Making Policy in Europe
Publication Year: 2001
This Second Edition of Making Policy in Europe is fully revised and expanded to provide the most up-to-date introduction to the study of policymaking in the European Union (EU). The first part of the book introduces the different perspectives to study of the EU as a political system, and provides a framework for the study of the main actors and institutions in the decision-making process from transnational lobbying within Brussels to the implementation of EU law in national member states. Part two introduces each of the main sectoral policy areas. The common "market" is introduced and reviewed before students are provided with detailed studies of policies and policy-making in telecommunication
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part 1: Policy-Making in the European Union
- Chapter 1: Introduction: The EU as a New Political System
- Chapter 2: Formal Processes: EU Institutions and Actors
- Chapter 3: Informal Processes: Lobbying, Actor Strategies, Coalitions and Dependencies
Part 2: European Policy Studies
- Chapter 4: Rail and Transport Policy: National Paradigms and Supranational Structures
- Chapter 5: Telecommunications Policy: Interest Convergence and Globalization
- Chapter 6: Energy Policy: Interest Interaction and Supranational Authority
- Chapter 7: Educational Policy: Institutionalization and Multi-Level Governance
- Chapter 8: Policy on Justice and Home Affairs: From High to Low Politics
Part 3: The Future of the EU and European Integration
- Chapter 9: European Monetary Union: Economic versus Political Integration and the Limits of Supranationalism
- Chapter 10: The Common Foreign and Security Policy: Limits of Intergovernmentalism and the Search for a Global Role
- Chapter 11: EU Enlargement: Interests, Issues and the Need for Institutional Reform
- Chapter 12: Conclusion: Making Policy in the New Europe
Editorial arrangement and material, Chapter 1, Chapter 3 and
Chapter 12 © Svein S. Andersen and Kjell A. Eliassen 2001
Chapter 2 © Svein S. Andersen, Kjell A. Eliassen and
Nick Sitter 2001
Chapter 4 © Frank Dobbin 2001
Chapter 5 © Kjell A. Eliassen and Marit S. Marino 2001
Chapter 6 © Svein S. Andersen 2001
Chapter 7 © Erik Beukel 2001
Chapter 8 © Ellen Ahnfelt and Johan From 2001
Chapter 9 © Miriam L. Campanella 2001
Chapter 10 © Helene Sjursen 2001
Chapter 11 © Finn Laursen 2001
First published 1993
Reprinted 1994, 1998
Second edition 2001
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Notes on the Contributors[Page vii]
Professor Svein S. Andersen is director of ARENA (Advanced Research on the Europeanization of the Nation-State), University of Oslo, and also a professor at the Norwegian School of Management. He holds a Ph.D. in sociology from Stanford University. He has published 10 books and numerous articles. Working within the area of comparative institutions and institutional theory his empirical studies have focused on issues relating to energy and the EU. He also has an interest in research method. His last book was about the possibilities of generalizing from case-studies. He has been a visiting professor at several European and American universities, among them Centre des Hautes Etudes in Paris, UC Berkeley and UC Santa Barbara.
Kjell A. Eliassen is a professor of Public Management and director of the Centre for European and Asian Studies at the Norwegian School of Management – BI in Oslo – and professor of European Studies at The Free University in Brussels. He has published 12 books and several articles on European and Asian Affairs. His latest book is European Telecom Liberalisation (1999). He has been a visiting professor at several European, American and Asian universities. During the last three years he has built up a part-time Master of Management programme in Infocom in Asia, in co-operation with leading Asian universities, representing the Norwegian School of Management. He has been working closely with the Fudan University in Shanghai and the Chulalongkorn University in Thailand both within research and the development of management training programmes.
Ellen Ahnfelt, is a senior advisor on international police co-operation in the Norwegian Ministry of Justice. She worked as a researcher at the Center for European and Asian Studies at the Norwegian School of Management, Oslo during the period 1990–95. She has published several articles and a book on European police co-operation and EU integration. She is Cand. Polit. from the University of Oslo, 1986.
Erik Beukel is dr. scient. pol. and Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science and Public Management at the University of Southern Denmark, Odense, where he also holds the Jean Monnet Chair in European Political Integration. He has written on issues concerning global environmental protection as a collective good, European integration, the evolving regimes in post-cold-war Europe, and the political economy of the trade and environment nexus. Previous research was in the area of arms control and American and Soviet nuclear policies. He has been a Visiting Scholar at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University, the Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, and Institute of International Relations, The University of British Columbia.
[Page viii]Miriam L. Campanella is a lecturer in International Political Economy at the Faculty of Political Science, University of Turin and holds a Jean Monnet ‘Permanent Course’ on ‘EMU: Policies and Institutions’. She has studied at the Centre for International Studies, at MIT (1980–86) and has taught as Fulbright Professor at the Department of Political Science, University of Pittsburgh. Centring on the consequences of globalization for nation-states, her research field has shifted towards regional integration in Europe. Since 1994, her research programme has focused on the potential of neo-institutionalism in EMU policies and institutions. Her publications include: ‘Getting the core. A neo-institutionalist approach to EMU’ (1995); ‘Central Eastern European enlargement and the EU budget policy. A strategic agenda-setter for joint (Pareto-improving) gains’ (1998).
Frank Dobbin is Professor of Sociology at Princeton University. His Forging Industrial Policy: The United States, Britain and France in the Railway Age (Cambridge University Press, 1994), which explores the origins of national industrial strategies, won the Max Weber Award from the Organizations, Occupations, and Work section of the American Sociological Association. He has been exploring how antitrust law shaped American business strategy (most recently with Timothy Dowd in ‘The market that antitrust built’, American Sociological Review, 2000, and how national institutions shape the workplace (most recently with Terry Boychuk in ‘Job autonomy and national employment systems’, Organization Studies, 1999).
Johan From is Head of Department, Department of Public Governance at the Norwegian School of Management – BI in Oslo. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Sussex, Sussex European Institute in Contemporary European Studies. He has published books on EU competition policy and public monopolies, police co-operation and European integration, and the impact of EU policy-making on local governments.
Finn Laursen holds a Ph.D. (Political Science) from the University of Pennsylvania (1980) and cand. scient. pol. from Aarhus University (1974). Currently Professor of International Politics at the University of Southern Denmark, Odense, he has also held positions at the London School of Economics (1985–88), the European Institute of Public Administration, Maastricht (1988–95). His current research is focused upon various aspects of European integration and EU external relations. Major works include The Ratification of the Maastricht Treaty (Nijhoff, 1994), both co-edited with Sophie Vanhoonacker.
Nick Sitter is an Associate Professor in the Department of International Relations and European Studies at the Central European University in Budapest, where he teaches EU politics and comparative West European politics. He holds a Ph.D. from the London School of Economics and Political Science, and worked for five years as a political consultant in London.
[Page ix]Marit S. Marino is a Ph.D. student at the London School of Economics. She has a Master of Science degree from the Norwegian School of Management and a B.Sc. in Natural Sciences from the University of Oslo, Norway, and Université de Caen, France. Her main research interests include regulation, European telecommunications policy, comparative public policy, French and German politics, and security policy. Her latest publications are European Telecommunications Liberalisation (as a co-editor with Kjell A. Eliassen, 1999).
Helene Sjursen is a Senior Researcher at ARENA (Advanced Research on the Europeanization of the Nation-State), University of Oslo. She has previously been a lecturer in Politics at University College Dublin and at Glasgow University. She holds a Ph.D. in international relations from the London School of Economics. Her main research interests are in the Europeanization of foreign policies and EU enlargement. Previous publications include A Common Foreign Policy for Europe? Competing Visions of the CFSP, co-edited with John Peterson (Routledge, 1998).
This volume is a new edition of a book published seven years ago on policymaking in Europe, focusing on the Europeanization of national policy-making. Our approach differed from the foreign policy and formal legal perspectives in emphasizing the totality of the European Union's institutions and the political system. Today, this perspective is more widely used, and the focus on Europeanization of member states' policy-making process is common to most studies.
In this book we have tried to asses the functioning and the present policymaking process of the EU, at a time when the Union has accomplished many of its last decennium goals, and when even a common foreign and security policy could become more than a vision. At the same time, we find ourselves at a point when the EU is confronted by the challenge of a far-reaching expansion to the east which may ultimately increase the number of member states to around thirty. Thus, this volume reflects both the present state of affairs and the different dimensions of the internal and external tasks ahead.
The book contains both completely revised versions of the majority of the chapters in the previous edition and a couple of new chapters reflecting the new developments within the Union, the establishment of the European Monetary Union and the revitalization of the Common Foreign and Security Policy.
We would like to thank a number of people for their help in the development of this second edition. They include Yansong Wen and Grete Haug, both employed at the Centre for European and Asian Studies at the Norwegian School of Management – BI in Oslo.
However, the book project would not have been possible at all without the help and continuous encouragement of Maria Andredaki. She has both assisted the editors in all aspects of the editing and has been the most demanding editor of our own contributions. We express our heartfelt thanks.Svein S.AndersenKjell A.Eliassen
List of Abbreviations[Page xi]
ACP Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific APT Advanced Passenger Transport (British rail project) ARENA Advanced Research on the Europeanization of the Nation State BEUC European Bureau of Consumers' Unions BR British Rail CAP Common Agricultural Policy CEECs central and eastern European countries CEPT European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations CFSP Common Foreign and Security Policy CJTF Combined Joint Task Forces COMETT Community Programme for Education and Training in Technology COREPER Committee of Permanent Representatives CPE customer premises equipment (telecommunications) DG Directorate General EC European Community ECB European Central Bank ECJ European Court of Justice ECMT European Conference of Ministers of Transport ECOFIN European Council of Finance Ministers ECSC European Coal and Steel Community Ecu European Currency Unit EDC European Defence Community EDIU European Drugs Intelligence Unit EDU Europol Drugs Unit EEA European Economic Area EEB European Environmental Bureau EFTA European Free Trade Association EIB European Investment Bank EMU Economic and Monetary Union / European Monetary Union EP European Parliament EPC European Political Co-operation ERASMUS European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students ERM Exchange Rate Mechanism ESC Economic and Social Council ESDI European Security and Defence Identity [Page xii] ESPRIT European Strategic Programme for Research and Development in Information Technology ETUC European Trade Union Confederation EU European Union GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GSM Global Systems for Mobile Communications IGC Intergovernmental Conference IR international relations ITU International Telecommunications Union LINGUA Language and Training Programme OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ONP Open Network Provision PHARE Poland and Hungary: Aid for the Restructuring of Economies PTT Post, Telegraph and Telephone administration QMV Qualified Majority Voting RACE Research and Development in Advanced Communications SEA Single European Act SNCF Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer (French rail administration) SOEC Statistical Office of the European Communities TAIEX Technical Assistance Information Exchange Office TEU Treaty on European Union TGV Train à Grande Vitesse (French high-speed train) TREVI Terrorisme, Radicalisme, Extrémisme, Violance, Information (Agreement on Police Co-operation) UCLAF Unit for the Co-ordination of Fraud Prevention UIC Union Internationale des Chemins de fer (international rail administration) VANS value added network services WEU West European Union WTO World Trade Organization
Map of the European Union[Page xiii][Page xiv]
Chronology of Events[Page 242]
1947 March Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands agree to establish a customs union. An economic union is established in October 1947 and a common customs tariff is introduced in January 1948. France and the United Kingdom sign a military alliance, the Treaty of Dunkirk. June General George Marshall, United States Secretary of State, offers American aid for the economic recovery of Europe. September Sixteen nations join the European Recovery Programme. 1948 March Brussels Treaty concluded between France, the UK and the Benelux countries. The aim is to promote collective defence and to improve co-operation in the economic, social and cultural fields. April Founding of the Organization for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) by sixteen states. May A Congress is held in The Hague attended by many leading supporters of European co-operation and integration. It issues a resolution asserting ‘that it is the urgent duty of the nation of Europe to create an economic and political union in order to assure security and social progress’. 1949 April Treaty establishing North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) signed in Washington by twelve states. May Statute of Council of Europe signed in Strasbourg by ten states. 1950 May Robert Schuman, the French Foreign Minister, puts forward his proposals to place French and German coal and steel under a common authority. October Rene Pleven, the French Prime Minister, proposes a European Defence Community (EDC). 1951 April European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty signed in Paris by six states: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and The Netherlands. 1952 May EDC Treaty signed in Paris by the six ECSC states. July ECSC comes into operation. 1954 August French National Assembly rejects EDC Treaty. October WEU Treaty signed by the six ECSC states plus the UK. 1955 June Messina Conference of the Foreign Ministers of the six ECSC states to discuss further European integration. The Spaak Committee established to study ways in which a fresh advance towards the building of Europe could be achieved. 1956 June Negotiations formally open between the six with a view to creating an Economic Community and an Atomic Energy Community. 1957 March The Treaties of Rome signed, establishing the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). 1958 January EEC and Euratom come into operation. 1959 January First EEC tariff cuts and increases in quotas. 1960 January European Free Trade Association (EFTA) Convention signed at Stockholm by Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. EFTA comes into force in May 1960. December Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)[Page 243] Treaty signed in Paris. OECD replaces OEEC and included Canada and the United States. 1961 July Signing of Association Agreement between Greece and the EEC. Comes into effect in November 1962. July–August Ireland, Denmark and the United Kingdom request membership negotiations with the Community. 1962 January Basic features of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) agreed. July Norway requests negotiations on Community membership. 1963 January General De Gaulle announces his veto on UK membership. Signing of Franco-German Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation. July A wide-ranging association agreement is signed between the Community and 18 underdeveloped countries in Africa – the Yaounde Convention. The Convention enters into force in June 1964. 1964 May The GATT Kennedy Round of international tariff negotiations opens in Geneva. The Community member states participate as a single delegation. 1965 April Signing of Treaty establishing a Single Council and a single Commission of the European Communities (The Merger Treaty). July France begins a boycott of Community institutions to register its opposition to various proposed supranational developments. 1966 January Foreign Ministers agree to the Luxembourg Compromise. Normal Community processes are resumed. 1967 May Denmark, Ireland and the UK re-apply for Community membership. July 1965 Merger Treaty takes effect. Norway re-applies for Community membership. December The Council of Ministers fails to reach agreement on the re-opening of membership negotiations with the applicant states because of continued French opposition to the UK membership. 1968 July The Customs Union is completed. All internal customs duties and quotas are removed and the common external tariff is established. 1969 July President Pompidou (who succeeded De Gaulle after his resignation in April) announces that he does not oppose UK membership in principle. Signing of the second Yaounde Convention. Enters into force in January 1971. December Hague summit agrees on a number of important matters: strengthening the Community institutions; enlargement; establishing an ‘economic and monetary union’ by 1980; and developing political co-operation (i.e. foreign policy). 1970 April The financial base of the Community is changed by the Decision of 21 April 1970 on the replacement of financial contributions from member states by the Community's own resources. The Community's budgetary procedures are regularized and the European Parliament's (EP's) budgetary powers are increased by the Treaty amending certain budgetary provisions of the Treaties. June Preferential trade agreement signed between Community and Spain. Comes into effect in October 1970. Community opens membership negotiations with Denmark, Ireland, Norway and the United Kingdom. October The six accept the Davignon report on political co-operation. This provides the basis for co-operation on foreign policy matters. 1972 January Negotiations between Community and the four applicant countries concluded. Signing of Treaties of Accession. [Page 244] May Irish approve Community accession in a referendum. July Conclusion of Special Relations Agreement between Community and EFTA countries. September Majority vote against Community accession in a referendum in Norway. October Danes approve Community accession in a referendum. Paris summit. Heads of Government set guidelines for the future, including a reaffirmation of the goal of achieving an economic and monetary union by 1980. 1973 January Accession of Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom to the Community. Preferential trade agreement between Community and most EFTA countries comes into effect. Agreements with other EFTA countries come into force later. 1974 December Paris summit agrees to the principle of direct elections to the EP and to the details of a European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) (the establishment of which had been agreed at the 1972 Paris and 1973 Copenhagen summits). In addition it is agreed to institutionalize summit meetings by establishing the European Council. 1975 February Signing of the first Lomé Convention between the Community and 46 underdeveloped countries in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific (the ACP countries). The Convention replaces and extends the Yaounde Convention. March First meeting of the European Council at Dublin. June A majority vote in favour of continued Community membership in UK referendum. June Greece applies for Community membership. July Signing of the Treaty amending certain financial provisions of the Treaties. This strengthens the European Parliament's budgetary powers and also establishes the Court of Auditors. 1976 July Opening of negotiations on Greek accession to the Community. 1977 March Portugal applies for Community membership. July Spain applies for Community membership. 1978 October Community opens accession negotiations with Portugal. 1979 February Community opens accession negotiations with Spain. March European Monetary System (EMS) (which had been the subject of high-level negotiations for over a year) comes into operation. May Signing of Accession Treaty between Community and Greece. June First direct elections to the European Parliament. October Signing of the second Lomé Convention between the Community and 58 ACP countries. December For the first time the EP does not approve the Commmunity budget. As a result the Community has to operate on the basis of ‘one twelfths’ from 1 January 1980. 1981 January Accession of Greece to Community. October Community foreign ministers reach agreement on the ‘London Report’ which strengthens and extends the European Political Cooperation (EPC). 1983 January A Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is agreed. June At the Stuttgart European Council meeting approval is given to a ‘Solemn Declaration on European Union’. 1984 January Free trade area between Community and EFTA established. February The EP approves the Draft Treaty establishing the European Union. June Second set of direct elections to the EP. Fontainebleau European Council meeting. Agreement to reduce UK [Page 245]budgetary contributions (which Mrs Thatcher had been demanding since 1979) and agreement also to increase Community resources by raising the VAT percentage from 1 per cent to 1.4 per cent. December Signing of the third Lomé Convention between the Community and 66 ACP countries. Dublin European Council meeting agrees budgetary discipline measures. 1985 June Signing of Accession Treaties between the Community and Spain and Portugal. The Commission publishes its White Paper completing the Internal Market. Milan European Council meeting approves the Commission's White Paper. It also establishes an Intergovernmental Conference to examine various matters including Treaty reform. The decision to establish the Conference is the first time at a summit meeting a decision is taken by a majority vote. December Luxembourg European Council meeting agrees the principles of the Single European Act (SEA). Amongst other things the Act incorporates various Treaty revisions – including confirming the objective of completing the internal market by 1992. 1986 January Accession of Spain and Portugal to Community. 1987 June Turkey applies for Community membership. July After several months delay caused by ratification problems in Ireland the SEA comes into force. 1988 June The Community and Comecon (the East European trading bloc) sign an agreement enabling the two organizations to recognize, for the first time, the authority of the Community to negotiate on behalf of its member states. Hanover European Council meeting entrusts to a committee chaired by Jacques Delors the task of studying how the Community might progress to Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). 1989 April The Delors Committee presents its report (the ‘Delors Report’). It outlines a scheme for a three-stage progression to EMU. June Third set of direct elections to the EP. Madrid European Council meeting agrees that Stage 1 of the programme to bring about EMU will begin on 1 July 1990. July Austria applies for Community membership. September–December The collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. The process begins with the appointment of a non-communist Prime Minister in Poland in September and ends with the overthrow of the Ceausescu regime in Romania in December. Signing of the fourth Lomé Convention between the Community and 68 ACP countries. Community and USSR sign a ten-year trade and economic cooperation agreement. Strasbourg European Council meeting accepts Social charter and agrees to establish an Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) on EMU at the end of 1990. Both decisions taken by eleven votes to one, with the United Kingdom dissenting in each case. 1990 April Special Dublin European Council meeting confirms the Community's commitment to Political Union. June Dublin European Council meeting formally agrees that an IGC on Political Union will be convened. [Page 246] July Cyprus and Malta apply for Community membership. October Unification of Germany. Territory of former East Germany becomes part of the Community. October Special Rome European Council meeting agrees that Stage 1 on EMU will begin on 1 January 1994. December The two IGCs on EMU and on Political Union are opened at the Rome summit. 1991 July Sweden applies for Community membership. August–December Break-up of USSR. Maastricht European council meeting agrees to the Treaty on European Union (TEU). The Treaty is based on three pillars: the European Communities, a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), and Co-operation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA). The European Communities pillar includes the strengthening of Community institutions, the extension of the Community's legal policy competence, and a timetable leading to EMU and a single currency. Association (‘Europe’) Agreements signed with Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland. 1992 February Treaty on European Union is formally signed at Maastricht by EC Foreign and Finance Ministers. March Finland applies to join the EU. May After several months delay caused by a Court of Justice ruling, the European Economic Area (EEA) agreement between the EC and EFTA is signed. Switzerland applies to join the EU. June In a referendum the Danish people reject the TEU by 50.7 per cent to 49.3 per cent. September Crisis in the ERM. Sterling and the lira suspend their membership. In a referendum the French people endorse the TEU by 51 per cent to 49 per cent. November December Norway applies to join the EU. In a referendum the Swiss people vote not to ratify the EEA by 50.3 per cent to 49.7 per cent. Amongst other implications this means that Switzerland's application to join the EU is suspended. Edinburgh European Council meeting agrees on several key issues, notably: (1) Danish opt-outs from the TEU and any future common defence policy; (2) a financial perspective for 1993–9; (3) the opening of accession negotiations in early 1993 with Austria, Finland, Sweden and Norway. 1993 February Accession negotiations open with Austria, Finland and Sweden. April Accession negotiations open with Norway. May In a second referendum the Danish people vote by 56.8 per cent to 43.2 per cent to ratify the TEU. August Following great turbulence in the currency markets, the bands for all currencies in the ERM, apart from the Deutsche mark and the guilder, are increased to 15 per cent. October German Constitutional Court ruling enables Germany to become the last member state to ratify the TEU. November TEU enters into force. December Settlement of the GATT Uruguay Round. 1994 January Second stage of EMU comes into effect. EEA enters into force. [Page 247] March Committee of the Regions meets for the first time. Austria, Finland, Sweden and Norway agree accession terms with the EU. April Hungary and Poland apply for membership in the EU. June Fourth set of direct elections to the EP. In a referendum on accession to the EU, Austrian people vote in favour by 66.4 per cent to 33.6 per cent. Partnership and co-operation agreement between European Union and Ukraine is signed in Luxembourg. Acts of Accession of Austria, Sweden, Finland and Norway are signed. July Extraordinary meeting of European Council in Brussels: Jacques Santer, chosen to succeed Jacques Delors as President of Commission. Free-trade agreements signed with Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in Brussels. New European Parliament holds first part-session in Strasbourg. Klaus Hänsch is elected President. October Co-operation agreement between Community and South Africa is signed. Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) opens in Budapest. Finnish referendum approves accession to the European Union. November Swedish referendum approves accession to European Union. European Monetary Institute Council meets for the first time in Frankfurt. Norwegian referendum rejects accession to the European Union. Parliament, Council and Commission adopt financial perspective 1995–99 adjusted to take account of enlargement. Council adopts first joint action under Article K.3 of Treaty on European Union in the area of co-operation in the fields of Justice and Home Affairs. December Council adopts Leonardo da Vinci Programme in vocational training and first resolution under Social Policy Protocol. Treaty on European Energy Charter signed in Lisbon. 1995 January Austria, Finland and Sweden become members of the European Union. February The Europe Association Agreements establishing an association between the European Union and Bulgaria, Romania, the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic enter into force. G7 ministerial Conference on Information Society meets in Brussels. March Council and Parliament sign Socrates Programme in the field of education. Stability Pact signed at final Conference in Paris. The Schengen Agreement comes into force between Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. April Liechtenstein approves the participation in the European Economic Area. Intergovernmental Conference: Council adopts a report on the functioning of the Treaty on European Union. Intergovernmental Conference: Committee of Regions adopts an own-initiative opinion on the revision of the Treaty on European Union. Austria signs the Schengen Treaty. May Liechtenstein participates in the European Economic Area. [Page 248] The Commission approves the Info 2000 programme to stimulate the development of a European multimedia content industry in the emerging information society. The Commission adopts a Green Paper on the practical arrangements for the introduction of the single currency. June The Reflection Group set up to prepare for the 1996 Intergovernmental Conference holds its inaugural meeting. Europe Agreements are signed with Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Romania and Slovakia present applications to join the European Union. The meeting of Heads of State or Government held in Cannes is the first at which all 15 Member States are represented. This European Council confirms transition to a single currency by 1 January 1999. July The European Parliament appoints Jacob Söderman as Ombudsman of the European Union. The Member States sign the Europol Convention for police cooperation. October Latvia presents a formal request for accession to the European Union. November A Co-operation Agreement is signed with Nepal. The Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreement is signed with Israel. The Euro-Mediterranean Conference is held in Barcelona. Estonia applies to join the European Union. December Madrid European Council sets 29 March 1996 as starting date for Intergovernmental Conference and confirms the introduction of single currency (‘Euro’) on 1 January 1999. Custom Union between European Community and Turkey enters into force. 1996 January Italy takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. Customs Union between EU and Turkey enters into force. The Czech Republic formally applies to join the European Union. The Commission adopts a Green Paper on review of Merger Control Regulation. February The interim agreements with Russia and Ukraine enter into force. A Euro-Mediterranean association agreement is signed with Morocco. March The Commission adopts a decision on urgent measures to be taken for protection against BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy). It imposes a world-wide export ban on British beef and beef products. The opening of the Intergovernmental Conference to revise the Maastricht Treaty is held in Turin, Italy. The European Council defines its agenda. April A G7 conference on employment is held in Lille, France. A G7+1 meeting on nuclear safety is held in Moscow, Russia. The European Union signs partnership and co-operation agreements with Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. May The Commission adopts a Green Paper on commercial communications in the single market. The European Court of Justice affirms that a member state violating Community law by refusing to issue an export licence to a private individual must pay compensation. June The co-operation agreements with Vietnam and Nepal enter into force. Slovenia formally applies to join the European Union. A tripartite conference on Growth and Employment involving the Community institutions, the member states and the social partners is held in Rome, Italy. [Page 249] The co-operation agreements with Uzbekistan and Chile are signed. The European Council is held in Florence, Italy. July Ireland takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union October The Commission adopts a Green Paper entitled ‘Education, training and research: the obstacles to trans-national mobility’. November The Commission adopts three Green Papers on the relations between the European Union and the ACP states, a numbering policy for telecommunication services, and a Community strategy for developing renewable energies. December At the London Conference centred on implementing peace agreements in Former Yugoslavia, a plan to consolidate peace is adopted. A European Council is held in Dublin, Ireland. It adopts the Dublin declaration on employment and confirms the timetable for the Intergovernmental Conference (IGC). A Transatlantic Summit between the European Union and the USA is held in Washington, USA. Denmark, Finland and Sweden sign the Schengen Agreement. 1997 January The Netherlands takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. The Commission adopts a Green Paper on vertical restraints in the EC competition policy. February An agreement is reached on basic telecommunications services within the World Trade Organization (WTO) framework. The Parliament adopts a resolution on results of temporary committee of inquiry into BSE. March The parties involved in the Commercial agreement on information technology products within the WTO framework draw up the definitive list of their commitments. April The Commission adopts the Green Paper titled ‘Partnership for a new organization of work’. May The Commission adopts its 1997–98 anti-fraud work programme. The Council establishes a convention on the service of judicial and extra-judicial documents in civil or commercial matters. The Council establishes a convention on the fight against corruption involving officials. June The Council adopts a regulation establishing a European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia. The European Council meets in Amsterdam and reaches a consensus on a draft Treaty. It approves various proposals facilitating the smooth passage to the third phase of the Economic and Monetary Union and adopts a resolution on growth and employment. July Luxembourg takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. The Commission presents the ‘Agenda 2000 – for a stronger and wider Europe’ and its opinions on the applications of 10 central European countries. The Western European Union (WEU) Extra-ordinary Council adopts a declaration, to be annexed to the final Act of the Amsterdam Treaty, on its role and its relations with the EU and the Atlantic Alliance. October The Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the Member States of the European Union sign the Treaty of Amsterdam. [Page 250] The Commission adopts the final report to the Parliament's temporary committee of inquiry monitoring recommendations on BSE. December The Commission adopts a Green Paper on convergence in the communications, media and information technology sectors. The Council agrees to ban tobacco advertising. An agreement is reached on financial services within the WTO framework. The European Council meets in Luxembourg and takes the decisions needed to launch the enlargement process. It also adopts a resolution on economic policy co-ordination. 1998 January The United Kingdom takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. The Co-operation agreement with the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia enters into force. February The Europe Agreements with Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania enter into force. March The Commission adopts the convergence report and recommends that 11 member states adopt the Euro on 1 January 1999. A Ministerial meeting launches accession processes for the 10 central and eastern European applicant countries and Cyprus. April The Kyoto Protocol on climate change is signed in New York, USA. May A special Council decides that 11 member states satisfy conditions for adoption of the single currency on 1 January 1999. The Commission and the European Monetary Institute set out conditions for determination of the irrevocable conversion rates for the Euro. June Establishment of the European Central Bank. An agreement amending the fourth Lomé Convention following mid-term review, including new financial protocol and the protocol governing accession of South Africa to the Convention, enters into force. July Austria takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. October The Europol Anti-drugs Convention enters into force. November Ministerial-level meetings of accession conferences with Cyprus, Poland, Estonia, the Czech Republic and Slovenia. December A European Council meeting is held in Vienna, Austria. The Council adopts the employment guidelines for 1999, decides to strengthen the process of convergence of employment policies with a view to a European employment pact, lays down arrangements for external representation of the Euro, approves an action plan for the establishment of an area of freedom, security and justice and agrees on a strategy for Union work in 1999. The Council adopts fixed and irrevocable conversion rates between the national currencies of 11 participating Member States and the Euro. 1999 January Germany takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. The Euro is officially launched. Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Portugal and Spain adopt the Euro as their official currency. Jacques Santer, President of the European Commission, calls for Parliament's confidence. February The Agreement between the European Communities and Slovenia enters into force. [Page 251] March The European Commission publishes the codes of conduct for Members of the Commission and the relations between Commissioners and Commission departments. Collective resignation of the Commission in wake of the report by the Committee of Independent Experts on the allegations regarding fraud, mismanagement and nepotism in the Commission. European Council declaration on the appointment of Mr Romano Prodi, new President of the Commission. A special European Council is held in Berlin, Germany. An overall agreement on Agenda 2000 is reached; Mr Prodi is asked to accept the task of being the President of the next European Commission and two statements on Kosovo are adopted. April The Council approves a joint action providing support for the reception and voluntary repatriation of refugees, displaced persons and asylum seekers, including those who have fled from Kosovo. May The Amsterdam Treaty enters into force. The Parliament approves the nomination of Mr Romano Prodi as President of the Commission. June The European Council meeting is held in Cologne, Germany. It adopts the first European Union common strategy, which concerns Russia, and declarations on Kosovo and on the strengthening of European common foreign and security policy, and designates Mr Javier Solana Madariaga High Representative for the CFSP and Secretary-General of the Council. It also adopts the European Employment Pact, sets out the brief of the forthcoming intergovernmental conference and decides to lay down an EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. The EU-US summit takes place in Bonn, Germany. The EU and the US undertake in a joint statement to strengthen their partnership under the New Transatlantic Agenda and, in particular, to work together to prevent and resolve international crises. They stress the importance of gradually establishing a common European security and defence policy. July Finland takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. The new European Parliament elects Nicole Fontaine as its President. September The European Parliament votes and approves the new Commission. October A special European Council is held in Tampere, Finland. An agreement is reached on a number of guidelines and political priorities, in particular relating to the right of asylum, immigration, and access to justice and combating crime. November A WTO meeting on the Millennium Round is held in Seattle, USA. Supposed to launch a new round of trade talks, it finishes with the participants unable to reach an agreement. December A European Council is held in Helsinki, Finland. It decides to open accession negotiations with Romania, Slovakia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria and Malta and to recognize Turkey as an applicant country. It agrees to call an Intergovernmental Conference to revise the Treaties in February 2000.Note
March 1947–June 1994 taken from Neil Nugent, The Government and Politics of the European Union, 1994, Macmillan, reproduced with permission of Palgrave.
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