Live Television: Time, Space and the Broadcast Event
Publication Year: 2007
In this fascinating and accessible book, author Stephanie Marriott engages in a close and detailed analysis of the nature of live television. The book examines the transformations in our experience of time and space which are brought about by the capacity of broadcasting to bring us the world in the moment in which it is unfolding, situating the live television event in the context of an expanding and increasingly complex global communicative framework. Building her argument by means of a series of case studies of events as diverse as the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963, the attack on the World Trade Centre in 2001, the 2005 London bombings, election night coverage and live sports coverage, the author provides a meticulous and articulate account of ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Time and Space
Part II: The Live Event
© Stephanie Marriott 2007
First published 2007
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Library of Congress Control Number: 2007925095
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-0-7619-5910-6 (pbk)
Typeset by CEPHA Imaging Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India
Printed in Great Britain by TJ International Ltd,
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
For Steve, for bearing with me[Page vi]
This book could not have been written without the encouragement of fellow members of the Ross Priory Group for Research on Broadcast Talk. Thanks in particular go to Martin Montgomery for inviting me in the first place, and to both Martin and Joanna Thornborrow for organizing the annual seminars. Members of the group over the last decade – Joanna, Martin, Andrew Tolson, Kay Richardson, Greg Myers, Arnt Maasø, Espen Ytreberg, Helen Wood, Nik Coupland, Trudy Haarman, Richard Fitzgerald, Peter Lunt, Shoshana Blum-Kulka, Paddy Scannell and others – have consistently provided intellectual stimulation and direction, and excellent company as well.
The book has been a long time in the making, and a number of colleagues and friends helped to sustain it along the way. Particular debts of gratitude are owed to Myra Macdonald, for reading the final draft and stopping me from giving up along the way, and to other good colleagues both at the University of Stirling and elsewhere, most especially Jane Sillars, Tim Thornicroft, Suzy Angus, Philip Schlesinger and Karen Lury, all of whom provided invaluable support at key moments.
Thanks are due to the Department of Film & Media Studies at Stirling for the study leave which allowed me to complete the research. I gratefully acknowledge the support of the AHRC, whose Research Leave Scheme provided the time and space to finishing writing the book.
Last but not least, special thanks are due to Steve Marriott, love of my life, for his patience and good humour in the face of my endless footering about.
References[Page 130]1990. Time and Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity Press.2002. ‘Reweaving the Internet: Online News of September 11’. In B.Zelizer and S.Allan (eds.), Journalism after September 11. London: Routledge, pp. 119–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203218136_chapter_71948. The Psychology of Rumor. New York: Henry Holt.and .2004. News Flash: Journalism, Infotainment and the Bottom-line Business of Broadcast News. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.1986. ‘Evidentials, Paths of Change, and Mental Maps: Typologically Regular Asymmetries’. In W.Chafe and J.Nichols (eds.), Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation, pp. 273–312.1973. ‘Here's Here's, There's, Here and There’. Edinburgh Working Papers in Linguistics, pp. 29–73.and .2005. How to Do Things with Words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.1986. ‘Interpersonal and Mediated Encounters: A Reorientation to the Mass Communication Process’. In G.Gumpert and R.Cathcart (eds.), Inter/Media: Interpersonal Communication in a Media World. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 121–131.and .2003. American Television News: The Media Marketplace and the Public Interest. New York: M. E. Sharpe Inc.1973. Charles Baudelaire: A Lyric Poet in the Era of High Capitalism. London: New Left Books.1992. ‘The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Production’. In W.Benjamin, Illuminations. London: Fontana Press, pp. 211–244.1971. Problems in General Linguistics. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press.1911. Creative Evolution. London: Macmillan.1988. Matter and Memory. New York: Zone.2000. ‘Live Television is Still Alive: On Television as an Unfulfilled Promise’. Media, Culture and Society22, pp. 531–556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163443000220050012003. We Media: How Audiences are Shaping the Future of News and Information. http://www.hypergene.net/wemedia/and .1991. ‘Introduction’. In S.D.Brunn and T.R.Leinbach (eds.), Collapsing Space and Time: Geographic Aspects of Communication and Information. London: HarperCollins, pp. xv–xxvi.and .1978. Everyday Television: Nationwide. London: British Film Institute.and .1982. ‘The Deictic Field of Language and Deictic Words’. In R.J.Jarvella and W.Klein (eds.), Speech, Place and Action. New York: Wiley, pp. 9–30.1985. Morphology: A Study of the Relation between Meaning and Form. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.1995. Televisuality: Style, Crisis, and Authority in American Television. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.1989. Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society. London: Unwin Hyman.2002. ‘American Journalism on, before and after September 11’. In B.Zelizer and S.Allan (eds.), Journalism after September 11. London: Routledge, pp. 71–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203218136_chapter_41997. Were You Still Up for Portillo?Harmondsworth: Penguin.1986. ‘Evidentiality in English Conversation and Academic Writing’. In W.Chafe and J.Nichols (eds.), Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation, pp. 261–272.[Page 131]1985. ‘Tense, Aspect, and Mood’. In T.Shopen (ed.), Language Typology and Syntactic Description: Grammatical Categories and the Lexicon. Volume 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 202–258.and .1991. ‘The Interview as Social Encounter’. In P.Scannell (ed.), Broadcast Talk. London: Sage, pp. 31–47.1995. Television Form and Public Address. London: Edward Arnold.2005. ‘We Had 50 Images within an Hour’. Media Guardian 11 July, p. 2.2003. Media Events: Live Broadcasting of History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.and .1991. Tense in English: Its Structure and Use in Discourse. London: Routledge.1990. ‘Information, Crisis, Catastrophe’. In P.Mellencamp (ed.), Logics of Television. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, pp. 222–239.1992. Unsilent Revolution: Television News and American Public Life. New York: Cambridge University Press.and .1997. ‘The Competitive Ethos in Television Newswork’. In D.Berkowitz (ed.), Social Meanings of News. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 301–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814522431221992. Visible Fictions: Cinema, Television, Video.2nd edn.London: Routledge.2000. Seeing Things: Television in the Age of Uncertainty. London: I.B. Tauris.1982. The Varieties of Reference. Oxford: Clarendon Press.1990. ‘Electronic Media and the Redefining of Time and Space’. In M.Ferguson (ed.), Public Communication: The New Imperatives. London: Sage, pp. 152–172.1983. ‘The Concept of Live Television: Ontology as Ideology’. In E.A.Kaplan (ed.), Regarding Television: Critical Approaches. Los Angeles: American Film Institute, pp. 12–21.1975. Santa Cruz Lectures on Deixis. Mimeo, Indiana University Linguistics Club.1982. ‘Towards a Descriptive Framework for Spatial Deixis’. In R.J.Jarvella and W.Klein (eds.), Speech, Place and Action. New York: Wiley, pp. 31–59.2005. ‘London. 9.11 am: Liverpool Street Has Been Closed after a “Bang”’. Press Gazette 15 July, p. 18.1968. The Language of Time. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.1980. Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.1982. Reasons for Realism: Selected Essays. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.1990. The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.2002. Covering Catastrophe: Broadcast Journalists Report September 11. Chicago: Bonus Books., , , and .2004. We the Media: Grassroots Journalism by the People, for the People. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly.1978. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Harmondsworth: Penguin.1981. Forms of Talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.1991. ‘Dynamic Structures of Geographic Space’. In S.D.Brunn and T.R.Leinbach (eds.), Collapsing Space and Time: Geographic Aspects of Communication and Information. London: HarperCollins, pp. 3–30.1975. ‘Logic and Conversation’. In P.Cole and J.L.Morgan (eds.), Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts. New York: Academic Press, pp. 41–58.1997. The Machine at Work. Cambridge: Polity Press.and .1993. We Keep America on Top of the World: Television Journalism and the Public Sphere. London: Routledge.2004. All the News that's Fit to Sell: How the Market Transforms Information into News. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.1991. Understanding Phenomenology. Oxford: Basil Blackwell., and .1990. The Condition of Postmodernity. Oxford: Blackwell.1977. ‘Television: A World in Action’. Screen18(2), pp. 7–59.and .1984. Garfinkel and Ethnomethodology. Cambridge: Polity Press.[Page 132]1985. ‘Analyzing News Interviews: Aspects of the Production of Talk for an Overhearing Audience’. In T.A.van Dijk (ed.), Handbook of Discourse Analysis. London: Academic Press, pp. 95–117.1991. ‘On the Institutional Character of Institutional Talk: The Case of News Interviews’. In D.Boden and D.H.Zimmerman (eds.), Talk and Social Structure. Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 93–137.and .1994. ‘TV News: From Discrete Items to Continuous Narrative? The Social Meaning of Changing Temporal Structures’. Cultural Studies8(2), pp. 306–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/095023894004904712004. ‘But This Time You Choose!: Approaching the Interactive Audience of Reality TV’. International Journal of Cultural Studies7(2), pp. 213–231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13678779040432381986. ‘Mass Communication and Para-Social Interaction: Observation on Intimacy at a Distance’. In G.Gumpert and R.Cathcart (eds.), Inter/Media: Interpersonal Communication in a Media World. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 185–206.and .1984. ‘Viewing Television: The Metapsychology of Endless Consumption’. Quarterly Review of Film Studies9(3), pp. 183–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/105092084093612112001. ‘Americans Turn to Web Sites to Post Information, Reactions’. http://Sfgate.com 12 September.1964. The Phenomenology of Internal Time-Consciousness. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.1970 . The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.2001. Conversation and Technology. Cambridge: Polity Press.1951. The Bias of Communication. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.1968. ‘Central Place Development in a Time-Space Framework’. The Professional GeographerXX, pp. 5–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0033-0124.1968.00005.x1973. ‘Measuring Human Extensibility in a Shrinking World’. The Journal of Geography72(5), pp. 8–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/002213473089813011991. ‘Global Interdependence and its Consequences’. In S.D.Brunn and T.R.Leinbach (eds.), Collapsing Space and Time: Geographic Aspects of Communication and Information. London: HarperCollins, pp. 49–81.1983. The Culture of Time and Space, 1880–1918. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.1994. Time in Language. London: Routledge.1999. Warp Speed: America in the Age of Mixed Media. New York: The Century Foundation Press.and .2001. The Elements of Journalism: What Newspeople Should Know and the Public Should Expect. New York: Crown.and .2005. ‘Londoners Turn to Standard as Horror of Attacks Unfolds’. Press Gazette 15 July, p. 17.1983. Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.2005a. ‘Immediacy, Convenience or Engagement? An Analysis of 24-Hour News Channels in the UK’. Journalism Studies6(4), pp. 461–477. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616700500250362, and .2005b. Citizens or Consumers: What the Media Tell Us about Political Participation. Maidenhead: Open University Press., and .1965. ‘The Business of Television and the Black Weekend’. In B.S.Greenberg and E.B.Parker (eds.), The Kennedy Assassination and the American Public. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, pp. 73–86.1977. Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.1982. ‘Deixis and Subjectivity: Loquor, Ergo Sum?’ In R.J.Jarvella and W.Klein (eds.), Speech, Place and Action. New York: Wiley, pp. 101–124.1993. ‘What Drives Live? Why Broadcasters Choose to Transmit Live Programming’. In N.Miller and R.Allen (eds.), It's Live – But is it Real?London: John Libbey, pp. 15–21., and .1973. Understanding Media. London: Abacus.1927. The Nature of Existence. Volume II. London: Cambridge University Press.[Page 133]1995. ‘Intersubjectivity and Temporal Reference in Television Commentary’. Time and Society4(3), pp. 345–364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961463X950040030051996. ‘Time and Time Again: “Live” Television Commentary and the Construction of Replay Talk’. Media, Culture and Society18, pp. 69–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163443960180010051997. ‘The Emergence of Live Television Talk’. Text17(2), pp. 181–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/text.1.19126.96.36.1992000. ‘Election Night’. Media, Culture and Society22, pp. 131–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163443000220020012001. ‘In Pursuit of the Ineffable: How Television Found the Eclipse but Lost the Plot’. Media, Culture and Society23, pp. 725–742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163443010230060032007. ‘American Election Night and the Journalism of Assertion’. Journalism: Theory, Practice and Criticism8(6), in press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/14648849070831191993. ‘Power-Geometry and a Progressive Sense of Place’. In J.Bird, B.Curtis, T.Putnam, G.Robertson and L.Tickner (eds.), Mapping the Futures: Local Cultures, Global Change. London: Routledge, pp. 59–69.1990. ‘TV Time and Catastrophe’. In P.Mellencamp (ed.), Logics of Television. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, pp. 240–266.1962. Phenomenology of Perception. London: Routledge.1974. Film Language: A Semiotics of the Cinema. New York: Oxford University Press.1986. ‘Television and Interpersonal Behavior: Codes of Perception and Response’. In G.Gumpert and R.Cathcart (eds.), Inter/Media: Interpersonal Communication in a Media World. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 253–272.1976. Language and Perception. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.and .1980. ‘Telepresence’. Omni2, pp. 44–52.1986. ‘DJ Talk’. Media, Culture and Society8(4), pp. 421–440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01634437860080040042001. ‘Defining Authentic Talk’. Discourse Studies3(4), pp. 397–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/14614456010030040042006. ‘Broadcast News, the Live “Two-Way” and the Case of Andrew Gilligan’. Media, Culture and Society28(2): 233–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01634437060616831995. ‘TV Discourse and “Time-Space Distanciation”: On Mediated Interaction in Modern Society’. Time and Society4(3), pp. 329–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961463X950040030041997. ‘Broadcasting and its Audiences’. In H.Mackay (ed.), Consumption and Everyday Life. London: Sage, pp. 213–246.1985. ‘Sport Spectacle as Drama’. Journal of Popular Culture18(4), pp. 101–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1985.151101.xand .1983. ‘Sport on Television: Replay and Display’. In A.Kaplan (ed.), Regarding Television: Critical Approaches. Los Angeles: American Film Institute, pp. 44–66.1985. ‘Talk, Talk, Talk: The Space of Discourse on Television’. Screen26(2), pp. 2–17.1985. Nightly Horrors: Crisis Coverage in Television Network News. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press.and .1994. Time: The Modern and Postmodern Experience. Cambridge: Polity Press.1977. Interfaces of the Word: Studies in the Evolution of Consciousness and Culture. London: Cornell University Press.1999. Speaking into the Air: A History of the Idea of Communication. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.2001. ‘Witnessing’. Media, Culture and Society23, pp. 707–723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163443010230060021965. ‘The Television Story in Dallas’. In B.S.Greenberg and E.B.Parker (eds.), The Kennedy Assassination and the American Public. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, pp. 61–66.2005. ‘From Power Surge to Bombs – How TV Broke the News’. Press Gazette 15 July, p. 18.2005. ‘Mobloggers Show They Are a Force in Newsgathering’. Press Gazette 15 July, p. 17.1968. Words, Meaning and Messages. London: Academic Press.1973. On Message Structure. New York: Wiley.1974. Cybernetics of the Sacred. New York: Anchor Press.[Page 134]1991. ‘Introduction: The Relevance of Talk’. In P.Scannell (ed.), Broadcast Talk. London: Sage, pp. 1–13.1996. Radio, Television and Modern Life. Oxford: Blackwell.1999. ‘The Death of Diana and the Meaning of Media Events’. Review of Media, Information and Society4, pp. 27–50.2000. ‘For-Anyone-As-Someone Structures’. Media, Culture and Society22(1), pp. 5–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163443000220010011965. ‘Communication in Crisis’. In B.S.Greenberg and E.B.Parker (eds.), The Kennedy Assassination and the American Public. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, pp. 1–25.1962. Collected Papers. Volume I. The Hague, Netherlands: M. Nijhoff.1970. Reflections on the Problem of Relevance. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.1972. The Phenomenology of the Social World. London: Heinemann.1983. The Structures of the Life-World. Volume II. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.and .1992. ‘Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence’. Journal of Communication42(4), pp. 73–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00812.x1995. Understanding Media Cultures: Social Theory and Mass Communication. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462213101995. The Media and Modernity: A Social Theory of the Media. Cambridge: Polity Press.1985. ‘Anecdotal Television’. Screen26(2), pp. 18–27.1996. Mediations: Text and Discourse in Media Studies. London: Hodder Arnold.1999. Globalization and Culture. Cambridge: Polity Press.1969. The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.2001. ‘What is Authenticity?’Discourse Studies3(4), pp. 392–397. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/14614456010030040031967. Linguistics in Philosophy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.1985. ‘The Power Politics of “Live” Television’. Journal of Film and Video37, pp. 26–40.1991. Lost Dimension. New York: Semiotext(e).1995. Open Sky. London: Verso.1992. Fields in Vision: Television Sport and Cultural Transformation. London: Routledge.1970. ‘Tense and Time’. Archivum Linguisticum1, pp. 31–42.1988. ‘A Cross-Linguistic Survey of the Grammaticalization of Evidentiality’. Studies in Language12, pp. 51–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/sl.12.1.04wil2002. ‘Towards Tabloidization? Glasgow Revisited, 1975–2001’. Journalism Studies3(1), pp. 5–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/146167001201073011978. ‘The Rare Case of Television Aesthetics’. Journal of the University Film Association30(2), pp. 3–8.