Learning to Read in a New Language: Making Sense of Words and Worlds
Publication Year: 2008
Building upon the ideas proposed in Making Sense of a New World, this Second Edition widens its scope, arguing that policies designed for ‘monolingual minds’ be limited, while those favoring methodologies which put plurilingualism in the centre of initial literacy tuition are promoted. This book offers a practical reading program -- an ‘Inside-Out’ (starting from experience) and ‘Outside-In’ (starting from literature) approach to teaching which can be used with individuals, small groups, and whole classes. It uses current sociocultural theory, while drawing on examples of children from a variety of different countries who are engaged in learning to read nursery rhymes and songs, storybooks, letters, the Bible, and the Qur’an, in languages they do not speak fluently.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Setting the Scene
- Key Terms
- The Task Ahead: New Languages, Literacies and Scripts
- Different Countries, Different Contexts
- What's in a Word? Terms and Terminology
- A Plan of the Book
Part 1: Learning to Read Differently
- Introduction: Cultures, Codes and Contexts
- Chapter 2: The Social Context: Important Practices
- Key Terms
- Julializ and Bible Reading in the United States Dinah Volk
- Pia and Letter-writing in France Joan Bursch
- Dineo and Performing in South Africa Pippa Stein and Lynne Slonimsky
- Ah Si and Nursery Rhymes in Macao-SAR, China Keang Vong
- Curtis and Fishing Games in Britain Yu-chiao Chung
- Sanah and Story-reading in Singapore Mukhlis Abu Bakar
- Elsey and Popular Culture in Australia Allan Luke and Joan Kale
- Hasanat and Qur'an Reading in Britain Mahera Ruby
- Making Sense of Reading
- Suggestions for Teaching and Learning
- Chapter 3: Family and Community Contexts: Important Others
- Key Terms
- Many Ways of Learning
- Siblings as Expert Reading Teachers
- Grandparents as Mediators of Literacies
- Friends as new Language and Literacy Teachers
- Suggestions for Teaching and Learning
- Chapter 4: The Context of the Mind: Important Knowledge
- Key Terms
- Symbolization and new Language Learners
- ‘Simple’ versus ‘Complex’ Views of Reading
- Where do New Language Learners Fit in?
- Putting Meaning in the Middle
- Suggestions for Teaching and Learning
- Chapter 5: Using the Same Clues Differently
- Key Terms
- Deciphering Letters and Sounds: Grapho-phonic, Orthographic and Phonological Clues
- Memorizing Important Words: Lexical Clues
- ‘Chunking’ Useful Sentences: Syntactic Clues
- Matching Experiences to Texts: Semantic Clues
- The World in a Story: Bibliographic Clues
- Suggestions for Teaching and Learning
Part 2: From Theory to Practice
- Introduction: Making Sense of Words and Worlds
- Chapter 6: Starting with the Word: The ‘Inside-Out’ Approach in Action
- Key Terms
- What does an ‘Inside-Out’ Approach to Reading Mean?
- ‘Language-Experience’ Approaches Across the World
- The ‘Inside-Out’ Approach in Action
- Chapter 7: Starting with the World: The ‘Outside-In’ Approach to Reading
- Key Terms
- What Does an ‘Outside-In’ Approach to Reading Mean?
- The ‘Outside-In’ Approach and Structured Story
- The ‘Outside-In’ Approach and Collaborative Reading
- Chapter 8: Linking the ‘Inside-Out’ and ‘Outside-In’ Approaches: Ideas for Groups and Classes
- Chapter 9: Epilogue
© Eve Gregory 2008
First published 2008
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
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To Elsie, George and Klara and to all the children, past and present, who appear in this book[Page vi]
List of Figures[Page ix]
- 1.1 An illustration from The Elephant5
- 1.1 A famous poem learned at home by many young children whose family origins are from China 22
- 2.1 A primer from Puerto Rico 32
- 2.2 A primer from Puerto Rico continued 32
- 2.3 Winnie the Pooh 33
- 2.4 Winnie the Pooh continued 33
- 2.5 Pia's letter 37
- 2.6 Bitte lösen 37
- 2.7 Pia's school literacy 37
- 2.8 Pia's school literacy continued 37
- 2.9 Ah Si's dual-language flash cards 47
- 2.10 Twinkle, twinkle, little star 49
- 2.11 Curtis's fishing game 52
- 2.12 Curtis and his mum working together 53
- 2.13 Hasanat's early writing 67
- 3.1 A mother from Burma (Myanmar) teaching her baby to pray 76
- 3.2 Sahil reading a chora with his grandmother Razia and his two sisters 93
- 3.3 Sahil guides Razia's hand on the computer mouse 94
- 3.4 Learning with the computer with grandmother and a younger sibling 95
- 3.5 Amina practising the Chinese character meaning ‘seven’ based on Ming's instructions 100
- 4.1 Learning to read in a new language: An interactive approach 119
- 5.1 Chinese classes emphasize the importance of accuracy 125
- 5.3 Pictographs 126
- 5.4 Ideographs 126
- 5.4 Compound ideographs 126
- 5.5 The importance of lexical and visual clues 131
- 5.6 Clues for learning to read in a new language: A typical schema in young children's lives 136
- 5.7 The importance of illustrations, simplicity and context when reading in a new language 149
- 7.1 Story books are the key to development of different clues for learning to read 187
- 7.2 The inner layer of the ‘Outside-In’ approach is circular in nature 189 [Page x]
- 7.3 Community work on children's dual-language stories 193
- 7.4 Language and cultural exchanges between community, teachers and children 193
- 8.1 Plan for a series of lessons 206
- 8.2 The ‘Good morning’ song 208
While the issues of literacy and culture continue to be the focus of attention - and matters of contention - for many teachers, education students, parents, researchers, interested citizens and politicians, there is currently limited understanding of the teaching and learning processes through which young children become literate in a new language. As a consequence, teachers around the world in this ‘post-monolingual’ age (Soto and Kharem, 2006) often struggle to teach reading and writing to the increasing numbers of children in their classrooms who are learning in a language new to them. Most use models that presuppose a ‘monolingual mind’ based on children learning to read in their home language. Learning to Read in a New Language synthesizes research, models and practice, and provides a way forward, that is, a way of working with new language learners that is responsive to a range of children, approaches, contexts and languages.
Gregory begins this important, useful book with a carefully detailed, theoretical analysis of new language learners, describing the complexity of what they can do as well as their learning needs, their expertise as creative and active learners and teachers, and the valuable but often ignored literacy experiences with a range of adult and child teachers that they bring with them from their homes and communities. Her analysis draws on the concept drawn from sociocultural theory of the integration of mind and culture and, thus, the synthesis of intra-personal, interpersonal and cultural processes of becoming literate. Interwoven throughout this discussion are excerpts from literacy interactions with real children from a variety of cultural and language backgrounds, bringing the concepts to life and adding children's voices to the mix. Throughout, she argues that literacy tuition involves explicit teaching that takes full account of the sociocultural context within which children live and learn.
Building on this analysis, Gregory provides a critique of current approaches to literacy instruction and then shares her innovative and teacher-friendly inside-out/outside-in model which ‘puts meaning in the middle’, integrating decoding and meaning-making in personal interactions and attending to the specific language strengths and weaknesses of each child. This model of literacy as ‘making sense of words and worlds’ includes a clearly explained graphic organizer that synthesizes different kinds of literacy and language clues, a discussion of the unique ways that individual new language learners may use such clues, and detailed plans - including activities, materials and books - that build on that model.
[Page xii]This book is a terrific resource that stands as an example of the finely tuned teaching recommended for use with new language learners. It scaffolds the reader's developing understanding and moves the reader from theory to practice, from insights to implementation. Gregory has carefully designed this progress, building slowly with ideas and images, examples, questions and summaries used in combination with a well-developed argument. Her book makes an important contribution and challenges us to address this critical educational and social need with the tools she provides. It urges us to ask ourselves: with whom will we share this book and our new-found knowledge? Teachers? Colleagues? Teacher education students? Parents? A local politician? How will we use it in our courses and our classrooms? How will we change our understandings and our practice? How can we make sure that the insights, expertise and energy generated by this book are used to improve radically the literacy teaching of new language learners? How can we build on the remarkable strengths and abilities of children like Annie who at 7 years of age can speak Thai, is learning to read it and simultaneously is learning to both speak and read in English?
Soto, L.D. and Kharem, H. (2006) A post-monolingual education, International Journal of Educational Policy, Research, and Practice, 7: 21-34.
Early Childhood Program, College of Education Cleveland State University
I concluded the Preface to Making Sense of a New World: Learning to Read in a Second Language, written in 1996, by saying: ‘In Britain, it is still easy to feel “cocooned” within a monolingual world. Yet … there is every reason to believe that the age of the emergent bilingual has scarcely yet begun’. Those words were written as the twentieth century drew to a close. Scarcely a decade later, that statement would have been impossible. Yet few could have predicted the speed with which this change would happen. In 2008, most large cities in the world are abuzz with different languages being spoken and different scripts being written or read. In many parts of London, monolingual children are exceptional and classrooms are able to draw on the wealth of numerous languages offered by families and their communities. Although a proportion of newcomers to cities are still, like their predecessors, fleeing persecution or economic poverty, important new factors have emerged that were not fully envisaged a decade ago. New technologies, and especially the Internet, have transformed people's ability to conduct their work anywhere in the world and informed their choice of residence. Students are spending time at institutions thousands of miles from home and often taking their children with them. Families are deciding to relocate to more pleasant climates and their children immediately switch languages in school. Additionally, the development of new technologies and resulting globalization have led to the dominance of certain languages which have become a lingua franca across the world. At present, English has attained this status. By the end, or perhaps even the middle, of the twenty-first century a different language may prevail. The status of English means that many young children across the world, not just in private but in state schools, are becoming bilingual and using two or more scripts. Of course, this has always happened in community contexts as the children in the first edition of this book revealed. However, it is now the norm as primary schools in many Asian and African countries show.
All this has led to a surge of interest in the field of language, culture and identity, and to a growing sophistication and change in the terminology used. Researchers and teachers are now distinguishing between the multilingualism and multiculturalism of communities and societies and the plurilingualism and pluriculturalism within individuals themselves. Others focus on the syncretism as young children blend cultures and languages to create new practices and forms. In recognition of the increasing scope and changing role of language learning in the lives of young children, I adopt the term ‘new language learner’ instead of ‘emergent bilingual’ in this book. The term recognizes the fact that, although many children [Page xiv]may go on to become fully bilingual, others will stop before that point and will step in and out of different languages at different ages or stages of their school career.
In contrast with the growing sophistication in work on languages, cultures and identities, studies in early literacy learning have not kept up with the burgeoning research in this field. This is ironic, since all children will need to learn to read in the new language they learn. However, although we have always had plurilingual children, studies into how children learn to read have generally assumed a monolingual mind. Instead of drawing upon the skills and knowledge (as well as recognizing the weaknesses) of children who are able simultaneously to deal with more than one, or even two, languages and scripts, we often try to squash them into a monolingual mould. The tragedy of this is that we are in danger of suppressing the creativity of young children as they play and experiment, not just with words, but with future worlds. It is this creativity which, in this book, I try to reveal.
London, November 2007
This book owes its existence to a number of people. First and foremost, I thank the families, teachers and community teachers who invited me into their classrooms and homes and gave their time generously. I should especially like to thank Alan, Dabir and Nicole, who spared me time in their busy lives now they are no longer children, and Joy and Paul Stanton, who searched out Alan and Dabir for me. I also thank the teachers of Canon Barnett School in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, Military Road School, Northampton and Sir John Heron School in the London Borough of Newham and, particularly, Rani Karim who facilitated much of my recent school work. Early episodes owe much to the patience of Nasima Rashid who worked with me for some years visiting families and community classes and teaching the children in school. Episodes with siblings were collected and analysed by Ann Williams and Ali Asghar who worked with me on an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded project on Siblings as Mediators of Literacy in East London. Episodes with grandparents were collected by Mahera Ruby and Tahera Arju and analysed by Charmian Kenner and John Jessel, who worked with me on the project Intergenerational Learning between Grandparents and Young Children in East London, also funded by the ESRC and I am grateful to all these colleagues for their ongoing support. Episodes with peers were collected and analysed by Yangguang Chen and I should like to thank her for these. I also owe other examples of peer learning to Susi Long and her colleagues, Dinah Volk and Charmian Kenner. I should also like to thank Dinah Volk for contributing the Foreword to this book. I should especially like to thank my co-authors in Chapter 2; Dinah Volk, Joan Bursch, Pippa Stein, Lynne Slonimsky Keang Vong, Yu-chiao Chung, Mukhlis Abu Bakar, Allan Luke, Joan Kale and Mahera Ruby who generously offered their work and, of course, the families who worked with them. I should like to thank Pashamon Prabpal and Annie Gregory for their contribution to Chapter 1, Roy Gregory for writing the music for the ‘Good Morning’ song and Yueping Zhang for the Chinese characters in Chapter 5. My past and present PhD students have always offered me inspiration as well as Margaret Meek and colleagues from both the cross-cultural intercollegiate group and members of the Multilingual Europe seminar series funded by the ESRC. Helen Fairlie, my editor at Sage, has given me support and encouragement throughout the writing of this book and I should like to thank her for that. Last, but by no means least, I should like to express my thanks to Karl Kimmig for his patience and helpful suggestions throughout this and with all my work.
Work leading to this book has been financially supported by Goldsmiths, University of [Page xvi]London, the ESRC, the Leverhulme Trust and the Paul Hamlyn Foundation.
I should also like to thank Editorial Panamericana, Inc. for the use of the cover and p. 4 of Nuestra Cartilla Fonética, Editorial Panamericana, Inc. (t. (787) 277 7988/f (787) 277 7240 (email@example.com), Thai Airlines for the use of Elephant, English Quarterly (Canadian Council of Teachers of English Language Arts) for use of excerpts from grandparents (Vol. 36, No. 4), Routledge for use of excerpts from Many Pathways to Literacy: Young Children Learning with Siblings, Grandparents, Peers and Communities, (2004, eds E. Gregory, S. Long and D. Volk, p. 118) and David Fulton for use of Elsey a fuller version of which appears in One Child, Many Worlds (1997, ed. E. Gregory). I should also like to thank colleagues at the University of Vic, Spain, for use of excerpts from ‘Ventafocs’.
- Additive/subtractive language learning Second language learning is referred to as ‘additive’ if the new language is learned without detriment to the mother tongue. It is ‘subtractive’ if the aim is to replace the first language with the new one.
- Arbitrary nature of language The relationship between the word (or symbol) and the sound it makes is referred to as arbitrary because there is no intrinsic link between the sound sequence and the word it refers to. Young bilinguals have an early awareness of the arbitrariness of language as they know that an object can be represented by more than one word.
- Assimilation (policy of) The policy which aims to absorb immigrants as quickly as possible into the language and culture of the host country.
- Bibliographic knowledge The knowledge of books or written texts in the widest sense. This may be a knowledge of the layout of a book (in English left to right, top to bottom, and so on) or the knowledge that certain words and expressions ‘belong’ to certain texts, for example, ‘Once upon a time …’.
- BISC (basic interpersonal communicative skills) These communicative skills are those needed for everyday purposes, for example, playground language, and are picked up very quickly by new language learners.
- Broker ‘Language broker’ is the term given to those who mediate a new language (and culture) to other niembers of their family. Many children in Europe and the US are language brokers for both parents and younger siblings.
- CALP (cognitive academic language proficiency) The academic language that is needed as children discuss and write about texts or other academic subjects. Children may take up to 7 years to learn these in a new language.
- Cohesive devices The term used to refer to words which link one sentence (or part of a sentence) to another. Some common cohesive devices are: pronominal reference, for example, ‘I saw John yesterday. He was ill’; synonyms, for example, sick/ill; superordinates, for example, ‘apples and oranges = fruit’; collocational expressions, for example, ‘toast with butter and jam’. Knowledge of these can greatly assist a child in predicting a text. Collocation Words which are habitually associated with each other, for example, cup and [Page 221]saucer; knife and fork. Knowledge of more complex collocations, for example, ‘rancid’ rather than ‘rotten’ butter, come through experiences in a language or can be gained through experiences with written stories, for example, ‘grinding corn; sowing seeds’. Comprehensible input Language which contains some new element in it but is nevertheless understood by the learner because of linguistic, paralinguistic or situational clues or world knowledge back-up.
- Conjunction A word used to connect words or clauses, for example, but, and, because, if, although.
- Cues (reading clues) Signals sent from five knowledge centres (bibliographic or book); semantic (meaning); syntactic (structure); lexical (word) and grapho-phonic (sound/symbol relationship) to assist readers in predicting a text.
- Diglossia/diglossic situation Terms in sociolinguistics for the use of two or more varieties of language (one a ‘high or standard variety and one a ‘low’ spoken vernacular) for different purposes or functions in the same community.
- European Communities Directive (1977) A Directive from the European Community which strongly supported the principle that the teaching of the mother tongue improves rather than impairs the linguistic and educational performance of bilingual children and urged all member countries to provide mother-tongue teaching.
- Generative words The term used by Paolo Freire in his work with adult illiterates in Brazil during the 1960s to denote words of high personal value which also generated a variety of phonemic combinations, for example, sl-ave: c-ave; r-ave.
- Grapho-phonic and phonological knowledge Knowledge which enables readers to match written symbols (graphemes) with the sounds we attach to them (phonemes).
- Holophrastic stage (of language learning) The first stage of language acquisition whereby, a one word utterance can be made sense of only in the immediate situation, for example, ‘doggie can mean ‘Look at the doggie’ or ‘Doggie wants his food’, and so on.
- Interdependency principle The principle that a child will be able to transfer knowledge gained in one language to others.
- Inter-lingual/intra-lingual miscues Inter-lingual miscues are those which arise from interference of the mother tongue, for example, ‘she's’ for male and female for Asian children speaking languages where gender is not marked by the relative pronoun. Intra-lingual miscues arise from the structure of the target language itself, for example, ‘goed’ where the past tense rule ‘add -ed’ is applied to irregular past tenses.
- Inter-psychological/intra-psychological planes According to Vygotsky (1962), children's development appears first on the interpsychological (or social) plane in interaction with others and then on the intrapsychological (or mental) plane.
- Key vocabulary The term used by Sylvia Ashton-Warner in her book Teacher (1963) to denote the words which are most important to children as they begin reading.
- [Page 222]Knowledge centre According to Rummelhart's interactive theory of reading (1977), we draw upon cues (clues) sent out from four knowledge centres (semantic, syntactic, lexical, orthographic/grapho-phonic) as we set about learning to read. In this book, I add ‘bibliographic knowledge’ as a fifth knowledge centre.
- Lexis (lexical knowledge) Lexis is the vocabulary of a language. Lexical knowledge is the knowledge of words which enables readers to predict which word might follow in a text. This may be through collocation, pronominal reference, and so on.
- Lingua franca Language that is widely used as a means of communication amongst speakers of other languages.
- Linguistic set A group of words linked through common association, for example, ‘breakfast’ words, ‘school’ words.
- Linguistic stem The term is used here to mean ‘structure’. Ben-Zeev (1977) found that bilingual children were more able than monolinguals to analyse linguistic stems when asked to ignore word meaning and sentence framing and substitute one word for another, for example, Researcher: ‘If “they” means “spaghetti”, how do we say “They are good children”?’ (Answer: ‘Spaghetti’ are good children.)
- Metalanguage/metalinguistic awareness A term in linguistics for language used to talk about language. Research studies show that young bilinguals have an advanced metalinguistic awareness as they are able to realise the arbitrariness of language, see word boundaries, and so on at an earlier stage than monolinguals.
- Minority language submersion When minority languages are totally ignored or deliberately suppressed, we refer to the situation as one of ‘minority language submersion’.
- Miscue analysis A detailed analysis of the errors made by an inexperienced reader in order to ascertain which cues (clues) s/he can use as well as which may be lacking.
- New language learners The term used in this book to refer to children who are learning to read in a language that they do not fluently speak. This may describe children who do not speak the host language at home or it may apply to children who are learning to read in a new language (often English) at the same time as becoming literate in their first language. They may also be learning a number of different scripts simultaneously and becoming biliterate or even pluriliterate.
- Oral cloze Originally from ‘close’ (to complete a pattern in Gestalt theory). A cloze exercise asks children to supply missing words either orally or in writing, for example, ‘Little Red Riding Hood went to the forest to pick -’.
- Oronym Strings of sound that can be carved into words in different ways, for example, ‘I scream’ or ‘ice-cream’.
- Orthographic knowledge One of the five knowledge centres called upon by the reader: an awareness of spelling patterns, for example, ‘scr’ may begin words in English but ‘hlt’ may not.
- [Page 223]Paired reading Usually used to refer to home reading schemes whereby caregiver and child share the reading. Usually the child begins reading and signs to the caregiver to continue.
- Participation structure A term used to refer to the nature of turn-taking between teacher or caregiver and child as they interact during reading events.
- Parts of speech A grammatical category or class of words. Traditional grammars of English generally list eight parts of speech: noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection.
- Phoneme In linguistics, the smallest category of sound which can distinguish two words, for example, ‘p-an’, ‘b-an’ which comprise three phonemes ‘b’ or ‘p’, ‘a’ and ‘n’.
- Phonological knowledge The knowledge of sound patterns in a language.
- Preposition One of the traditional parts of speech denoting principally time and space (at, from, through, without, up, down, under, over, in, to, and so on) but also cause and purpose (for) and agent (by, with).
- Pronominal reference Where a pronoun (he, she, it, we, you, they) refers to a noun which precedes it, for example, ‘I saw Mary yesterday. She was ill’.
- Qur'an The sacred book of Islam.
- Redundancy Part(s) of a message which can be eliminated without loss of essential information.
- Scaffolding The metaphor used to describe the way in which both caregivers and teachers structure young children's learning. The notion of a ‘scaffold’ which can be dismounted piece by piece highlights the child's growing capacity and independence.
- Schema A mental model of the world which enables one to make personal sense of it.
- Semantic knowledge The knowledge of the meaning of words within a culture including their denotations, orientations, implications and ambiguities.
- Sense and meaning In this book, Vygotsky's (1962) definitions are used, whereby ‘meaning’ denotes the dictionary definition of a word, the way it is commonly understood, and ‘sense’ the personal meaning attached to a word which will depend upon the personal and cultural experiences an individual has made in relation to a word, for example, ‘flag’ may have a positive or negative ‘sense’ according to an individual's experience within a culture.
- Signifier/signified In linguistics, the word is sometimes referred to as the ‘signifier’ and the object it refers to the ‘signified’.
- Speech event The term used by Hymes (1974) to denote an event for which certain words, phrases and linguistic ‘recipes’ are necessary. These will be different from one culture to another (for example, weddings, funerals).
- Superordinates Terms with a wide reference, for example, flower and furniture, which will include a number of subordinates, for example, rose, daisy, table or chair.
- Synonym Words which have similar meanings, for example, obedient, compliant.
- Syntactic knowledge Knowledge of the grammar of a language (the way in which words [Page 224]combine into units such as phrase, clause and sentence).
- Voiced/unvoiced (voiceless) consonants ‘Voice’ is the buzzing sound made in the larynx by the vibration of the vocal chords. ‘Voiced’ sounds are ‘b, d, g, z’; ‘voiceless’ sounds are ‘p, t, k, s’ whereby ‘s’ can be voiced if it follows a voiced sound (wugs) or voiceless if it does not (bus).
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Pub. 00-4769.(1975) Intersubjectivity and the transmission of culture: on the social origins of symbolic functioning, Bulletin of the British Psychology Society, 218: 437-46.and (1998) Socialisation of Nso children in the Bamenda grassfields of Northwest Cameroon, in M.Woodhead, D.Faulkner and K.Littleton (eds), Cultural Worlds of Early Childhood. London and New York: Routledge.and (1994) Stories make a difference: intercultural dialogue in the early years, European Early Childhood Research Journal, 2(1): 35-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13502939485207511(2001) Socialization, language and learning in a Somali diasporic community, in Africa and Asia, No.1: 69-78. Department of African and Oriental Languages: Göteborg University.(2004) Storytelling and Latino elders: what can children learn?, in E.Gregory, S.Long and D.Volk (eds), Many Pathways to Literacy: Young Children Learning with Siblings, Grandparents, Peers and Communities. 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Dordrecht: Foris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110250503(2004) Mediating networks for literacy learning: the role of Puerto Rican siblings, in E.Gregory, S.Long and D.Volk (eds), Many Pathways to Literacy: Young Children Learning with Siblings, Grandparents, Peers and Communities. New York and London: Routledge., with (1962) Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11193-000(1978) Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1981) The genesis of higher mental functions, in J.V.Wertsch (ed.), The Concept of Activity in Soviet Psychology. New York: M.E. Sharpe.(1986) Studying literacy in Morocco, in B.Schieffelin and P.Gilmore (eds), Ethnographic Perspectives, Vol. 21 in the series Advance in Discourse Processes. New York: Academic Press., and (1981) From context to text: a psychosemiotic approach to abstract thought, in B.Beveridge (ed.), Children Thinking Through Language. London: Edward Arnold.(1986) Learning to Read in a Multicultural Society. Oxford: Pergamon Press.(Wertsch, J.V. (ed.) (1985) Culture, Communication and Cognition: Vygotskian Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.[Page 233]2004) Language and Literacy in the Early Years: An Approach for Education Students. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.(1982) The language learner as an individual: implications of research on individual differences for the ESL teacher, in M.A.Clarke and J.Handscombe (eds), On TEOL ’82: Pacific Perspectives on Language Learning and Teaching. Washington, DC: TESOL.(1976) The role of tutoring in problem solving, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17: 89-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1976.tb00381.x, and (Woodhead, M., Faulkner, D. and Littleton, K. (eds) (1998) Cultural Worlds of Early Childhood. London and New York: Routledge.Children's books
(Mentioned in the text or classic children's books recommended for use in homes and classrooms for young children learning to read in English. Books by John Burningham, Eric Carle and Pat Hutchins are particularly recommended - although only a small selection is featured below.)1977) Each Peach, Pear, Plum. London: Kestrel/Penguin Books.and (1963) My Five Senses. New York: Crowell.(1977) I Don't Feel Well. London: Hamish Hamilton.(1983) The Lion and the Mouse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1989) La Ventafocs. Vie: Eumo Editorial.et al. (1961) I Know an Old Lady. New York: Rand McNally.and (1976) Bear Hunt. London: Hamish Hamilton.(1981) Hansel and Gretel. London: Julia McRae.(1986) Willy the Wimp. London: Methuen.(1995) Goodnight Moon. New York: Harper Children's Audio (story and audio-cassette)(1978) Mr Gumpy's Outing. London: Walker Books.(1992) Come Away from the Water, Shirley. London: Walker Books.(2003) Granpa. London: Walker Books.(1969) The Very Hungry Caterpillar. Cleveland, OH: Collins World.(1971) Do you want to be my friend?New York: HarperCollins.(1984) The Very Busy Spider. New York: Philomel Books.(1990) The Very Quiet Cricket. New York: Penguin Putnam Books.(1995) The Very Lonely Firefly. New York: Philomel Books.(1970) Tell Me a Story. London: Penguin Books.([Page 234]1962) Are You My Mother?London: (Collins) Beginner Books.(1985) My Very First Poetry Book. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1970) The Three Little Pigs. New York: Seabury Press.(1972) The Three Bears. New York: Scholastic.(1973) The Little Red Hen. New York: Scholastic.(1973) The Three Billy Goats Gruff. New York: Scholastic.(1972) The Chick and the Duckling. New York: Macmillan.(1987) The Hen and the Mice: A Tale of Laziness. London: Hodder & Stoughton (dual-language versions in Bengali, Gujarati, Punjabi and Urdu).and (1987) Gangli Gauri. London: Hodder & Stoughton (dual-language versions in Bengali, Gujarati, Punjabi and Urdu).and (1993) Rumpelstiltskin. Ladybird Grade II Easy Reader. London: Ladybird Books.(1976) Mr Funny. London: Thurman.(1976) Mr Impossible. London: Thurman.(1976) Mr Messy. London: Thurman.(1976) Mr Nosey. London: Thurman.(1980) The Spot Book. London: Heinemann (series also in dual-language versions).(1993) Red Riding Hood. Read it Yourself. Loughborough: Ladybird Books.(1993) The Billy Goats Gruff. Read it Yourself. Loughborough: Ladybird Books.(1993) Rumpelstiltskin. Read it Yourself. Loughborough: Ladybird Books.(1993) Jack and the Beanstalk. Read it Yourself. Loughborough: Ladybird Books.(1993) Hansel and Gretel. Read it Yourself. Loughborough: Ladybird Books.(1993) Sleeping Beauty. Read it Yourself. Loughborough: Ladybird Books.(1968) Rosie's Walk. London: Bodley Head.(1975) Goodnight Owl. London: Puffin.(1978) Don't Forget the Bacon. London: Puffin.(1978) The Wind Blew. London: Puffin.(1982) I Hunter. London: Bodley Head.(1986) The Very Worst Monster. London: Puffin.(1971) The Fat Cat. New York: Scholastic.(1968) The Tiger who Came to Tea. London: Collins Picture Lions.(1972) Anansi the Spider. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.(1987) Not Now, Bernard. London: Arrow, Random Century.(1974) Ten Bears in my Bed. New York: Pantheon.((an excellent selection of dual-language books, CD Roms and so on).2007and (edn) Brown Bear. New York: Henry Holt.2007and (edn) Polar Bear. New York: Henry Holt.1970) Fire! Fire! said Mrs. McGuire. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.([Page 235]1972) The Funny Little Woman. Harlow: Longman Young Books.and (1980) Peace at Last. London: Macmillan.(1972) Meg's Car. London: Heinemann.and (1972) Meg at Sea. London: Heinemann.and (1979) Mouse Looks for a House. London: Methuen.(1974) Bhondoo the Monkey series. India: Thomson Press.((1975) My Big Book of Nursery Tales. London: Award Publishers.Bif's Aeroplane.,1990) Don't Blame Me. London: Bodley Head.(1999) Bear Hunt. London: Walker Books.(1981) Little Red Riding Hood. London: Penguin.(The Fireman, London: Ladybird Books.1970) Where the Wild Things Are. Gosford, NSW: Ashton-Scholastic.(1965) (retold) The Elves and the Shoemaker. London: Penguin Books, The Well Loved Tales.(The Hungry Giant. Gosford, NSW: Ashton-Scholastic.,Elephant. Thai Airlines (dual-language Thai/English text).,1968) The Great Big Enormous Turnip. New York: Franklin Watts.(Topiwalo, the Hat Maker. Plus tape. London: Harmony.1969) The Elephant and the Bad Baby. London: Hamish Hamilton.(1986) Over in the Meadow: A Counting Out Rhyme. London: Puffin.(1977) John Brown, Rose and the Midnight Cat. Melbourne: Kestrel.(