Learning to Change: A Guide for Organization Change Agents
"A good balance between theory and practice . . . it definitely fills a void in the [lack of] texts in the area and the change literature in general . . . a good fit for my graduate class on ‘Managing Organizational Change.’" —Anthony F. Buono, McCallum Graduate School of Business, Bentley College "Like Gareth Morgan’s Images of Organization, this book is a superb blend of theory and practicality. It demystifies chaos and paradox, and it encourages the understanding of organizational dynamics from multiple perspectives. It is refreshing to read a book that presents diverse theories and interventions so even-handedly." —Andrea Markowitz, Ph.D., President, OB&D, Inc. Learning to Change: A Guide for Organizational Change Agents provides a comprehensive overview of organizational change theories ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2: Why Change is Complicated
- On Loosely Coupled Systems
- Ambiguities in Organizations
- Loose Coupling between Intentions and Behavior
- Garbage-Can Decision Making
- Implications for Change Agents and Change Processes
- On Managing and Being Managed
- Autonomous Workers and Hierarchical Managers
- The Basic Conflict
- Pocket Vetoes
- Implications for Change Agents and Change Processes
- On Chaos Thinking
- Dynamic Balance
- Autonomous Development
- Structural Tension and Structural Conflicts
- Implications for Change Agents and Change Processes
- Sociopolitical Mechanisms
- Action Theory and Power
- Informal Organizations
- Economic Exchange in Group Behavior
- Implications for Change Agents and Change Processes
- Four Clusters of Theories about Irrationalities
- Chapter 3: Thinking about Change in Five Different Colors
- Change Strategies and Approaches
- Five Meanings of the Word Change
- Five Ways of Thinking about Change in More Detail
- Yellow-Print Thinking
- Blue-Print Thinking
- Red-Print Thinking
- Green-Print Thinking
- White-Print Thinking
- Some Examples
- Ideals and Pitfalls
- New Colors and “Meta Paradigms”
- Working with Colors: The Joseph and Johanna Case
- Chapter 4: The Main Elements of Planned Change
- Elements of the Method
- The Preceding Change Idea and the Actual Change Outcomes
- History: Driving Factors behind the Change Idea
- The Change Phases
- Communication and Sense-Making
- Playing with the Elements: A Case Illustration
- Chapter 5: From Idea to Outcome
- Diagnostic Process
- Diagnostic Content
- Change Strategy
- The Six Basic Questions
- Choosing a Change Strategy
- Intervention Plan
- The Case of “Organization X”
- Chapter 6: Examples of Diagnostic Models
- The Eisenhower Principle, Curriculum Vitae, Time Sheets
- Profitability Formula for Professional Organizations, Fishbone Diagram, Task-Division Scheme
- Balanced Scorecard, Portfolio Analysis, Activity-Based Costing
- Competitive Structure, Environment Analysis, Experience Curves
- Core Qualities, I/R Professionals, Competencies
- Team Roles, Team Conditions for Success, Roles for Staff Units
- Culture Types, Organizational Configurations, Organizational Iceberg
- Network Organization, Public-Private Cooperation, Industrial Ecology
- Biographical Fit, Power Sources, Levels of Learning
- Optimal Conflict Level, Learning Curve, Process/Result Orientation
- The Clock, Passage of Resistance, Two Forces for Change
- Field of Influence, Megatrends, National Cultures
- Concluding Remarks
- Chapter 7: Examples of Intervention
- Personal Commitment Statement, Outplacement, Protégé Constructions
- Management by Objectives, Hygienic Working, Working with a Day Planner
- Career Development, Recruitment and Selection, Job Enlargement/Job Enrichment
- Coaching, Intensive Clinic, Feedback/Mirroring
- T-Group, Personal Growth, Networking
- Confrontation Meetings, Third-Party Strategy, Top Structuring
- Working in Projects, Archiving, Decision Making
- Social Activities, Team Roles, Management by Speech
- Team Building, Gaming, Intervision
- Self-Steering Teams, Open-Space Meetings, Making Mental Models Explicit
- Improving the Quality of Work Life, Forming Strategic Alliances, Negotiations on Labor Conditions
- Strategy Analysis, Business Process Redesign (BPR), Auditing
- Reward Systems, Managing Mobility and Diversity, Triple Ladder
- Open Systems Planning, Parallel Learning Structures, Quality Circles
- Search Conferences, Rituals and Mystique, Deconstructing “Sacred Cows”
- Concluding Remarks
- Chapter 8: The Change Agent: From Expertise to Authenticity
- Roles and Styles
- Professional Career
- Reflective Practitioner
- From Observing to Sensing
- From Conceptualizing to Sense-Making
- From Experimentation to Commitment
- From Experiencing to (Non) Action
- Chapter 9: Epilogue
Copyright © 2003 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Caluwé, Léon de, 1950-Learning to change : a guide for organization change agents / by Léon de Caluwé and Hans Vermaak.
Includes bibliographical references (p.) and index.
1. Organizational change. 2. Organizational change-Case studies.
I. Vermaak, Hans. II. Title.
02 03 04 05 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Marquita Flemming
Editorial Assistant: MaryAnn Vail
Production Editor: Claudia A. Hoffman
Copy Editor: Kris Bergstad
Indexer: Molly Hall
Cover Designer: Michelle Lee
Cover Art: Ria Lap, Landschap met bleke zon, 1996
Interior Art: Desirée Langenbach
Early in 1997, four people got together with the challenging idea of mapping out the field of change management for the benefit of their colleagues in the consulting profession. After all, change does lie at the heart of our profession, and it seemed like a good move to make any available wisdom more explicit. Thus began a year of collecting and exchanging theories, models, and experience from many kinds of sources, including gems picked up from our clients and fellow consultants in the course of our work. It was a year of sifting through and collating a wealth of material and arguing about the differences. It made for inspiring discussions. Over time it turned into a process of seeking common language, images, and nuances. We did not always find them, but by and large our efforts were rewarded, and at the end of the year we were able to launch a change management course accompanied by a substantial course book. We switched our efforts to teaching, bringing together groups of twenty people for a few days at a time every couple of months to discuss change processes, and to apply and test our concepts. The responses in these meetings strengthened our belief that the concepts are valuable and practical. The meetings also gave us new food for thought.
Two of us wanted to detail our collected insights further and decided to write a book. We wanted to offer the reader a variety of change theories and practices without making (too many) value judgments, knowing that there are often multiple approaches possible to the same problem. At the same time we wanted to furnish change agents with common and practical language and concepts, while guarding against expounding personal ideologies. In short, we wanted to create a concise and state-of-the-art overview of change management. This guide for organization change agents is the tangible result. But that is not all; we discovered that the very process of writing changed us, and we hope that our book might change you a bit as well. This is why we have chosen to call it Learning to Change. Perhaps the essence of being a change agent is the endless quest to learn what change is, how it works, and where we can contribute. This book marks a milestone in our thinking, even though we are not done learning about change, nor would we want to be.
This book would never have been written without the help of Hanneke Elink Schuurman and Wilma Terwel, the other two members of our original group. Much of what is written here is also the result of their work. In addition, Jan Bas Loman, Gert Wijnen, Hein Abeln, and Anneke Mensink supplied their energy and wisdom. We were also supported by Herman Grootelaar, Anna Bicker Caarten, Huub Vinkenburg, Jac Geurts, Marc de Roos, Rob Schutte, and Gerton Heijne. To make the [Page x]ideas accessible to an international audience, we have sought to translate this book. Through inspiring colleagues at the Academy of Management, we met Marquita Flemming of Sage Publications and, with her help, that of her colleagues, and of Eileen Moyer, we were able to adapt the book for an international audience—a more difficult task than we had expected beforehand.
In conclusion, this book also owes a great deal to the inspiration gained over many years of working with clients, colleagues, scholars, and friends. There is no better way to learn than through experience.
Regular visits to the peaceful and inspiring surroundings of the Koningshoeven Abbey in Tilburg (The Netherlands) provided us with the ideal conditions to collect and record our thoughts. It was a location where we could leave the everyday world behind and give our thoughts free rein.—andMay, 2002
Appendix 1: Five Color Glossaries[Page 281]
In this appendix, we present five concise glossaries, one for each color. This is yet another way of distinguishing the ideas and convictions of each of the colors and gaining a better understanding of the various schools of thought.
These glossaries are by no means complete, nor do they need to be. Much work can still be done to map the language used in each paradigm of change. Here they merely provide illustrations of the book's concepts.
We include three categories in each glossary:
- Typical words: These are words often used by followers of that specific school of thought and will help you to recognize them as such.
- Catch phrases: These capture favorite approaches or ways of tackling a problem. If you ask, “What should I do?” they might well reply with one or more of these catch phrases.
- Typical idioms: These are pithy one-liners that express a concept, a dilemma, or a phenomenon originating in common everyday language but also appropriated by the relevant school of thought. They can be seen as metaphors that clarify the colors.
But take care. Even though we feel that the glossaries are fair representations of the relevant schools of thought, these distinctions are not ironclad. Sometimes the meaning of a word is not as it appears at first glance. Words from one school of thought can sometimes be appropriated by others: they undergo subtle changes of meaning and as a result can suddenly support a contrasting view on change. Also, [Page 282]language is sometimes used as “camouflage.” For instance, bad news brought by the top (often blue or yellow) can be wrapped in attractive and people-friendly language (often red) to make it more palatable in the hope of raising less resistance.[Page 283]Yellow-Print ThinkingTypical Words
Code of conduct
Loss of face
Party (Third …)
Rank and file
Rules of the game
Trust and distrust
Win-winTypical Catch Phrases
Taking circumstances into account
Agree to disagree
Create sufficient support
Develop a common vision
Search for feasible solutions
Get everyone to think along the same lines
Determine room for negotiating
Create win-win situations
Meet behind closed doors
Conflict of interestsTypical Idioms
We are all created equal, but some are more equal than others
You scratch my back, I'll scratch yours
[Page 284]If two dogs fight for a bone, the third runs away with it
To pay lip service
To keep something under one's hat
To wear different hats
The buck stops here
You can't please everybody
He butters his bread on both sides
They are using me for target practice
The bigger they are, the harder they fall
Keep your powder dry
Let sleeping dogs lie
Don't show your hand
They are hand in glove
Walking a tightrope
It's not what is said, but who says it
There is strength in numbers
Walk softly, but carry a big stick
There is no such thing as a free ride
Keep your friends close, but keep your enemies closer
Don't fight the system
A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush[Page 285]Blue-Print ThinkingTypical Words
TurnaroundTypical Catch Phrases
Delineation of responsibilities
Planning and control
Steer activities and people
Cause and effect
Think of the best solution
First define goals, then implement them
Get the best people in
Finish the job
Look before you leap
Think before you act
A deal is a deal
Use proven methods
Good is good enoughTypical Idioms
Actions speak louder than words
It goes like clockwork
It is as right as rain
Mind over matter
No pain, no gain
The man at the helm
[Page 286]Don't put off till tomorrow what you can do today
Keep your eye on the ball
He is a man of his word
To call a spade a spade
A good foundation is half the work
To dot the i's and cross the t's
A man's word is his bond
Let's stick with the facts
First things first
The end justifies the means
There is a time and place for everything
The shortest distance between two points is a straight line
He works like a horse
Hard work never killed anybody[Page 287]Red-Print ThinkingTypical Words
Pay for performance
Working conditionsTypical Catch Phrases
Management by speech
Creating opportunities for people
Helping each other out
Doing it as a team
Giving people a second chance
Balancing work and private life
Viewing a matter from both sides
Creating commitment to the organization's goals
Searching for an optimal between individuals and the organization
He is the right man in the right place
Putting people at ease
Arriving at the right moment
We're one big familyTypical Idioms
It doesn't hurt to try
The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence
You need to look at both sides of the coin
Strew someone's path with roses
The glass is always half full
To walk the talk
[Page 288]To sugar the pill
He has his heart in the right place
It is a matter of give and take
Pessimists are right, optimists are successful
Spare the rod, spoil the child
You can't burn the candle at both ends
As you sow, so shall you reap
You should not bite the hand that feeds you
A healthy mind and a healthy body
A good neighbor is better than a distant friend
All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy
One good turn deserves another
Happy landlords mean happy tenants
Am I my brother's keeper?
It's like asking the fox to watch the henhouse
Do unto others as you would have them do unto you
It takes a whole village to raise a child
It's water under the bridge
One finger cannot lift a feather[Page 289]Green-Print ThinkingTypical Words
Double loop learning
Point of view
Trial and error
UnlearnTypical Catch Phrases
Making people conscious of their incompetence
Asking questions and finding out what works
Learning to learn
Creating a safe environment
Helping others and asking for help
Showing active participation and contribution
Seek translation of lessons learned to everyday work
Linking thinking and actions
Linking theory and practice
Following the learning cycle
Cooperating as a group
Learning from each other
Learning from your mistakes
Developing master-apprentice relationships
Planning organization-development activities
Providing food for thought
Learning on the jobTypical Idioms
Practice makes perfect
That falls on fertile soil
[Page 290]Once bitten, twice shy
The proof of the pudding is in the eating
To put one's cards on the table
He's an old hand at that game
You can't teach an old dog new tricks
Don't judge a man until you've walked a mile in his shoes
The mirror never lies
Don't judge a book by its cover
Help others to help themselves
If you give a hungry man a fish, he will eat for a day; teach him to fish and he will never go hungry again
The tree is known by its fruit
That's just growing pains[Page 291]White-Print ThinkingTypical Words
Typical Catch Phrases
- Adding meaning
- Open space
- Personal growth
- Self-steering teams
- Underlying patterns
- Vicious circle
Seeing conflicts as opportunities
The purpose resides in the process
Optimal conflict level
Living in the question
Creating your own reality
Accept one's history
Finding the right balance
Recognition of underlying patterns
Living with complexity
In the fullness of timeTypical Idioms
Whatever happens was meant to happen
Seize the day
Que sera, sera
Time will tell
It is only the tip of the iceberg
To be on the side of the angels
Birds of a feather flock together
What goes up must come down
What goes around, comes around
Looks can be deceiving
When life gives you lemons, make lemonade
[Page 292]It's the straw that broke the camel's back
It is always darkest before the dawn
It is a case of the tail wagging the dog
To rise like a phoenix from the ashes
To read between the lines
It's not the destination, but the journey that is most important
We are our own worst enemies
May the force be with you
Appendix 2: A Color Test for Change Agents[Page 293]Introduction
This test is designed to give you some insight into the ways you are inclined to think about and act during change processes. It will highlight your relative preferences among the five change paradigms, each of which is represented by a different color. The test will also show the degree to which your thoughts and actions are consistent with one another.
The test can be useful for anybody; after all, at times we all try to bring change about in our lives. Whether you are a manager, a consultant, a secretary, a teacher, or a lawyer, we assume that you have more than once attempted to initiate or influence change and thus are a change agent of sorts.
On the following pages pairs of statements are listed that apply to changes within organizations. Please circle the statement in each pair that most reflects your view.
In a number of cases you will find that neither A nor B captures your view accurately. In these cases, choose the statement that most closely resembles your opinion.
Do not take too long to decide on your answers; trust your initial reaction and opt for the statement that makes sense to you at first glance.
Have fun!Testing Your Thoughts
The first part of the color test is meant to characterize your vision and ideas on change. Read the following statements and choose the statement closest to your [Page 294]viewpoint. The focus here is on your convictions, what you think will work well, what you regard as being a desirable and realistic approach.
Circle your answers:
[Page 297]Scoring Your “Thinking”[Page 298]Testing Your “Actions”
- Change can be successful only when it is supported by the major players.
- Change can be successful only when you tap the energy and the strength of the people involved.
- Things will change if you stimulate people the right way and entice them to come on board.
- Things will change if you take power, status, or influence into account and make use of them.
- Organizations change as a result of people holding up mirrors for one another.
- Organizations change when you organize around people's energy and strength.
- Things change when you offer those involved a brighter future and a (personally) attractive proposition.
- Things change when real dialogue takes place between people.
- A change agent must ensure that the most important players adjust their positions in such a way that they do not counteract each other.
- A change agent must ensure that people listen to and learn from one another.
- Organizations change when people develop themselves.
- Organizations change when people know what the organization wants to achieve.
- It is important to allow people to link their thoughts and their actions.
- It is important to stimulate people and give them incentives.
- You can change organizations only when you first analyze what the best solution is.
- You can change organizations only when you can get the most influential people in the organization to agree with a solution.
- Organizations change when you invest in people.
- Change should not be dependent on the people who make it happen.
- You should reduce complexity to a minimum during change processes.
- You should make full use of the dynamics and complexity of the situation during change processes.
- Time constraints and deadlines are instrumental in pushing important decisions through.
- Creating space (by loosening up constricting norms and values or by breaking through entrenched positions) is instrumental in getting things moving.
- For change to succeed, a good atmosphere and team spirit are important.
- To bring about change, it is important to form coalitions.
- Change occurs only when a clear result or goal has been determined beforehand.
- Change occurs only when individuals put their heart and soul into it.
- In an effective change process there must be scope for consultation and room for negotiations.
- For a change process to be effective, the end result must be clear-cut from the start.
- A change agent needs first to create a safe learning environment by clarifying rules and acting as a role model.
- A change agent first needs to discern underlying patterns that drive the organization and explicitly make sense of them.
- A change agent should be knowledgeable about the subject matter and ensure that all activities contribute to the intended result.
- A change agent should be empathic in order to help create an environment for people to communicate openly and effectively.
- Something changes when you reward the people involved for their contributions to that change.
- Something changes when you help the people involved to explore and gain new insights.
- Change requires space; people need to have room to breathe and to explore.
- Change needs to be embedded in the organization and its policies; people shouldn't be left hanging.
- A change agent should offer the employees opportunities and perspectives.
- A change agent should monitor progress and adjust the planning based on previously determined criteria and standards.
- For organizations to change, policies need to change first.
- For organizations to change, people need to change first.
- In order to design interventions, the change agent has to discern the underlying causes behind current problems.
- The change agent should have expertise on the problems at hand and be able to handle them systematically.
- The change agent should ensure that the change progresses steadily and controllably.
- The change agent should monitor and maintain the balance of power behind a change program.
- Things change when you make it pleasant for people to go along with the change.
- Things change when they are framed differently and take on new meaning.
- First and foremost, change agents need to be empathic.
- First and foremost, change agents need to exercise care.
- Communication among all those concerned is an indispensable ingredient of a change process.
- A thorough analysis carried out beforehand is indispensable if a change is to succeed.
- The change agent must be authentic no matter how confrontational this might seem to others.
- The change agent must show empathy to others.
- If the change agent is forced to choose, he or she should give preference to changing a “hard” aspect within the organization, for example, its structure, systems, or strategy.
- If the change agent is forced to choose, he or she should give preference to changing a “soft” aspect within the organization, for example, management style, culture, or personnel.
- It is important to offer people support and safety while they are creating and implementing solutions.
- It is important to limit the number of options before decision making takes place because agreements are otherwise hard to reach.
- A change agent must ensure that people reach agreements.
- A change agent must motivate people.
- A change agent must gain substantial insight into the context of the problem and the networks of people associated with it.
- A change agent must gain substantial insight into the underlying patterns that sustain the problem.
This second part of the Color Test is designed to characterize the way you act as a change agent.
Before completing this part of the test, think of three change processes in which you have played an important role. The test works best if your role and style in these processes are representative of your behavior during most change processes. Preferably, they should concern change processes that took place within the past two years. First, try to recall the circumstances of the three change processes, the aims of these processes, and your contributions to them.
Now turn your attention to the statements listed below. Base your choice of statement as much as possible on your actual behavior in the three change processes.
Circle your answers:
[Page 301]Scoring Your “Actions”[Page 302]Your Test Result
- I was a role model for others.
- I ensured that new role models were given enough space.
- I supported solutions that generated lively interactions.
- I supported the best solution.
- I helped management agree with each other on solutions and assisted further implementation from the top down.
- I attempted to find and catalyze intrinsic drivers for change wherever I could find them in the organization.
- I encouraged and supported people to make change happen in their own work arenas.
- I ensured that the previously formulated outcome was not amended by those carrying out the implementation.
- I held a mirror up to people. I gave them feedback.
- I persuaded the staff to act in the right direction.
- In the change process, I supported people in developing their talents.
- In the change process, I tried to spot and create new “heroes.”
- People remarked on my carefulness and meticulousness when dealing with others.
- People remarked on my systematic, planned way of working.
- I ensured that none of the major parties involved suffered loss of face.
- I ensured that everyone's performance was rewarded or criticized based on the same procedure and criteria.
- I opted for the best solution.
- I opted for the most feasible solution.
- When facilitating groups, I used my position (of authority) when needed.
- When facilitating groups, I left the responsibility for the results with them.
- I made clear agreements with all those concerned and made sure that I and everyone else stuck to them.
- I allowed people to reach agreement concerning the direction we were going without involving myself too much with the details.
- I always ensured I had room to maneuver.
- I always ensured complete openness: Everyone involved knew the score.
- I measured progress using predetermined criteria and norms.
- I helped people discuss progress with one another. I concentrated on the way they communicated while doing so.
- During the change process, I helped people develop the competencies that we had identified as crucial.
- During the change process, I helped people become aware of the many aspects involved and their interrelationships.
- I created situations that enabled people to work on their own learning goals.
- I ensured that there were training programs where specific groups could master predetermined competencies.
- I managed conflicts in order to reach a consensus between the major players.
- I optimized conflicts to create dynamics and energy within the organization.
- I strived for the best solution within the stated margins.
- I encouraged people to find their own solutions and to implement them.
- I concentrated on neutralizing the forces that block new initiatives and emerging solutions.
- I concentrated on clearly defining the desired end result and planning its implementation.
- I stimulated the exchange of ideas and experiences.
- I uncovered and shared more fundamental ways of looking at things.
- I strived for open communication and showed empathy.
- I guarded my independent position and was self-controlled.
- I attempted to create and retain support for a solution.
- I ensured that all activities were goal oriented.
- I carefully recorded my goals and stuck to them.
- I constantly reflected on what was going on and based my actions on that from moment to moment.
- I always acted diplomatically in keeping with the situation.
- I stuck my neck out and stood up for what I believed in.
- I motivated people by rewarding good performance.
- I assisted learning by giving people feedback on their performance.
- I held up a mirror to people.
- I stuck to agreements and ensured that others did so as well.
- I acted as an arbiter in conflict situations.
- I coached people to improve their communication skills.
- I made the change process manageable.
- I created room for change.
- I encouraged people to change their standpoints when doing so would break deadlock situations.
- I attempted to create a good atmosphere and to motivate people.
- I aimed at achieving a result that would hurt or compromise no one.
- I aimed at achieving the best possible result.
- I aimed at creating a secure learning environment.
- I aimed at creating constructive conflicts and dialogues.
Enter the “total” scores in the next table. Record the accumulated test scores for each of the colored “thoughts” below the black bar: This tells you how you tend to think about and evaluate specific change processes. The accumulated test scores for your colored “actions” can be recorded above the black bar. This tells you how you generally act in change processes.
An interpretation of the colors is given in Chapter 3 (which predominantly addresses how people think about change) and in Chapters 7 and 8 (which concentrate on how people act as change agents). The cartoons shown here represent stereotypes of the different types of change agents.
For further interpretation you can concentrate on two aspects.How Multicolored is Your Thinking?
The more experienced change agents are, the more inclined they probably are to develop their own visions on change and show their “true colors.” Based on experience and reflection they consciously choose an approach they feel comfortable with and believe in. This is reflected in their often having only one or two dominant colors. Inexperienced change agents also often have one or two colors dominant in their thinking, but these are generally less a product of conscious and informed choice. If your thinking score is not dominated by one or two colors chances are you are neither a beginning nor a mature change agent. If you show such eclecticism in your thinking the time might be ripe to discriminate more and to show your true colors.[Page 303]Do Your Thoughts Fit Your Actions?
The greater the difference between your scores on “thinking” and “acting,” the harder it would be for you to reconcile your thoughts and actions with one another. This can have a number of causes.
One possibility is that you are not quite able to act the way you would like to act. Perhaps you lack the necessary competencies. In this case, the difference in the scores can help you to draw up learning goals.
Conversely you might already have the desired competencies but not yet be in a position to claim the role you desire. The difference in scores here can help you draw up career goals.
A third possibility is that your thoughts and actions seem to live separate lives. They are loosely coupled (see Chapter 2, section 2.1.2.). This might be the case when the outcome of the test is a complete surprise to you. Such “separate lives” can occur when you as a change agent do not reflect sufficiently on your own actions. As a result your thinking might represent somewhat of a fantasy world while your actions give a more realistic indication of what you actually believe in. For instance, white-print thinking is very popular at the moment. It is a socially acceptable way of thinking. At the same time, however, we have noticed that when organizations get serious about change, they rarely put their trust in this approach. They don't put their money where their mouth is. Such actions demonstrate more clearly than their words what they really believe in, which might be yellow-print thinking. If your thoughts and actions are loosely coupled, feedback from others can help you bring the two (back) in line with each other.[Page 304]Aggregated Results
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List of Figures[Page 317]
- 1.1. The Book's Structure 3
- 2.1. Interacting Spheres Model 16
- 2.2. Five Areas 23
- 2.3. Autonomous Development (Zuijderhoudt) 26
- 2.4. Structural Conflict 29
- 2.5. Formal and Informal Organization 33
- 2.6. Four Clusters of Theories About Irrationalities 38
- 4.1. Elements of Planned Change
- 4.2. Results of the Change Process 74
- 4.3. Driving Factors Behind the Change Idea 80
- 4.4. Actors Involved in Change 84
- 4.5. Phases in a Change Process 86
- 4.6. Communication and Sense-Making 90
- 4.7. Steering Cycle 94
- 4.8. Three Cycles 97
- 5.1. The Four Phases 104
- 5.2. Three Integrated Diagnostic Models 110
- 5.3. Static vs. Dynamic Diagnosis (Luscuere, freely translated) 113
- 5.4. System Archetype “Shifting the Burden” 118
- 5.5. From Six Basic Questions to the Choice of a Strategy 131
- 5.6. Intervention Plan With Eight Interventions 137
- 5.7. Elements of Every Intervention 141
- 5.8. Examples of Two-Dimensional Intervention Overviews 143
- 5.9. Two Intervention Overviews in the Form of Cubes 144
- 6.1. Prioritization Matrix 163
- 6.2. Maister's Formula for Professional Firms 166
- 6.3. Balanced Scorecard 169
- 6.4. Porter's Five Forces 172
- 6.5. Ofman's Core Quadrant 176 [Page 318]
- 6.6. Belbin's Roles 180
- 6.7. Four Culture Types 185
- 6.8. Spectrum of Network Formats 190
- 6.9. Biological and Psychological Age 194
- 6.10. Optimal Conflict Level 197
- 6.11. Looten's Clock Model 201
- 6.12. Field of Influence 205
- 8.1. Styles and Values According to Westra and van de Vliert 258
- 8.2. Competing Values Framework of Leadership Roles 258
- 8.3. Kolb's Learning Cycle 268
List of Tables[Page 319]
- 3.1. Assumptions Underlying the Five Ways of Thinking 45
- 3.2. The Five Colors and Aspects of the Change Process 50
- 3.3. The “Table” Example 57
- 3.4. Example of a Workshop, a Mission, and Knowledge Management 58
- 4.1. Planned Change Is … 71
- 4.2. The Five Dimensions of Change Processes (Vinkenburg, 1995) 72
- 4.3. Definitions of the Terms Used in Figure 4.2 76
- 4.4. Phases in the Change Process (Kanter, 1992) 89
- 4.5. Choices for Organizing Communication 92
- 5.1. Dysfunctional Diagnostic Patterns 106
- 5.2. Steps in the Realization Phase of a Diagnosis 107
- 5.3. Diagnostic Matrix With Sample Questions 114
- 5.4. Matrix With Diagnostic Models 116
- 5.5. Six Basic Questions That Precede the Choice of a Change Strategy 121
- 5.6. Depth/Scope of Change Processes 122
- 5.7. Improvement and Renewal 123
- 5.8. Resistance on Different Levels 124
- 5.9. Examples of Role Divisions in Change Processes (Cummings & Worley 1993) 139
- 5.10. Overview of a Sample of Colored Interventions for Each Level of the Organization 146
- 5.11. Statements as Small “Colored” Interventions 148
- 6.1. Matrix With Diagnostic Models 160
- 6.2. Format for the Description of the Diagnostic Models 161
- 7.1. Overview of Sample Interventions for Each Color and for Each Level in the Organization 210
- 7.2. Format for the Descriptions in Each Cell 212
- 8.1. Change Agent's Roles 257 [Page 320]
- 8.2. Intention, Role, and Focus of the Change Agent 260
- 8.3. Competencies for the Change Agent 262
- 8.4. Competencies of the Change Agent by Color 264
- 8.5. Learning Activities 275
About the Authors[Page 329]
Léon de Caluwé (1950) is senior partner with the Twynstra Group, management consultants, and part-time professor at the Free University in Amsterdam. He studied social psychology at the University of Utrecht and received his science degree in 1975 and his Ph.D. in 1997 at Tilburg University. He was appointed Professor in Amsterdam in 2000. Working for all types of clients in government and industry, he leads the Center for Research on Consultancy at the Free University, which is part of an international network, and regularly works as an expert for the OECD and the Council of Europe.
At Twynstra Gudde, where he's been affiliated since 1988, de Caluwé is a member of the company think tank and specializes in change, conflict resolution, quality of cooperation, culture interventions, and facilitation of policy development sessions. He works regularly with games and gaming methods as an intervention for advanced learning.
He has published more than 80 articles and more than 15 books, several of which are in English, including Changing Organizations With Gaming/Simulation (2000). His doctoral dissertation, Veranderen moet je leren (1997), received the “Best Book of the Year” award from the Dutch Association of Management Consultants. His subjects are change, consultancy, and interventions.
De Caluwé is a member of the Academy of Management, editor of several scientific journals, and lecturer in many postgraduate and master's programs.
Hans Vermaak (1961) studied chemistry and organizational psychology in Utrecht and Florida and received his degree in Utrecht in 1985. He worked as a faculty member in both the science and the psychology departments of the University of Utrecht between 1982 and 1987. For many years a social activist, he worked with [Page 330]the Institute of Environmental and Systems Analysis from 1987–1992, where he mediated conflicts of (mostly) multinational industries or trade houses with governments and environmental groups. He also helped these companies to set up strategic environmental management.
Vermaak completed different course programs in psychotherapy and counseling. Since 1987, he has taught counseling and still works part-time as a psychotherapist. In 1990, he began teaching yoga classes and was the interim manager of a spiritual center in 1992 and 1993.
Taking a master's degree in management consulting from the Free University in Amsterdam in 1994, Vermaak has worked as a management consultant with the Twynstra Group since 1993, where he is a partner. His principal area of consulting concerns the diagnosing, planning, and implementing of organizational change in professional firms and institutions. He does most of his work as a process consultant, working in many different kinds of organizations. Generally, a substantial part of his work takes place in an international context. He trains and coaches change agents, and he heads the Change Management knowledge center of the Twynstra Group.
Vermaak has been a guest lecturer at several universities and has published articles and books on change management, dilemmas of professional organizations, environmental issues, coaching and counselling, group systems, visions of the future, and approaches to learning. He has received several publication awards. His English publications include Conspiring Fruitfully With Professionals: New Management Roles for Professional Organisations; Managers Learning to Be Green Competitors, and In Search of Corporate Learning: The Archipelago of Learning.