Making Policy in Europe

Books

Edited by: Sevin S. Andersen & Kjell A. Eliassen

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Notes on the Contributors

    Professor Svein S. Andersen is director of ARENA (Advanced Research on the Europeanization of the Nation-State), University of Oslo, and also a professor at the Norwegian School of Management. He holds a Ph.D. in sociology from Stanford University. He has published 10 books and numerous articles. Working within the area of comparative institutions and institutional theory his empirical studies have focused on issues relating to energy and the EU. He also has an interest in research method. His last book was about the possibilities of generalizing from case-studies. He has been a visiting professor at several European and American universities, among them Centre des Hautes Etudes in Paris, UC Berkeley and UC Santa Barbara.

    Kjell A. Eliassen is a professor of Public Management and director of the Centre for European and Asian Studies at the Norwegian School of Management – BI in Oslo – and professor of European Studies at The Free University in Brussels. He has published 12 books and several articles on European and Asian Affairs. His latest book is European Telecom Liberalisation (1999). He has been a visiting professor at several European, American and Asian universities. During the last three years he has built up a part-time Master of Management programme in Infocom in Asia, in co-operation with leading Asian universities, representing the Norwegian School of Management. He has been working closely with the Fudan University in Shanghai and the Chulalongkorn University in Thailand both within research and the development of management training programmes.

    Ellen Ahnfelt, is a senior advisor on international police co-operation in the Norwegian Ministry of Justice. She worked as a researcher at the Center for European and Asian Studies at the Norwegian School of Management, Oslo during the period 1990–95. She has published several articles and a book on European police co-operation and EU integration. She is Cand. Polit. from the University of Oslo, 1986.

    Erik Beukel is dr. scient. pol. and Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science and Public Management at the University of Southern Denmark, Odense, where he also holds the Jean Monnet Chair in European Political Integration. He has written on issues concerning global environmental protection as a collective good, European integration, the evolving regimes in post-cold-war Europe, and the political economy of the trade and environment nexus. Previous research was in the area of arms control and American and Soviet nuclear policies. He has been a Visiting Scholar at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University, the Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, and Institute of International Relations, The University of British Columbia.

    Miriam L. Campanella is a lecturer in International Political Economy at the Faculty of Political Science, University of Turin and holds a Jean Monnet ‘Permanent Course’ on ‘EMU: Policies and Institutions’. She has studied at the Centre for International Studies, at MIT (1980–86) and has taught as Fulbright Professor at the Department of Political Science, University of Pittsburgh. Centring on the consequences of globalization for nation-states, her research field has shifted towards regional integration in Europe. Since 1994, her research programme has focused on the potential of neo-institutionalism in EMU policies and institutions. Her publications include: ‘Getting the core. A neo-institutionalist approach to EMU’ (1995); ‘Central Eastern European enlargement and the EU budget policy. A strategic agenda-setter for joint (Pareto-improving) gains’ (1998).

    Frank Dobbin is Professor of Sociology at Princeton University. His Forging Industrial Policy: The United States, Britain and France in the Railway Age (Cambridge University Press, 1994), which explores the origins of national industrial strategies, won the Max Weber Award from the Organizations, Occupations, and Work section of the American Sociological Association. He has been exploring how antitrust law shaped American business strategy (most recently with Timothy Dowd in ‘The market that antitrust built’, American Sociological Review, 2000, and how national institutions shape the workplace (most recently with Terry Boychuk in ‘Job autonomy and national employment systems’, Organization Studies, 1999).

    Johan From is Head of Department, Department of Public Governance at the Norwegian School of Management – BI in Oslo. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Sussex, Sussex European Institute in Contemporary European Studies. He has published books on EU competition policy and public monopolies, police co-operation and European integration, and the impact of EU policy-making on local governments.

    Finn Laursen holds a Ph.D. (Political Science) from the University of Pennsylvania (1980) and cand. scient. pol. from Aarhus University (1974). Currently Professor of International Politics at the University of Southern Denmark, Odense, he has also held positions at the London School of Economics (1985–88), the European Institute of Public Administration, Maastricht (1988–95). His current research is focused upon various aspects of European integration and EU external relations. Major works include The Ratification of the Maastricht Treaty (Nijhoff, 1994), both co-edited with Sophie Vanhoonacker.

    Nick Sitter is an Associate Professor in the Department of International Relations and European Studies at the Central European University in Budapest, where he teaches EU politics and comparative West European politics. He holds a Ph.D. from the London School of Economics and Political Science, and worked for five years as a political consultant in London.

    Marit S. Marino is a Ph.D. student at the London School of Economics. She has a Master of Science degree from the Norwegian School of Management and a B.Sc. in Natural Sciences from the University of Oslo, Norway, and Université de Caen, France. Her main research interests include regulation, European telecommunications policy, comparative public policy, French and German politics, and security policy. Her latest publications are European Telecommunications Liberalisation (as a co-editor with Kjell A. Eliassen, 1999).

    Helene Sjursen is a Senior Researcher at ARENA (Advanced Research on the Europeanization of the Nation-State), University of Oslo. She has previously been a lecturer in Politics at University College Dublin and at Glasgow University. She holds a Ph.D. in international relations from the London School of Economics. Her main research interests are in the Europeanization of foreign policies and EU enlargement. Previous publications include A Common Foreign Policy for Europe? Competing Visions of the CFSP, co-edited with John Peterson (Routledge, 1998).

    Preface

    This volume is a new edition of a book published seven years ago on policymaking in Europe, focusing on the Europeanization of national policy-making. Our approach differed from the foreign policy and formal legal perspectives in emphasizing the totality of the European Union's institutions and the political system. Today, this perspective is more widely used, and the focus on Europeanization of member states' policy-making process is common to most studies.

    In this book we have tried to asses the functioning and the present policymaking process of the EU, at a time when the Union has accomplished many of its last decennium goals, and when even a common foreign and security policy could become more than a vision. At the same time, we find ourselves at a point when the EU is confronted by the challenge of a far-reaching expansion to the east which may ultimately increase the number of member states to around thirty. Thus, this volume reflects both the present state of affairs and the different dimensions of the internal and external tasks ahead.

    The book contains both completely revised versions of the majority of the chapters in the previous edition and a couple of new chapters reflecting the new developments within the Union, the establishment of the European Monetary Union and the revitalization of the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

    We would like to thank a number of people for their help in the development of this second edition. They include Yansong Wen and Grete Haug, both employed at the Centre for European and Asian Studies at the Norwegian School of Management – BI in Oslo.

    However, the book project would not have been possible at all without the help and continuous encouragement of Maria Andredaki. She has both assisted the editors in all aspects of the editing and has been the most demanding editor of our own contributions. We express our heartfelt thanks.

    Svein S.AndersenKjell A.Eliassen

    List of Abbreviations

    ACPAfrica, the Caribbean and the Pacific
    APTAdvanced Passenger Transport (British rail project)
    ARENAAdvanced Research on the Europeanization of the Nation State
    BEUCEuropean Bureau of Consumers' Unions
    BRBritish Rail
    CAPCommon Agricultural Policy
    CEECscentral and eastern European countries
    CEPTEuropean Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations
    CFSPCommon Foreign and Security Policy
    CJTFCombined Joint Task Forces
    COMETTCommunity Programme for Education and Training in Technology
    COREPERCommittee of Permanent Representatives
    CPEcustomer premises equipment (telecommunications)
    DGDirectorate General
    ECEuropean Community
    ECBEuropean Central Bank
    ECJEuropean Court of Justice
    ECMTEuropean Conference of Ministers of Transport
    ECOFINEuropean Council of Finance Ministers
    ECSCEuropean Coal and Steel Community
    EcuEuropean Currency Unit
    EDCEuropean Defence Community
    EDIUEuropean Drugs Intelligence Unit
    EDUEuropol Drugs Unit
    EEAEuropean Economic Area
    EEBEuropean Environmental Bureau
    EFTAEuropean Free Trade Association
    EIBEuropean Investment Bank
    EMUEconomic and Monetary Union / European Monetary Union
    EPEuropean Parliament
    EPCEuropean Political Co-operation
    ERASMUSEuropean Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students
    ERMExchange Rate Mechanism
    ESCEconomic and Social Council
    ESDIEuropean Security and Defence Identity
    ESPRITEuropean Strategic Programme for Research and Development in Information Technology
    ETUCEuropean Trade Union Confederation
    EUEuropean Union
    GATTGeneral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
    GSMGlobal Systems for Mobile Communications
    IGCIntergovernmental Conference
    IRinternational relations
    ITUInternational Telecommunications Union
    LINGUALanguage and Training Programme
    OECDOrganization for Economic Co-operation and Development
    ONPOpen Network Provision
    PHAREPoland and Hungary: Aid for the Restructuring of Economies
    PTTPost, Telegraph and Telephone administration
    QMVQualified Majority Voting
    RACEResearch and Development in Advanced Communications
    SEASingle European Act
    SNCFSociété Nationale des Chemins de Fer (French rail administration)
    SOECStatistical Office of the European Communities
    TAIEXTechnical Assistance Information Exchange Office
    TEUTreaty on European Union
    TGVTrain à Grande Vitesse (French high-speed train)
    TREVITerrorisme, Radicalisme, Extrémisme, Violance, Information (Agreement on Police Co-operation)
    UCLAFUnit for the Co-ordination of Fraud Prevention
    UICUnion Internationale des Chemins de fer (international rail administration)
    VANSvalue added network services
    WEUWest European Union
    WTOWorld Trade Organization

    Map of the European Union

  • Chronology of Events

    1947MarchBelgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands agree to establish a customs union. An economic union is established in October 1947 and a common customs tariff is introduced in January 1948.
    France and the United Kingdom sign a military alliance, the Treaty of Dunkirk.
    JuneGeneral George Marshall, United States Secretary of State, offers American aid for the economic recovery of Europe.
    SeptemberSixteen nations join the European Recovery Programme.
    1948MarchBrussels Treaty concluded between France, the UK and the Benelux countries. The aim is to promote collective defence and to improve co-operation in the economic, social and cultural fields.
    AprilFounding of the Organization for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) by sixteen states.
    MayA Congress is held in The Hague attended by many leading supporters of European co-operation and integration. It issues a resolution asserting ‘that it is the urgent duty of the nation of Europe to create an economic and political union in order to assure security and social progress’.
    1949AprilTreaty establishing North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) signed in Washington by twelve states.
    MayStatute of Council of Europe signed in Strasbourg by ten states.
    1950MayRobert Schuman, the French Foreign Minister, puts forward his proposals to place French and German coal and steel under a common authority.
    OctoberRene Pleven, the French Prime Minister, proposes a European Defence Community (EDC).
    1951AprilEuropean Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty signed in Paris by six states: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and The Netherlands.
    1952MayEDC Treaty signed in Paris by the six ECSC states.
    JulyECSC comes into operation.
    1954AugustFrench National Assembly rejects EDC Treaty.
    OctoberWEU Treaty signed by the six ECSC states plus the UK.
    1955JuneMessina Conference of the Foreign Ministers of the six ECSC states to discuss further European integration. The Spaak Committee established to study ways in which a fresh advance towards the building of Europe could be achieved.
    1956JuneNegotiations formally open between the six with a view to creating an Economic Community and an Atomic Energy Community.
    1957MarchThe Treaties of Rome signed, establishing the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom).
    1958JanuaryEEC and Euratom come into operation.
    1959JanuaryFirst EEC tariff cuts and increases in quotas.
    1960JanuaryEuropean Free Trade Association (EFTA) Convention signed at Stockholm by Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. EFTA comes into force in May 1960.
    DecemberOrganization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)Treaty signed in Paris. OECD replaces OEEC and included Canada and the United States.
    1961JulySigning of Association Agreement between Greece and the EEC. Comes into effect in November 1962.
    July–AugustIreland, Denmark and the United Kingdom request membership negotiations with the Community.
    1962JanuaryBasic features of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) agreed.
    JulyNorway requests negotiations on Community membership.
    1963JanuaryGeneral De Gaulle announces his veto on UK membership. Signing of Franco-German Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation.
    JulyA wide-ranging association agreement is signed between the Community and 18 underdeveloped countries in Africa – the Yaounde Convention. The Convention enters into force in June 1964.
    1964MayThe GATT Kennedy Round of international tariff negotiations opens in Geneva. The Community member states participate as a single delegation.
    1965AprilSigning of Treaty establishing a Single Council and a single Commission of the European Communities (The Merger Treaty).
    JulyFrance begins a boycott of Community institutions to register its opposition to various proposed supranational developments.
    1966JanuaryForeign Ministers agree to the Luxembourg Compromise. Normal Community processes are resumed.
    1967MayDenmark, Ireland and the UK re-apply for Community membership.
    July1965Merger Treaty takes effect.
    Norway re-applies for Community membership.
    DecemberThe Council of Ministers fails to reach agreement on the re-opening of membership negotiations with the applicant states because of continued French opposition to the UK membership.
    1968JulyThe Customs Union is completed. All internal customs duties and quotas are removed and the common external tariff is established.
    1969JulyPresident Pompidou (who succeeded De Gaulle after his resignation in April) announces that he does not oppose UK membership in principle.
    Signing of the second Yaounde Convention. Enters into force in January 1971.
    DecemberHague summit agrees on a number of important matters: strengthening the Community institutions; enlargement; establishing an ‘economic and monetary union’ by 1980; and developing political co-operation (i.e. foreign policy).
    1970AprilThe financial base of the Community is changed by the Decision of 21 April 1970 on the replacement of financial contributions from member states by the Community's own resources. The Community's budgetary procedures are regularized and the European Parliament's (EP's) budgetary powers are increased by the Treaty amending certain budgetary provisions of the Treaties.
    JunePreferential trade agreement signed between Community and Spain. Comes into effect in October 1970.
    Community opens membership negotiations with Denmark, Ireland, Norway and the United Kingdom.
    OctoberThe six accept the Davignon report on political co-operation. This provides the basis for co-operation on foreign policy matters.
    1972JanuaryNegotiations between Community and the four applicant countries concluded. Signing of Treaties of Accession.
    MayIrish approve Community accession in a referendum.
    JulyConclusion of Special Relations Agreement between Community and EFTA countries.
    SeptemberMajority vote against Community accession in a referendum in Norway.
    OctoberDanes approve Community accession in a referendum. Paris summit. Heads of Government set guidelines for the future, including a reaffirmation of the goal of achieving an economic and monetary union by 1980.
    1973JanuaryAccession of Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom to the Community.
    Preferential trade agreement between Community and most EFTA countries comes into effect. Agreements with other EFTA countries come into force later.
    1974DecemberParis summit agrees to the principle of direct elections to the EP and to the details of a European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) (the establishment of which had been agreed at the 1972 Paris and 1973 Copenhagen summits). In addition it is agreed to institutionalize summit meetings by establishing the European Council.
    1975FebruarySigning of the first Lomé Convention between the Community and 46 underdeveloped countries in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific (the ACP countries). The Convention replaces and extends the Yaounde Convention.
    MarchFirst meeting of the European Council at Dublin.
    JuneA majority vote in favour of continued Community membership in UK referendum.
    JuneGreece applies for Community membership.
    JulySigning of the Treaty amending certain financial provisions of the Treaties. This strengthens the European Parliament's budgetary powers and also establishes the Court of Auditors.
    1976JulyOpening of negotiations on Greek accession to the Community.
    1977MarchPortugal applies for Community membership.
    JulySpain applies for Community membership.
    1978OctoberCommunity opens accession negotiations with Portugal.
    1979FebruaryCommunity opens accession negotiations with Spain.
    MarchEuropean Monetary System (EMS) (which had been the subject of high-level negotiations for over a year) comes into operation.
    MaySigning of Accession Treaty between Community and Greece.
    JuneFirst direct elections to the European Parliament.
    OctoberSigning of the second Lomé Convention between the Community and 58 ACP countries.
    DecemberFor the first time the EP does not approve the Commmunity budget. As a result the Community has to operate on the basis of ‘one twelfths’ from 1 January 1980.
    1981JanuaryAccession of Greece to Community.
    OctoberCommunity foreign ministers reach agreement on the ‘London Report’ which strengthens and extends the European Political Cooperation (EPC).
    1983JanuaryA Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is agreed.
    JuneAt the Stuttgart European Council meeting approval is given to a ‘Solemn Declaration on European Union’.
    1984JanuaryFree trade area between Community and EFTA established.
    FebruaryThe EP approves the Draft Treaty establishing the European Union.
    JuneSecond set of direct elections to the EP.
    Fontainebleau European Council meeting. Agreement to reduce UK budgetary contributions (which Mrs Thatcher had been demanding since 1979) and agreement also to increase Community resources by raising the VAT percentage from 1 per cent to 1.4 per cent.
    DecemberSigning of the third Lomé Convention between the Community and 66 ACP countries.
    Dublin European Council meeting agrees budgetary discipline measures.
    1985JuneSigning of Accession Treaties between the Community and Spain and Portugal.
    The Commission publishes its White Paper completing the Internal Market.
    Milan European Council meeting approves the Commission's White Paper. It also establishes an Intergovernmental Conference to examine various matters including Treaty reform. The decision to establish the Conference is the first time at a summit meeting a decision is taken by a majority vote.
    DecemberLuxembourg European Council meeting agrees the principles of the Single European Act (SEA). Amongst other things the Act incorporates various Treaty revisions – including confirming the objective of completing the internal market by 1992.
    1986JanuaryAccession of Spain and Portugal to Community.
    1987JuneTurkey applies for Community membership.
    JulyAfter several months delay caused by ratification problems in Ireland the SEA comes into force.
    1988JuneThe Community and Comecon (the East European trading bloc) sign an agreement enabling the two organizations to recognize, for the first time, the authority of the Community to negotiate on behalf of its member states.
    Hanover European Council meeting entrusts to a committee chaired by Jacques Delors the task of studying how the Community might progress to Economic and Monetary Union (EMU).
    1989AprilThe Delors Committee presents its report (the ‘Delors Report’). It outlines a scheme for a three-stage progression to EMU.
    JuneThird set of direct elections to the EP.
    Madrid European Council meeting agrees that Stage 1 of the programme to bring about EMU will begin on 1 July 1990.
    JulyAustria applies for Community membership.
    September–DecemberThe collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. The process begins with the appointment of a non-communist Prime Minister in Poland in September and ends with the overthrow of the Ceausescu regime in Romania in December.
    Signing of the fourth Lomé Convention between the Community and 68 ACP countries.
    Community and USSR sign a ten-year trade and economic cooperation agreement.
    Strasbourg European Council meeting accepts Social charter and agrees to establish an Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) on EMU at the end of 1990. Both decisions taken by eleven votes to one, with the United Kingdom dissenting in each case.
    1990AprilSpecial Dublin European Council meeting confirms the Community's commitment to Political Union.
    JuneDublin European Council meeting formally agrees that an IGC on Political Union will be convened.
    JulyCyprus and Malta apply for Community membership.
    OctoberUnification of Germany. Territory of former East Germany becomes part of the Community.
    OctoberSpecial Rome European Council meeting agrees that Stage 1 on EMU will begin on 1 January 1994.
    DecemberThe two IGCs on EMU and on Political Union are opened at the Rome summit.
    1991JulySweden applies for Community membership.
    August–DecemberBreak-up of USSR.
    Maastricht European council meeting agrees to the Treaty on European Union (TEU). The Treaty is based on three pillars: the European Communities, a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), and Co-operation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA). The European Communities pillar includes the strengthening of Community institutions, the extension of the Community's legal policy competence, and a timetable leading to EMU and a single currency.
    Association (‘Europe’) Agreements signed with Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland.
    1992FebruaryTreaty on European Union is formally signed at Maastricht by EC Foreign and Finance Ministers.
    MarchFinland applies to join the EU.
    MayAfter several months delay caused by a Court of Justice ruling, the European Economic Area (EEA) agreement between the EC and EFTA is signed.
    Switzerland applies to join the EU.
    JuneIn a referendum the Danish people reject the TEU by 50.7 per cent to 49.3 per cent.
    SeptemberCrisis in the ERM. Sterling and the lira suspend their membership. In a referendum the French people endorse the TEU by 51 per cent to 49 per cent.
    November DecemberNorway applies to join the EU.
    In a referendum the Swiss people vote not to ratify the EEA by 50.3 per cent to 49.7 per cent. Amongst other implications this means that Switzerland's application to join the EU is suspended.
    Edinburgh European Council meeting agrees on several key issues, notably: (1) Danish opt-outs from the TEU and any future common defence policy; (2) a financial perspective for 1993–9; (3) the opening of accession negotiations in early 1993 with Austria, Finland, Sweden and Norway.
    1993FebruaryAccession negotiations open with Austria, Finland and Sweden.
    AprilAccession negotiations open with Norway.
    MayIn a second referendum the Danish people vote by 56.8 per cent to 43.2 per cent to ratify the TEU.
    AugustFollowing great turbulence in the currency markets, the bands for all currencies in the ERM, apart from the Deutsche mark and the guilder, are increased to 15 per cent.
    OctoberGerman Constitutional Court ruling enables Germany to become the last member state to ratify the TEU.
    NovemberTEU enters into force.
    DecemberSettlement of the GATT Uruguay Round.
    1994JanuarySecond stage of EMU comes into effect.
    EEA enters into force.
    MarchCommittee of the Regions meets for the first time.
    Austria, Finland, Sweden and Norway agree accession terms with the EU.
    AprilHungary and Poland apply for membership in the EU.
    JuneFourth set of direct elections to the EP.In a referendum on accession to the EU, Austrian people vote in favour by 66.4 per cent to 33.6 per cent.
    Partnership and co-operation agreement between European Union and Ukraine is signed in Luxembourg.
    Acts of Accession of Austria, Sweden, Finland and Norway are signed.
    JulyExtraordinary meeting of European Council in Brussels: Jacques Santer, chosen to succeed Jacques Delors as President of Commission. Free-trade agreements signed with Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in Brussels.
    New European Parliament holds first part-session in Strasbourg.
    Klaus Hänsch is elected President.
    OctoberCo-operation agreement between Community and South Africa is signed. Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) opens in Budapest.
    Finnish referendum approves accession to the European Union.
    NovemberSwedish referendum approves accession to European Union.
    European Monetary Institute Council meets for the first time in Frankfurt.
    Norwegian referendum rejects accession to the European Union.
    Parliament, Council and Commission adopt financial perspective 1995–99 adjusted to take account of enlargement.
    Council adopts first joint action under Article K.3 of Treaty on European Union in the area of co-operation in the fields of Justice and Home Affairs.
    DecemberCouncil adopts Leonardo da Vinci Programme in vocational training and first resolution under Social Policy Protocol.
    Treaty on European Energy Charter signed in Lisbon.
    1995JanuaryAustria, Finland and Sweden become members of the European Union.
    FebruaryThe Europe Association Agreements establishing an association between the European Union and Bulgaria, Romania, the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic enter into force.
    G7 ministerial Conference on Information Society meets in Brussels.
    MarchCouncil and Parliament sign Socrates Programme in the field of education.
    Stability Pact signed at final Conference in Paris.
    The Schengen Agreement comes into force between Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain.
    AprilLiechtenstein approves the participation in the European Economic Area.
    Intergovernmental Conference: Council adopts a report on the functioning of the Treaty on European Union.
    Intergovernmental Conference: Committee of Regions adopts an own-initiative opinion on the revision of the Treaty on European Union.
    Austria signs the Schengen Treaty.
    MayLiechtenstein participates in the European Economic Area.
    The Commission approves the Info 2000 programme to stimulate the development of a European multimedia content industry in the emerging information society.
    The Commission adopts a Green Paper on the practical arrangements for the introduction of the single currency.
    JuneThe Reflection Group set up to prepare for the 1996 Intergovernmental Conference holds its inaugural meeting.
    Europe Agreements are signed with Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
    Romania and Slovakia present applications to join the European Union.
    The meeting of Heads of State or Government held in Cannes is the first at which all 15 Member States are represented. This European Council confirms transition to a single currency by 1 January 1999.
    JulyThe European Parliament appoints Jacob Söderman as Ombudsman of the European Union.
    The Member States sign the Europol Convention for police cooperation.
    OctoberLatvia presents a formal request for accession to the European Union.
    NovemberA Co-operation Agreement is signed with Nepal. The Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement is signed with Israel.
    The Euro-Mediterranean Conference is held in Barcelona.
    Estonia applies to join the European Union.
    DecemberMadrid European Council sets 29 March 1996 as starting date for Intergovernmental Conference and confirms the introduction of single currency (‘Euro’) on 1 January 1999.
    Custom Union between European Community and Turkey enters into force.
    1996JanuaryItaly takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. Customs Union between EU and Turkey enters into force.
    The Czech Republic formally applies to join the European Union.
    The Commission adopts a Green Paper on review of Merger Control Regulation.
    FebruaryThe interim agreements with Russia and Ukraine enter into force.
    A Euro-Mediterranean association agreement is signed with Morocco.
    MarchThe Commission adopts a decision on urgent measures to be taken for protection against BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy). It imposes a world-wide export ban on British beef and beef products.
    The opening of the Intergovernmental Conference to revise the Maastricht Treaty is held in Turin, Italy. The European Council defines its agenda.
    AprilA G7 conference on employment is held in Lille, France.
    A G7+1 meeting on nuclear safety is held in Moscow, Russia.
    The European Union signs partnership and co-operation agreements with Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan.
    MayThe Commission adopts a Green Paper on commercial communications in the single market.
    The European Court of Justice affirms that a member state violating Community law by refusing to issue an export licence to a private individual must pay compensation.
    JuneThe co-operation agreements with Vietnam and Nepal enter into force.
    Slovenia formally applies to join the European Union.
    A tripartite conference on Growth and Employment involving the Community institutions, the member states and the social partners is held in Rome, Italy.
    The co-operation agreements with Uzbekistan and Chile are signed.
    The European Council is held in Florence, Italy.
    JulyIreland takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union
    OctoberThe Commission adopts a Green Paper entitled ‘Education, training and research: the obstacles to trans-national mobility’.
    NovemberThe Commission adopts three Green Papers on the relations between the European Union and the ACP states, a numbering policy for telecommunication services, and a Community strategy for developing renewable energies.
    DecemberAt the London Conference centred on implementing peace agreements in Former Yugoslavia, a plan to consolidate peace is adopted.
    A European Council is held in Dublin, Ireland. It adopts the Dublin declaration on employment and confirms the timetable for the Intergovernmental Conference (IGC).
    A Transatlantic Summit between the European Union and the USA is held in Washington, USA.
    Denmark, Finland and Sweden sign the Schengen Agreement.
    1997JanuaryThe Netherlands takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. The Commission adopts a Green Paper on vertical restraints in the EC competition policy.
    FebruaryAn agreement is reached on basic telecommunications services within the World Trade Organization (WTO) framework.
    The Parliament adopts a resolution on results of temporary committee of inquiry into BSE.
    MarchThe parties involved in the Commercial agreement on information technology products within the WTO framework draw up the definitive list of their commitments.
    AprilThe Commission adopts the Green Paper titled ‘Partnership for a new organization of work’.
    MayThe Commission adopts its 1997–98 anti-fraud work programme.
    The Council establishes a convention on the service of judicial and extra-judicial documents in civil or commercial matters. The Council establishes a convention on the fight against corruption involving officials.
    JuneThe Council adopts a regulation establishing a European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia.
    The European Council meets in Amsterdam and reaches a consensus on a draft Treaty. It approves various proposals facilitating the smooth passage to the third phase of the Economic and Monetary Union and adopts a resolution on growth and employment.
    JulyLuxembourg takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union.
    The Commission presents the ‘Agenda 2000 – for a stronger and wider Europe’ and its opinions on the applications of 10 central European countries.
    The Western European Union (WEU) Extra-ordinary Council adopts a declaration, to be annexed to the final Act of the Amsterdam Treaty, on its role and its relations with the EU and the Atlantic Alliance.
    OctoberThe Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the Member States of the European Union sign the Treaty of Amsterdam.
    The Commission adopts the final report to the Parliament's temporary committee of inquiry monitoring recommendations on BSE.
    DecemberThe Commission adopts a Green Paper on convergence in the communications, media and information technology sectors.
    The Council agrees to ban tobacco advertising.
    An agreement is reached on financial services within the WTO framework.
    The European Council meets in Luxembourg and takes the decisions needed to launch the enlargement process. It also adopts a resolution on economic policy co-ordination.
    1998JanuaryThe United Kingdom takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union.
    The Co-operation agreement with the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia enters into force.
    FebruaryThe Europe Agreements with Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania enter into force.
    MarchThe Commission adopts the convergence report and recommends that 11 member states adopt the Euro on 1 January 1999.
    A Ministerial meeting launches accession processes for the 10 central and eastern European applicant countries and Cyprus.
    AprilThe Kyoto Protocol on climate change is signed in New York, USA.
    MayA special Council decides that 11 member states satisfy conditions for adoption of the single currency on 1 January 1999. The Commission and the European Monetary Institute set out conditions for determination of the irrevocable conversion rates for the Euro.
    JuneEstablishment of the European Central Bank. An agreement amending the fourth Lomé Convention following mid-term review, including new financial protocol and the protocol governing accession of South Africa to the Convention, enters into force.
    JulyAustria takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union.
    OctoberThe Europol Anti-drugs Convention enters into force.
    NovemberMinisterial-level meetings of accession conferences with Cyprus, Poland, Estonia, the Czech Republic and Slovenia.
    DecemberA European Council meeting is held in Vienna, Austria. The Council adopts the employment guidelines for 1999, decides to strengthen the process of convergence of employment policies with a view to a European employment pact, lays down arrangements for external representation of the Euro, approves an action plan for the establishment of an area of freedom, security and justice and agrees on a strategy for Union work in 1999.
    The Council adopts fixed and irrevocable conversion rates between the national currencies of 11 participating Member States and the Euro.
    1999JanuaryGermany takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union.
    The Euro is officially launched. Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal and Spain adopt the Euro as their official currency.
    Jacques Santer, President of the European Commission, calls for Parliament's confidence.
    FebruaryThe Agreement between the European Communities and Slovenia enters into force.
    MarchThe European Commission publishes the codes of conduct for Members of the Commission and the relations between Commissioners and Commission departments.
    Collective resignation of the Commission in wake of the report by the Committee of Independent Experts on the allegations regarding fraud, mismanagement and nepotism in the Commission. European Council declaration on the appointment of Mr Romano Prodi, new President of the Commission.
    A special European Council is held in Berlin, Germany. An overall agreement on Agenda 2000 is reached; Mr Prodi is asked to accept the task of being the President of the next European Commission and two statements on Kosovo are adopted.
    AprilThe Council approves a joint action providing support for the reception and voluntary repatriation of refugees, displaced persons and asylum seekers, including those who have fled from Kosovo.
    MayThe Amsterdam Treaty enters into force.
    The Parliament approves the nomination of Mr Romano Prodi as President of the Commission.
    JuneThe European Council meeting is held in Cologne, Germany. It adopts the first European Union common strategy, which concerns Russia, and declarations on Kosovo and on the strengthening of European common foreign and security policy, and designates Mr Javier Solana Madariaga High Representative for the CFSP and Secretary-General of the Council. It also adopts the European Employment Pact, sets out the brief of the forthcoming intergovernmental conference and decides to lay down an EU Charter of Fundamental Rights.
    The EU-US summit takes place in Bonn, Germany. The EU and the US undertake in a joint statement to strengthen their partnership under the New Transatlantic Agenda and, in particular, to work together to prevent and resolve international crises. They stress the importance of gradually establishing a common European security and defence policy.
    JulyFinland takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union.
    The new European Parliament elects Nicole Fontaine as its President.
    SeptemberThe European Parliament votes and approves the new Commission.
    OctoberA special European Council is held in Tampere, Finland. An agreement is reached on a number of guidelines and political priorities, in particular relating to the right of asylum, immigration, and access to justice and combating crime.
    NovemberA WTO meeting on the Millennium Round is held in Seattle, USA. Supposed to launch a new round of trade talks, it finishes with the participants unable to reach an agreement.
    DecemberA European Council is held in Helsinki, Finland. It decides to open accession negotiations with Romania, Slovakia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria and Malta and to recognize Turkey as an applicant country. It agrees to call an Intergovernmental Conference to revise the Treaties in February 2000.
    Note

    March 1947–June 1994 taken from Neil Nugent, The Government and Politics of the European Union, 1994, Macmillan, reproduced with permission of Palgrave.

    Bibliography

    Adams, C.F., Jr (1893) Railroads: Their Origins and Problems.
    Revised edition
    . New York: Putnam.
    Agence France Presse (1991) ‘French win 5.8 billion dollar contract for high speed train’, 29 May.
    Ahnfelt, E. and From, J. (1996) Politisamarbeid og europeisk integrasjon. Oslo: Ad Notam Gyldendal.
    Alesina, A. (1998) Corriere della Sera, 24 May.
    Alesina, A. and Perotti, R. (1996) Budget Deficits and Budget Institutions. NBER Working Paper 5556.
    Alexander, E.R. (1989) ‘Improbable implementation: the Pressman-Wildavsky paradox revisited’, Journal of Public Policy, 4: 451–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X00008345
    Alexander, V. and Anker, P. (1997) ‘Fiscal discipline and the question of convergence of national rates in the European Union’, Open Economies Review, 2: 335–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008234929142
    Allen, D. (1998) ‘Who speaks for Europe?: the search for an effective and coherent external policy’, in JohnPeterson and HeleneSjursen (eds), A Common Foreign Policy for Europe? Competing Visions of the CFSP. London: Routledge. pp. 41–58.
    Allen, D. and Smith, M. (1990) ‘Western Europe's presence in the contemporary international arena’, Review of International Studies, 16 (1): 19–37. Reprinted in Holland, M. (ed.) (1991) The Future of European Political Cooperation. London: Macmillan. pp. 95–120.
    Andersen, C. (1996) ‘European Union policy-making and national institutions – the case of Belgium’, in S.S.Andersen and K.A.Eliassen (eds), The European Union, How Democratic is it?London: Sage. pp. 83–100.
    Andersen, S.S. (1992) ‘The power of policy paradigms’, Working Paper: Norwegian School of Management, Oslo.
    Andersen, S.S. (1993) The Struggle over North Sea Oil and Gas. Government Strategies in Denmark, Britain and Norway. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press.
    Andersen, S.S. (1995) Europeisering av politikk Petroleum, indre marked og miljø. Oslo: Fagbokforlaget
    Andersen, S.S. (1997a) Case-studier og generalisering. Oslo: Fagbokforlaget.
    Andersen, S.S. (1997b) ‘East of markets – west of states. The negotiations over the Energy Charter Treaty’. Working Paper, Norwegian School of Management.
    Andersen, S.S. (1999) ‘Hvordan er EU mulig? et ny-insitusjonelt sosiologisk perspektiv’. ARENA Advanced Research on the Europeanization of the Nation State.
    Andersen, S.S. and Burns, T.R. (1992) Societal Decision-Making. Democratic Challenges to State Technocracy. Aldershot: Dartmouth.
    Andersen, S.S. and Burns, T.R. (1996) ‘The European Union and the erosion of parliamentary democracy: A study of post-parliamentary governance’, in S.S.Andersen and K.A.Eliassen (eds), European Union: How Democratic is it?London: Sage. pp. 227–52.
    Andersen, S.S. and Eliassen, K.A. (1991) ‘European Community lobbying’, European Journal of Political Research, 20: 173–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1991.tb00262.x
    Andersen, S.S. and Eliassen, K.A. (1992) ‘EF lobbying etter Maastricht’, Sosiologi idag no. 2.
    Andersen, S.S. and Eliassen, K.A. (1993a) ‘Complex policy-making: lobbying the EC, in S.S.Andersen and K.A.Eliassen (eds), Making Policy in Europe. London: Sage. pp. 35–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220092
    Andersen, S.S. and Eliassen, K.A. (eds) (1993b) Making Policy in Europe. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220092
    Andersen, S.S. and Eliassen, K.A. (1993c) ‘The EU as a new political system’, in S.S.Andersen and K.A.Eliassen (eds), Making Policy in Europe. London: Sage. pp. 3–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220092
    Andersen, S.S. and Eliassen, K.A. (1995) ‘EU-lobbying – the new research agenda’, European Journal of Political Research, 27 (4): 427–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1995.tb00478.x
    Andersen, S.S. and Eliassen, K.A. (1996) The European Union: How Democratic is it?London: Sage.
    Andersen, S.S. and Eliassen, K.A. (1998) ‘EU-lobbying – towards political segmentation in the European Union’, in P.H.Clayes, C.Gobin, I.Smets and P.Winands (eds), Lobbying, Pluralism and European Integration. Brussels: European Interuniversity Press. pp. 167–82.
    Andersen, S.S., Eliassen, K.A., Kuvaas, B. and From, J. (1991) ‘Norsk implementering av EØS-regler-Hva kan vi lære av Danrnark?’, Handelshøyskolen Bl. Arbeidsnotat 1991/46. (Rapport 1991–316–12) Senter for Europeiske studier.
    Andersen, S.S. and Midttun, A. (1989) The Articulation of Capital-Interests in Norway: Embeddedness and the Organization of Capital. Bærum: Norwegian School of Management.
    Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities (
    revised edition
    ). London: Verso.
    Anderson, C.W. (1977) ‘Political design and the representation of interests’, Comparative Political Studies, 10 (1): 127–51.
    Anderson, M. (1989) Policing the World: Interpol and the Politics of International Police Co-operation. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Anderson, M. (1992) ‘The agenda for European police cooperation’. ECPR, Joint Sessions of Workshops, Limerick 30 March-4 April 1992.
    Andresen, K. and Sjøvaag, M. (1997) ‘Interconnection – an issue on the European Regulatory Agenda. The situation in France, Germany and Britain’. BI Working Paper, Seas: T: 03.97.
    Archer, C. and Butler, F. (1992) The European Community: Structure and Process. New York: St Martin's Press.
    ART (1999) Rapport public d'activité 1998. Paris.
    Aspinwall, D.M. and Schneider, G. (1998) The Institutionalist Turn in Political Science and the Study of European Integration. Unpublished.
    Austvik, O.G. (1991) ‘Norwegian gas in the new Europe’, in O.G.Austvik (ed.), Norwegian Gas in the New Europe. Sandvika: Vett og viten. pp. 1–19.
    Austvik, O.G. (1996a) ‘Pricing of European gas: effects of liberalization and petroleum excise taxes’. Working paper. Lillehammer Høgsholen, Nr 6/1996.
    Austvik, O.G. (1996b) Liberalization of the European gas market: the workings of invisible and visible hands. Working paper. Lillehammer, Nr 31/1996.
    Austvik, O.G. (1997) ‘Petroleum taxation and the prices of oil and gas: perspectives from the supply side’. Working paper. Norwegian School of Management, Nr 4/1997.
    Axelrod, R. (1984) The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
    Axelrod, R. and Keohane, R. (1985) ‘Achieving cooperation under anarchy: strategies and institutions’, World Politics, V. 38: 226–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2010357
    Azzi, G.C. (1988) ‘What is this new research into the implementation of Community legislation bringing us?’, in H.Siedentopf and J.Ziller (eds), Making European Policies Work. Vol. I:Comparative Syntheses. Brussels and London: EIPA/Sage. pp. 190–201.
    Babarinde, O.A. (1995) ‘The Lomé Convention: an aging dinosaur in the European Union's foreign policy enterprise?’, in C.Rhodes and S.Mazey (eds), The State of the European Union. Vol. 3:Building a European policy?Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publisher. pp. 469–96.
    Baldwin, R.E. (1994) Towards an Integrated Europe. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.
    Barry, B. (1975) ‘Political Accommodation and Consociational Democracy’, British Journal of Political Science, (5): 477–505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400008322
    Bartholomew, M. and Brooks, T. (1989) ‘Lobbying Brussels to get what you need for 1992’, Wall Street Journal, 31 January: 7.
    Bartolini, S. (1997) ‘Exit options, boundary building, political structuring’. Florence. EUI-Working Paper No x.
    Bayoumi, T., Goldstein, M. and Woglom, G. (1995) ‘Do credit markets discipline sovereign borrowers? Evidence from U.S. States’, Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 27 (4): 1046–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2077788
    Bayoumi, T., Eichengreen, B. and Von Hagen, J. (1997) ‘European monetary unification: implications of research for policy, implications of policy for research’, Open Economies Review, 8: 71–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008231908799
    Beck, U. (1997) ‘The reinvention of politics: towards a theory of reflexive modernization’, in U.Beck, A.Giddens and S.Lash (eds), Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 1–56.
    Beck, U. (1999) ‘To whom belongs Europe’, European Journal of Social Quality, (1).
    Beck, W., van der Maesen, L. and Walker, A. (eds) (1997) The Social Quality of Europe. The Hague/Boston: Kluwer Law International. pp. 191–202.
    Beer, P. de (1991) ‘La visite de M. Michel Rocard en Corse du sud L'incontourriable dossier du TGV, Le Monde, 4 May.
    Beltran, A. (1993) ‘The French National Railways (SNCF) and the development of high speed trains, 1950–1981’, in S.Hultén, T.Flink and J.Whitelegg (eds), High Speed Trains: Fast Tracks to the Future. London: Leading Edge. pp. 30–8.
    Benner, D. and Lenzen, D. (eds) (1996) Education for the New Europe. Oxford: Berghan Books.
    Benyon, J. (1992) Police Co-operation in Europe. University of Leicester: Centre for the Study of Public Order.
    Bergesen, H.O. (1991) Symbol or Substance. The Climate Policy of the European Community. Oslo: Fridtjof Nansen Institute.
    Beukel, E. (1992) Uddannelsespolitik i EF. Nye mønstre i Europæisk integration. Odense: Odense Universitetsforlag.
    Beukel, E. (1994) ‘Reconstructing integration theory: the case of educational policy in the EC, Cooperation and Conflict, 29 (1): 33–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0010836794029001003
    Bigo, D. (1992) ‘The European internal security field’. ECPR Joint Sessions, Limerick.
    Birenbaum, P. (1985) ‘Political strategies of regulated organizations as functions of context and fear’, Strategic Management Journal, (4): 135–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250060204
    Bisignano, J. (1996) ‘Varieties of monetary policy operating procedures: balancing monetary objectives with market efficiency’, July Bank for International Settlements, Basle.
    Black, D. (1990) ‘European rail renaissance could leave Britain isolated; Government reluctance to help finance a high-speed link to the Channel tunnel may undermine the benefits of the single market’, The Independent, 13 June: 2.
    Black, D. (1991a) ‘High-speed rail plan for Europe socially divisive’, The Independent, 22 November: 8.
    Black, D. (1991b) ‘Tracks to nowhere: The Government believes that privatisation is the cure for the ills of British Rail. The rest of the world disagrees’, The Independent, 6 October: 19.
    Blackman, C.R. (1998) ‘Convergence between telecommunications and other media’, Telecommunications Policy, 22 (3): 163–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-5961%2898%2900003-2
    Boer, M. den (1991) ‘Schengen: intergovernmental scenario for European police cooperation’, Working Paper, University of Edinburgh, Department of Politics.
    Bohn, H.R. and Inman, R.P. (1996) ‘Balanced budget rules and public deficits: evidence from the U.S. States’, NBER Working Paper No. 5533. Cambridge, Mass.
    Boltanski, L. and Thevenot, L. (1991) De la Justification: Les Economies de la Grandeur. Paris: Gallimard.
    BostonGlobe (1988) ‘Florida unveils 4 plans for a high-speed train’, 29 March: 38.
    Boyer, R. (1996) ‘The convergence hypothesis revisited: globalization, but still the century of nations?’, in S.Berger and R.Dore (eds), National Diversity and Global Capitalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Bradshaw, J. (1991) ‘Institutional reform in the European Community beyond Maastricht’, EIU European Trends, 4.
    Brickman, R., Jasanoff, S. and Ilgen, T. (1985) Controlling Chemicals. The Politics of Regulation in Europe and the United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Broadman, H.G. and Balassa, C. (1993) ‘Liberalizing international trade in telecommunications services’, The Columbia Journal of World Business, Winter.
    Brociner, A. and Levine, P. (1991) ‘Fiscal policy co-ordination and E.M.U., a dynamic game approach’. The Centre for European Economic Studies.
    Brociner, A. and Levine, P. (1993) ‘EMU: a survey’. The Centre for European Economic Studies.
    Brock, C. and Tulasiewicz, W. (eds) (1994) Education in a Single Europe. London and New York: Routledge.
    Brodeur, J.P. (1983) ‘High policing and low policing: remarks about the policing of political activities’, Social Problems, 30 (5): 507–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1983.30.5.03a00030
    Bromberg, Elizabeth (1992) ‘European Community environmental policy: the role of the European Parliament’, Eighth Annual Conference of Europeanists, Chicago.
    Brunsson, N. (1989) The Organization of Hypocrisy: Talk, Decisions and Actions in Organizations. New York: John Wiley.
    Bråten, S. (1971) Mass-och MissKommunikation: Kontakteu Mellan Mænniskor Och Media. Stockholm: Beckmans.
    Buchanan, J.N., Burton, J. and Wagner, R.E. (1978) The Consequences of Mr Keynes. The Institute of Economic Affairs, Hobart Paper, London.
    Budd, S. and Jones, A. (1989) The European Community, A Guide to the Maze. London: Kogan Page.
    Buksti, J.A. (1980) ‘Corporate structures in Danish EC policy: patterns or organisational participation and adaptation’, Journal of Common Market Studies, XIX: 140–59.
    Buksti, J.A. and Johansen, L.N. (1979) ‘Variations in organizational participation in government: the case of Denmark’, Scandinavian Political Studies, (2): 197–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9477.1979.tb00219.x
    Buksti, J.A. and Martens, H. (1984) Interesseorganisationer i EF. Aarhus: Institut for Statskundskab.
    Bull, H. (1982) ‘Civilian power Europe: a contradiction in terms?’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 21 (2–3): 149–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1982.tb00866.x
    Bulmer, S. (1993) ‘The governance of the European Union: a new institutionalist approach’, Journal of Public Policy, 13 (4): 351–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X0000115X
    Bulmer, S.J. (1998) ‘New institutionalism and the governance of the Single European Market’, Journal of European Public Policy, 5 (3): 365–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/135017698343875
    Buzan, B., Kelstrup, M., Lemaitre, P., Tromer, E. and Wæver, O. (1990) The European Security Order Recast. Scenarios for the Post-Cold War Era. London and New York: Frances Pinter.
    Cahen, A. (1989) The Western European Union and NATO. London: Brassey's (UK).
    Calingaert, M. (1993) ‘Government business relations in the European Community’, California Management Review, Winter: 118–33.
    Callovi, G. (1992) ‘Regulation of immigration in 1993: pieces of the European Community jig-saw puzzle’, International Migration Review, 26: 353–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2547062
    Cameron, E. (1991) The European Reformation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Cameron, F. (1998) ‘Building a common foreign policy: do institutions matter?’, in JohnPeterson and HeleneSjursen (eds), A Common Foreign Policy for Europe? Competing Visions of the CFSP. London: Routledge. pp. 59–76.
    Campanella, M.L. (1995) ‘Getting the core: a neo-institutionalist approach to EMU’, Government and Opposition, 30: 347–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.1995.tb00132.x
    Campanella, M.L. (1996) ‘Central Bank independence and European Central Banking institutionbuilding’, Journal of Public Finance and Public Choice, 1: 57–97.
    Campanella, M.L. (1998) ‘EU fiscal discipline after 1999: the Pact of Stability’, ECSA Newsletter, fall issue, Pittsburgh.
    Campbell, J.L. (1994) ‘Recent trends in institutional analysis: bringing culture back in’. Working Paper, Harvard University, Department of Sociology.
    Campbell, J.L. (1998) ‘Institutional analysis and the role of ideas in political economy’, Theory and Society, 27: 377–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006871114987
    Campbell, J.L., Hollingsworth, J.R. and Lindberg, L.N. (eds) (1991) Governance of the American Economy. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511664083
    Capouet, Y. (1992) ‘Completion of the internal market for electricity and gas’, Energy in Europe, 19: 9–13.
    Cendrowicz, M. (1991) ‘The European Community's relationship with Turkey: looking backwards, looking forwards’. Paper presented at Marmaris Conference, June.
    CEPR (1995) ‘Flexible integration: towards a more effective and democratic Europe’, Monitoring European Integration 6. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.
    CERT (1993) Proposal on the Commission's Proposal for a Council Directive Concerning Common Rules for the Internal Market in Natural Gas. European Parliament.
    Chandler, A.D., Jr (1977) The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Checkel, J. (1998) ‘Social construction and integration’. University of Oslo: ARENA Working Paper 14/1998.
    Christiansen, T. (1996) ‘A maturing bureaucracy? The role of the Commission in the policy process’, in J.Richardson (ed.), European Union: Power and Policy-Making. London: Routledge. pp. 77–95.
    Chryssochoou, D.N. (1996) ‘Europe's could-be demos: recasting the debate’, West European Politics, 91: 787–801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402389608425165
    Chryssochoou, D.N. (1997) ‘New challenges to the study of European integration: implications for theory-building’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 35 (4): 521–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-5965.00087
    Cini, M. (1996) The European Commission: Leadership, Organisation and Culture in the EU Administration. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    CiniM. (1997) ‘Administrative culture in the European Commission: the cases of competition and environment’, in N.Nugent (ed.), At the Heart of the Union: Studies of the European Commission. London: Macmillan.
    Claeys, P.-H., Gobin, C., Smets, I. and Winand, P. (eds) (1998) La Cité Européene No. 16. Bruxelles: Libre de Bruxelles.
    Clements, B. (1998) ‘The impact of convergence on regulatory policy in Europe’, Telecommunications Policy, 22 (3): 197–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-5961%2898%2900007-X
    Close, G. (1978) ‘Harmonization of laws: use or abuse of the powers under the EEC Treaty’, European Law Review, 3: 461–68.
    Coen, D. (1998) ‘The European business interest and the nation state: large-firm lobbying in the European Union and member states,’Journal of Public Policy, 18: 75–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X9800004X
    Coffey, P. (1990) Main Economic Policy Areas of the ECC toward 1992: The Challenge to the Community's Economic Policies when the ‘Real’ Common Market is Created by the End of 1992. Dørdrecht: Kluwer Academic Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-0631-0
    Cohen, M.D., March, L.G. and Olsen, L.P. (1972) ‘A garbage-can model of organizational choice’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 17: 1–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392088
    Colchester, N. and Buchan, D. (1990) Europe Relaunched – Truths and Illusions on the Way to 1992. London: Hutchinson/Economist Books.
    COM (88) 174: Review of Member States' Energy Policies.
    COM (92) 226: Proposed EC Directive on Taxation of CO2 Emissions and Energy.
    Comité des Regions (1997) Final Declaration of the European Summit of the Regions and Cities in Amsterdam, May 1997. Brussels: Comité des Regions.
    Commissariat Général du Plan (1999) L'élargissement de l'Union européenne à l'est de l'Europe: des gains à escompter à l'Est et à l'Ouest. Paris: La Documentation Française.
    The Commission (1990) Environmental Policy in the European Community. Brussels: The European Community.
    Committee for the Study of Economic and Monetary Union (1989) Report on Economic and Monetary Union in the European Community. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the EC.
    Conference Européenne des Ministres des Transports (CEMT) (1990) ‘Investissements Publics et Privés dans le Secteur des Transports: Table Ronde 81’. Paris: OCDE.
    Conference Européenne des Ministres des Transports (CEMT) (1992) ‘Trains à Grande Vitesse: Table Ronde 87’. Paris: OCDE.
    Conference of the Representatives of the Member States (1997) Consolidated Version of the Treaty on European Union. Contents, CONF 4007/97 ADD 1, Brussels, 6 October 1997.
    Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (1991) ‘Charter of Paris for a New Europe and Supplementary Document to give effect to certain provisions of the Charter’, International Legal Materials, 30 (January): 190–228.
    Cordaro, G. (1990) ‘Towards 1992: the European Community telecommunications policy’, Telecommunications, (January): 33–5.
    Cornish, P. (1996) ‘European security: the end of architecture and the new NATO’, International Affairs, 72 (4): 751–69.
    Corsetti, G. and Roubini, N. (1993) ‘Political biases in fiscal policy: reconsidering the case for the Maastricht fiscal criteria’, in B.Eichengreen, J.Frieden and J.Von Hagen (eds), Monetary and Fiscal Policy in an Integrated Europe. Berlin: Springer. pp. 118–37.
    Council of the European Communities (1988) European Educational Policy Statements,
    third edition
    , June 1987. Brussels and Luxembourg: General Secretariat.
    Council of the European Communities (1990) European Educational Policy Statements, Supplement to the third edition (December 1989). Brussels and Luxembourg: General Secretariat.
    Cram, L. (1994) ‘The European Commission as a multi-organization: social policy and IT policy in the EU’, Journal of European Public Policy, 1 (2): 195–217.
    Crawford, M. (1996) One Money for Europe? The Economics and Politics of EMU. New York: St Martin's Press.
    Curtin, D. (1995) ‘The shaping of a European constitution and the 1996 IGC: ‘flexbility’ as a key paradigm?’, Aussenwirtschaft, 50 (1): 237–52.
    Curwen, P. (1997) Restructuring Telecommunications. A Study of Europe in a Global Context. London: Macmillan.
    Curwen, P. (1998) ‘Education, vocational training, and youth policy’, in D.Dinan (ed.), op. cit., pp. 159–61.
    Dahl, R.A. (1963) Modern Political Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Damgaard, E. and Eliassen, K.A. (1978) ‘Corporate pluralism in Danish law making’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 1 (4): 285–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9477.1978.tb00180.x
    Dang-Nguyen, G. (1986) ‘A European telecommunications policy. Which instruments for which prospects?’. Unpublished manuscript. Brest: ENST.
    Dang-Nguyen, G. (1988) ‘Telecommunications in France’, in J.Foreman-Peck and P.Muller (eds), European Telecommunications Organizations. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
    De GroofJ. and Friess, B. (1997) ‘Opportunities and limitations for a European education policy’, European Journal for Education Law and Policy, 1 (1–2): 9–17.
    Dehousse, R. (1992) ‘Integration v regulation? On the dynamics of regulation in the European Community’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 30 (4): 383–402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1992.tb00438.x
    Dehousse, R. (1995) ‘Constitutional reform in the European Community: are there alternatives to the Majoritarian avenue?’ in J.E.S.Hayward (ed.), Crisis of Representation in Europe. London: Frank Cass.
    Dehousse, R. and Weiler, J.H.H. (1990) ‘The legal dimension’, in W.Wallace (ed.), The Dynamics of European Integration. London and New York: Frances Pinter. pp. 242–60.
    De la Serre, Françoise. (1991) ‘The integration dilemma: enlarging and/or deepening the Community’, Futures, 23 (7): 739–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-3287%2891%2990056-8
    Delcourt, B. (1991) ‘EC decisions and directives on information technology and telecommunications’, Telecommunications Policy, 15: 15–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-5961%2891%2990040-I
    Delors, J. (1989) ‘The broad lines of Commission policy’, Agence Europe. Documents No 1542/1543 (26 January).
    Denmark, Ministry of Economics (1996) EU's Udvidelse mød øst: Økonomiske perspektiver. Copenhagen: J.H. Schultz Information A/S.
    De Witte, B. (ed.) (1989a) European Community Law of Education. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.
    De Witte, B. (1992) ‘The influence of European Community law on national systems of higher education’, in J.Pertek (ed.), General Recognition of Diplomas and Free Movement of Professionals, Seminar Proceedings. Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration. pp. 73–89.
    Diehl, J. (1988) ‘Choking on their own development’, Washington Post, National Weekly Edition, 4 June: 9.
    DiMaggio, P.L. and Powell, W.W. (1983) ‘The iron cage revisited: institutionalized isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields’, American Sociological Review, 48: 147–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095101
    Dinan, Desmond (1998) Encyclopedia Of the European Union. London: Macmillan.
    Dobbin, F. (1993a) ‘The social construction of the great depression: industrial policy during the 1930s in the United States, Britain, and France’, Theory and Society, 22: 1–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00993447
    Dobbin, F. (1993b) ‘Public policy and the development of high speed trains in France and the United States’, in JohnWhitelegg, StaffanHultén and TorbjörnFlink (eds), High Speed Trains. London: Leading Edge. pp. 124–44.
    Dobbin, F. (1994) Forging Industrial Policy. The United States, Britain and France in the Railway Age. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139174183
    Dobbin, F. (Forthcoming) States and Industrial Cultures. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Docksey, C. and Williams, K. (1997) ‘The European Commission and the execution of Community policy’, in G.Edwards and D.Spence (eds), The European Commission,
    second edition
    . London: Catermill.
    Dogan, R. (1997) ‘Comitology: little procedures with big implications’, West European Politics, 20 (3): 31–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402389708425204
    Donnelly, J. (1986) ‘International human rights: a regime analysis’, International Organization, 40: 559–642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300027296
    Dordick, H.S. (1990) ‘The origins of universal service. History as a determinant of telecommunications policy’, Telecommunications Policy, 14: 223–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-5961%2890%2990042-P
    Dore, J. and De Bauw, R. (1995) The Energy Charter Treaty. London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.
    Douglas, M. (1986) How Institutions Think. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
    Doukas, K.A. (1945) The French Railroads and the State. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Drucker, P.F. (1989) The New Realities. In Government and Politics/In Economics and Business/In Society and World View. New York: Harper & Row.
    Duchene, F. (1972) ‘Europe's role in world peace’, in RichardMayne (ed.), Europe Tomorrow. London: Fontana.
    Duff, A., Pinder, J. and Pryce, R. (1994) Maastricht and Beyond. Building the European Union. London: Routledge.
    Duke, S. (1996) ‘The second death (or the second coming?) of the WEU’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 34 (2): 167–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1996.tb00568.x
    Dunham, A.L. (1941) ‘How the first French railways were planned’, Journal of Economic History, 14: 12–25.
    Dyson, K. (1983) ‘The cultural, ideological and structural context’, in K.Dyson and S.Wilks (eds), Industrial Crisis: A Comparative Study of the State and Industry. Oxford: Martin Robertson. pp. 22–66.
    Dyson, K. (1986) ‘West European states and the communications revolution’, West European Politics, 9 (4): 10–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402388608424598
    Dølvig, J.E. (1999) ‘The global challenge: convergence or divergence of national labour market institutions?’, ARENA paper, unpublished.
    Ebel, R.E. (1994) Energy Choices in Russia. Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies.
    EC (1989) ‘Commission opinion on Turkey's request for accession to the Community’, SEC(89) 2290 final, Brussels, 18 December.
    EC (1990) Environmental Policy in the European Community,
    fourth edition
    . Luxembourg: Office of Official Publications on the European Communities.
    EC (1991) ‘A strategy for enlargement. Preliminary report of the SG Study Group on Enlargement’. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities, 14 November.
    EC (1992) ‘Europe and the challenge of enlargement’, Europe Documents No. 1790, 3 July.
    EC (1993) ‘Presidency Conclusions, The European Council, Copenhagen, 21–22 June’, EC Bulletin, No 6.
    EC (1994) ‘Report from the Council to the Essen European Council on a strategy to prepare for accession of the associated CEEC, Europe Documents No. 1916, 14 December.
    ECB Monthly Bulletin (2000) January.
    Economic and Social Committee (1980) European Interest Groups and Their Relationships with the Economic and Social Committee. Farnborough: Saxon House.
    Economist (1983) ‘Faster trains, bigger losses’, 19 November: 76.
    Economist (1984) ‘On a rail and a prayer’, 6 September: 49.
    Economist (1985a) ‘Return train’, 24 August: 53–60.
    Economist (1985b) ‘The world and its railways: redefining their role’, 31 August: 25–32.
    Economist (1985c) ‘The world and its railways: higher speeds and lower costs’, 7 September: 33–8.
    Economist (1985d) ‘The world and its railways: the fast track’, 14 September: 25–8.
    Economist (1988) ‘A faster route to Europe’, 16 July: 53–4.
    Economist (1989) ‘Faster and still faster’, 18 September: 52.
    Economist (1989) ‘Freedom to be “Cleaner than the rest”’, 14 October: 21–4.
    Economist (1991a) ‘A wall of waste’, 30 November: 73.
    Economist (1991b) ‘Dirty dozen’, 20 July: 52.
    Economist (1991c) ‘Free trade's Green Hurdle’, 15 June: 61.
    Economist (1991d) ‘The other fortress Europe’, 1 June.
    Economist (1992) ‘Europe's immigrants: strangers inside the gates’, 15 February.
    Economist (1994) ‘Europe's railways: light at the end of the tunnel’, 29 October: 23.
    Economist (1996) ‘Transport and infrastructure: Europe's new model railways’, 28 September: 73.
    Economist (1999) ‘The rail billionaires: the privatisation of British Rail has proved a disastrous failure’, 3 July: 57–60.
    Edwards, G. (1996) ‘National sovereignty vs integration? The Council of Ministers’, in J.Richardson (ed.), European Union: Power and Policy-Making. London: Routledge.
    Edwards, G. and Nuttall, S. (1994) ‘Common foreign and security policy’, in A.Duff, J.Pinder and R.Pryce (eds), Maastricht and Beyond: Building the European Union. London: Routledge. pp. 84–103.
    Egeberg, M. (1996) ‘Organization and nationality in the European Commission services’, Public Administration, 74 (4): 721–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9299.1996.tb00892.x
    Egeberg, M., Olsen, J.P. and Saetren, H. (1978) ‘Organisasjonssamfunnet og den segmenterte stat’, in J.P.Olsen (ed.), Politisk Organisering. Oslo: Universitesforlaget. pp. 115–84.
    Eichengreen, B. and Von Hagen, J. (1996) ‘Fiscal restrictions and monetary union: rationales, repercussions, reforms’, Empirica, 232: 23.
    Eichengreen, B. and Wyplosz, C. (1998) ‘Stability pact. More than a minor nuisance?’, Economic Policy, (April): 67–112.
    Eisenstadt, S.X. (1972) ‘Social Institutions’, in D.L.Sills (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 13: 409–29.
    Eldevik, F. (1999) Liberalisering av gassmarkedet i europa. EUs gassdirektiv av 1998. ARENA-report 4/1999.
    Eliassen, K.A. (1995) ‘Legitimacy, effectiveness and the europeification of national policy-making’, in M.Telò (ed.), Démocratie Européene. Brussels: Institut d'Etudes Européennes.
    Eliassen, K.A. (1998) ‘Introduction: the new European foreign and security policy agenda’, in K.A.Eliassen (ed.), Foreign and Security Policy in the European Union. London: Sage. pp. 1–8.
    Eliassen, K.A. and Mydske, K.K. (1991) ‘EF og Norsk Utdanning i 90-Årene’. Arbeidsnotat 1991/28. Oslo: Senter for europeiske studier.
    Eliassen, K.A. and Sjøvaag, M (1999) European Telecommunications Liberalisation. London: Routledge.
    Engineering News Record (1985) ‘High speed rail line feasible’, 31 October: 14.
    Engineering News Record (1986) ‘High-speed rail network under study in Europe’, 6 March: 16.
    Engineering News Record (1998) ‘German high-speed rail crash hasn't derailed expansion’, 15 June: 16–18
    Englund, C. (1999) ‘The global mobile market and regulatory aspects’, in K.A.Eliassen and M.Sjøvaag (eds), European Telecommunications Liberalisation. London: Routledge.
    Ensminger, J. (1998) ‘Anthropology and the new institutionalism’, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 154 (4): 774–89.
    Epstein, E. (1969) The Corporation in American Politics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Eriksen, E.O., Føllesdal, A and Malnes, R. (1995) ‘Europeanisation and Normative Political theory’, ARENA working paper.
    Europe Agreements (1992) ‘Establishing an Association between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one Part and Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, of the other Part’. Mimeo.
    Europe Documents (1991a) No. 1683, 15 January.
    Europe Documents (1991b) No. 1712, 22 May.
    Europe Documents (1992) No. 1790, 3 July.
    Europe Documents (1996) ‘State of progress in preparing for EU enlargement: Commission Information Memo. No 2000, 9 August.
    EU (1994) ‘Report from the Council to the Essen European Council on a strategy to prepare for accession of the associated CEEC, Europe Documents No. 1916, 14 December.
    EU (1995a) ‘White Paper: Preparation of the Associated Countries of Central and Eastern Europe for Integration into the Internal Market of the Union (presented by the Commission)’, COM(95) 163 final, Brussels, 03.05.1995, annex 10.05.1995.
    EU (1995b) ‘Presidency Conclusions, Madrid Summit’, Europe, No 6629, 17 December.
    EU (1997a) ‘Agenda 2000: For a stronger and wider Union. Document drawn up on the basis of COM(97) 2000 final’, Bulletin of the European Union. Supplement 5/97.
    EU (1997b) Presidency Conclusions, Luxembourg European Council, 12–12–1997 (available on the Internet:http://www.europa.eu.int under Council of the European Union, Press Release Library).
    EU (1998a) Presidency Conclusions, Cardiff European Council, 15 and 16 June 1998 (available on the Internet:http://www.europa.eu.int under European Council).
    EU (1998b) Composite Paper: Reports on Progress towards accession by each of the candidate countries (available on Internet:http://www.europa.eu.int under Commission – policies – enlargement).
    EU (1998c) Presidency Conclusions, Vienna European Council, 11 and 12 December 1998.
    EU (1999a) Council – Agriculture (22/02–11/03), Press Release No. 6124/99.
    EU (1999b) Presidency Conclusions, Berlin European Council, 24 and 25 March 1999.
    EU (1999c) Presidency Conclusions, Cologne European Council, 3 and 4 June 1999.
    European Central Bank (2000) Monthly Bulletin, January.
    European Communities, Commission (1988) Energy in Europe: Energy Policies and Trends in the European Community. Brussels.
    European Communities, Commission (1989) ‘Avis de la Commission sur la demande d'adhesion de la Turquie à la Communauté’, SEC(89) 2290 final, Brussels, 18 December.
    European Communities, Commission (1990a) ‘Communication from the Commission to the Council and the Parliament. Association agreements with the countries of central and eastern Europe: a general outline’ COM(90) 398 final, Brussels, 27 August.
    European Communities, Commission (1990b) Directorate-General Information, Communication, Culture, ‘The European Community and Cyprus’, April.
    European Communities, Commission (1991) ‘Secretariat General, A Strategy for Enlargement: Preliminary Report of the SG Study Group on Enlargement’, Brussels, 14 November.
    European Communities, Council and Commission (1992) Treaty on European Union. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
    European Communities, Court of Justice (1991) ‘Opinion of the Court 14 December 1991’. Opinion 1/91.
    European Communities, Court of Justice (1992) ‘Opinion of the Court 10 April 1992’. Opinion 1/92.
    European Community Education Cooperation (1986) The First Decade: The Education Information Network in the European Community. Brussels: Eurydice.
    European Conference of Ministers of Transport (1986) European Dimension and Future Prospects of the Railways. Paris: OECD.
    European Council (1992) ‘European Council in Edinburgh −11 −12 December 1992 – Conclusions of the Presidency’, Agence Europe, 13 December.
    European Educational Policy Statements (1988)
    third edition
    , June 1987. Brussels and Luxembourg: Council of the European Communities. General Secretariat.
    European Educational Policy Statements (1990) Supplement to the third edition, December 1989. Brussels and Luxembourg: Council of the European Communities. General Secretariat.
    EUROSTAT (1996) ‘European Union (EU) Trade with Central and Eastern European Countries: Results for 1995’, Statistics in Focus: External Trade, No 7.
    EUROSTAT (1997) ‘EU applicants' trade and growth take off, but living stands 70% below EU’, Memo 13/97, 12 December.
    Evans, H.E. (1998) ‘EU energy and environmental policy: putting the case for a merger’, Energy Economist, June 1998.
    Falk, R. (1997) ‘State of siege: will globalization win out?’, International Affairs, 73: 123–36.
    Fangmann, H. (1990) ‘Die Europåisierung des Femmeldewesens. Ohne demokratische Legitimation’, Gewerkschaftliche Praxis, 35(1): 22–8.
    Faujas, A. (1991a) ‘Un programme de 210 milliards de francs Le schema directeur TGV prevoit la construction de seize lignes ferroviaires à grande vitesse’, Le Monde, 16 May.
    Faujas, A. (1991b) ‘Le preferant a son concurrent allemand Le Texas a choisi le TGV français’, Le Monde, 30 May.
    Faujas, A. (1991c) ‘Le ministre de l'equipement partisan d'un ‘vaste debat’ sur les projets d'infrastructures’, Le Monde, 13 September.
    Faujas, A. (1991d) ‘Il y a dix ans Le TGV Paris-Lyon sauve le chemin de fer’, Le Monde, 23 September.
    Faujas, A. (1991e) ‘Ameliorations, innovations La SNCF developpe des liaisons TGV de province a province’, Le Monde, 30 September.
    Fijnaut, C. (1991) ‘Police co-operation in Europe’, in F.Heidensohn and M.Farrell (eds), Crime in Europe. London: Routledge. pp. 103–20.
    Fijnaut, C. (1992) ‘Policing Western Europe: Interpol, Trevi and Europol’, Police Studies, 15 (3): 101–106.
    Financial Times (1992) ‘Railway finance’, 1 May: 14.
    Finnemore, M. (1990) ‘International organizations as teachers of norms: UNESCO and science policy’. Department of Political Science, Stanford University.
    Finnemore, M. (1996) ‘Norms, culture and world politics: insights from sociology's institutionalism’, International Organization, 50 (2): 325–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300028587
    Finnish Presidency (1999) ‘The prevention and control strategy for the beginning of the new millenium’ (to Multidisciplinary Working Group on Organized Crime MDG).
    Fischer, W. and Lundgreen, P. (1975) ‘The recruitment and training of administrative personnel’, in C.Tilly (ed.), The Formation of National States in Western Europe. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Fjeldstad, Ø. (1999) ‘The value system in telecommunications’, in K.A.Eliassen and M.Sjøvaag (eds), European Telecommunications Liberalisation. London: Routledge.
    Fligstein, N. (1996) ‘Markets as politics: a political-cultural approach to market institutions’, American Sociological Review, 61: 656–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2096398
    Fligstein, N. (1999) Stability and Change in the Europeanization of Firms. ARENA presentation, June.
    Fligstein, N. and Brantley, P. (1992) ‘The 1992 Single Market programme and the interests of business’. Mimeo, Department of Sociology, University of California at Berkeley.
    Fligstein, N. and Byrkjeflot, H. (1996) ‘The logic of employment systems’, in J.N.Baron, D.Grusky and D.Treiman (eds), Social Differentiation and Social Inequality. Boulder, CO: Westview. pp. 11–36.
    Fligstein, N. and Freeland, R. (1995) ‘Theoretical and comparative perspectives on corporate organization’, Annual Review of Sociology, 21: 21–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.21.080195.000321
    Fligstein, N. and Mara-Drita, I. (1996) ‘How to make a market: reflections on the attempt to create a single market in the European Union’, American Journal of Sociology, 102: 1–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/230907
    Flink, T. (1991) ‘The economic and technical effects of an extended lead-time in R&D projects – the case of the Swedish high speed trains’. Mimeo, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Flink, T. (1992) ‘On the revitalisation of mature industries: the case of high speed trains in Italy’. Mimeo, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Flynn, G. (1991) ‘The CSCE and the new European order’, in M.Wyatt (ed.), CSCE and the New Blueprint for Europe. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, Georgetown University. pp. 23–33.
    Forster, A. (1998) ‘Britain and the negotiations of the Maastricht Treaty. A critique of intergovernmentalism’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 36 (3): 347–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-5965.00114
    Forster, A. and Wallace, W. (1996) ‘Common Foreign and Security Policy’, in H.Wallace and W.Wallace (eds), Policy-making in the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 411–35.
    Fredebeul-Krein, M. and Freytag, A. (1997) ‘Telecommunications and WTO discipline’, Telecommunications Policy, 21 (6): 477–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-5961%2897%2900029-3
    Freeman, L. (1991) ‘Foreign trains could run on BR tracks’, Press Association Newsfile, 11 July.
    Freestone, D. (1991) ‘European Community environmental policy and law’, Journal of Law and Society, 18: 135–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1410105
    Friedman, M. (1995) ‘Balanced budget: amendment must put limit on taxes’, Wall Street Journal, 4: A12.
    From, J. (1998) The role of the EU Competition Directorate General (DG IV) in implementing EU competition policy. Doctoral Dissertation, Sussex European Institute.
    Funfter Gesamtbericht Uber die Tatigheit der Gemeinschaften (1971) Brussels.
    Føllesdal, A (1997) ‘Democracy and federalism in the European Union’ ARENA working paper 5/1997.
    Gabel, M.J. (1998) ‘The endurance of supranational governance: a consociational interpretation of the European Union’, Comparative Politics, (July): 463–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/422334
    Gable, R.M. (1953) ‘NAM: influential lobby or kiss of death?’, Journal of Politics, 254–73.
    Garfinkel, L. (1994) ‘The transition to competition in telecommunications services’, Telecommunications Policy, 18: 427–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-5961%2894%2990011-6
    Garrett, G. (1992a) ‘International cooperation and institutional choice’, International Organization, 46: 533–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300027806
    Garrett, G. (1992b) ‘Intergovernmental bargaining and European integration’, paper presented at the International Conference of Europeanists, Chicago.
    General Report On The Activities Of The European Communities. Brussels (published annually).
    George, S. (1985) Politics and Policy in the European Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    George, S. (1991) Politics and Policy in the European Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    George, S. (1996) Politics and Policy in the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Gerbet, P. (1983) La construction de l'Europe. Paris: Imprimerie nationale.
    Ghebali, V.Y. (1992) ‘La CSCE à la recherche de son rôle dans la nouvelle Europe’, in M.Telo (ed.), Vers une nouvelle Europe?Brussels: Editions de Université de Bruxelles. pp. 49–79.
    Ginsberg, R.H. (1989) ‘US-EC relations’, in J.Lodge (ed.), The European Community and the Challenge of the Future. London: Frances Pinter. pp. 256–78.
    Giovannini, A. and Spaventa, L. (1990) ‘Fiscal rules in the European Monetary Union: a no-entry clause’, CEPR Working Paper, No 516, Brussels.
    Gomien, D., Harris, D. and ZwaakL. (1996) Law and Practice of the European Convention on Human Rights and the European Social Charter. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.
    Gosh, A.R. and Masson, P.R. (1994) Economic Cooperation in an Uncertain World. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Gowan, P. and Anderson, P. (1997) The Question of Europe. London: Verso.
    Granovetter, M. (1985) ‘Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness’, American Journal of Sociology, 91: 481–510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228311
    Grant, C. (1994) Jacques Delors: The House that Jacques Built. London: Nicholas Brearley.
    Grant, W. (ed.) (1985) The Political Economy of Corporatism. London: Macmillan.
    Greenwood, J. (1997) Representing Interests in the European Union. London: Macmillan.
    Greenwood, J. and Aspinwall, M. (eds) (1998) Collective Action in the European Union. London: Routledge.
    Greenwood, L., Grote, J.R. and Ronit, K. (eds) (1992) Organized Interests and the European Community. London: Sage.
    Gregory, F. and Collier, A. (1992) ‘Cross frontier crime and international crime problems, achievements and prospects with reference to European police cooperation’, in M.Anderson and M.den Boer (eds) European Police Co-operation. Proceedings of a Seminar, University of Edinburgh, Department of Politics, pp. 71–92.
    Gretschman, K. (1997) ‘Vision or revision. Managing Europe's way to EMU’, EIPASCOPE, (1–2): 16–19.
    Gros, D. (1995) Towards a Credible Excessive Deficits Procedure. CEPS Working Document No 95, Center for European Policy Studies.
    Gros, D. and Thygesen, N. (1998) European Monetary Integration. Essex: Longman.
    Grote, J.R. (1990) ‘Steuerungsprobleme in transnationalen Beratungsgremien: Uber soziale Kosten unkoordinierter Regulierung in der EG’, in T.Eilwein, J.J.Hesse, R.Mayntz and F.M.Scharpf (eds), Jahrbuch zur Staats-und Verwaitungswissenschaft, Vol. 4. Baden-Baden: Nomos. pp. 227–54.
    Grupp, H. and Schnöring, T (1992) ‘Research and development in telecommunications’, Telecommunications Policy, 16: 839–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-5961%2892%2990083-2
    Gustavsson, S. (1999) ‘Myntunion utan fiskal union – det politiske hållbarhetsproblemet’. Unpublished paper. Uppsala: Statsvetenskapliga Institutionen.
    Haar, J.H. (1991) European Integration and Interventionist Political Forces in Britain and Denmark. Aarhus: Institut for Statskundskab.
    Haas, E.B. (1964) Beyond the Nation State. Functionalism and International Organization. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Haas, E.B. (1968) The Uniting of Europe. Political, Social, And Economic Forces 1950–57. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press (first published 1958).
    Haas, E.B. (1990) When Knowledge Is Power. Three Models of Change in International Organizations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Habermas, J. (1962) Borgerlig offentlighet – dens framvekst og forfall. Oslo: Gyldendal norsk forlag (1971).
    Habermas, J. (1997) ‘Reply to Grimm’, in P.Gowan and P.Anderson (eds) The Question of Europe. London: Verso. pp. 259–64.
    Haigh, N. (1989) EEC Environmental Policy and Britain,
    second edition
    . Harlow: Longman.
    Haigh, N. and Baldock, D. (1989) ‘Environmental Policy and 1992’, London: Institute for European Environmental Policy.
    Hall, P. (1986) Governing the Economy: The Politics of State Intervention in Britain and France. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Hall, P. (1992) ‘The movement from Keynesianism to monetarism: institutional analysis and British economic policy in the 1970s’, in S.Steinmo, K.Thelen and F.Longstreth (eds), Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Politics: State, Society, and Economy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Hall, P.A. (1993) ‘Policy paradigms, social learning and the state: the case of economic policy making in Britain’, Comparative Politics, 25: 275–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/422246
    Hall, P.A. and Taylor, Rosemary C.R. (1996) ‘Political science and the three new institutionalisms’, Political Studies, 44: 936–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.1996.tb00343.x
    Hallstein, W., Goetz, H. and Narjes, K.H. (1969) Der unvollendete Bundesstaat Europdische Erfahrungen und Erkenntnisse. Düsseldorf: Econ.
    Halpern, S.M. (1986) ‘The disorderly universe of consociational democracy’, West European Politics, 9 (2): 181–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402388608424573
    Hamel, J., Dufour, S. and Fortin, D. (1993) ‘Case-study methods’, Qualitative Research Methods Series, 32. London: Sage.
    Hancher, L. (1998) EU energy policy. Norwegian School of Management: Report 4/1998.
    Harrison, M. (1991) ‘BR train delay could boost tunnel costs’, The Independent, 12 November: 23.
    Hart, T. (1998) ‘A dynamic universal service for a heterogenerous European Union’, Telecommunications Policy, 22 (10): 839–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-5961%2898%2900068-8
    Hayes, M.T. (1981) Lobbyists and Legislators. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Hayes-Renshaw, F. and Wallace, H. (1997) The Council of Ministers. New York: St Martin's Press.
    Hayward, J. (1974) The One and Indivisible French Republic. New York: Norton.
    Heisier, M.O. (1979) ‘Corporate pluralism revisited: where is theory?’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 2(3): 277–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9477.1979.tb00223.x
    Held, D. (1993) ‘Democracy: from city-states to a cosmopolitan order?’, in D.Held (ed.), Prospects for Democracy. North, South, East, West. Oxford: Polity Press. pp. 13–52.
    Held, D. (1995) Democracy and the Global Order: From the Modern State to Cosmopolitical Governance. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Helenions, R. (1994) ‘From protecting of rights to negotiating reforms’. Paper presented at Logic Group Membership in the New Europe, Madrid.
    Henning, R.C. (1995) ‘System, power, and European monetary integration’. Unpublished paper.
    Herman, R. (1988) ‘An ecological epiphany’, Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 5–11 December: 19.
    Hermans, S. (1997) ‘The Socrates programme: from negotiations to implementation’, European Journal for Education Law and Policy, 1 (1–2): 19–39.
    Hill, C. (1992) ‘EPC's performance in crises’, in ReinhardtRummel (ed.), ‘Toward Political Union: Planning a Common Foreign and Security Policy in the European Community’;. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. pp. 135–46.
    Hill, C. (1993) ‘The capabilities expectations gap, or conceptualising Europe's global role’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 31 (3): 305–28. Reprinted in S.Bulmer and D.Scott (eds) (1994) Economic and Political Integration in Europe: Internal Dynamics and Global Context. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 103–26.
    Hill, C. (1996) ‘United Kingdom: sharpening contradictions’, in C.Hill (ed.), The Actors in Europe's Foreign Policy. London: Routledge. pp. 68–89.
    Hill, C. (1998) ‘Closing the capabilities-expectations gap?’, in J.Peterson and H.Sjursen (eds), A Common Foreign Policy for Europe? Competing Visions of the CFSP. London: Routledge. pp. 18–38.
    Hill, C. and Wallace, W. (1996) ‘Introduction: actors and actions’, in C.Hill (ed.), The Actors in Europe's Foreign Policy. London: Routledge. pp. 1–16.
    Hills, J. (1986) Deregulating Telecoms: Competition and Control in the United States, Japan and Britain. London: Pinter.
    Hix, S. (1998) ‘The study of the European Union II: the new “governance” agenda and its rival’, Journal of European Public Policy, 5(1): 38–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13501768880000031
    Hix, S. (1999) The Political System of the European Union. London: Macmillan.
    Hix, S. and Lord, C. (1996) ‘The making of a president: the European Parliament and the confirmation of Jacques Santer as President of the Commission’, Government and Opposition, 31 (1): 62–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.1996.tb00149.x
    Höerth, M (1999) ‘No way out for the beast? The unsolved legitimacy problem of European governance’, Journal of European Public Policy, 6 (2): 249–68.
    Hoffmann, S. (1965) ‘The European process at Atlantic cross purposes’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 3(2): 85–101.
    Hoffmann, S. (1982) ‘Reflections on the nation state in Western Europe today’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 21: 21–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1982.tb00637.x
    Hoffmann, S. (1992) ‘Balance, concert, anarchy, or none of the above’, in G.F.Treverton (ed.), The Shape of the New Europe. New York: Council of Foreign Relations Press. pp. 194–20.
    Holmes, P. and McGowan, F. (1997) ‘The changing dynamic of EU-industry relations: lessons from the liberalization of European car and airline markets’, in H.Wallace and A.R.Young (eds), Participation and Policy-making in the European Union. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Hooghe, L. (1999) ‘Images of Europe: orientations to European integration among senior officials in the Commission’, British Journal of Political Science, 29: 345–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123499000150
    Hoop, J.J. van der (1991) ‘Europe: is rail the way; the railroad industry situation’, Information Access, October: 80.
    Howlett, M. and Ramesh, M. (1995) Studying Public Policy. Policy Cycles and Policy Subsystems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Huefner, K., NaumanJ. and Meyer, J.W. (1987) ‘Comparative educational policy research: a world society perspective,’ in M.Direkes, H.Weiler and A.Antal (eds), Comparative Policy Research. Aldershot: Gower. pp. 188–243.
    Hultén, S and Flink, T. (1993) ‘The Swedish high speed train project’, in J.Whitelegg, S.Hultén and T.Flink (eds), High Speed Trains: fast tracks to the future. London: Leading Edge. pp. 89–103.
    Hurwitz, L. and Lequesne, C. (eds) (1991) The State Of The European Community. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
    Hyde-Price, A. (1991) European Security beyond the Cold War: Four Scenarios for the Year 2010. London: Sage.
    Ifestos, P. (1987) European Political Cooperation. Aldershot: Averbury.
    Inman, R.P. (1996) Do Balanced Budget Rules Work? U.S. Experience and Possible Lessons for the EMU. National Bureau of Economic Research. NBER Working Paper, No 5838 Cambridge, MA.
    International Railway Journal (1990) ‘SNCF takes Initiative on HS network’, June: 10.
    Issing, Otmar (1996) Europe: Political Union through Common Money?London: The Institute of Economic Affairs.
    Iversen, A.W. (1992) ‘EFs Miljøpolitikk’, in S.S.Andersen and K.A.Eliassen (eds), Det nye Europa. Oslo: Tano. pp. 108–22.
    Jachtenfuchs, M. (1995) ‘Theoretical perspectives on European governance’, European Law Journal, 1 (2): 115–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0386.1995.tb00010.x
    Jachtenfuchs, M. and Kohler-Koch, B. (1996) ‘Regieren im dynamischen Mehrebensystem’, in M.Jachtenfuchs and B.Kohler-Koch (eds), Europäische Integration. Opladen: Leske and Budrich. pp. 15–47.
    Jachtenfuchs, M., Diez, M. and Jung, S. (1998) Ideas and integration: conflicting models of a legitimate European political order'. Paper presented at Fifth Biennial Conference of the European Community Studies Association, 29 May–1 June 1997. Published inEuropean International Relations, 4 (4): 409–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354066198004004002
    Jacobs, F., Corbett, R. and Shackleton, M. (1992) The European Parliament,
    second edition
    . Harlow: Longman.
    Jacquemin, A. and Sapir, A. (1996) ‘Is a European hard core credible? A statistical analysis’, Kyklos, 49 (2): 105–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6435.1996.tb01387.x
    Jakobsen, M. (1992) ‘Europe in the 1990s: the stability in sight’. Occasional Paper No 37. Geneva: EFTA.
    Jaks, J. (1992) ‘Challenges and paradoxes on the way to a united democratic Europe’, in A.Cleese and R.Tokes (eds), The Economic and Social Imperatives of the Future Europe. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
    Jepperson, R.L. and Meyer, J.W. (1991) ‘The public order and the construction of formal organizations’, in P.J.DiMaggio and W.W.Powell (eds), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 204–31.
    Johansen, L.X. and Kristensen, O.P. (1982) ‘Corporatist traits in Denmark 1946–1976’, in Lernbruch and P.C.Schmitter (eds), Patterns of Corporatism in Policy-Making. Beverly Hills: Sage.
    Jordan, G. and McLaughlin, A. (1991) The Rationality of Lobbying in Europe: Why are Euro Groups so Numerous and so Weak?Oxford: Centre for European Studies Discussion.
    Kaiser, K. (1972) ‘Transnational relations as a threat to the democratic process’, in R.O.Keohane and J.S.Nye (eds), Transnational Relations and World Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 356–70.
    Kenis, P. and Schneider, V. (1987) ‘The EC as an international corporate actor: two case studies in economic diplomacy’, European Journal of Political Research, 15: 437–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1987.tb00886.x
    Keohane, R.O. (1988) ‘International institutions: two approaches’, International Studies Quarterly, 32: 379–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2600589
    Keohane, R.O. and Hoffmann, S. (1990) ‘Conclusions: community politics and institutional change’, in W.Wallace (ed.), The Dynamics of European Integration. London: Frances Pinter. pp. 276–300.
    Keohane, R.O. and Hoffmann, S. (1991) The New European Community. Oxford: Westview Press.
    Keohane, R.O. and Nye, J.S. (1974) ‘Transgovernmental relations and international organizations’, World Politics, 27: 39–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2009925
    Keohane, R.O. and Nye, J.S. (1977) Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
    Kierzkowski, H. (1996) ‘Central Europe looks west’, in S.Arndt and C.Milner (eds), The World Economy: Global Trade Policy 1996. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 29–44.
    Kinnock, N. (1998) ‘Using public-private partnerships to develop transport infrastructure’, RAPID, 14 February Speech 98/37 (Commission of the European Communities).
    Kintis, A.G. (1997) ‘The EU's foreign policy and the war in former Yugoslavia’, in M.Holland (ed.), Common Foreign and Security Policy: the Record and Reforms. London: Pinter. pp. 148–73.
    Kirchner, E.J. (1981) The Role of Interest Groups in the European Community. Aldershot: Gower.
    Kirchner, E.J. (1992) Decision Making in the European Community: The Council Presidency and European Integration. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Kirchner, E.J. (1994) ‘The European Community: a transnational democracy?’, in I.Budge and D.McKay (eds), Developing Democracy. London: Sage. pp. 253–66.
    Kirkland, R. (1988) ‘Environmental anxiety goes global’, Fortune, 21 November: 118.
    Knill, C. (1998) ‘European policies: the impact of national administrative traditions’, Journal of Public Policy, 18: 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X98000014
    Kohler-Koch, B. (1991) ‘Inselillusion und Interdependenz: Nationales Regieren unter den Bedingungen von “international governance”’, in B.Blanke and H.Wollmann (eds), Die alte Bundesrepublik Kontinuität und Wandel. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. pp. 4–7. (Leviathan, Sonderheft 12/1991).
    Kohler-Koch, B. (1996) ‘Catching up with change. The transformation of Governance in the European Union’, Journal of European Public Policy, 3: 359–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13501769608407039
    Kohler-Koch, B. and Eising, R. (eds) (1999) The Transformation of Governance in the European Union. London: Routledge.
    Kolankiewicz, G. (1994) ‘Consensus and competition in the eastern enlargement of the European Union,’International Affairs, 70 (3): 477–95.
    Kolte, L. (1989) ‘Beslutningsprocessen i EF 1985–89’, Politica, 4: 376–95.
    Koordinatorgruppen Fri Bevegelighet for Personer (1989) Rapport til Det Europæiske råd, Palma de Mallorca. CIRC 3624/89, 9 June 1989.
    Kramer, L. (1987) ‘The Single European Act and environmental protection: reflections on several new provisions in Community law’, Common Market Law Review, 24: 659–88.
    Krasner, S.D. (1983) ‘Structural causes and regime consequences: regimes as intervening variables’, in S.D.Krasner (ed.), International Regimes. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Kuvaas, B. (1992) ‘Maastrichtavtalen’, in S.S.Andersen and K.A.Eliassen (eds), Det nye Europa. Oslo: Tano. pp. 38–53.
    Labarrére, C (1985) L'Europe des postes et des télécommunications. Paris: Masson.
    Laffan, B. (1996) ‘The politics of identity and political order in Europe’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 34 (1): 81–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1996.tb00561.x
    Laffan, B. (1998) ‘The European Union: a distinctive model of internationalization’, Journal of European Public Policy, 5 (2): 235–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/135017698343965
    Laffan, B., O'Donnel, R. and Smith, M. (1999) Europe's Experimental Union. London: Routledge.
    Lamers, Karl (1994) A German Agenda for the European Union. London: Federal Trust and Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.
    Lane, J.E. and Ersson, S. (1994) Comparative Politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Lange, P. (1993) ‘Maastricht and the Social Protocol: why did they do it?’, Politics and Society, 21 (1): 5–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0032329293021001002
    Lasswell, H.D. (1956) The Decision Process. Seven Categories of Functional Analysis. University of Maryland.
    Laurent, P-H. and Maresceau, M. (1998) The State of the European Union. Vol. 4: Deepening and Widening. London: Rienner.
    Laursen, F. (1990a) ‘Explaining the EC's New Momentum’, in F.Laursen (ed.), EFTA and the EC: Implications of 1992. Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration. pp. 33–52.
    Laursen, F. (1990b) ‘The Community's policy towards EFTA: regime formation in the European Economic Space (EES)’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 28 (June): 303–25.
    Laursen, F. (1991a) ‘Comparative regional economic integration: the European and other processes’, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 57 (4): 515–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002085239105700401
    Laursen, F. (1991b) ‘EFTA countries as actors in European integration: the emergence of the European Economic Area (EEA)’, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 57 (December): 543–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002085239105700403
    Laursen, F. (1991–92) ‘The EC and its European neighbours: special partnerships or widened membership?’, International Journal, 47 (Winter): 29–63.
    Laursen, F. (1994) ‘The not-so-permissive consensus: thoughts on the Maastricht Treaty and the future of European integration,’ in F.Laursen and S.Vanhoonacker (eds), The Ratification of the Maastricht Treaty: Issues, Debates and Future Implications. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff and Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration. pp. 295–317.
    Laursen, F. (1996) ‘Relations between the EU and the Central and Eastern European countries since 1989: an overview’, in F.Laursen and S.Riishøj (eds), The EU and Central Europe: Status and Prospects. Esbjerg: South Jutland University Press. pp. 3–28.
    Laursen, F. (1997) ‘Towards an Eastern European enlargement of the European Union’, Journal of International Political Economy (Tsukuba, Japan), 1 (2): 61–82.
    Laursen, F. (1998) ‘The Central and Eastern European countries in the new Europe: the preaccession strategy’, TKI Working Papers on European Integration and Regime Formation 15/98. Esbjerg: South Jutland University Press.
    Laursen, F. and Vanhoonacher, S. (eds) (1992) The Intergovernmental Conference on Political Union: Institutional Reforms, New Policies and International Identity of the European Community. Maastricht European Institute of Public Administration.
    Lehning, P.B. (1993) ‘Citizenship, democracy and justice in the new Europe’, in L.J.G.Van der Maesen and W.Beck (eds), Social Inequalities, Social Policy and Older people in the European Union: The Report of the Second Expert-meeting on Older People and Social Policy, 26–27 November 1993. Amsterdam: SISWO. pp. 195–208.
    Lenaerts, Koen (1994) ‘Subsidiarity and Community competence in the field of education’, The Columbia Journal of European Law, 1 (fall): 1–28.
    Lenzen, Dieter (1996) ‘Education and training for Europe?’, in D.Benner and D.Lenzen, (eds) Education for the New Europe. Oxford: Bergham Books. pp. 7–28.
    Lepsius, M.R. (1990) Interessen, Indeen und Institutionen. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
    Lepsius, M.R. (1997) ‘Deinstitutionalisierung von Rationalitätskriterien’, in Göhler, G. (ed.), Institutionenwandel. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. pp. 57–70.
    Levitt, B. and March, J. (1988) ‘Organizational learning’, Annual Review of Sociology, 14: 319–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.14.080188.001535
    Levy, David A.L. (1997) ‘Regulating digital broadcasting in Europe: the limits of policy convergence’, West European Politics, 20 (4): 24–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402389708425216
    Lewis, Arnold (1997) ‘“Fed up” in Europe: regional airlines battle the bias toward rail’, Business and Commercial Aviation, 80: 86.
    Lewis, J. (1998) ‘Is the “hard bargaining” image of the Council misleading? The Committee of Permanent Representatives and the Local Elections Directive’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 37 (4): 479–504.
    Liberatore, A. (1991) ‘Problems of transnational policymaking: environmental problems in the European Community’, European Journal of Political Research, 19: 281–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1991.tb01189.x
    Lijphart, A. (1969) ‘Consociational democracy’, World Politics, 31 (2): 207–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2009820
    Lijphart, A. (1977) Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Lindberg, L.N. (1971a) ‘Political integration as a multidimensional phenomenon requiring multivariate measurement’, in L.N.Lindberg and S.A.Scheingold (eds), Regional Integration. Theory and Research. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 45–127.
    Lindberg, L.N. and Scheingold, S.A. (1970) Europe's Would-Be Polity: Patterns of Change in the European Community. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Linklater, Andrew (1995) ‘Neo-realism in theory and practice’, in K.Booth and S.Smith (eds), International Relations Theory Today. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 241–62.
    Lipset, S.M. (1990) Continental Divide: The Values and Institutions of the United States and Canada. New York: Routledge.
    Lodge, J. (ed.) (1989) The European Community and the Challenge of the Future. London: Frances Pinter.
    Lodge, J. (1992) ‘The European Community Foreign and Security Policy after Maastricht. New problems and dynamics’, in M.Teib (ed.), Vers une nouvelle Europe. Brussels: Editions de I'Université de Bruxelles. pp. 111–32.
    Lodge, M. (2000) ‘Isomorphism of national policies? The “Europeanisation” of German competition and public procurement law’, West European Politics, forthcoming.
    Lonbay, J. (1989) ‘Education and law: the Community context’, European Law Review, 14 (6): 363–87.
    Lord, E. (1997) ‘Commentary: EU energy policy’, European Policy Analyst, London, second quarter.
    Louis, L.V. (1990) The Community Legal Order,
    second edition
    . Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
    Lucron, C.P. (1992) ‘Contenu et portée des accords entre la Communauté et la Hongrie, la Polande et la Tchécoslovaquie’, Revue du Marché commun, 357 (April): 293–9.
    Ludlow, P. (1991a) ‘Europe's Institutions: Europe's Politics’, in G.F.Treverton (ed.), The Shape of the New Europe. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press. pp. 59–91.
    Ludlow, P. (1991b) ‘The European Commission’, in R.O.Keohane and S.Hoffmann (eds), The New European Community. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. pp. 85–132.
    Ludlow, Peter, et al. (1995) Preparing for 1996 and a Larger European Union: Principles and Priorities. CEPS Special Report No 6. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.
    Lynn-Jones, S.M. (1991) The Cold War and After: Prospects for Peace. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
    Lyons, P.K. (1990) The New Energy Markets of the Soviet Union and East Europe. London: Financial Times Business Information.
    Lyons, P.K. (1992) EC Energy Policy. A detailed Guide to the Community's Impact on the Sector. London: Financial Times Management Report.
    Lyons, P.K. (1994) Energy Policies of the European Union. London: EC Inform.
    Macdonald, A. (1991) ‘French railway courts investors at high speed’. The Reuter Library Report, October 10.
    Maesen, L.J.G. and Beck, W. (1993) Social Inequalities, Social Policy and Older People in the European Union: The Report of the Second Expert-meeting on Older People and Social Policy, 26–27 November 1993. Amsterdam: SISWO.
    Maillet, Pierre (1996) ‘La cohèrence des politiques économiques dans une Europe différenciée: Une exigence pour les nouvelles institutions,’Revue du Marché commun et de l'Union européenne, No 399 (June): 422–37.
    Majone, G. (1988) ‘Policy analysis and public deliberation’, in R.B.Reich (ed.), The Power of Public Ideas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 157–78.
    Majone, G. (1991) ‘Cross-national sources of regulatory policymaking in Europe and the United States’, Journal of Public Policy, 11: 79–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X00004943
    Malta (1990) Report by the EC Directorate to the Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs regarding Malta's Membership of the European Community. Valetta: Department of Information.
    Mansbach, R.W. (1996) ‘Neo-this and neo-that: or, Play it Sam (again and again)’, Mershon International Studies Review, 40: 90–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/222643
    March, J.G. and Olsen, J.P. (1984) ‘The new institutionalism: organizational factors in political life’, American Political Science Review, 78: 734–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1961840
    March, J.G. and Olsen, J.P. (1989) Rediscovering Institutions. The Organizational Basis of Politics. New York and London: The Free Press.
    March, J.G. and Olsen, J.P. (1995) Democratic Governance. New York: Free Press.
    March, J.G. and Olsen, J.P. (1998). ‘The institutional dynamics of international political orders’, International Organization, 52 (4): 943–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/002081898550699
    Maresceau, M. (1992) ‘The European Community and Eastern Europe and the USSR’, in J.Redmond (ed.), The External Relations of the EC: The International Response in 1992. London: Macmillan.
    Maresceau, M. (1993) ‘“Europe Agreements”: a new form of cooperation between the European Community and Hungary, Poland and the Czech and Slovak Republic’, in Müller-Graff (ed.), Legal Adaptation to the Marker Economy of the EC. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
    Maresceau, M. (ed.) (1997) Enlarging the European Union: Relations between the EU and Central and Eastern Europe. London: Longman.
    Marin, B. and Mayntz, R. (eds) (1991) Policy Networks. Empirical Evidence and Theoretical Considerations. Frankfurt A.M.: Campus.
    Marks, G. (1992) ‘Structural policy in the European Community’, in A.Sbragia (ed.), Euro-Politics. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
    Marks, G. (1993) ‘Structural policy and multi-level governance in the EC, in A.Cafruney and G.Rosenthal (eds), The State of the EC, Vol. 2. London: Longman. pp. 391–410.
    Marks, G. and McAdam, D. (1996) ‘Social movements and the changing structure of political opportunity in the European Union’, West European Politics, 19: 249–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402389608425133
    Marks, G., Hooghe, L. and Blank, K. (1996) ‘European integration from the 1980's: state-centric v. multi-level governance’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 34 (3): 341–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1996.tb00577.x
    Marsh, D. (1991) ‘Privatization under Mrs Thatcher: a review of the literature’, Public Administration, 69: 459–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9299.1991.tb00915.x
    Martin, P.L., Honekopp, E. and Ullmann, H. (1991) ‘Conference report: Europe 1992, Effects on Labour Migration’, International Migration Review, 24: 591–603. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2546375
    Mathijsen, P.S.R.F. (1990) A Guide to European Community Law,
    fifth edition
    . London: Sweet & Maxwell.
    Matlary, J.H. (1991) From the Internal Energy Market to a Community Energy Policy?Oslo: Fridtjof Nansen Institute.
    Matlary, J.H. (1997a) Energy Policy in the European Union. London: Macmillan Press.
    Matlary, J.H. (1997b) ‘Epilogue: new bottles for new wine’, in K.E.Jørgensen (ed.), Reflective Approaches to European Governance. London: Macmillan. pp. 201–13.
    May, K. (1992) ‘Politics derailing high-speed train’, Ottawa Citizen, 26 March: D13.
    Mayntz, R. (1983) ‘The conditions of effective public policy: a new challenge for policy analysis’, Policy and Politics, 2: 123–43.
    Mazey, S. and Richardson, J. (eds) (1993) Lobbying in the European Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Mazey, S. and Richardson, J. (1996) ‘The logic of organisation: interest groups’, in J.Richardson (ed.), European Union: Power and Policy-Making. London: Routledge. pp. 200–15.
    Mazey, S. and Richardson, J. (ed.) (1999) Interest Intermediation in the EU: Filling the Hollow Core?London: Routledge.
    McAuley, M. (1984) ‘Political culture and Communist politics: one step forward, two steps back’, in A.Brown (ed.), Political Culture and Communist Studies. Basingstoke: Macmillan in association with St Anthony's College, Oxford.
    McGowan, L. and Wilks, S. (1995) ‘The first supranational policy in the European Union: competition policy’, European Journal of Political Research, (28): 141–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1995.tb00808.x
    McKinnon, R.I. (1996) ‘Monetary regimes, government borrowing constraints, and market-preserving federalism: implications for EMU’. Paper presented at the conference ‘The Nation State in a Global/Information Era: Policy Changes’, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, 13–15 November (unpublished).
    McLaughlin, A.M. and Maloney, W.A. (1999) The European Automobile Industry: Multi-Level Governance, Policy and Politics. New York: Routledge.
    Melody, W.H. (ed.) (1997) Telecom Reform. Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices. Lyngby: Den Private Ingeniørfond.
    Menanteau, J. (1991) ‘Les grands contrats du TGV. Avec les marchés à l'étranger, GEC-Alsthom découvre de nouveaux metiers’, Le Monde, 26 June.
    Meny, Y., Muller, P. and Quermonne, J.L. (eds) (1996) Adjusting to Europe: The Impact of the European Union on National Institutions and Policies. London: Routledge.
    Meyer, J.W. (1980) ‘The world polity and authority of the nation state system’, in A.Bergesen (ed.), Studies of the Modern World-System. New York Academic Press. Reprinted in Thomas, G.M. (1987) ‘Ontology and rationalization in the Western cultural account’, in G.M.Thomas, J.W.Meyer, F.O.Ramirex and J.Boli, Constituting State, Society and the Individual. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. pp. 41–70.
    Meyer, J.W. and Jepperson, R.L. (1997) ‘The “actors” of modern society: The cultural construction of agency’. Unpublished. Department of Sociology, Stanford University.
    Meyer, J.W. and RowanB. (1977) ‘Institutionalized organizations: formal organization as myth and ceremony’. American Journal of Sociology, 83 (2): 340–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/226550
    Meyer, J.W. and Scott, R.W. (1983) Organizational Environments. Ritual and Rationality. London: Sage.
    Meyer, J.W., Boli, J. and Thomas, G.M. (1987) ‘Ontology and rationalization in the Western cultural account’, in G.M.Thomas, J.W.Meyer, F.O.Ramirez and J.Boli (eds), Constituting State, Society, and the Individual. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. pp. 12–38.
    Meyer, J.W., Boli, J., Thomas, G.M. and Ramirez, F.O. (1997) ‘World society and the nation-state’, American Journal of Sociology, 103 (1): 144–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/231174
    Middlemas, K. (1995) Orchestrating Europe: The Informal Politics of European Union 1973–1995. London: Fontana.
    Miller, A.C. (1989) ‘Panel to consider ambitious plan for network of high-speed trains’, Los Angeles Times, 18 October: A24.
    Miller, W.G. (1989) ‘Europe high-speed rail network closer as three nations agree on a new link’, Boston Globe, 14 August: 12.
    Milward, A. (1992) The European Rescue of the Nation State. London: Routledge.
    Moe, A. (1988) ‘The outlook for Soviet gas exports to Western Europe: a country by country analysis’. Paper Presented at the 10th Annual Conference of the International Association of Energy Economists, Luxembourg, 4–7 July 1988.
    Molle, W. (1994) The Economics of European Integration. Watertown, MA: Dartmouth Publishing.
    Monford, A.C. (1994) ‘Plastics: shaping a single vision of Europe’. Paper presented at the Logic of Group Membership in the New Europe, Madrid.
    Moravcsik, A. (1991) ‘Negotiating the Single European Act’, in R.Keohane and S.Hoffmann (eds), The New European Community. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Moravcsik, A. (1993) ‘Preference and power in the European Community: a liberal intergovernmentalist approach’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 31 (4): 473–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1993.tb00477.x
    Moravcsik, A. (1996) ‘Studying Europe after the Cold War: a perspective from international relations’, TKI Working Papers on European Integration and Regime Formation z/ab. Esbjerg: Sough Jutland University Press.
    Moravcsik, A. (ed.) (1998a) Centralization or Fragmentation? Europe Facing the Challenge of Deepening, Diversity, and Democracy. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.
    Moravcsik, A. (1998b) The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht. London: UCL Press.
    Moravcsik, A. (1999) ‘A new statecraft? Supranational entrepreneurs and international cooperation’, International Organisation, 53 (2): 267–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/002081899550887
    Moravcsik, A. and Nicolaidis, K. (1999) ‘Explaining the Treaty of Amsterdam: interests, influences, institutions’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 37 (1): 59–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-5965.00150
    Morén, K (1991) Deneuropeiskefestning-asylpolitikk og politisamarbeid mot 1992, avhandling kriminologi mellomfag h.91. Universitetet i Oslo: Institutt for kriminologi.
    Morgan, Kevin and Webber, Douglas (1986) ‘Divergent paths: political strategies for telecommunications in Britain, France and West Germany’, West European Politics, 9 (4): 56–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402388608424599
    Morgenthau, H. (1946) Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. New York: Knopf.
    Morgenthau, H.J., Michelson, A.A. and Davis, Leonard (1973) Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. New York: Knopf.
    Morris, B., Bochm, K. and Vileinskas, M. (1986) The European Community: A Practical Directory and Guide for Business, Industry and Trade. London: Macmillan.
    Mueller, M. (1993) ‘Universal service in telephone history’, Telecommunications Policy, 17 (3): 352–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-5961%2893%2990050-D
    Mundell, R. (1961) ‘A theory of optimum currency areas’, American Economic Review, 51: 657–75.
    Muscatelli, A.V. (1997) ‘International macroeconomic policy co-ordination’, in V.A.Muscatelli (ed.), Economic and Political Institutions in Economic Policy. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 98–133.
    Nadelmann, E.A. (1990) ‘Global prohibition regimes: the evolution of norms in international society’, International Organization, 44: 479–526. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300035384
    Nash, C. (1993) ‘High speed rail services: British experience’, in S.Hultén and T.Flink (eds), High Speed Trains: Entrepreneurship and Society. London: Leading Edge. pp. 78–88.
    Neave, G. (1984) The EEC and Education. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.
    Nee, V. and Strang, D. (1998) ‘The emergence and diffusion of institutional forms’, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 154 (4): 706–15.
    Neher, J. (1989) ‘French hope U.S. hears high-speed train whistle’, Chicago Tribune, 25 September.
    Neilson, F. and Salk, J. (1998) ‘The ecology of collective action and regional representation in the European Union’, European Sociological Review, 14: 231–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.esr.a018238
    Nentwich, M. and Falkner, G. (1997) ‘The Treaty of Amsterdam: towards a new institutional balance’, European Integration Online Papers (EioP), 1 (15) (http://eiop.or.at/eiop/texte/1997-015a.htm).
    Newman, D. (1990) ‘Lobbying in the EC’, Business Journal, February.
    Nice, D.C. (1989) ‘Consideration of high-speed rail service in the United States’, Transportation Research, 23A: 359–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-2607%2889%2990083-6
    Nora, S. and Minc, A. (1978) L'Informatisation de la société. Paris: La Documentation française.
    Nordic Council (1991) Energy for Europe: Resources, Economy, Cooperation. Report from a Nordic Council Seminar at Holmenkollen, Oslo, Norway, 14–15 October 1991. Copenhagen: Nordisk Ministerråd.
    Noreng, Ø. (1994) Liberalisering av det europeiske gassmarkedet. Report to the Norwegian Ministry of Energy and Industry.
    Noreng, Ø., Andersen, S.S. and Nilsen, P.A. (1998) Klima for alle pengene. Klimapolitikk – økonomisk risiko for Norge?Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
    Norris, P. (1997) ‘Representation and the democratic deficit’, European Journal of Political Research, 32 (2): 273–82.
    North, D. (1981) Structure and Change in Economic History. New York: Norton.
    North, D. (1990) Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511808678
    Notermans, T. (1998) ‘Policy continuity, policy change and the political power of economic ideas’. ARENA Working Paper 1998.
    Nugent, N. (1991) The Government and Politics of the European Community. London: Macmillan.
    Nugent, N. (1994) The Politics and Government of the European Union,
    third edition
    . London: Macmillan.
    Nugent, N. (1997) ‘At the heart of the Union’, in N.Nugent (ed.), At the Heart of the Union: Studies of the European Commission. London: Macmillan. pp. 1–26.
    Nugent, N. (1999a) ‘Decision-making’, in L.Cram, D.Dinan and N.Nugent (eds), Developments in the European Union. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Nugent, N. (1999b) The Politics and Government of the European Union,
    fourth edition
    . London: Macmillan.
    Nuttall, S. (1992) European Political Cooperation. Oxford: Clarendon Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198273189.001.0001
    Nuttall, S. (1996) ‘The Commission: the struggle for legitimacy’, in ChristopherHill (ed.), The Actors in Europe's Foreign Policy. London: Routledge. pp. 130–47.
    Nye, J.S. (1968) ‘Comparative regional integration: concepts and measurement’, International Organization, 22: 855–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300013837
    Nye, J.S. (1971) ‘Comparing common markets: a revised neofunctionalist model’, in L.N.Lindberg and S.A.Scheingold (eds), Regional Integration. Theory and Research. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 192–231.
    Nye, J.S. and Keohane, R.O. (1973) Transnational Relations and World Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Nye, J.S. and Keohane, R.O. (1975) ‘International interdependence and integration’, in F.I.Greenstein and N.W.Polsby (eds), Handbook of Political Science. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Nylander, J. (1998) ‘First movers, insider groups and the role of the Commission: the liberalisation of the European electricity market’. Department of Sociology. Working paper presented at the Uppsala Theory Circle meeting, 15 June 1998.
    OECD Working Papers No 79 (1995) ‘The changing role of telecommunications in the economy: Globalisation and its impact on national telecommunication policy’.
    Ohmae, K. (1991) The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Interlinked Economy. New York: Harper Perennial.
    Ojeda, A.A. (1997) Legal Problems of the European Model of Social Quality: Comments on its Reform. Seville: University of Seville.
    Olsen, J.P. (1978) Politisk Organisering: Organisasjonsteoretiske synspunkt på folkestyre og politisk ulikhet. Bergen: Universitetsforlaget.
    Olsen, J.P. (1992) Analysing Institutional Dynamics. Bergen: LOS-sentret, notat 92/14.
    Olsen, J.P. (1997) The Changing Political Organisation of Europe: An Institutional Perspective on the Role of Comprehensive Reform Efforts. Oslo: Arena.
    Olsen, J.P. (1998) ‘The new European experiment in political organization’. Paper presented at the conference ‘Samples of the future’, Scancor, Stanford University, 20–22 September 1998.
    Orloff, Ann Shola and Skocpol, Theda (1984) ‘Why not equal protection? Explaining the politics of public social spending in Britain, 1900–1911, and the United States, 1880s-1920’, American Sociological Review, 49: 726–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095527
    Ottawa Citizen (1999) ‘Florida derails $6.3B train project: Bombardier loses deal to build bullet train’, The Ottawa Citizen, 15 January: D3.
    Padgett, S. (1992) ‘The Single European Market: the politics of realization’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 30 (1): 53–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1992.tb00418.x
    Pappalardo, A. (1981) ‘The conditions for consociational democracy: a logical and empirical critique’, European Journal of Political Research, (9): 365–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1981.tb00614.x
    Patel, P. and Pavitt, K. (1989) ‘European technological performance: results and prospects’, European Affairs, 2/89: 56–63.
    Pedersen, T. (1992) ‘Political change in the European Community. The Single European Act as a case of system transformation’, Cooperation and Conflict, 27 (1): 7–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0010836792027001002
    Pelkmans, J. (1987) ‘The new approach to technical harmonization and standardization’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 25 (3): 249–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1987.tb00294.x
    Pelkmans, J. and Young, D. (1998) Telecoms 98. Brussels: Center for European Policy Studies.
    Perotti, R. (1996) ‘Fiscal consolidation in Europe: composition matters’, AEA Papers and Proceedings, 105–10.
    Perrin-Pelletier, F. (1985) ‘The European automobile industry in the context of 1992’, European Affairs, (1): 85–95.
    Persson, T. and Tabellini, G. (1995) ‘Double-edged incentives: institutions and policy co-ordination’. CEPR Discussion Paper No 1141.
    Pertek, J. (ed.) (1992a) ‘General Recognition of Diplomas and Free Movement of Professionals, Seminar Proceedings’. Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration.
    Pertek, J. (1992b) ‘L'Europe des universités’, in J.Pertek and M.Soveroski (eds), EC Competences and Programmes within the Field of Education. Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration. pp. 21–42.
    Pertek, J. (1992c) ‘TEMPUS: L'enseignement supérieur, point de rencontre priviliégié entre la Communauté et I'Europe centrale et orientale’, in J.Pertek and M.Soveroski (eds), EC Competences and Programmes within the Field of Education. Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration. pp. 49–62.
    Pertek, J. and Soveroski, M. (eds) (1992) EC Competences and Programmes within the Field of Education. Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration.
    Peters, B.G. (1992) ‘Bureaucratic politics and the institutions of the European Community’, in A.M.Sbragia (ed.), Europolitics: Institutions and Policy making in the ‘New’ European Community. Washington, DC: Brookings. pp. 75–123.
    Peters, B.G. (1996) ‘Agenda-setting in the European Union’, in J.Richardson (ed.), European Union: Power and Policy-Making. London: Routledge. pp. 61–76.
    Peters, B.G. (1997) ‘Escaping the joint-decision trap: repetition and sectoral politics in the European Union’, West European Politics, 20 (2): 22–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402389708425189
    Peters, B.G. (1999) Institutional Theory in Political Science. The ‘New Institutionalism’. London: Pinter.
    Petersen, J.H. and Nedergaard, P. (1992) Det nye EF. Traktaten om den europmiske union. Copenhagen: CO Metal, Industriens Arbejdsgivere; Den danske Europabevegelse.
    Peterson, J. (1992) ‘The European technology community: policy networks in a supranational setting’, in D.Marsh and R.Rhodes (eds), Policy Networks in British Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Peterson, J. (1995) ‘Decision-making in the European Union: towards a framework for analysis’, Journal of European Public Policy, 2 (1): 69–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13501769508406975
    Peterson, J. (1997) ‘States, societies and the European Union’, West European Politics, 20: 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402389708425215
    Peterson, J. (1999) ‘The Santer era: the European Commission in normative, historical and theoretical perspective’, Journal of European Public Policy, 6 (1): 46–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/135017699343793
    Peterson, J. and Bomberg, E. (1999) Decision-making in the European Union. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Peterson, J. and Sjursen, H. (eds) (1998) A Common Foreign Policy for Europe?London: Routledge.
    Philip, A.B. (1983) ‘Pressure groups in the European Community’, in A.B.Philip (ed.) Institutions and Politics of the European Community. London: Frances Pinter.
    Philip, A.B. (1987) ‘Pressure groups in the European Community and informal institutional arrangements’, in R.Beuter and P.Taskaloyannis (eds), Experiences in Regional Co-operation. Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration.
    Pierson, P. (1996) ‘The path to European integration: a historical institutionalist analysis’, in W.Sandholz and A.S.Sweet (eds), European Integration and Supranational Governnance. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 27–58.
    Pierson, P. and Leibfried, S. (1995) ‘Multitiered institutions and the making of social policy’, in S.Leibfried and P.Pierson (eds), European Social Policy: Between Fragmentation and Integration. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. pp. 1–40.
    Pijpers, A. (1991) ‘European political cooperation and the realist paradigm’, in MartinHolland (ed.), The Future of European Political Cooperation. London: Macmillan. pp. 8–35.
    Pijpers, A. (1996) ‘The Netherlands: the weakening pull of Atlanticism’, in C.Hill (ed.), The Actors in Europe's Foreign Policy. London: Routledge. pp. 247–67.
    Pinder, A. (1991) The European Community and Eastern Europe. London: Chatam House Papers.
    Pisani-Ferry, Jean (1995) ‘L'Europe à géometrie variable: une analyse économique’, Politique Étrangère, pp. 447–65.
    Polino, M.N. (1993) ‘The French TGV since 1976’, in J.Whitelegg, S.Hultén and T.Flink (eds), High Speed Trains: Fast Tracks to the Future. London: Leading Edge. pp. 38–47.
    Pollack, M.A. (1996) ‘The new institutionalism and EC governance: the promise and limits of institutional analysis’, Governance. London: Macmillan.
    Pollack, M.A. (1997) ‘The Commission as an agent’, in N.Nugent (ed.), At the Heart of the Union: Studies of the European Commission. London: Macmillan.
    Pollack, M.A. (1999) ‘Delegation, agency and agenda setting in the Treaty of Amsterdam’, European Integration online Papers (EioP)3 (6) (http://eiop.or.at/eiop/texte/1999–006a.htm).
    Potter, S. (1989) ‘High-speed rail technology in the UK, France and Japan’, Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 1: 99–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537328908523958
    Potter, S. (1993) ‘Managing high speed train projects’, in J.Whitelegg, S.Hultén and T.Flink (eds), High Speed Trains: Fast Tracks to the Future. London: Leading Edge. pp. 145–61.
    Pressman, J.L. and Wildavsky, A. (1984) Implementation,
    third edition
    . Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Preston, C.R. (1997) Enlargement and Integration in the European Union. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203195871
    Prévot, H (1989) Rapport de Synthèse a l'issue du debate public sur l'avenir du service public de la Poste et des Telecommunications. Paris: Le Debat Public.
    Puchala, D.J. (1972) ‘Of blind men, elephants and international integration’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 10: 267–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1972.tb00903.x
    Putnam, R.D. (1988) ‘Diplomacy and domestic politics: the logic of two-level garnes’, International Organization, 42: 427–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300027697
    Putnam, R. and Bayne, N. (1987) Hanging Together. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Railway Age (1989) ‘Florida: one contender left’, December: 42–3.
    Rasmussen, H. (1988) ‘The implementation of directives’, in H.Siedentopf and J.Ziller (eds), Making European Policies Work, Vol. II: National Reports. Brussels and London: EIPA/Sage.
    Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Rawls, J. (1996) Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Razzolini, L. and Shugart, W.F. II (1997) ‘On the (relative) unimportance of a balanced budget’, Public Choice, 90: 215–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1004929606832
    Reddy, W.M. (1984) The Rise of Market Culture: The Textile Trade and French Society, 1750–1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511549922
    Regelsberger, E. and Wessels, W. (1996) ‘The CFSP institutions and procedures: a third way for the second pillar’, European Foreign Affairs Review, 1 (1): 29–54.
    Rein, M. and Schon, D. (1991) ‘Frame-reflective policy discourse’, in P.Wagner, C.H.Weiss, B.Wittroch and H.Wollman (eds), Social Sciences and Modern States. National Experiences and Theoretical Cross-roads. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Republic of Cyprus (1991) Cyprus: The Way to Full EC Membership. Press and Information Office.
    Rhodes, C. and Mazey, S. (eds) (1995) Building a European Polity?Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
    Rhodes, R.A.M. (1986) European Policy-Making, Implementation and Subcentral Governments: A Survey. Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration.
    Rhodes, R.A.M. and Marsh, D. (1992) ‘New directions in the study of policy networks’, European Journal of Political Research, 21: 181–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1992.tb00294.x
    Richardson, J. (1996) ‘Policy-making in the EU: interests, ideas and garbage cans of primeval soup’, in Richardson, J. (ed.), European Union: Power and Policy-making. London: Routledge. pp. 2–23.
    Richardson, J. and Jordan, G. (1979) Governing under Press: The Policy Process in a Post Parliamentary Democracy. Oxford: Martin Robertson.
    Risse-Kappen, T. (1995) Co-operation Among Democracies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Roche, M. (1991) ‘Retour au rail à Londres’, Le Monde, 30 May.
    Rokkan, S. (1966) ‘Norway: numerical democracy and corporate pluralism’, in R.A.Dahl (ed.), Political Oppositions in Western Democracies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 70–115.
    Rometsch, D. and Wessels, W. (eds) (1996) The European Union and Member States. Towards Institutional Fusion?Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Rometsch, D. and Wessels, W. (1997) ‘The Commission and the Council of the Union’, in G.Edwards and D.Spence (eds), The European Commission, second edition. London: Catermill.
    Roney, A. (1995) EC/EU Fact Book – a Complete Question and Answer Guide. LondonChamber of Commerce and Industry.
    Rosecrance, R. (ed.) (1976) America as an Ordinary Country. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Rosenthal, G. (1991) ‘Education and training policy’, in L.Hurwitz and C.Lequesne (eds), The State Of The European Community. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. pp. 273–83.
    Ross, G. (1995) Jacques Delors and European Integration. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Rotfeid, A.D. (1992) ‘European security structures in transition’, in SIPRIYearbook 1992: World Armaments and Disarmament. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 563–82.
    Ruggie, G.R. (1975) ‘International responses to technology: concepts and trends’, International Organization, 29: 557–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300031696
    Rummel, R. (1996) ‘Germany's role in the CFSP: “Normalitat” or “Sonderweg”?’ in C.Hill (ed.), The Actors in Europe's Foreign Policy. London: Routledge. pp. 40–67.
    Ryba, R. (1995) ‘Unity in diversity: the enigma of the European dimension in education’, Oxford Review of Education, 21 (1): 25–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305498950210102
    Røvik, K.A. (1998) Moderne organisasjoner. Trender i organisasjonstenkningen ved årtusenskiftet. Oslo: Fagbokforlaget
    Sandholz, W. and Zysman, J. (1989) ‘1992: Recasting the European Bargain’, World Politics, XLII (1): 95–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2010572
    Sandholz, W. (1993) ‘Institutions and collective action: the new telecommunications in Western Europe’, World Politics, (45): 242–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2950659
    Sargent, L.A. (1985) ‘Corporatism and the European Community’, in W.Grant (ed.), The Political Economy of Corporatism. London: Macmillan. pp. 229–53.
    Sargent, T. and Wallace, N. (1981) ‘Some unpleasant monetarist arithmetic’, Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, (fall): 1–17.
    Sbragia, A. (1991) ‘Environmental policy in the political economy of the European Community’, prepared for Workshop of The Consortium for 1992, May 1992, Stanford, California.
    Sbragia, A.M. (ed.) (1992a) Euro-Politics: Institutions and Policymaking in the ‘New European Community’. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
    Sbragia, A.M. (1992b) ‘Thinking about the European future: the uses of comparison’, in A.M.Sbragia (ed.), Euro-politics: Institutions and Policymaking in the ‘New European Community’. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. pp. 257–92.
    Sbragia, A. (1996) Debt Wish. Entreprenerial Cities, U.S. Federalism, and Economic Development. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Scharpf, F.M. (1988) ‘The joint-decision trap: lessons from German federalism and European integration’, Public Administration, 66 (3): 239–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9299.1988.tb00694.x
    Scharpf, F.W. (1994) Optionen des Föderalismus in Deutschland und Europa. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag.
    Scharpf, F.W. (1996) ‘Politische Optionen im vollendeten Binnenmarkt’, in M.Jachtenfuchs and B.Kohler-Koch (eds), Europäische Integration. Opladen: Leske and Budrich. pp. 109–41.
    Scharpf, F. (1999) Governing in Europe. Effective and Democratic?Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198295457.001.0001
    Schengen Convention Border Controls (1990) Commercial Laws of Europe, Vol. 14, February 1991, Part 2.
    Scherer, J. (1990) ‘Regulatory instruments and EEC powers to regulate telecommunications services in Europe’, in D.Elixmann and K.-H.Neumann (eds), Communications in Europe. Berlin: Springer. pp. 235–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-75885-0_10
    Scherer, J. (ed.) (1998) Telecommunications Law in Europe,
    fourth edition
    . London: Butterworths.
    Schimmelfennig, F. (1999) ‘The double puzzle of EU enlargement. Liberal norms, rhetorical action and the decision to expand to the East’. ARENA-paper 15.
    Schmeltzer, J. (1992) ‘A speeding bullet seeing economic benefits, Texas takes lead as high-speed train projects gather steam in U.S.’, Chicago Tribune, 12 January: 1.
    Schmidt, S. (1991) ‘Taking the long road to liberalization’, Telecommunications Policy, 15: 209–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-5961%2891%2990025-7
    Schmidt, S.K. (1997) ‘Sterile debates and dubious generalizations’, Journal of Public Policy, 16 (3): 233–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X00007765
    Schmitter, P.C. (1974) ‘Still the century of corporatism’, Review of Politics, 1: 85–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0034670500022178
    Schmitter, P.C. (1977) ‘Modes of interest intermediation and modes of societal change in Western Europe’, Comparative Political Studies, 10: 7–38.
    Schmitter, P.C. (1992) Interests, Powers, and Functions: Emergent Properties and Unintended Consequences in the European Polity. Department of Political Science, Stanford University.
    Schmitter, P.C. (1996) ‘Imagining the future of the Euro-polity with the help of new concepts’, in G.Marks, F.Scharpf, P.C.Schmitter and W.Streeck (eds), Governance in the European Union. London: Sage. pp. 121–50.
    Schmitter, P.C. and Streeck, W. (1990) Organized Interests and the Europe of 1992. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.
    Schmitter, P.C. and Streeck, W. (1992) ‘Organized interests and the Europe of 1992’, in N.J.Ornstein and M.Perlman (eds), Political Power and Social Change. The United States Faces a United Europe. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.
    Schneider, V. and Werle, R. (1990) ‘International regime or corporate actor? The European Community in telecommunications policy’, in K.Dyson and P.Humphreys (eds), The Political Economy of Communications. International and European Dimensions. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 77–106.
    Schneider, V. and Werle, R. (1991) ‘Policy networks in the German telecommunications domain’, in B.Marin and R.Mayntz (eds), Policy Networks. Empirical Evidence and Theoretical Considerations. Frankfurt a.M.: Campus. pp. 97–136.
    Scholten, L. (1987) Political Stability and Neo-Corporatism: Corporatist Integration and Societal Cleavages in Western Europe. London: Sage.
    Schulte, B. (1997) ‘Juridical instruments of the European Union and the European Communities’, in W.Beck, L.J.G.Van der Maesen and A.C.Walker (eds), The Social Quality of Europe. The Hague/Boston: Kluwer Law International. pp. 45–66.
    Schutte, J.J.E. (1991) ‘Schengen: its meaning for the free movement of persons in Europe’, Common Market Law Review, 28: 855–75.
    Schwarze, J. and Schermers, H.G. (eds) (1988) Structure and Dimensions of European Community Policy. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
    Scott, R.W. (1981) Organizations. Rational, Natural and Open Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Scott, R.W. (1991) ‘Unpacking institutional arguments’, in P.J.DiMaggio and W.W.Powell (ed.), The New Institutionalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Shapiro, M. (1992) ‘The European Court of Justice’, in A.M.Sbragia, (ed.) Euro-politics: Institutions and Policymaking in the ‘New European Community’. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. pp. 123–56.
    Shonfield, A. (1972) Europe: Journey to an Unknown Destination. London: Penguin Books.
    Showstack, S.A. (1997) ‘Political participation, political rights and the politics of daily life’, in W.Beck, L.J.G.Van der Maesen and A.C.Walker (eds), The Social Quality of Europe. The Hague/Boston: Kluwer Law International. pp. 191–202.
    Sidjanski, D. (1982) ‘Les groupes de pression dans la Communauté européenne’, Il politico, 3: 559–60.
    Siedentopf, H. and Ziller, J. (eds) (1988a) Making European Policies Work, Vol. I: Comparative Syntheses. Brussels and London: EIPA/Sage.
    Siedentopf, H. and Ziller, J. (eds) (1988b) Making European Policies Work, Vol. II: National Reports. Brussels and London: EIPA/Sage.
    Silis, D.L. (ed.) (1972) International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 13. New York: Macmillan.
    Simon, S. and Duhot, M. (1994) Environment and Europe. Deventer: Kluwer Press.
    Sjursen, H. (1997) Western Policy-making in the Polish Crisis (1980–83): The Problem of Co-ordination. PhD thesis, London School of Economics.
    Sjursen, H. (1998) ‘Missed opportunity or eternal fantasy? The idea of a European security and defence policy’, in J.Peterson and H.Sjursen (ed.), A Common Foreign Policy for Europe? Competing Visions of the CFSP. London: Routledge. pp. 95–112.
    Sjøstedt, G (1977) The External Role of the European Community. Farnborough: Saxon House.
    Skogerbø, E and Storsul, T. (1998) ‘National compromises and transnational alliances: the battle of universal service regulations in Europe’, Arena Working Paper, University of Olso, No.11.
    Slot, T. and Vershuren, P. (1990) ‘Decision making speed in the European Community’, Journal of Common Market Studies, XXXIX (1): 75–85.
    Smith, K. (1995) The Making of EU Foreign Policy: The Case of Eastern Europe. PhD thesis, London School of Economics.
    Smyrl, M. (1998) ‘When and (how) do the Commission's preferences matter?’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 36 (1): 79–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-5965.00098
    SOPEMI (1992) Continuous Reporting System on Migration. Paris: OECD.
    SPRU-report (1989) A Single European Market. University of Sussex, Science Policy Research Unit.
    Starr, P. (1989) ‘The meaning of privatization’, in S.Kamerman and A.Khan (eds), Privatization and the Welfare State. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Stavridis, S. and Hill, C. (eds) (1996) Domestic Sources of Foreign Policy: West European Reactions to the Falklands Conflict. Washington, DC: Berg.
    Stein, A.A. (1982) ‘Coordination and collaboration: regimes in an anarchic world’, International Organization, 36: 299–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300018968
    Stern, J. (1990) European Gas Markets. Challenges and Opportunities. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs.
    Stern, J. (1992) Third Party Access in European Gas Industries. Regulation Driven or Market Led?London: Royal Institute of International Affairs.
    Stern, J.P. (1998) Competition and Liberalization in the European Gas Market A Diversity Model. London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.
    Steunenberg, B. and Dimitrova, A. (1999) ‘The search for convergence of national policies in the European Union: an impossible quest?’: ARENA-paper 16.
    Stinchecombe, A.L. (1997) ‘On the virtues of the old institutionalism’, Annual Review of Sociology, 23: 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.23.1.1
    Strang, D. and Meyer, J.W. (1993) ‘Institutional conditions for diffusion’, Theory and Society, 22: 487–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00993595
    Streeck, W. (1999) ‘Negotiating markets: rethinking the European social model’. Presidential Address, Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics, Madison, Wisconsin, July.
    Streeck, W. and Schmitter, P.C. (1991) ‘From national corporatism to transnational pluralism: organized interests in the single market’, Politics and Society, 2.
    Subcommittee on High-Speed Rail Systems (1985) ‘High-speed rail systems in the United States’, Journal of Transportation Engineering, 2: 79–94.
    Surel, Y. (1998) ‘The role of cognitive and normative frames in policy-making’, Florence: EUI-working paper4.
    Susskind, L.E. (1994) Environmental Policy. Negotiating more Effective International Regimes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Sverdrup, U. (1998) Europesisering av budsjettsystemer. Prosjektnotat ARENA.
    Sweden, Utrikesdepartementets Handelsavdeling (1992) Agreement on the European Economic Area. 2 Vols. Stockholm, February.
    Sweet, A.S. and Sandholtz, W. (1998) ‘Integration, supranational governance, and the institutionalization of the European polity’, in W.Sandholtz and A.S.Sweet (eds), European Integration and Supranational Governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0198294646.001.0001
    Taylor, P. (1991) ‘The European Community and the state: assumptions, theories and propositions’, Review of International Studies, (17): 109–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0260210500112203
    Taylor, P. (1996) The European Union in the 1990s. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Teichler, U. (1996) ‘Student mobility in the framework of ERASMUS: findings of an evaluation study’, European Journal of Education, 31 (2): 153–80.
    Telò, M. (ed.) (1994) L'Union européenne et les défis de l'élargissement. Brussels: Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles.
    Teubner, G. (1992) ‘Die vielkdpfige Hydra: Netzwerke als kollektive Akteure hoherer Ordnung’, in W.Krohn and G.Kilppers (eds), Emergenzund Selbstorganisation. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp. pp. 189–216.
    Thatcher, M. (1994) ‘Regulatory reform in Britain and France: organizational structure and the extension of competition’, Journal of European Public Policy, 1 (3): 441–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13501769408406968
    Thatcher, M. (1999) ‘Liberalisation in Britain: from monopoly to regulation of competition’, in K.A.Eliassen and M.Sjøvaag (eds), European Telecommunications Liberalisation. London: Routledge.
    Thelen, K. (1999) ‘Historical institutionalism in comparative politics’, Annual Review of Political Science, 2: 369–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.polisci.2.1.369
    Thelen, K. and Steinmo, S. (1992) ‘Historical institutionalism in comparative politics’, in S.Steinmo, K.Thelen and F.Longstreth (eds), Structuring Politics: Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511528125
    Therborn, G. (1995) European Modernity and Beyond. The Trajectory of European Societies 1945–2000. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446222317
    Therborn, G. (1997) On Politics and Policy of Social Quality. Uppsala: SCASS.
    Thomson, D.F. (1987) Political Ethics and Public Office. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Thornhill, J. (1991) ‘Repackaged, recycled, restricted’, Financial Times, 6 December: 17.
    Toffler, A. (1990) Power Shift Knowledge, Wealth, and Violence at the Edge of the 21st Century. New York: Bantam Books.
    Tonra, Ben (1997) ‘The impact of political cooperation’, in Knud ErikJørgensen (ed.), Reflective Approaches to European Governance. London: Macmillan. pp. 181–98.
    Transport Europe (1995) ‘High-speed rail networks: EU ministers ask how fast is a “high-speed Train”?’, Transport Europe, (49), 23 March.
    Travel Trade Gazette (1997) ‘Eurostar derails Paris air traffic’, 14 May: 37.
    Travel Trade Gazette (1998) ‘Rail links get up a head of steam’, 15 July: 39.
    Travel Trade Gazette Europa (1997) ‘Common approach to fast-track Europe urged’, 3 April: 9.
    Treaty on European Union (1992) Europe Documents, No 1759/60, 7 February.
    Tsebelis, G. (1994) ‘The power of the European Parliament as an agenda setter’, American Political Science Review, (88): 128–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2944886
    Tulasiewicz, W. and Brock, C. (1994) ‘Introduction’, in C.Brock and W.Tulasiewicz (eds), Education in a Single Europe. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 1–20.
    Tulder, R. van, and Junne, G. (1988) European Multinationals in Core Technologies. Chichester: Wiley.
    Tunnels and Tunnelling (1997a) ‘Europe's rail tunnels face budget constraints’, May: 13.
    Tunnels and Tunnelling (1997b) ‘Italy's commitment to high speed rail links’, April: 31.
    Ulrich, S. (1994) ‘International politisamarbeid’, Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskap.
    Ungerer, H. (1989) Telecommunications in Europe. Luxembourg: Office for Publications of the EC.
    Ungerer, H., Berben, C. and Costello, N.P. (eds) (1989) Telecommunications for Europe 1992. The CEC Sources. Amsterdam: IOS.
    Ungerer, W. (1990) ‘The development of the EC and its relationship to central and eastern Europe’, Aussenpolitik, 41 (3): 229–30.
    Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer (1989) Proposal for a European High-speed Network. Paris: UIC.
    Usherwood, S. (1998) ‘Energy policy’, in G.Gløcker, L.Junius, S.Usherwood and J.Vassallo, Guide to EU Policies. London: Blackstone Press. pp. 120–31.
    Van Craeyenest, F. (1989) ‘La Nature jurisdique des résolutions sur la coopération en matiére d'éducation’, in B.De Witt (ed.), European Community Law of Education. Baden-Baden: Nomos. pp. 127–33.
    Van der Klugt, A. (1992) ‘EC action in the field of education and Central and Eastern Europe’, in J.Pertek (ed.), General Recognition of Diplomas and Free Movement of Professionals, Seminar Proceedings. Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration. pp. 93–102.
    Vandermeersch, D. (1987) ‘The Single European Act and the environmental policy of the European Community’, European Law Review, 12: 407–29.
    Van Dijck, J. (1989) ‘Towards transnationalization of economic and social life in Europe’, European Affairs, 1.
    Van Schendelen, M.P.C.M. (ed.) (1993) National Public and Private EC Lobbying. Aldershot: Dartmouth.
    Vaubel, R. (1985) ‘International collusion or competition for macroeconomic policy coordination?: a restatement’, Recherches Économiques de Louvain, 51: 223–40.
    Vaubel, R. (1998) Personal communication.
    Verbruggen, M. (1997) ‘The Commissions's Green Paper “Education, training, research: the obstacles to transnational mobility”: content and comment’, European Journal for Education Law and Policy, 1 (1–2): 41–8.
    Verheijen, T. (1992) ‘The PHARE programme’, in J.Pertek (ed.), General Recognition of Diplomas and Free Movement of Professionals, Seminar Proceedings. Maastricht: European Institute of Public Administration. pp. 43–8.
    Verhoest, P. (1995) ‘Regionalism and telecommunications infrastructure competition’, Telecommunications Policy, 19 (8): 637–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-5961%2895%2900037-7
    Vervaele, L.A.E. (1992) Fraud against the Community – The Need for European Fraud Legislation. Deventer and Boston: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publisher.
    Vipond, P. (1995) ‘European banking and insurance: business alliances and corporate strategies’, in J.Greenwood (ed.), European Casebook on Business Alliances. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice-Hall.
    Vogel, D. (1986) National Styles of Regulation. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Von Hagen, J. (1993) ‘The role of budgeting procedures for improving the fiscal performance of the member states of the EC, in A.Wildawsky and E.Zapico-Goni (eds), National Budgeting for Economic and Monetary Union. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.
    Von Hagen, J. and Eichengreen, B. (1996) ‘Federalism, Fiscal Restraints, and European Monetary Union’, AEA Papers and Proceedings, 134–38.
    Von Molthe, G. (1992) ‘NATO takes up its new agenda’, NATO Review, 40 (1): 3–7.
    Wagerbaum, Rolf (1990) ‘The European Community's policies on implementation of environmental directives’, Fordham International Law Journal, 14: 455–77.
    Walker, N. (1991) ‘The United Kingdom police and European co-operation’. Working Paper, University of Edinburgh, Department of Politics.
    Wallace, H. (1984) ‘Implementation across national boundaries’, in D.Lewis and H.Wallace (eds), Policies into Practice: National and International Case Studies in Implementation. London: Heineman Educational Books.
    Wallace, Helen (1989) ‘Widening and deepening: the European Community and the new European agenda’. RIIA Discussion Paper No 23. London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.
    Wallace, H. (1990) ‘Making multilateral negotiations work’, in Wallace, W. (ed.), Dynamics of European Integration. London: The Royal Institute of Internation Affairs. pp. 213–28.
    Wallace, H. (1996a) ‘The institutions of the EU: experience and experiments’, in H.Wallace and W.Wallace (eds), Policy-making in the European Union. London: Oxford University Press.
    Wallace, H. (1996b) ‘Politics and policy in the European Union’, in H.Wallace and W.Wallace (eds), Policy-making in the European Union. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 3–36.
    Wallace, H. (1999) European policies and polities. ‘Think piece’ presented at Workshop on Governance and Citizenship, organized by DGXII, Brussels, 8–9 September 1999.
    Wallace, H. and Wallace, W. (1996) Policy-making in the European Union. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Wallace, H. and Wallace, W. (2000) Policy Making in the European Union. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
    Wallace, W. (1983) ‘Less than a federation, more than a regime: the Community as a political system’, in H.Wallace, W.Wallace and C.Webb (eds), Policy Making in the European Community,
    second edition
    . Chichester: Wiley. pp. 403–36.
    Waltz, K.N. (1979) Theory of International Politics. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Weale, Albert (1997) ‘Democratic theory and the constitutional politics of the European Union’, Journal of European Public Policy, 4: 665–9.
    Weaver, R.K. and Rockman, B.A. (eds) (1993) Do Institutions Matter? Government Capabilities in the United States and Abroad. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
    Webber, D. (1998) ‘High midnight in Brussels: an analysis of the September 1993 Council meeting on the GATT Uruguay Round’, Journal of European Public Policy, 5 (4): 578–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13501769880000031
    Weber, M. (1993) The Sociology of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press.
    Weiler, J.H.H. (1991) ‘The Transformation of Europe’, The Yale Law Journal, 100: 2403–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/796898
    Weiler, J.H.H. (1997) ‘Demos, telos, ethos and the Maastricht Decision’, in P.Gowan and P.Anderson (eds), The Question of Europe. London: Verso. pp. 265–97.
    Weiler, J.H.H., Haltern, U.R. and Mayer, F.Z. (1995) European Democracy and its Critique, in J.Hayward (ed.), The Crisis of Representation in Europe. London: Frank Cass.
    Weir, Margaret and Skocpol, Theda (1985) ‘State structures and the possibilities for “Keynesian” responses to the Great Depression in Sweden, Britain, and the United States’, in Peter Evans,
    DietrichRueschemeyer and ThedaSkocpol (eds), Bringing the State Back In. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 107–63.
    Weitz, R. (1992a) ‘The CSCE and the Yugoslav Conflict’, RFE/RL Research Report, 1 (5): 24–6.
    Weitz, R. (1992b) ‘The CSCE's New Look’, RFE/RL Research Report, 1 (6): 27–31.
    Werle, R. (1990) Telekommunikation in der Bundesrepublik Expansion, Differenzierung, Transformation. Frankfurt a.M.: Campus.
    Werle, Raymund (1999) ‘Liberalisation of telecommunications in Germany’, in K.A.Eliassen and M.Sjøvaag (eds), European Telecommunications Liberalisation. London: Routledge.
    Wessels, W. (1990) ‘Administrative interaction’, in W.Wallace (ed.), The Dynamics of European Integration. London: Frances Pinter. pp. 229–41.
    Wessels, W. (1992) ‘The EC and the new European architecture: the European Union as trustee for a (pan) European weal’, in M.Telå (ed.), Vers une nouvelle Europe?Brussels: Editions de I'Université de Bruxelles. pp. 35–48.
    Wessels, Wolfgang (1996) ‘Evolutions possibles de l'Union européenne. Scénarios et stratégies pour sortir d'un cercle vicieux’, Politique Étrangère, 61 (1): 139–50.
    Wessels, W. (1997) ‘An ever closer fusion? A dynamic macropolitical view on integration processes’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 35 (2): 267–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-5965.00060
    Weyman-Jones, T.G. (1986) Energy in Europe: Issues and Policies. London: Methuen.
    White, H. (1988) ‘Varieties of markets’, in B.Wellman and S.D.Berkowitz (eds), Social Structures: A Network Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 226–60.
    Wilks, S. (1992) ‘The metamorphosis of European competition policy’, Department of Politics Working Paper, Exeter, RUSEL Working Paper.
    Wilks, S. (1996) ‘Regulatory compliance and capitalist diversity in Europe’Journal of European Public Policy, 3 (4): 536–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13501769608407052
    Williamson, Oliver E. (1975) Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications. New York: Free Press.
    Williamson, Oliver E. (1985) The Economic Institutions of Capitalism. New York: Free Press.
    Williamson, P.J. (1989) Corporatism in Perspective: An Introductory Guide to Corporatist Theory. London: Sage.
    Wincott, D. (1996) ‘The Court of Justice and the European policy process’, in J.Richardson (ed.), European Union: Power and Policy-making. London: Routledge.
    Wind, M. (1997) ‘Rediscovering institutions: Allmenn reflectivist critique of rational institutionalism’, in K.E.Jørgensen (ed.), Reflective Approaches to European Integration. New York: St Martin's Press.
    Witte, E. (ed.) (1988) Restructuring of the Telecommunications System. Report of the Government Commission for Telecommunications. Heidelberg: R.v. Decker's.
    Wyatt, D. and Dashwood, A. (1987) The Substantive Law of the EEC,
    second edition
    . London: Sweet & Maxwell.
    Wæver, Ole (1996) ‘European security identities’, Journal of Common Market Studies, 34 (1): 103–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1996.tb00562.x
    Zagorin, R. (1989) ‘An expanding game’, Time Magazine, 29 May.
    Zelizer, V.A. (1988) ‘Beyond the polemics on the Market: establishing a theoretical and empirical agenda’, Sociological Forum, 4: 614–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01115419
    Zysman, John (1983) Governments, Markets, and Growth: Financial Systems and the Politics of Industrial Change. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Ørstrøm Møller, L (1990) Det Internationale Samfund. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website