Making Strategy: The Journey of Strategic Management
Publication Year: 1998
Subject: Strategic Management & Planning
This book takes students and practitioners through the process of making strategy in easy-to-follow steps, showing the reader how to identify the true goals of the organization and develop a clear action plan for achieving them. These techniques can be used to develop a business model and manage key strategic issues for teams, units and departments, as well as for a complete organization. The Second Edition includes more real-life examples, added resource appendices, and deeper guidance in identifying and developing the distinctive competencies unique to individual organizations.
This text has a companion website with instructor resources including teaching notes and lecture slides.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part 1: Theory and Concepts
- Chapter C1: The JOURNEY of Strategy Making
- Chapter C2: Strategy Making as a JOURNEY
- Chapter C3: The Political Feasibility of Strategy
- Chapter C4: The Art of Good JOURNEY Making: working with strategy making teams
- Chapter C5: Detecting Emergent Strategizing
- Chapter C6: Developing Strategic Intent: exploring competencies and developing the business model
- Chapter C7: Stakeholder Analysis and Management
- Chapter C8: Managing Alternative Futures: strategic adaptability and opportunism
- Chapter C9: Strategy Making Closure
- Chapter C10: The JOURNEY Making Model: a summary
Part 3: Practice: Methods, Techniques, and Tools
- Chapter P1: Detecting Emergent Strategizing: individual interviews and cognitive mapping
- Chapter P2: Detecting Emergent Strategizing: working with strategy making teams – the Oval Mapping Technique
- Chapter P3: Strategy Making: working with teams – computer supported group workshops
- Chapter P4: Strategy Making: working with teams – managing stakeholding and alternative futures
- Chapter P5: Managing Process: designing interventions and facilitating groups
- Chapter P6: Analysis: maps and models for workshops
- Chapter P7: Delivering Strategy: closure – strategic programmes and strategy delivery support
- Chapter P8: Delivering Strategy: communication, management, and review
- Chapter P9: The Intervention: the facilitator and the client
© Colin Eden and Fran Ackerman 1998
First published 1998
Reprinted 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B-42 Panchsheel Enclave
PO Box 4109
New Delhi 110017
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Typeset by Mayhew Typesetting, Rhayader, Powys
Printed and bound in Great Britain by
Cromwell Press Limited, Trowbridge, Wiltshire
In the last few decades we have been led astray by airport books with sound-bite steps to strategic success, and elegant but equally unrealistic simplifications from theoreticians. In practice, strategy making is an ongoing, messy, incomplete process – as all who do sustained work in organizations know. I highly recommend Making Strategy because it provides both practical and theoretic insights into this complex reality.
Strategy is sometimes viewed as unnecessary, even harmful. Colin Eden and Fran Ackermann have the experience with public and private organizations to illustrate its utility. The theoretical discussion in the first third of the book develops a valuable view of contemporary strategy: an intermittent but ongoing effort, often driven by the need for change, responding to multiple stakeholders. The authors urge strategy makers to avoid the urge to ‘blueprint’, and even suggest that deliberate strategizing is not always wise. On the other hand, they recognize that many companies seek ways to change their current way of operating. Because these changes inevitably alter power relations, they give careful attention to the politics of strategy making. Consideration of this important topic alone sets Making Strategy apart from almost all other strategy texts.
In the second section of the book the authors illustrate their efforts to help clarify and possibly change strategy in a wide range of organizations. These vignettes clarify good theorizing in practice, and are thus of interest to both academics and managers. I believe the book makes a major contribution to the literature by respecting managerial intelligence, but suggesting what the outside academic can contribute to improving performance.
In addition to giving a feel for the way in which strategy can be jointly negotiated, the occasional mishaps and frequent uncertainties they are willing to describe actually create confidence in the methods outlined in the third part of the book. The authors use interactive, sometimes computer-supported, techniques to help top management teams and other stakeholders express and synthesize their knowledge and aspirations. A primary tool is the generation of a ‘cognitive map’ – visual causal connections that Eden and Ackermann organize in various ways to both improve understanding and connect operations with more general objectives.
The detailed discussions found in the tools section of the book are very useful even for those who are not committed to replicating the entire process outlined. For example, the section on setting up a workshop offers many practical tips of value to all who work with groups (for example, [Page viii]start with coffee to minimize the frustration caused by latecomers). Each chapter also has a ‘yes, but’ section which anticipates questions from those who are closely following the authors’ agenda.
In short, Making Strategy provides a needed bridge between practice and theory. The steps it suggests are more complex than the average book written for a managerial audience; the theory it suggests is richer than the average book written for academics. It's a needed report from two individuals who are attending to the immediate needs of organizations, while satisfying a longer term objective to understand how these needs can be more effectively met.
We would never have set out on this ‘journey’ without support from Tony Knight and Ashok Hegde in the early 1980s. They provided corporate settings in which to develop and test initial ideas. Our ‘journey’ of writing would never have been completed without continual nagging from John Bryson and Chuck Finn, who never ceased to have faith in our work. Both of us also thank our good friend Sue Jones for her encouragement and constructive criticism over a number of years. Steve Cropper started this ‘journey’ with us, and his initial thinking was an influence on the shape of the book; however, he moved to follow new interests which left him with little time to contribute further.
For us, an important part of this book is the contribution the vignettes make to illustrating both theory and practice. However, it is always difficult for the clients of strategic change processes to see their story in black and white. Nevertheless they have all appreciated our wish to make public their experiences and have, for the most part, been willing and able to ‘sign off’ their vignette without changes that would have sanitized the account. We thank them all.
Fran would particularly like to acknowledge support from Bob Bostrom and the University of Georgia for not only providing a wonderful place to write some of the book, but also loaning her a computer after the ‘Great Fire’ which completely destroyed the Terry School of Business in August 1995 and her computer! Colin is grateful for the opportunity of lengthy, and often heated, discussions with Kees van der Heijden as they have both sought to design and teach jointly an MBA programme in Strategic Management. Kees's book and ours were always intended to complement each other – reflecting a common orientation – however, the involvement of clients in the production schedule inevitably slowed publication of this book. We hope that readers of this book will feel persuaded to explore his book also.
Finally we offer our thanks to John Bryson, Ann Huff, Geraldine De Sanctis and Karl Weick, for being prepared to read the book in manuscript form, and for liking it.
Using the Cross Referencing System[Page xi]
In order to help readers move around the three parts of the book we have developed a cross referencing system. This system acts as a ‘hyper-text’ like format, enabling readers to gain clues about ‘what the techniques might look like in practice’ (The Vignettes), ‘how the techniques can be adopted’ (Practice: Methods, Techniques and Tools) and ‘why the techniques and methods have been devised’ (Theory and Concepts).
Thus readers, for example researcher/academics, wanting to learn more about the JOURNEY Making methodology might concentrate on the Theory and Concepts; other readers, possibly practitioners, wishing to use some or all of the methodology might focus on the Practical part, with both of these types of reader dipping into the Vignettes when illustration is required. Finally MBA students who will be expected during their studies to learn about the various methods, theories, and approaches to strategy but who also will wish to know how to put what they have learnt into practice should find the integrated nature of the book helpful.
To use the cross referencing system identify the word or phrase that you are interested in (marked in bold in the text) and then move to the cross references at the end of the line in the text.
Select either the V / C / P cross reference (Vignettes, Concepts or Practice). For example, if you are reading about a particular topic in the Theory and Concepts section and you would like to see how it worked in an organizational setting then it is a simple matter of looking up the vignette page number. V34 given at the end of the paragraph indicates GO TO page 34 of Part 2: Vignettes.
Where more than one word or phrase is in bold on the same line, a colon separates the cross references.[Page xii]
References[Page 485]1990) ‘The Role of Computers in Group Decision Support’, in C.Eden and J.Radford (Eds), Tackling Strategic Problems: the role of group decision support. London: Sage. pp. 132–141.(1991) Consideration of a specific group decision support methodology in the light of the group decision support systems literature. University of Strathclyde: PhD Thesis.(1992) ‘Strategic Direction Through Burning Issues – using SODA as a strategic decision support system’, OR Insight, 5: 24–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/ori.1992.24(1996) ‘Participants’ Perceptions on the Role of Facilitators using Group Decision Support Systems’, Group Decision and Negotiation, 5: 93–112.(1996) ‘Working with Groups using Groupware: Electronic Problem Structuring and Project Management support for face to face and dispersed organisational groups’, in B.Glasson, D.Vogel, P.Bots, and J.Nunamaker (Eds), The International Office of the Future: Design Options and Solution Strategies. London: Chapman and Hall. pp. 13–27.(1990) ‘Cognitive Mapping – A User's Guide’. Working Paper, Department of Management Science, University of Strathclyde, 90/02., and (1992) ‘Getting Started with Cognitive Mapping’, in 7th Young OR Conference Tutorial Papers. Birmingham: O.R. Society., and (1992) ‘Moving between Groups and Individuals using a DSS’, Journal of Decision Sciences, 1: 17–34., and (1993) ‘The Role of Decision Support in Individual Performance Review’, in P.W.G.Bots, H. G.Sol, and R.Traunmuller (Eds), Decision Support in Public Administration. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers BV. pp. 43–55., and (1994) ‘Issues in Computer and Non-Computer Supported GDSSs’, International Journal of Decision Support Systems, 12: 381–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-9236%2894%2990054-Xand (1998) ‘Contrasting GDSSs and GSSs in the context of Strategic Change – implications for facilitation’, Journal of Decision Systems, 6: 221–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12460125.1997.10511724and (1997) ‘Modeling for Litigation: Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches’, Interfaces, 27: 48–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/inte.27.2.48, and (1974) Redesigning the Future: a systems approach to societal problems. New York: Wiley.(1972) On Purposeful Systems. London: Tavistock.and (1979) Conceptual Blockbusting. New York: Norton.(Agor, W.H. (Ed.) (1989) Intuition in Organizations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.1971) Essence of Decision: explaining the Cuban missile crisis. Boston: Little Brown.(1997) ‘Scripts for Group Model Building’, System Dynamics Review, 13: 107–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1727%28199722%2913:2%3C107::AID-SDR120%3E3.0.CO;2-7and (1980) The Concept of Corporate Strategy. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1965) Corporate Strategy. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1991) ‘Critique of Henry Mintzbert's “The design school: reconsidering the basic premises of strategic management”’, Strategic Management Journal, 1: 449–461. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250120605([Page 486]1984) ‘Social Behaviour’, in C.Cooper and P.Makin (Eds), Psychology for Managers. London: British Psychological Society, pp. 161–181.(1988) Bodily Communication ((2nd Edition). London: Methuen.1982) Reasoning, Learning, and Action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1974) Theories in Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.and (1978) Organizational Learning: a theory of action perspective. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.and (1976) Structure of Decision. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(1988) ‘A Process for Strategic Management with Specific Application for the Nonprofit Organization’, in J.M.Bryson and R.C.Einsweiler (Eds), Strategic Planning: threats and opportunities for planners. Chicago: Planners Press, pp. 120–144.and (1997) ‘Decision Support Systems in Action: integration application in a multicriteria decision aid process’, Presented at the EURO Conference, Barcelona., , and (1938) The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1991) ‘Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage’, Journal of Management, 17: 99–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920639101700108(1992) ‘Cognitive Change, Strategic Action, and Organizational Renewal’, Strategic Management Journal, 13: 15–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250131004, and (1984) ‘Changing Interpretative Schemes and Organizational Restructuring: the example of a religious order’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 29: 355–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393029(1987) ‘First-Order, Second-Order, and Third-Order Change and Organizational Development Interventions: a cognitive approach’, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 23: 483–500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002188638702300404and (1990) ‘Why Change Programs Don't Produce Change’, Harvard Business Review, 68: 158–166., and (1966) Decision and Control. London: Wiley.(1981) Management Teams: why they succeed or fail. Oxford: Heinemann.(1997) ‘Integrated Support from Problem Structuring through to Alternative Evaluation Using COPE and V.I.S.A.’, Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, 6: 115–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1360%28199705%296:3%3C115::AID-MCDA140%3E3.0.CO;2-I, and (1995) ‘Modelling Decisions in International Relations: game theory and beyond’, International Studies Review, 39: 19–52.(1980) ‘Hypergames: developing a model of conflict’, Futures, 12: 489–507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-3287%2880%2990005-1(1990) ‘Mixing Methods: combining conflict analysis, SODA, and strategic choice’, in C.Eden and J.Radford (Eds), Tackling Strategic Problems: the role of group decision support. London: Sage. pp. 99–109.(1980) ‘Using Hypergames to Model Difficult Social Issues: an approach to the case of soccer hooliganism’, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 31: 621–635., and (1982) ‘Hypergames and What They Do: a “Soft OR” approach’, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 33: 41–50.and (1981) ‘Shipping in Crisis: a trial run for live application of the hypergame approach’, Omega, 9: 579–594. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-0483%2881%2990046-3, and (1994) ‘INTERACT: developing software for interactive decisions’, Group Decision and Negotiation, 3: 351–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01414411, and (1968) ‘Future of the Social Sciences’, Antioch Review, 28: 227. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4610927([Page 487]1966) The Social Construction of Reality. New York: Doubleday.and (1987) ‘Charismatic Leadership: a phenomenological and structural approach’, in J.G.Hunt, B.R.Balinga, H.P.Dachler and C.A.Schriescheim (Eds), Emerging Leadership Vistas. New York: Pergamon. pp. 11–28.and (1994) ‘Core Competence and Competitor Advantage: a model and illustrative evidence from the pharmaceutical industry’, in G.Hamel and A.Heene (Eds), Competence Based Competition. Chichester: Wiley, pp. 111–143.and (1990) ‘Mapping the Process of Problem Reformulation: implications for understanding strategic thought’, in A.S.Huff (Ed.), Mapping Strategic Thought. New York: Wiley, pp. 195–226., , and (Bossel, H. (Ed.) (1977) Concepts and Tools of Computer Assisted Policy Analysis. Basel: Birkhauser.1993) ‘Group Facilitation and Group Support Systems’, in L.M.Jessup and J.S.Valacich (Eds), Group Support Systems: New Perspectives. New York: Macmillan, pp. 146–168., and (1974) ‘Brainstorming Procedure, Group Size and Sex as Determinants of the Problem Solving Effectiveness of Groups and Individuals’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 59: 135–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0036450, and (1970) ‘Size, Performance and Potential in Brainstorming Groups’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 54: 51–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0028621and (1977) ‘Cognition in Organizations: analysis of the Utrecht Jazz Orchestra’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 22: 609–632., and (1987) Strategic Management. Basingstoke: Macmillan.and (1968) An Honest Profit: what businessmen say about ethics in business. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.(1980) Transitions: making sense of life's changes. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.(1997) CAFE: Construction Alternative Futures Explorer. Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde., , and (1991) ‘Meetings cost the NHS too much’, Guardian, 15 April, report on study by Leicester Polytechnic.(1992) ‘Cognitive Mapping and Repertory Grids for Qualitative Survey Research: some comparative observations’, Journal of Management Studies, 29: 287–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1992.tb00666.x(1988) ‘Strategic Planning and the Nature of Big Wins and Small Wins’, Public Money and Management, Autumn: 11–15.(1995) Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1995) ‘Using the Oval Mapping Process to Identify Strategic issues and Formulate Effective Strategies’, in J.Bryson (Ed.), Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. pp. 257–275., , and (1996) ‘Critical Incidents and Emergent Issues in the Management of Large Scale Change Effects’, in D.Kettl and H.Brinton (Eds), The State of Public Management. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, pp. 267–285., , and (1983) ‘A Model of the Interaction of Strategic Behaviour, Corporate Context, and the Concept of Strategy’, Academy of Management Review, 8: 61–70.(1969) A Grammar of Motives. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1998) ‘The Development of National Collective Knowledge in Management’, in C.Eden and J.-C.Spender (Eds), Managerial and Organizational Cognition. London: Sage. pp. 147–167., and ([Page 488]1988) Readings in Organizational Decline. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger., and (1989, 11 January) ‘Mission accomplished or ignored?’, Financial Times.(1990) Mission and Business Philosophy. Oxford: Heinemann.and (1970) Managerial Behaviour, Performance, and Effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill., , and (1996) Making Strategy Work in Police Organisations. Glasgow: PhD Thesis, University of Strathclyde.(1994) ‘Structured Interviewing – a note on incremental validity and alternative question types’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 79: 998–1002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.6.998, and (1968) ‘Interviewing’, in G.Lindzey and E.Aronson (Eds), Handbook of Social Psychology. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. p. 229.and (1982) ‘Adaptation: a promising metaphor for strategic management’, Academy of Management Review, 7: 33–44.(1981) Systems Thinking, Systems Practice. London: Wiley.(1990) ‘Complexity and Strategic Decision Making’, in C.Eden and J.Radford (Eds), Tackling Strategic Problems: the role of group decision support. London: Sage. pp. 11–17.(1991) ‘Defining, Evaluating, and Managing Corporate Social Performance: a stakeholder management model’, in J.E.Post (Ed.), Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, pp. 331–358.(1992) The Role of the Facilitator in Computer-Assisted Environments: a critical incidents study. Walden University: Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation.(1964) A Social Psychology of Processes for Decision Making. New York: Wiley.and (1990) ‘Effects of Anonymity and Evaluative Tone on Idea Generation in Computer-mediated Groups’, Management Science, 36: 689–703. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.36.6.689, and (1965) ‘Cognitive complexity and impression formation’, in B.A.Maher (Ed.), Progress in Experimental Personality Research, Vol 2. New York: Academic Press. p. 47.(1990) ‘The Complexity of Decision Support Practice’, in C.Eden and J.Radford (Eds), Tackling Strategic Problems: the role of group decision support. London: Sage. pp. 29–39.(1990) ‘Keeping Sense of Accounts Using Computer-based Cognitive Maps’, Social Science Computer Review, 8: 345–366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089443939000800301, and (1963) ‘An Experimental Application of the Delphi Method to the Use of Experts’, Management Science, 9: 458–467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.9.3.458and (1993) Process Innovation: reengineering work through information technology. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.(1982) Corporate Cultures: the rites and rituals of corporate life. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.and (1958) ‘Selective Perception: a note on the department identifications of executives’, Sociometry, 21: 140–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2785898and (1982) de Bono's Thinking Course. London: BBC.(1994) ‘Structure and Action as Constructs in the Practice of Public Administration’, in M.Hill (Ed.), A Policy Reader. London: Harvester.and (1988) ‘Planning as Learning’, Harvard Business Review, March-April: 70–74.(1975) Group Techniques for Program Planning. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman., and ([Page 489]1993) ‘Shifting Foundations in Group Support System Research’, in L.M.Jessup and J.S.Valacich (Eds), Group Support Systems: new perspectives. New York: Macmillan. pp. 97–111.(1987) ‘A Foundation for Group Decision Support System Design’, Management Science, 33: 589–609. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.33.5.589and (1986) ‘Language and Communication in Organizations: bridging cognition and behaviour’, in H.Sims and D.Gioia (Eds), The Thinking Organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. pp. 136–164.(1967) Inside Bureaucracy. Boston: Little, Brown.(1993) ‘Selling Issues to Top Management’, Academy of Management Review, 18: 397–428.and (1977) ‘Modelling the Influence of Decision Makers on the Future’, Futures, 9: 272–284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-3287%2877%2990094-5(1978) ‘Computer Assisted Policy Analysis: contributions from Germany’, Policy Sciences, 9: 345–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00136835(1983) ‘Review of “Creative Thinking and Brainstorming”’, Journal of Management Studies, 20: 277–279.(1985) ‘Perish the Thought’, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 36: 809–819.(1986) ‘Competitive Awareness Through Role Play Gaming’, Working Paper, Centre for the Study of Organizational Change and Development, University of Bath.(1987) ‘Problem Solving or Problem Finishing?’, in M.C.Keys and P.Johnson (Eds), New Directions in Management Science. Aldershot, Hants: Gower. pp. 97–108.([Page 490]1988) ‘Cognitive Mapping: a review’, European Journal of Operational Research, 36: 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217%2888%2990002-1(1989) ‘Strategic Options Development and Analysis – SODA’, in J.Rosenhead (Ed.), Rational Analysis in a Problematic World. London: Wiley, pp. 21–42.(1990a) ‘Strategic Thinking with Computers’, International Journal of Strategic Management, 23: 35–43.(1990b) ‘Managing the Environment as a Means to Managing Complexity’, in C.Eden and J.Radford (Eds), Tackling Strategic Problems: the role of group decision support. London: Sage, pp. 154–161.(1990c) ‘The Unfolding Nature of Group Decision Support’, in C.Eden and J.Radford (Eds), Tackling Strategic Problems: the role of group decision support. London: Sage. pp. 48–52.(1992a) ‘On the Nature of Cognitive Maps’, Journal of Management Studies, 29: 261–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1992.tb00664.x(1992b) ‘Strategic Management as a Social Process’, Journal of Management Studies, 29: 799–811. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1992.tb00690.x(1993) ‘From the Playpen to the Bombsite: the changing nature of management science’, Omega, 21: 139–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-0483%2893%2990047-O(1994) ‘Cognitive Mapping and Problem Structuring for System Dynamics Model Building’, System Dynamics Review, 10: 257–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sdr.4260100212(1995) ‘On the Evaluation of “Wide-Band” GDSS's’, European Journal of Operational Research, 81: 302–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217%2893%29E0241-O(1996) ‘The Stakeholder/Collaborator Strategic Workshop – the Northern Ireland case’, in C.Huxham (Ed.), Creating Collaborative Advantage. London: Sage. pp. 44–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221600(1992) ‘Strategic Development and Implementation – the role of a Group Decision Support System’, in S.Kinney, R.Bostrom and R.Watson (Eds), Computer Augmented Teamwork: a guided tour. New York: Van Nostrand and Reinhold. pp. 325–343.and (1993) ‘Evaluating Strategy: its role within the context of strategic control’, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 44: 853–865.and (1998) ‘Analysing and Comparing Idiographic Causal Maps’, in C.Eden and J.-C.Spender (Eds), Managerial and Organizational Cognition. London: Sage. pp. 192–209.and (1992) ‘The Analysis of Cause Maps’, Journal of Management Studies, 29: 309–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1992.tb00667.x, and (1993) ‘Problem Formulation and Negotiation in Multi-Organisational Contexts’, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 44: 625–628., , and (1992) ‘Coherence and Balance in Strategies for the Management of Public Services: two confidence tests for strategy development, review and renewal’, Public Money and Management, 12: 43–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540969209387721and (1986) ‘Problem Centred Role Play: the challenge of open ended simulation’, Simulation/Games for Learning, 16: 3–11.and (1976) Management Decision and Decision Analysis. London: Macmillan.and (1988) ‘Action Oriented Strategic Management’, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 39: 889–899.and (1996) ‘Action Research for the Study of Organizations’, in S.Clegg, C.Hardy and W.Nord (Eds), Handbook of Organization Studies. Beverley Hills, CA: Sage. pp. 526–542.and (1996) ‘The Dynamics of Negotiating Purpose in Multi-organizational Collaborative Groups: achieving collaborative advantage for social development’, Academy of Management Conference, Cincinnati., and (1980) ‘Publish or Perish – a case study’, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 31: 131–139.and (1984) ‘Using Repertory Grids for Problem Construction’, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 35: 779–790.and (1979) Thinking in Organisations. London: Macmillan., and (1983) Messing About in Problems. Oxford: Pergamon., and (1981) ‘The intersubjectivity of issues and issues of intersubjectivity’, Journal of Management Studies, 18: 37–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1981.tb00090.x, , and (1979) ‘On the nature of problems in consulting practice’, Omega, 7: 119–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-0483%2879%2990099-9and (1981) ‘Computerized Vicarious Experience: the future of management induction?’, Personnel Review, 10: 22–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb055427and (1994) ‘The Language of Collaboration’, International Workshop on Multi-Organizational Partnerships: working together across organizational boundaries, EIASM: 19–20 September, Brussels., and (1995) ‘Detecting Emergent Strategy’, in H.Thomas, D.O'Neal and J.Kelly (Eds), Strategic Renaissance and Business Transformation. Chichester: Wiley.and (1986) ‘Synthetic Wisdom: the design of a mixed mode modelling system for organizational decision making’, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 37: 233–241., and (1984) ‘Ambiguity as strategy in organisational communication’, Communication Monographs, 51: 231.(1989) ‘Making fast decisions in high velocity environments’, Academy of Management Journal, 32: 543–576. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256434(1992) ‘Strategic decision making’, Strategic Management Journal, 13: 17–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250130904and (1988) ‘A Stakeholder Theory of the Modern Corporation: Kantian capitalism’, in T.Beauchamp and N.Bowie (Eds), Ethical Theory and Business. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.and ([Page 491]1996) ‘Utilizing Stakeholder Strategies for Positive Collaboration’, in C.Huxham (Ed.), Creating Collaborative Advantage. London: Sage. pp. 152–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221600(1997) Stakeholder Analysis. Glasgow, Scotland: PhD Thesis, University of Strathclyde.(1988) Getting Together: building a relationship that gets to yes. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.and (1982) Getting to Yes. London: Hutchinson.and (1954) ‘The Critical Incident Technique’, Psychological Bulletin, 51: 327–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0061470(1992) ‘Managing Strategic Consensus: the foundation of effective implementation’, Academy of Management Review, 6: 27–39.and (1989) ‘Effects of Procedural and Distributive Justice on Reactions to Pay Decisions’, Academy of Management Journal, 32: 115–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256422and (1995) ‘The Role of Conversations in Producing Intentional Change in Organizations’, Academy of Management Review, 20: 541–570.and (1971) Managing with People: a manager's handbook of organizational methods. New York: Addison-Wesley.and (1961) Industrial Dynamics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1969) Urban Dynamics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1977) A Manual for Repertory Grid Technique. London: Academic Press.and (1984) Strategic Management: a stakeholder approach. Marshfield, MA: Pitman Publishing.(1987) Planning Under Pressure: the strategic choice approach. Oxford: Pergamon.and (1987) ‘Power, Politics, and Influence’, in F.Jablin, L.L.Putnam, K.Roberts and L.Porter (Eds), Handbook of Organizational Conversation: an interdisciplinary perspective. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. pp. 503–548.(1992) ‘The Learning Organisation: how planners create organisational learning’, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 10: 512.and (1990) Creating a Learning Organization: a guide to leadership, learning, and development. Cambridge: Simon & Schuster.(1993) ‘Building a Learning Organization’, Harvard Business Review, July-August: 78–91.(1974) The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.(Gilmore and Camillas (1996) ‘Do Your Planning Processes Meet the Reality Test?’, Long Range Planning, 29: 869–879. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0024-6301%2897%2982824-51986) ‘Social Cognition in Organizations’, in D.Gioia and H.Sims (Eds), The Thinking Organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. pp. 1–19.and (1987) Scenarios and Strategic Management. London: Butterworth.(1990) ‘The Paradox of Strategic Controls’, Strategic Management Journal, 11: 43–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250110104and (1969) ‘Minimum Spanning Trees and Single Linkage Cluster Analysis’, Applied Statistics, 18: 56–64.and (1985) ‘Group Decision Support Systems’, Decision Support Systems, 3: 233–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-9236%2887%2990178-3(1986) ‘Strategy Implementation versus Middle Management Self Interest’, Strategic Management Journal, 7: 313–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250070403and (1973) ‘Elite Values versus Organizational Structure in Predicting Innovation’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 18: 279–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391664and ([Page 492]1990) ‘The New Management: business and social institutions in the information age’, Business in the Contemporary World, 2: 41–54.(1988) ‘Large Corporate Failures as Downward Spirals’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 33: 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392853and (1994) ‘The Concept of Core Competence’, in G.Hamel and A.Heene (Eds), Competence Based Competition. Chichester: Wiley, pp. 11–13.(1993) ‘Strategy as Stretch and Leverage’, Harvard Business Review, March-April: 75–84.and (1993) ‘Dilemmas of Strategic Learning Loops’, in J.Hendry, G.Johnson and J.Newton (Eds), Strategic Thinking: leadership and the management of change. London: Wiley, pp. 327–346.(1984) ‘Structural Inertia and Organizational Change’, American Sociological Review, 49: 149–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095567and (1990) ‘Social Judgement Analysis and Small Group Decision Making: cognitive feedback effects on individual and collective performance’, Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 46: 34–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978%2890%2990021-Zand (1988) ‘The Abilene Paradox: the management of agreement’, Organizational Dynamics, Summer: 17–34.(1988) Making It Happen. London: Collins.(1992) ‘Between a Rock and a Hard Place: organizational change and performance under conditions of fundamental transformation’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 37: 48–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393533(1988) Dynamic Manufacturing: creating the learning organization. New York: Free Press., and (1993) ‘Interviewing Business Owners and Managers: a review of methods and techniques’, Geoforum, 24: 339–355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7185%2893%2990026-Eand (1981) ‘Reassessment of Cross Impact Analysis’, Future, 3.(1983) Looking Forward: a guide to futures research. London: Sage.(1990) ‘Decision Spaces: a scenario about designing appropriate rooms for group decision management’, in C.Eden and J.Radford (eds), Tackling Strategic Problems: the role of group decision support. London: Sage. pp. 169–177.(1986) Top Decisions: strategic decision making in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass., , , and (1982) ‘Group versus Individual Performance: are N+1 heads better than one?’, Psychological Bulletin, 91: 517–539. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.91.3.517(1965) ‘Group Problem Solving’, in L.Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Psychology (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press, pp. 99–132.(1980) Cultures Consequences. London: Sage.(1987) Judgment and Choice: the psychology of decision. New York: Wiley.(1996) Accounting as Social and Institutional Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.and (1979) ‘Strategic Control: a new task for top management’, International Journal of Strategic Management, 12: 2–7.(1982) ‘Group Decision Support Systems as Aid in the Use of Structured Group Management Techniques’, in G.Dickson (Ed.), Transactions in the Second International Conference on Decision Support Systems. San Francisco, CA: 96–108.(1984) ‘Issues in the Design of Group Decision Support Systems’, Management Information Systems Quarterly, 8: 195–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/248666([Page 493]Huff, A. (Ed.) (1990) Mapping Strategic Thought. New York: Wiley.1982) ‘Industry Influence on Strategy Formulation’, Strategic Management Journal, 3: 119–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250030204(Huxham, C. (Ed.) (1996) Creating Collaborative Advantage. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462216001949) ‘Misunderstandings in Human Relations’, American Journal of Sociology, 55: 1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/220526(1967) ‘Can Social Predictions be Evaluated’, Daedalus, Summer: 747.(1987) ‘The Tactics of Strategic Opportunism’, Harvard Business Review, 65: 92–97.(1972) Victims of Group Think. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.(1989) Crucial Decisions. New York: Free Press.(1977) Decision Making: a psychological analysis of conflict, choice and commitment. New York: Free Press.and (1991) ‘Decision Making in an Automated Environment: the effects of anonymity and proximity with a group decision support system’, Decision Science, 22: 266–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.1991.tb00346.xand (1993) Exploring Corporate Strategy. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice-Hall.and (1993) ‘Social Loafing: a meta-analytic review and theoretical integration’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65: 681–706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.111and (1955) The Psychology of Personal Constructs. New York: Norton.(1965) The Rational Manager: a systematic approach to problem solving and decision making. New York: McGraw-Hill.and (1995) ‘On the Folly of Rewarding A, while Hoping for B’, Academy of Management Executive, 9: 7–16.(1996) Conflict Based Models for Scenario Analysis. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, DBA Thesis.(1991) ‘Implementing Global Strategies: the role of procedural justice’, Strategic Management Journal, 12: 125–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250120910and (1993) ‘Procedural Justice, Attitudes, and Subsidiary Top Management Compliance with Multinationals' Corporate Strategic Decisions’, Academy of Management Journal, June: 502–526.and (1995) ‘A Procedural Justice Model of Strategic Decision Making’, Organization Science, 6: 44–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.6.1.44and (1984) Experiential Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1991) Organizational Behavior, An Experimental Approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.and (1995) ‘Building Commitment, Attachment, and Trust in Strategic Decision Making Teams: the role of procedural justice’, Academy of Management Journal, 38: 60–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256728, and (1971) Knots. London: Tavistock.(1990) ‘Psychological Mechanisms of Process-control Effects’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 75: 613–620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.6.613and (1951) Field Theory in Social Science. New York: Harper and Row.(1990) ‘Voice, control, and procedural justice: instrumental and noninstrumental concerns in fairness judgments’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59: 952–959. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1682, and (1959) ‘The Science of Muddling Through’, Public Administration Review, 19: 79–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/973677(1980) The Policy Making Process (2nd Edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1976) Doing Social Life. New York: Wiley.([Page 494]1983) ‘Strategic and Human Resources: concepts and practice’, Human Resource Management, XXII: 111–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrm.3930220115and (1986) Strategic Control. St Paul, MN: West Publishing., and (1978) Interactions and Interventions in Organizations. London: Wiley.(1987) Organizations as Theatre: a social psychology of dramatic appearances. New York: Wiley.and (1991) ‘Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning’, Organization Science, 2: 71–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2.1.71(1988) Managerial Consulting Skills: a practical guide. Aldershot, Hants: Gower.(1992) ‘Distributive and Procedural Justice as Predictors of Satisfaction with Personal and Organizational Outcomes’, Academy of Management Journal, 35: 626–637. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256489and (1992) ‘Management Practices in Learning Organizations’, Organizational Dynamics, 21: 5–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616%2892%2990082-X, and (1991) ‘Empirical Information from the Field: a practitioner's view of using GDSS in business’, in Proceedings of the 24th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. Los Alamitos, CA: Society Press, pp. 805–811.and (1984) Groups: Interaction and Performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1972) The Limits to Growth. London: Earth Island.and (1973) On Learning to Plan – and Planning to Learn. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1978) Organizational Strategy, Structure and Process. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.and (1994) ‘Strategic Planning and Firm Performance: a synthesis of more than two decades of research’, Academy of Management Journal, 37: 1649–1665. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256804and (1987) ‘Crafting Strategy’, Harvard Business Review, July-August: 66–75.(1990a) ‘The Design School: reconsidering the basic premises of strategic management’, Strategic Management Journal, 11: 171–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250110302(1990b) ‘Strategy Formation: schools of thought’, in J.Frederickson (Ed.), Perspectives on Strategic Management. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 105–235.(1994) ‘The Fall and Rise of Strategic Planning’, Harvard Business Review, Jan-Feb: 107–114.(1976) ‘The Structure of “Unstructured” Decision Processes’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 21: 246–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392045, and (1985) ‘Of Strategies, Deliberate and Emergent’, Strategic Management Journal, 6: 257–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250060306and (1982) ‘Supplier Switching Costs and Vertical Integration in the Automobile Industry’, Bell Journal of Economics, 20: 207–213.and (1977) ‘Telling More Than We Can Know: verbal reports on mental processes’, Psychological Review, 84: 231–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.3.231and (1985) ‘Developing Capabilities for Organizational Learning’, in J. Pennings and Associates (eds), Organizational Strategy and Change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1970) ‘Articulation of the Conceptual Structure in Obsessional Neurosis’, British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9: 264–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1970.tb00672.x, and (1976) ‘Simulation Techniques’, in R.Axelrod (Ed.), Structure of Decision. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 349–359., and (1991) ‘Electronic Meeting Systems to Support Group Work’, Communications of the ACM, 34: 40–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/105783.105793, , and ([Page 495]1984) ‘Types of Organizational Decision Processes’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 29: 414–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393033(1992) Strategic Management of Public and Third Sector Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.and (1992) ‘Beyond Shareholders: interpreting corporate constituency statutes’, The George Washington Law Review, 61: 14–15.(1981) Theory Z. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.(1974) ‘Thoughts on the Emerging Methodology of Planning’, Fields within Fields, 10.(1989) ‘Towards a Learning Company’, Management Education and Development, 20: 1–8., and (1986) Complex Organizations (3rd Edition). New York: Random House.(1982) In Search of Excellence: lessons from America's best-run companies. New York: HarperCollins.and (1977) ‘Strategy Formulation as a Political Process’, International Studies in Management and Organization, 7: 78–87.(1985) The Awakening Giant: Continuity and Change in ICI. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.(1992) Shaping Strategic Change: making change in large organizations. London: Sage., and (1992) Managing Change for Competitive Success. Oxford: Blackwell.and (1993) ‘Facilitated Work Groups: theory and practice’, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 44: 533–549.and (1984) ‘A Theory of Requisite Decision Models’, Acta Psychologica, 56: 29–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-6918%2884%2990005-2(1971) Structuralism. London: Routledge.(1972) ‘Intellectual Evolution from Adolescence to Adulthood’, Human Development, 15: 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000271225(1985) Competitive Advantage. New York: Free Press.(1980) Competitive Strategy: techniques for analysing industries and competitors. New York: Free Press.(1986) ‘The Dominant Logic: a new linkage between diversity and performance’, Strategic Management Journal, 7: 485–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250070602and (1990) ‘The Core Competences of the Corporation’, Harvard Business Review, May-June: 79–91.and (1980) Strategies for Change: logical incrementalism. Homewood, IL: Irwin.(1984) ‘Stimulating Involvement in Complex Decision Situations’, Omega, 12: 125–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-0483%2884%2990031-8(1990) ‘Making Strategy Work’, International Journal of Strategic Management, 23: 97–105.and (1981) Creating Thinking and Brainstorming. Farnborough, Hants: Gower.(1991) Feedback Thought in Social Science and Systems Theory. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.(1980) ‘Planning Under Uncertainty: II. A Methodology for Robustness Analysis’, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 31: 331–342.(1989) ‘Diversity Unity: the principles and prospects for problem structuring methods’, in J.Rosenhead (Ed.), Rational Analysis for a Problematic World. London: Wiley, pp. 341–358.(1991) ‘Toward Better Theories of the Policy Process’, Political Science and Politics, 24: 144–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/419922(1979) Work, Organisations: Resistance and Control. London: Longman.([Page 496]1988) Process Consultant (Vols 1 & 2). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.(1986) ‘How to develop business strategies from multiple scenarios’, in W.D.Guth (Ed.), Handbook of Business Strategy. Boston, MA: Warren, Gosham and Lamont.(1979) The Metaplan-Method: communication tools for planning and learning groups. Hamburg: Quickborn.(1992) ‘How to Link Strategic Vision to Core Capabilities’, Sloan Management Review, 34: 67–81.(1987) ‘Strategic Control: a new perspective’, Academy of Management Review, 12: 91–103.and (1973) Small is Beautiful. Abacus.(1991) The Art of the Long View. New York: Doubleday.(1994) The Skilled Facilitator: practical wisdom for developing effective groups. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1957) Leadership in Administration: a sociological interpretation. Evanston, IL: Row Peterson.(1992) The Fifth Discipline. New York: Doubleday.(1964) Small Groups: some sociological perspectives. San Francisco: Chandler Publishing.(1970) The Theory of Organizations. London: Heinemann.(1957) Models of Man. New York: Wiley.(1958) Organizations. New York: Wiley.(1976) ‘From Substantive to Procedural Rationality’, in S.J.Latsis (Ed.), Method and Appraisal in Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1995) Levers of Control. Harvard, MA: Harvard Business School Press.(1987) ‘Mental Simulation: an effective technique for adult learning’, International Journal of Innovative Higher Education, 3: 33–35.(1984) ‘Futures Research – working with management teams’, Long Range Planning, 17: 51–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0024-6301%2884%2990190-0and (1987) ‘Environmental Variation, Strategic Change, and Firm Performance: a study of railroad deregulation’, Strategic Management Journal, 8: 363–376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250080406and (1986) ‘Computer Decision Support for Senior Managers: encouraging exploitation’, International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 25: 139–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7373%2886%2980074-8and (1989) Winning Through Participation. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.(1989) Industry Recipes: an enquiry into the nature and sources of managerial judgment. Oxford: Blackwell.(1998) ‘The Dynamics of Individual and Organizational Knowledge’, in C.Eden and J.C.Spender (Eds), Managerial and Organizational Cognition: Theory, Methods and Research. London: Sage. pp. 13–39.(1988) ‘Executive Perceptual Filters: what they notice and how they make sense’, in D.Hambrick (Ed.), The Executive Effect: concepts and methods for studying top managers. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.and (1979) Strategic Planning: what every manager needs to know. New York: Free Press.(1989) ‘Modelling of managerial behavior: misperceptions of feedback in a dynamic decision making experiment’, Management Science, 35: 321–339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.35.3.321(1963) ‘The Hospital and its Negotiated Order’, in E.Friedson (Ed.), The Hospital in Modern Society. New York: Macmillan. pp. 147–169.and (1958) ‘Does Group Participation when Using Brainstorming Facilitate or Inhibit Creative Thinking?’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 3: 23–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2390603, and (1975) Procedural Justice: a psychological analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.and ([Page 497]1928) The Child in America: behavior problems and programs. New York: Knopf.and (1980) Top Management Survey. New York: Simon and Schuster.and (1994) Riding the Waves of Culture. Chicago: Irwin.(1992) ‘A Conceptual Framework of Anonymity in Group Support Systems’, Group Decision and Negotiation, 1: 219–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00126264, , and (1991) ‘Business Appraisal Processes in Organizations Views in Context’, in K.van der Heijden and C.Eden (Eds), General and Strategic Management – strategic interventions issues reader. Glasgow: SGBS, University of Strathclyde. pp. 265–271.(1996) Scenarios: the art of strategic conversation. Chichester: Wiley.(1983) The Art of Judgement. London: Harper and Row.(1994) ‘An Essay on Corporate Epistemology’, Strategic Management Journal, 15: 53–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250151005, and (1982) A Whack on the Side of the Head. Menlo Park, CA: Creative Think.(1962 (first published 1934)) Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11193-000(1981) ‘The Genesis of Higher Mental Functions’, in J.V.Wertsch (Ed.), The Concept of Activity in Soviet Psychology. Armonk, NY: Sharpe. pp. 144–188.(1985) ‘Scenarios, Uncharted Waters Ahead’, Harvard Business Review, September-October: 73–89.(1987) ‘Scenarios, Shooting the Rapids’, Harvard Business Review, July-August: 139–150.(1995) ‘Functional Background as a Determinant of Executives' Selective Perception’, Academy of Management Journal, 38: 943–974. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256616, and (1988) ‘Selectivity and Selective Perception: an investigation of managers' belief structures and information processing’, Academy of Management Journal, 31: 873–896. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256343(1988) ‘Negotiated Belief Structures and Decision Performance: an empirical investigation’, Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 42: 194–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978%2888%2990012-X, and (1990) The Child in the City. London: Bedford Square Press.(1992) Strategic Options Development and Analysis: as experienced in a National Health Service Unit. Aston, Birmingham: MSc Dissertation, Aston University.(1976) ‘Educational Organizations as Loosely Coupled Systems’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 21: 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391875(1979) The Social Psychology of Organizing. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.(1983) ‘Management Thought in the Context of Action’, in S.Srivastava (Ed.), The Executive Mind. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. pp. 221–242.(1985) ‘The Significance of Corporate Culture’, in P.Frost, L.F.Moore, M.R.Louis, C.C.Lundberg and J.Martin (Eds), Organizational Culture. Beverley Hills: Sage. pp. 381–389.(1995) Sensemaking in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1989) ‘From Critical Resources to Corporate Strategy’, Journal of General Management, 14: 4–12.(1993) What is Strategy and Does it Matter?London: Routledge.(1957) ‘On Asking Indirect Questions’, Human Organizations, 15: 21–23.(1985) The Economic Institutions of Capitalism. New York: Free Press.(1986) Understanding Computers and Cognition. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.and (1990) ‘The Strategy Process, Middle Management Involvement, and Organizational Performance’, Strategic Management Journal, 11: 231–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250110305and ([Page 498]1996) Strategy Development Programme – Govan Initiative Ltd. Glasgow: MBA Project Report, Strathclyde Graduate Business School.(1989) ‘Changing Generic Strategies: likelihood, direction, and performance implications’, Strategic Management Journal, 10: 413–430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250100503and (