): 203–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392246
    Smircich, L. and Morgan, G. (1982) Leadership: the management of meaning, Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 18(3): 257–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002188638201800303
    Southern, G. (1994) Introducing business process re-engineering: a brainstorming approach, Business Change and Re-engineering, 2(1): 39–47.
    Spencer, B.A. (1994) Models of organization and total quality management: a comparison and critical evaluation, The Academy of Management Review, 19(3): 446–71.
    Steingard, D. and Fitzgibbons, D. (1993) A postmodern deconstruction of total quality management (TQM), Journal of Organizational Change, 6(5): 27–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000001210
    Stogdill, R.M. (1974) Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of the Literature. New York: Free Press.
    StoumbosZ.G., Reynold, M.R., Ryan, T.R. and Woodall, W.H. (2000) The state of statistical process control as we proceed in the 21st century, Journal of American Statistical Association, 95 (451): 992–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01621459.2000.10474292
    Swan, P.L. (1970) Durability of consumption goods, American Economic Review, December: 884–94.
    Taguchi, G. (1986) Introduction to Quality Engineering. Tokyo: Asian Productivity Organization.
    Tai, L.S. and Przasnyski, Z.H. (1999) The Baldrige Award winners beat the S&P 5000, Quality Progress, April: 45–51
    Tenner, A.R. and DeToro, I.J. (1992) Total Quality Management: Three Steps to Continuous Improvement. Reading: Addison-Wesley.
    Townley, B. (1994) Reframing HRM: Power, Ethics and the Subject at Work. London: Sage.
    The Economist (1992) The cracks in quality, 18 April: 67–8.
    The Economist (1997) A Wapping mess, 7 December: 54–6.
    The Guardian (1999) Ford recalls faulty tires, 17 July.
    The Guardian (1999) BMW recalls 3 million faulty cars, 8 October.
    Tolstoy, L.N. (1957) War and Peace, trans. R.Edmonds. Harmondsworth, Mx: Penguin.
    Tonnies, F. (1963) Community and Society, trans. CPLoomis. New York: Harper & Row.
    Trevino, L.K. (1986) Ethical decision making in organizations: a person-situation interactionist model, Academy of Management Review, 11: 601–17.
    Tuckman, A. (1995) Ideology, quality and TQM. In A.Wilkinson and H.Willmott (eds) Making Quality Critical: New Perspectives on Organizational Change. London: Routledge. pp. 54–81.
    Vallance, E. (1995) Business Ethics at Work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139166461
    Victor, B., Boynton, A. and Stephens-Jahng, T. (2000) The effective design of work under total quality management, Organization Science, 11(1): 102–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.11.1.102.12566
    Vinzant, J.C. and Vinzant, D.H. (1996) Strategic management and total quality management: challenges and devices, Public Administration Quarterly, 20(3): 201–19.
    Wall Street Journal (1992) 14 May.
    Westphal, J.D., Gulati, R. and Shontell, S.M. (1997) Customisation or conformity? An institutional and network perspective on the content and consequences of TQM adoption, ASQ, 42(2): 366–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393924
    White, R.F. and Jaques, R. (1995) Operationalising the postmodernity construct for efficient organizational change management, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 8(2): 45–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09534819510084364
    White, T.I. (1993) Business Ethics: A Philosophical Reader. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Wilber, C.K. (1998) Economics, Ethics and Public Policy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Wilkinson, A. (1992) The other side of quality: ‘soft’ issues and the human resource dimension, Total Quality Management, 3(3): 323–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09544129200000038
    Wilkinson, A., Redman, T., Snape, E. and Marchington, M. (1998) Managing with Total Quality Management. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Wilkinson, A. and Willmott, H. (1995) (eds) Making Quality Critical: New Perspectives on Organizational Change. London: Routledge.
    Wilkinson, A., Godfrey, G. and Marchington, M. (1997) Bouquets, brickbats and blinkers: total quality management and employee involvement in practice, Organization Studies, 18(5): 799–819. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069701800505
    Wilkinson, A., Marchington, M., Goodman, J. and Ackers, P. (1992) Total quality management and employer involvement, Human Resource Management Journal, 2(4): 1–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.1992.tb00263.x
    Willmott, H. (1993) Strength is ignorance: slavery is freedom: managing culture in modern organization, Journal of Management Studies, 30(4): 515–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1993.tb00315.x
    Willmott, H. (1995) The odd couple?: Re-engineering business processes; managing human relations, New Technology, Work and Employment, 10(2): 89–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-005X.1995.tb00008.x
    Wright, A. (1997) Public service quality: lessons not learned, Total Quality Management, 8(5): 313–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0954412979550
    Wruck, K.H. and Jensen, M.C. (1994) Science, specific knowledge and total quality management, Journal of Accounting and Economics, 18: 247–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-4101%2894%2990023-X
    Xu, Q. (1999) TQM as an arbitrary sign for play: discourse and transformation, Organization Studies, 20(4): 659–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0170840699204007
    Young, M. (1992) A framework for the successful adoption of Japanese manufacturing techniques in the United States, Academy of Management Review, 17(4): 677–700.
    Yuki, G. (1989) Managerial leadership: a review of theory and research, Journal of Management, 15(2): 251–89.
    Zbaracki, M. (1998) The rhetoric and reality of total quality management, ASQ, 43(3): 602–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393677

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website