Managing Organizational Deviance

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Edited by: Roland E. Kidwell Jr. & Christopher L. Martin

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  • Dedication

    To the memory of Roland E. Kidwell, Sr. (1922–2004), for the lessons he taught, spoken and unspoken, and to Kelly, Tracy, and Rosalind, the next generation of learners.

    —R. E. K.

    To Kathy and my three deviants, Christopher, Holden, and Harrison.

    —C. L. M.

    Copyright

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    Tables and Figures

    • Table 1.1 Terms and Definitions Used When Discussing Undesirable Workplace Behavior 6
    • Table 1.2 Examples of the Ambiguity of “Deviant” Behavior 10
    • Figure 2.1 Theory of Planned Behavior 42
    • Figure 2.2 Managerial Influence on Ethical Decision Making (based on theory of planned behavior) 44
    • Table 4.1 The Stakeholder Framework for Analyzing Revenge 102
    • Table 6.1 Types of Noncompliance 145
    • Figure 9.1 Theft Rates as a Function of Conditions in the Field Experiment by Greenberg (1990) 221
    • Figure 10.1 A Model of Organizational Aggression 241
    • Table 12.1 Social Context and Employee Deviance 290
    • Table 12.2 Organizational Policies to Prevent Deviance in Family Business 295
    • Table 13.1 Integrated Framework of the Dimensions of National Culture 312

    Preface

    From a scuffle in a factory break room, to the abuse of an employee by a bullying boss, to a company's financial officers cooking the books, deviant behavior in organizations has created headaches, crises, and ethical challenges for executives, shareholders, employees, and society. Reading the popular press and studying the proliferation of academic research on the topic during the past decade or so, one might conclude that an epidemic of destructive acts committed by employees who intend to harm other individuals or their organizations has taken root in many workplaces. Certainly, the negative impact of deviant behavior at work is considered to be one of the most serious problems facing organizations today (e.g., Bennett & Robinson, 2003; Griffin & O'Leary-Kelly, 2004; Vardi & Weitz, 2004).

    It is clear that managers at all organizational levels must confront the reasons why deviant behavior occurs with such alarming frequency and must develop strategies to deal with it. To assist students and teachers of management, as well as practicing managers, we have asked leading scholars in the fields of organizational behavior, organization theory, human resources management, and business ethics to offer their informed views on a variety of topics that relate to the general theme of managing organizational deviance effectively and ethically.

    This book is designed to address several needs. Although current books of academic- and practitioner-oriented readings concerning deviance and related topics are excellent, they do not include a collection of cases that specifically relate conceptual material to the practice of management and applied ethics. Current works, with some exceptions, generally focus on deviant behavior primarily from either a macro-organizational perspective or a micro-group/individual perspective. Finally, other books on the topic either limit a focus on ethical considerations of deviance or operate under an overriding assumption that deviant behavior is unethical per se.

    The approach taken in this book is intended to assist students, teachers, and managers by providing academic grounding and practical guidance to those who face ambiguous manifestations of deviant behavior at work. In examining the causes and types of deviant behavior, deviance is considered in its moral and ethical implications by focusing on organizational contexts, as well as on individual and group behavior, throughout the book's 13 chapters and 15 cases. Contributors also consider specific contexts for examining aberrant behavior—deviance in the family business and deviance viewed across cultural boundaries. A cross-cultural perspective recognizes that classification of a behavior as deviant may depend on the norms of the culture in which it takes place.

    Mechanisms, structures, and values practiced within organizations can lead employees to perform some of the unwanted deviant acts discussed throughout this volume. Just as important, some organizational efforts to eliminate deviant behavior and encourage conformity can lead to unwanted consequences—lack of innovation, absence of principled dissent (Graham, 1986), large doses of group-think (Janis, 1982), and organizational silence (which occurs when employees withhold important information about potential problems) (Morrison & Milliken, 2000). Whereas some manifestations of deviant behavior reflect dangerous and potentially destructive acts—workplace violence, theft, fraud, substance abuse, and so forth—other types of deviance can be constructive in that they stimulate change and innovation or are at most unclear in terms of their positive or negative potential (cf. Warren, 2003).

    The spate of deviance and its often adverse consequences challenges organizational leaders to act as an ethical force in discouraging inappropriate deviant behavior and encouraging behavior that helps organizations to face changes demanded by increasingly challenging environmental conditions. In dealing with deviance, leaders and managers would do well to consider the roles that structure, values, and processes play in creating deviant behavior and how these organizational features could be used to effectively channel potential deviance into positive outcomes for organizations.

    Guide to the Chapters in This Book

    Chapter 1, contributed by the editors, provides readers with an overview of deviant behavior in the workplace. The chapter summarizes the pervasive nature of organizational deviance and its destructive impact. Definitions of deviance from previous research are offered and refined, different manifestations of deviance are discussed, and some of the varying academic approaches that have been taken in classifying deviant behavior are reviewed. Then, the potential ambiguity of organizational deviance is considered. Antecedents of unethical and deviant workplace behavior are briefly summarized. In conclusion, a general approach that can be used to manage organizational deviance effectively and ethically is suggested.

    Chapters 2 and 3 provide more in-depth theoretical examinations of the causes of deviant behavior in the workplace. Chapter 2, contributed by Jennifer Dunn and Maurice Schweitzer, focuses on relationships of culture, reward systems, and managerial oversight to unethical behavior. The discussion centers on an ethical decision-making model based on the theory of planned behavior. Dunn and Schweitzer describe how three macro-organizational management tools—incentives, culture, and monitoring—operate within this framework and often lead good employees to make bad (unethical) decisions.

    The importance of the leader as a moral influence in establishing culture and transmitting ethical values throughout the organization cannot be overestimated. In Chapter 3, Linda Treviño and Michael Brown stress the important role that leaders play in influencing ethical and unethical behavior among their followers. Treviño and Brown examine ethical relationships between leaders and followers from perspectives that include cognitive moral development, social learning, and social exchange and then present the relationships of various leadership styles to ethical behavior and incidents of misconduct in organizations. They then discuss their research into the characteristics of an ethical leader.

    Chapters 4 to 11 focus on specific types of deviance, what can lead to such behaviors, and what managers can do to cope with them in the workplace. Viewing some types of deviance, such as theft, violence, and drug abuse, as having anything but negative results for organizations is difficult if not impossible. Although chapter authors and the case studies that accompany each chapter may address issues of underlying workplace norms, perceptual differences in interpreting the same types of behavior, and the ambiguity of deviance, in the main they focus on how to effectively identify, limit, and manage destructive unethical forms of deviant behavior.

    We can group specific types of deviance into three general areas based on who is targeted by the behavior (cf. Robinson & Bennett, 1995; Vardi & Weitz, 2004): intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (targeting individuals within the organization), and organizational (targeting the company in terms of production, politics, and/or property deviance). However, these targets often overlap based on the type of deviance that is involved.

    One example of this overlap occurs in Chapter 4, where Robert Bies and Thomas Tripp write about organizational revenge in the form of badmouthing, which can be aimed at individuals or at the organization. In providing an overview of revenge theory and related research findings, Bies and Tripp offer a stakeholder perspective on revenge, arguing that the characterization of revenge as a negative deviant act depends largely on the point of view of those involved and the outcomes of the focal behavior.

    In Chapter 5, Nathan Bennett and Stefanie Naumann focus on the phenomenon of withholding job effort, a form of production deviance that targets the company. Bennett and Naumann identify various types of withholding effort (shirking, job neglect, social loafing, and free riding), discuss the antecedents and consequences of these behaviors, and provide strategies for preventing such conduct from occurring in the workplace.

    Chapter 6 deals with noncompliance, a form of production and (potentially) political deviance aimed at the organization. Danielle Warren distinguishes among four types of noncompliance—ignorance about rules, ignorance about rule application, opportunistic noncompliance, and principled noncompliance—and discusses the potentially destructive and constructive organizational and individual outcomes associated with each. She then provides strategies that enable organizations to encourage the benefits of constructive deviance while limiting the negative impact of destructive deviance.

    Chapter 7 explores political deviance involving other individuals and the organization—lying and dishonesty. Steven Grover reviews the psychological and business ethics literature on lying and addresses questions regarding motivations for lying, whether some people lie more than others, distinctions between lying and impression management, and what (if anything) organizations can do about lying.

    In Chapter 8, Gina Vega and Debra Comer distinguish between bullying and harassment in organizations, both of which are types of deviant behavior that are aimed at other people. The chapter's major emphasis is on bullying—types of bullying, the impact of bullying, and the means by which organizations can keep bullying under control. Vega and Comer also discuss situations where bullying might be considered a positive occurrence for the organization.

    In Chapter 9, Edward Tomlinson and Jerald Greenberg focus on employee theft, a form of property deviance that targets the organization. Their extensive review of research on the topic highlights traditional and interpersonally oriented approaches to employee theft and differing explanations for why employees steal. Tomlinson and Greenberg suggest that incidences of employee theft can be discouraged, if not eliminated, by effectively managing social norms and promoting justice and fairness within the organization.

    Chapter 10 discusses aggression and violence, two forms of interpersonal deviance. Mark Martinko, Scott Douglas, Paul Harvey, and Charles Joseph integrate the most recent theoretical and empirical research on workplace aggression and explain how various warning signs of impending danger can be detected to help prevent future incidents of aggression and violence in organizations.

    Finally, in Chapter 11, Paul Roman's look at addictive behavior in organizations considers the dilemmas and contradictions associated with this type of intrapersonal deviance in the workplace. Roman examines the notion of addiction and discusses the loose application of the term to a broad variety of workplace behaviors. The chapter examines reasons why addictive behavior has become such a prominent concept in American culture and describes the impact of addictive behavior, such as drug or alcohol abuse, on the workplace. The chapter places views on alcohol, drugs, and gambling in historical perspective and reviews organizational responses to addictive behavior.

    The final two chapters deal with the occurrence of deviant behavior in different venues. Family businesses make up a huge chunk of all U.S. businesses, yet they fail at an alarming rate, sometimes no doubt due to the destructive effects of deviant behavior. In Chapter 12, Rebecca Bennett, Stefan Thau, and Jay Scouten write about deviance within the family business, exploring theories that suggest why family members should be more loyal and committed to their own organizations but proposing conditions in which family bonds might lead to greater deviance and, in so doing, result in harm against the collective good of the family and the business.

    Chapter 13, contributed by Linda Thorne and Joanne Jones, focuses on deviant behavior across cultures. In many cases, it is difficult to clearly categorize deviant acts when national cultures enter the mix. For example, in Western cultures, uniqueness is seen as a positive reflection of an important value—individuality. In Eastern cultures, conformity reflects loyalty to the collective interests, again a positive reflection of an important value (Kim & Markus, 1999). Thus, it is evident the same act could have different interpretations as to both its deviance and its acceptability based on the culture in which it takes place. This chapter features an in-depth application of 10 cultural dimensions to examples of deviant workplace behavior.

    Analyzing the Chapter Cases

    A unique element of this book is the inclusion of case studies that are designed to provide varying perspectives on deviant acts so as to allow teachers, students, and managers to connect theory and practice and to discuss ethical implications of workplace deviance. The cases focus on several well-known executives and companies that have been in the headlines during recent months and years, such as Columbia/HCA Health Care, Adelphia Communications and the Rigas family, and Bernard Ebbers, as well as on rank-and-file employees and mid-level managers of actual organizations whose identities are disguised. Some of the cases take a macro approach by placing the deviant behavior in an organization's strategic context, whereas others are focused at the work group or individual level of analysis.

    To assist students in examining the chapter cases, we offer the following model as a general outline for a case analysis that can be performed in conjunction with answering the more specific discussion questions that follow each case and attempting to relate it to the preceding chapter. This model is based on overarching themes that run throughout the book and can be applied to all of the cases.

    First, while reading the case, it is important to pinpoint examples of deviant behavior that occur. Group, organizational, and societal norms that are being broken or challenged should be identified along with the individuals and/or other forces that have set the norms and their motivations for establishing such standards of behavior. This identification of norms and deviations from them is helpful in evaluating the nature of the deviant behavior and how these acts fit into the situational context of the organization.

    The next step is to determine potentially different interpretations of the behavior based on the point of view of the people involved—employees, managers, stockholders, society, and other stakeholders. The stakeholder model for analyzing revenge, advanced by Bies and Tripp in Chapter 4, and the noncompliance framework, discussed by Warren in Chapter 6, are among the potential tools that could be used in such an analysis.

    Once the behavior has been identified and different interpretations of the behavior have been discussed, the consequences of the deviance can be diagnosed through a series of open-ended questions. Who or what is being targeted by the behavior? What elements of the behavior have adverse consequences for the organization, and what are the potentially negative outcomes? Alternatively, are there are any positive, or functional, outcomes for the organization? How might the situation have been managed to allow those positive outcomes to be realized?

    We then move on to corrective and/or preventive actions that might be suitable for the dysfunctional elements that have arisen. What remedial action is appropriate for the organization or others to take in dealing with the perpetrator and the dysfunctional consequences that have occurred? More important, what are the underlying causes of the behavior? What can the organization learn from studying the reasons for the behavior? Can changes to organizational processes, structures, leadership, and norms prevent undesired deviant behavior from occurring in the future? What types of macro-organizational changes and micro-organizational applications should be considered to enable positive outcomes to the situation? Discussions of the organizational issues that lead to unethical behavior in Chapters 2 and 3 are relevant to this analysis, as are the prescriptions suggested for preventing employee theft in Chapter 9 and workplace aggression and violence in Chapter 10.

    Let us apply a brief example to this model and suggest how an instance of deviant behavior could potentially be constructive or destructive to the organization. The application provides some insights into how deviance can be managed effectively and ethically.

    Consider a worker who receives a performance appraisal that she believes is based on a biased appraisal instrument and faulty interpretation by the supervisor. The worker responds by badmouthing the supervisor and management to coworkers, and this act of insubordination gets back to management. Although badmouthing is generally considered a form of destructive deviance, this case may have constructive or destructive outcomes depending on how it is handled.

    In this scenario, the employee broke an organizational norm by badmouthing the supervisor. The norm was set by organizational leaders to enable the effective functioning and management of the organization. Based on management's view that the employee deviated from proper conduct, the prescriptive response typically would be to discipline the employee for insubordination, which could lead to increased alienation and further deviance on the part of the employee. Taking a different point of view, the employee reacted the way she did due to perceived unfairness in the appraisal process and believes that her criticism of the organization is justified.

    If discipline does not occur, the negative results of the deviant behavior include the cultivation of disrespect for management, which could lead to ineffective operations within the organization. On the surface, a positive outcome might be the employee's opportunity to blow off steam by expressing dissatisfaction with management.

    Yet a more constructive outcome would be realized by examining reasons why the deviant behavior may have occurred, that is, an appraisal instrument that is perceived to be biased and a faulty interpretation of the instrument by the supervisor. If the root causes of the deviant act are examined, the poor appraisal instrument may be identified. If management, in its handling of the unkind remarks by the worker, looks into the justice issue involving the appraisal as well as the appraisal process, the employee maybe brought back into a positive frame of reference rather than continue on a path of bitterness and perhaps more serious and destructive deviant acts.

    Conclusion

    In this preface, we have offered a summary of the book's plan and goals, a brief synopsis of chapters, and a model for analyzing cases. The study of organizational deviance has become a common topic in several fields of study and a familiar problem in the workplace. Focusing on and successfully managing such conduct is vital to an effectively functioning organization. Negative acts that employees commit at work have implications for overall organizational performance and for the financial and physical health of the people around them. The role of organizations and their leaders in creating the conditions in which deviant behavior might be more likely to occur is also a key issue.

    Organizational deviance is widespread and expensive, and disgrace is often attached to perpetrators once their conduct is revealed. However, deviant behavior often carries a level of ambiguity in some organizational contexts. Thus, not only is it important to consider how to manage and control such behavior, but it is also essential to consider deviant behavior as ethical or unethical conduct. Students of ethics and business who later enter the workplace as employees and managers should become familiar with the ethical implications of deviant behavior as well as its effective management. We now examine these ideas in more detail.

    —Roland E. Kidwell, Jr.
    —Christopher L. Martin
    References
    Bennett, R. J., & Robinson, S. L. (2003). The past, present, and future of workplace deviance research. In J.Greenberg (Ed.), Organizational behavior: The state of the science (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 247–281). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Graham, J. W. (1986). Principled organizational dissent: A theoretical essay. In B. M.Staw & L. L.Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 8, pp. 1–52). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Griffin, R. W., & O'Leary-Kelly, A. M. (2004). The dark side of organizational behavior. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Janis, I. L. (1982). Groupthink: Psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascoes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Kim, H., & Markus, H. R. (1999). Deviance or uniqueness, harmony or conformity? A cultural analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 785–800.
    Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). Organizational silence: A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world. Academy of Management Review, 25, 706–725.
    Robinson, S., & Bennett, R. (1995). A typology of deviant workplace behaviors: A multidimensional scaling study. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 555–572.
    Vardi, Y., & Weitz, E. (2004). Misbehavior in organizations: Theory, research, and management. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Warren, D. E. (2003). Constructive and destructive deviance in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 28, 622–632.

    Acknowledgments

    We thank the 29 contributors who provided their time and expertise on researching and writing the chapters and cases that are included in this book. These scholars answered our initial call to participate in the project during the spring of 2003 and responded to our comments, feedback, and requests enthusiastically throughout the process. We extend our appreciation to Marilynn Fleckenstein (Niagara University) and Jonathon R. B. Halbesleben (University of Oklahoma), who reviewed earlier versions of the manuscript and made many helpful comments and observations. We also thank Al Bruckner, MaryAnn Vail, D. J. Peck, and Diane Foster (Sage Publications) for their assistance in seeing this project through to its completion.

    In addition, Roland Kidwell acknowledges and appreciates support and assistance from the Niagara University Sabbatical Leave Committee and the Niagara University Research Council; David Schoen, director of the Niagara University library; and the reference library staff. At Charles Sturt University in Australia, where Kidwell spent much of the 2003–2004 school year as a visiting research fellow working on this book, he offers special thanks to Alan Fish, Auli O'Donnell, and Andrew Smith of the School of Management; John Williams of the School of Financial Studies; and John Hicks, dean of the Faculty of Commerce. At the University of Queensland School of Business, where Kidwell spent a month as a visiting research fellow in January 2004, he extends his appreciation to Tim Brailsford, Victor Callan, Amanda Roan, and John Gardner. Finally, he wishes to thank Linda Achey Kidwell for her love and support in the completion of this project and many others.

  • Name Index

    About the Editors

    Roland E. Kidwell, Jr., is Associate Professor of Management in the College of Business Administration at Niagara University. He has a Ph.D. in business administration from Louisiana State University. His research interests include withholding effort in work groups and other collectives, business ethics, and human resources issues in small businesses. His research has appeared in various academic journals, including the Academy of Management Review, Journal of Management, Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, Small Group Research, and Journal of Business Ethics. He coauthored (with Christopher L. Martin) the text, HRM from A to Z: Critical Questions Asked and Answered (McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2001).

    Christopher L. Martin is Professor and Dean of the Frost School of Business at Centenary College of Louisiana, where he holds the Rudy and Jeannie Linco Eminent Scholar Chair of Business Administration. He received his Ph.D. in organizational behavior and human resources management from the Georgia Institute of Technology. His writings have addressed organizational fairness, anger and disruptive workplace behavior, technologically driven change, organizational downsizing, human resources management strategy, leadership, and the theoretical underpinnings of trust. His research has been published in numerous journals, including the Journal of Applied Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Management, OBHDP, and Administrative Science Quarterly. He coauthored (with Roland E. Kidwell) the text, HRM from A to Z: Critical Questions Asked and Answered (McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2001).

    About the Contributors

    Nathan Bennett is Senior Associate Dean and Professor of Management in the DuPree College of Management at the Georgia Institute of Technology. His research interests include withholding effort in organizations, work group performance, and hierarchical modeling of behavior in organizations. His research has appeared in the Journal of Applied Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, and Journal of Management.

    Rebecca J. Bennett is Associate Professor in the College of Administration and Business at Louisiana Tech University. She was formerly a member of the management faculty at the University of Toledo, where she was associate director of the Family Business Center. She holds an M.S. and a Ph.D. in organizational behavior from Northwestern University. Her primary research interests include employee deviance and revenge and forgiveness in the workplace.

    Robert J. Bies is Professor of Management in the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University. He received his M.B.A. from the University of Washington and his Ph.D. in organizational behavior from Stanford University. His primary research interests are organizational justice, workplace revenge and forgiveness, and the delivery of bad news.

    Michael E. Brown is Assistant Professor of Management in the Sam and Irene Black School of Business at Pennsylvania State University-Erie. He holds an M.B.A. from the University of Texas at Austin and a Ph.D. in management from the Pennsylvania State University. His primary research interests include ethics and leadership.

    Julie Ann Cogin is Lecturer in the M.B.A. and M.B.A. Executive programs at the Australian Graduate School of Management, where she teaches the core subject, organizational behavior, in addition to managing people and organizations, managerial skills, and change management. She holds a Ph.D. from Charles Sturt University in Australia. Prior to her academic life, she was a human resources manager at Qantas Airways, working in recruitment and selection, performance management, culture adjustment, process improvement, equal employment opportunity, and occupational safety and health.

    Debra R. Comer is Professor of Management in the Zarb School of Business at Hofstra University. She earned her M.A., M.Phil., and Ph.D. in organizational behavior from Yale University. She has published articles on organizational socialization, social loafing, workplace diversity programs, and employeeS' attitudes toward drug and fitness-for-duty testing. Many of her publications and current projects involve the use of literature and experiential exercises to teach management and ethics.

    Scott C. Douglas is Assistant Professor of Management in the School of Management at Binghamton University. He received his Ph.D. from Florida State University. His current research interests are in the areas of attributional processes, decision making, and antisocial behavior.

    Jennifer Dunn is a doctoral candidate in operations and information management in the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. She holds an M.S. in industrial engineering from the University of Michigan. Her research interests involve the role of emotion in social judgments and behavior, including trust, reputation, negotiation, and ethical decision making.

    Alan J. Fish is Associate Professor in Human Resources Management at Charles Sturt University in Australia. He holds a Ph.D. in international human resources management from the University of Sydney. His research interests are in cross-border management, international human resources management, and the more strategic use of cross-border assignments to enhance business growth and development and management careers. His current research project is titled “Behavioural Fit: Identifying, Selecting, and Deploying Cross-Border Managers.”

    Jerald Greenberg is Abramowitz Professor of Business Ethics and Professor of Organizational Behavior in the Fisher College of Business at the Ohio State University. He has published extensively in the fields of organizational justice and employee deviance, and he has won numerous awards for his research. He also has authored or edited numerous books, including The Quest for Justice on the Job, Advances in Organizational Justice, and Behavior in Organizations. He holds fellow status in the Academy of Management, the American Psychological Association, and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

    Steven L. Grover is Professor of Management at the University of Otago in New Zealand. He has published widely in the leading management journals, and his research specialty examines the conditions under which people lie or tell the truth. He has recently embarked on a program to investigate leadership integrity, that is, the honesty and consistency exhibited by leaders. Before permanently joining the University of Otago in 2002, he held appointments at Indiana University and Georgia State University. He earned his Ph.D. from Columbia University.

    Paul Harvey is a doctoral candidate at Florida State University. He holds an M.B.A. from the State University of New York at Binghamton. His research interests include the influence of cultural factors on cognitive processes such as attributions and other perceptions. He teaches in the area of organizational behavior and has private sector experience working in manufacturing finance.

    Timothy O. Ireland is Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Criminal Justice at Niagara University. He holds a Ph.D. in criminal justice from the University at Albany. He conducts research in the areas of child maltreatment, violence in public housing, and theory development in criminology as well as drug treatment as an alternative to prison. He has published in journals on criminology, psychology, and drug/alcohol use.

    Joanne Jones is a doctoral candidate in accounting in the Schulich School of Business at York University. Her research interests include professional ethics, cross-national ethics, and trust. She is currently involved in dissertation research on trust in the auditor-client relationship and its implications for professional skepticism. She has published in the Journal of Accounting Literature and Business Ethics Quarterly (2004).

    Charles Joseph is a research assistant and doctoral candidate in the School of Management at Binghamton University. His current research interests are in the areas of conflict management, attribution theory, and antisocial behavior.

    Anita Mancuso is a detective constable with the Toronto Police Service, where she has been employed since 1988. She holds an M.S. in criminal justice from Niagara University. Her work experience and academic studies have focused on undercover operations and the operatives on which they depend.

    Mark J. Martinko is the Bank of America Professor of Management in the College of Business at Florida State University. His research focuses on attribution theory and leadership. He has authored or coauthored 7 books and more than 80 articles and book chapters. He is a past president and fellow of the Southern Management Association. His most recent book is Thinking Like a Winner: A Guide to High Performance Leadership (2002).

    Stefanie E. Naumann is Assistant Professor of Management and Organizational Behavior in the Eberhardt School of Business at the University of the Pacific. Her research interests include employee fairness perceptions, helping behaviors, and work group climates. Her research has appeared in the Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Journal of Applied Psychology.

    Paul M. Roman is Director of the Center for Research on Behavioral Health and Human Services Delivery in the Institute for Behavioral Research at the University of Georgia, where he is a tenured professor in the Department of Sociology and the Graduate School. He received his Ph.D. from Cornell University. He has been awarded three consecutive 5-year terms as Distinguished Research Professor. His research focuses on organization and management of treatment systems, design of intervention efforts to deal with employees with substance abuse problems, and the sociological analysis of substance abuse problems and policies. His recent publications include four edited volumes of original articles and chapters: Encyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant Behavior (Vol. 4), Self-Destructive Behavior and Disvalued Identity, Drug Testing in the Workplace, and Alcohol Problem Intervention in the Workplace: Employee Assistance Programs and Strategic Alternatives.

    Maurice E. Schweitzer is Assistant Professor of Operations and Information Management in the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. He is interested in the negotiation process, and much of his work focuses on deception and trust. His work has appeared in journals such as the Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Management Science, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, and Academy of Management Journal. He serves on the editorial boards of the International Journal of Conflict Management and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

    Jay Scouten is pursuing his medical degree at the Medical College of Ohio. He received his M.B.A. from University of Toledo. He belongs to the second generation of his family's business and drives a red sports car.

    Skye Susans is a doctoral candidate in the Faculty of Commerce at Charles Sturt University in Australia. She is a registered nurse with postgraduate qualification in intensive care. She also holds an M.S. in management from the University of Technology in Australia. She has a background in health care management and is currently a “trailing spouse” with research interests in the preparation and adjustment of the trailing spouse.

    Stefan Thau is a doctoral candidate in the Interuniversity Centre of Social Science Theory and Methodology (ICS) at the University of Groningen in The Netherlands. He holds an M.A. in social psychology from the University of Mannheim in Germany. His main research interest is the impact of social networks on employee cooperation.

    Linda Thorne is Associate Professor of Accounting in the Schulich School of Business at York University. She received her Ph.D. in 1997 from McGill University. Her research interests include professional ethics, emotion and ethics, and cross-national ethics. She has published numerous articles in various journals, including the Journal of Business Ethics, Contemporary Accounting Research, Behavioral Research in Accounting, Journal of Accounting Education, Research on Accounting Ethics, and Audit: A Journal of Practice and Theory.

    Edward C. Tomlinson is a member of the Management Faculty in the Boler School of Business at John Carroll University. He holds an M.B.A. from Lynchburg College as well as a masters in labor and human resources and a Ph.D. in organizational behavior from the Ohio State University. His primary research interests include the role of trust in professional relationships, negotiation and dispute resolution, and employee deviance.

    Linda Klebe Treviño is Professor of Organizational Behavior, Franklin H. Cook Fellow in Business Ethics, and Director of the Shoemaker Program in Business Ethics in the Smeal College of Business Administration at the Pennsylvania State University. She holds a Ph.D. in management from Texas A&M University. Her research focuses on the management of ethics in organizations and has received multiple awards. She has published numerous articles in top journals. She has also coauthored a textbook titled Managing Business Ethics: Straight Talk About How toDo It Right (now in its third edition) and an academic book titled Managing Ethics in Business Organizations: Social Scientific Perspectives.

    Thomas M. Tripp is a member of the Management and Decision Sciences faculty at Washington State University and Director of Business Programs at its Vancouver campus. He holds a Ph.D. in organization behavior from Northwestern University. His primary research interests are organizational justice, workplace revenge, and forgiveness.

    Gina Vega is Associate Professor of Management at the Francis E. Girard School of Business and International Commerce at Merrimack College. She holds a Ph.D. in organizational behavior and entrepreneurship from the Union Institute. She has written extensively in the areas of business ethics, small business management, and the management of telework. She has authored numerous scholarly articles and two books: A Passion for Planning and Managing Teleworkers and Telecommuting Strategies.

    Danielle E. Warren is Assistant Professor at Rutgers University. She received her Ph.D. from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. Her research is in the areas of organizational behavior and business ethics. Her specific research interests include norms, sanctions, and constructive and destructive deviance in the workplace.


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