Learning to Change: A Guide for Organization Change Agents

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Léon de Caluwé & Hans Vermaak

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    Preface

    Early in 1997, four people got together with the challenging idea of mapping out the field of change management for the benefit of their colleagues in the consulting profession. After all, change does lie at the heart of our profession, and it seemed like a good move to make any available wisdom more explicit. Thus began a year of collecting and exchanging theories, models, and experience from many kinds of sources, including gems picked up from our clients and fellow consultants in the course of our work. It was a year of sifting through and collating a wealth of material and arguing about the differences. It made for inspiring discussions. Over time it turned into a process of seeking common language, images, and nuances. We did not always find them, but by and large our efforts were rewarded, and at the end of the year we were able to launch a change management course accompanied by a substantial course book. We switched our efforts to teaching, bringing together groups of twenty people for a few days at a time every couple of months to discuss change processes, and to apply and test our concepts. The responses in these meetings strengthened our belief that the concepts are valuable and practical. The meetings also gave us new food for thought.

    Two of us wanted to detail our collected insights further and decided to write a book. We wanted to offer the reader a variety of change theories and practices without making (too many) value judgments, knowing that there are often multiple approaches possible to the same problem. At the same time we wanted to furnish change agents with common and practical language and concepts, while guarding against expounding personal ideologies. In short, we wanted to create a concise and state-of-the-art overview of change management. This guide for organization change agents is the tangible result. But that is not all; we discovered that the very process of writing changed us, and we hope that our book might change you a bit as well. This is why we have chosen to call it Learning to Change. Perhaps the essence of being a change agent is the endless quest to learn what change is, how it works, and where we can contribute. This book marks a milestone in our thinking, even though we are not done learning about change, nor would we want to be.

    This book would never have been written without the help of Hanneke Elink Schuurman and Wilma Terwel, the other two members of our original group. Much of what is written here is also the result of their work. In addition, Jan Bas Loman, Gert Wijnen, Hein Abeln, and Anneke Mensink supplied their energy and wisdom. We were also supported by Herman Grootelaar, Anna Bicker Caarten, Huub Vinkenburg, Jac Geurts, Marc de Roos, Rob Schutte, and Gerton Heijne. To make the ideas accessible to an international audience, we have sought to translate this book. Through inspiring colleagues at the Academy of Management, we met Marquita Flemming of Sage Publications and, with her help, that of her colleagues, and of Eileen Moyer, we were able to adapt the book for an international audience—a more difficult task than we had expected beforehand.

    In conclusion, this book also owes a great deal to the inspiration gained over many years of working with clients, colleagues, scholars, and friends. There is no better way to learn than through experience.

    Regular visits to the peaceful and inspiring surroundings of the Koningshoeven Abbey in Tilburg (The Netherlands) provided us with the ideal conditions to collect and record our thoughts. It was a location where we could leave the everyday world behind and give our thoughts free rein.

    Léon deCaluwéandHansVermaakMay, 2002
  • Appendix 1: Five Color Glossaries

    In this appendix, we present five concise glossaries, one for each color. This is yet another way of distinguishing the ideas and convictions of each of the colors and gaining a better understanding of the various schools of thought.

    These glossaries are by no means complete, nor do they need to be. Much work can still be done to map the language used in each paradigm of change. Here they merely provide illustrations of the book's concepts.

    We include three categories in each glossary:

    • Typical words: These are words often used by followers of that specific school of thought and will help you to recognize them as such.
    • Catch phrases: These capture favorite approaches or ways of tackling a problem. If you ask, “What should I do?” they might well reply with one or more of these catch phrases.
    • Typical idioms: These are pithy one-liners that express a concept, a dilemma, or a phenomenon originating in common everyday language but also appropriated by the relevant school of thought. They can be seen as metaphors that clarify the colors.

    But take care. Even though we feel that the glossaries are fair representations of the relevant schools of thought, these distinctions are not ironclad. Sometimes the meaning of a word is not as it appears at first glance. Words from one school of thought can sometimes be appropriated by others: they undergo subtle changes of meaning and as a result can suddenly support a contrasting view on change. Also, language is sometimes used as “camouflage.” For instance, bad news brought by the top (often blue or yellow) can be wrapped in attractive and people-friendly language (often red) to make it more palatable in the hope of raising less resistance.

    Yellow-Print Thinking

    Typical Words

    Agreement

    Agenda (Hidden)

    Arena

    Alliance

    Coalition

    Code of conduct

    Committee

    Compromise

    Conclave

    Connections

    Consensus

    Convergence

    Democracy

    De-politicize

    Diplomacy

    Enforce

    Grass roots

    Intention

    Key players

    Liability

    Loopholes

    Loss of face

    Mandate

    Maneuver

    Media

    Negotiations

    Opposition

    Party (Third …)

    Policy

    Politician

    Position

    Power game

    Power base

    Press release

    Pressure-cooker

    Protocol

    Public forum

    Rank and file

    Resign/withdraw from

    Responsibility

    Rules of the game

    Scapegoat

    Sponsor

    Stakeholder

    Statement

    Status

    Tactics

    Time pressure

    Trust and distrust

    Win-lose

    Win-win

    Typical Catch Phrases

    Maintain confidentiality

    Emphasize interdependence

    Taking circumstances into account

    Agree to disagree

    Create sufficient support

    Develop a common vision

    Search for feasible solutions

    Get everyone to think along the same lines

    Determine room for negotiating

    Induce uncertainties

    Start negotiations

    Enforce accountability

    Create win-win situations

    Shelve something

    Meet behind closed doors

    Assigning blame

    Conflict of interests

    Typical Idioms

    We are all created equal, but some are more equal than others

    You scratch my back, I'll scratch yours

    If two dogs fight for a bone, the third runs away with it

    To pay lip service

    To keep something under one's hat

    To wear different hats

    The buck stops here

    You can't please everybody

    He butters his bread on both sides

    They are using me for target practice

    The bigger they are, the harder they fall

    Keep your powder dry

    Let sleeping dogs lie

    Don't show your hand

    They are hand in glove

    Walking a tightrope

    It's not what is said, but who says it

    There is strength in numbers

    Walk softly, but carry a big stick

    There is no such thing as a free ride

    Keep your friends close, but keep your enemies closer

    Don't fight the system

    A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush

    Blue-Print Thinking

    Typical Words

    Accountable

    Activity

    Analysis

    Benchmark

    Budget

    Capacity

    Checklist

    Clarity

    Concrete

    Consistent

    Cost cutting

    Control

    Data

    Deadline

    Decision document

    Design

    Direction

    Efficiency

    Empirical evidence

    Framework

    Handbooks

    Hierarchy

    Indicator

    ISO

    Margins

    Measure

    Milestones

    Monitoring

    Objectives

    Performance

    Plan

    Portfolio

    Priorities

    Progress

    Project

    Quality control

    Reports

    Requirements

    Research

    Resistance

    Resources

    Result

    Steps

    Systems

    Testing

    Transparent

    Turnaround

    Typical Catch Phrases

    Delineation of responsibilities

    Planning and control

    Steer activities and people

    Cause and effect

    Think of the best solution

    First define goals, then implement them

    Get the best people in

    Finish the job

    Avoid conflicts

    Look before you leap

    Think before you act

    A deal is a deal

    Use proven methods

    Good is good enough

    Typical Idioms

    Actions speak louder than words

    It goes like clockwork

    It is as right as rain

    Mind over matter

    No pain, no gain

    The man at the helm

    Don't put off till tomorrow what you can do today

    Keep your eye on the ball

    He is a man of his word

    To call a spade a spade

    A good foundation is half the work

    To dot the i's and cross the t's

    A man's word is his bond

    Let's stick with the facts

    First things first

    The end justifies the means

    There is a time and place for everything

    The shortest distance between two points is a straight line

    He works like a horse

    Hard work never killed anybody

    Red-Print Thinking

    Typical Words

    Assessment

    Atmosphere

    Attractive

    Bonus

    Business lunch

    Career

    Careful

    Cohesion

    Comfortable

    Communication

    Competence

    Entice

    Ethics

    Fair

    Fringe benefits

    Headhunter

    HRM

    Incentive

    Job profile

    Junior/medior/senior

    Loyal

    Motivate

    Outplacement

    Pay for performance

    Perks

    Pleasant

    Potential

    Procedures

    Promotion

    Prospects

    Regulations

    Resume

    Reward

    Sabbatical

    Salary

    Sanction

    Settlement

    Soapbox

    Social

    Status

    Talent

    Train

    Working climate

    Working conditions

    Typical Catch Phrases

    Management by speech

    Creating opportunities for people

    Tapping talents

    Helping each other out

    Doing it as a team

    Giving people a second chance

    Balancing work and private life

    Viewing a matter from both sides

    Creating commitment to the organization's goals

    Searching for an optimal between individuals and the organization

    He is the right man in the right place

    Putting people at ease

    Managing expectations

    Arriving at the right moment

    We're one big family

    Typical Idioms

    It doesn't hurt to try

    The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence

    You need to look at both sides of the coin

    Strew someone's path with roses

    The glass is always half full

    To walk the talk

    To sugar the pill

    He has his heart in the right place

    It is a matter of give and take

    Pessimists are right, optimists are successful

    Spare the rod, spoil the child

    You can't burn the candle at both ends

    As you sow, so shall you reap

    You should not bite the hand that feeds you

    A healthy mind and a healthy body

    A good neighbor is better than a distant friend

    All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy

    One good turn deserves another

    Happy landlords mean happy tenants

    Am I my brother's keeper?

    It's like asking the fox to watch the henhouse

    Do unto others as you would have them do unto you

    It takes a whole village to raise a child

    It's water under the bridge

    One finger cannot lift a feather

    Green-Print Thinking

    Typical Words

    Action learning

    Active listening

    Attitude

    Blind spot

    Conscious

    Clinic

    Coaching

    Concept

    Corporate curriculum

    Corporate university

    Debriefing

    Development

    Dips

    Double loop learning

    Didactician

    Empathy

    Evaluation

    Experimenting

    Experience

    Facilitator

    Feedback loops

    Game

    Group learning

    Group setting

    Internship

    Knowledge transfer

    Learning cycle

    Learning goals

    Learning situation

    Learning organization

    Mental model

    Mirroring

    Openness

    Organization development

    Ownership

    Participation

    Pilot

    Point of view

    Reflection

    Respect

    Role model

    Secondhand learning

    Second-order learning

    Sharing

    Skills

    Safety

    Skills

    Teaching

    Trainer

    Trial and error

    Try-out

    Unlearn

    Typical Catch Phrases

    Making people conscious of their incompetence

    Asking questions and finding out what works

    Learning to learn

    Creating a safe environment

    Helping others and asking for help

    Showing active participation and contribution

    Seek translation of lessons learned to everyday work

    Linking thinking and actions

    Linking theory and practice

    Following the learning cycle

    Cooperating as a group

    Learning from each other

    Learning from your mistakes

    Developing master-apprentice relationships

    Planning organization-development activities

    Providing food for thought

    Learning on the job

    Typical Idioms

    Practice makes perfect

    That falls on fertile soil

    Once bitten, twice shy

    The proof of the pudding is in the eating

    To put one's cards on the table

    He's an old hand at that game

    You can't teach an old dog new tricks

    Don't judge a man until you've walked a mile in his shoes

    The mirror never lies

    Don't judge a book by its cover

    Help others to help themselves

    If you give a hungry man a fish, he will eat for a day; teach him to fish and he will never go hungry again

    The tree is known by its fruit

    That's just growing pains

    White-Print Thinking

    Typical Words
    • Adaptive
    • Adding meaning
    • Authenticity
    • Autonomy
    • Catalyze
    • Charisma
    • Chaos
    • Coincidence
    • Complexity
    • Connectedness
    • Crisis
    • Dynamics
    • Ecology
    • Empowerment
    • Energy
    • Evolution
    • Feed-forward
    • Heroes
    • Healing
    • Identity
    • Imagination
    • Innovation
    • Movement
    • Nature
    • Network
    • Obstacle
    • Open space
    • Perception
    • Personal growth
    • Perspective
    • Postmodern
    • Release
    • Ritual
    • Self-confidence
    • Self-determination
    • Self-organization
    • Self-steering teams
    • Sense-making
    • Sensing
    • Space
    • Spiritual
    • Spontaneous
    • Strength
    • Symbol
    • Transformation
    • Underlying patterns
    • Unfold
    • Vicious circle
    Typical Catch Phrases

    Seeing conflicts as opportunities

    The purpose resides in the process

    Optimal conflict level

    Living in the question

    Creating your own reality

    Accept one's history

    Finding the right balance

    Recognition of underlying patterns

    Living with complexity

    In the fullness of time

    Typical Idioms

    Whatever happens was meant to happen

    Seize the day

    Que sera, sera

    Time will tell

    It is only the tip of the iceberg

    To be on the side of the angels

    Birds of a feather flock together

    What goes up must come down

    What goes around, comes around

    Looks can be deceiving

    When life gives you lemons, make lemonade

    It's the straw that broke the camel's back

    It is always darkest before the dawn

    It is a case of the tail wagging the dog

    To rise like a phoenix from the ashes

    To read between the lines

    It's not the destination, but the journey that is most important

    We are our own worst enemies

    May the force be with you

    Appendix 2: A Color Test for Change Agents

    Introduction

    This test is designed to give you some insight into the ways you are inclined to think about and act during change processes. It will highlight your relative preferences among the five change paradigms, each of which is represented by a different color. The test will also show the degree to which your thoughts and actions are consistent with one another.

    The test can be useful for anybody; after all, at times we all try to bring change about in our lives. Whether you are a manager, a consultant, a secretary, a teacher, or a lawyer, we assume that you have more than once attempted to initiate or influence change and thus are a change agent of sorts.

    On the following pages pairs of statements are listed that apply to changes within organizations. Please circle the statement in each pair that most reflects your view.

    In a number of cases you will find that neither A nor B captures your view accurately. In these cases, choose the statement that most closely resembles your opinion.

    Do not take too long to decide on your answers; trust your initial reaction and opt for the statement that makes sense to you at first glance.

    Have fun!

    Testing Your Thoughts

    The first part of the color test is meant to characterize your vision and ideas on change. Read the following statements and choose the statement closest to your viewpoint. The focus here is on your convictions, what you think will work well, what you regard as being a desirable and realistic approach.

    Circle your answers:

      • Change can be successful only when it is supported by the major players.
      • Change can be successful only when you tap the energy and the strength of the people involved.
      • Things will change if you stimulate people the right way and entice them to come on board.
      • Things will change if you take power, status, or influence into account and make use of them.
      • Organizations change as a result of people holding up mirrors for one another.
      • Organizations change when you organize around people's energy and strength.
      • Things change when you offer those involved a brighter future and a (personally) attractive proposition.
      • Things change when real dialogue takes place between people.
      • A change agent must ensure that the most important players adjust their positions in such a way that they do not counteract each other.
      • A change agent must ensure that people listen to and learn from one another.
      • Organizations change when people develop themselves.
      • Organizations change when people know what the organization wants to achieve.
      • It is important to allow people to link their thoughts and their actions.
      • It is important to stimulate people and give them incentives.
      • You can change organizations only when you first analyze what the best solution is.
      • You can change organizations only when you can get the most influential people in the organization to agree with a solution.
      • Organizations change when you invest in people.
      • Change should not be dependent on the people who make it happen.
      • You should reduce complexity to a minimum during change processes.
      • You should make full use of the dynamics and complexity of the situation during change processes.
      • Time constraints and deadlines are instrumental in pushing important decisions through.
      • Creating space (by loosening up constricting norms and values or by breaking through entrenched positions) is instrumental in getting things moving.
      • For change to succeed, a good atmosphere and team spirit are important.
      • To bring about change, it is important to form coalitions.
      • Change occurs only when a clear result or goal has been determined beforehand.
      • Change occurs only when individuals put their heart and soul into it.
      • In an effective change process there must be scope for consultation and room for negotiations.
      • For a change process to be effective, the end result must be clear-cut from the start.
      • A change agent needs first to create a safe learning environment by clarifying rules and acting as a role model.
      • A change agent first needs to discern underlying patterns that drive the organization and explicitly make sense of them.
      • A change agent should be knowledgeable about the subject matter and ensure that all activities contribute to the intended result.
      • A change agent should be empathic in order to help create an environment for people to communicate openly and effectively.
      • Something changes when you reward the people involved for their contributions to that change.
      • Something changes when you help the people involved to explore and gain new insights.
      • Change requires space; people need to have room to breathe and to explore.
      • Change needs to be embedded in the organization and its policies; people shouldn't be left hanging.
      • A change agent should offer the employees opportunities and perspectives.
      • A change agent should monitor progress and adjust the planning based on previously determined criteria and standards.
      • For organizations to change, policies need to change first.
      • For organizations to change, people need to change first.
      • In order to design interventions, the change agent has to discern the underlying causes behind current problems.
      • The change agent should have expertise on the problems at hand and be able to handle them systematically.
      • The change agent should ensure that the change progresses steadily and controllably.
      • The change agent should monitor and maintain the balance of power behind a change program.
      • Things change when you make it pleasant for people to go along with the change.
      • Things change when they are framed differently and take on new meaning.
      • First and foremost, change agents need to be empathic.
      • First and foremost, change agents need to exercise care.
      • Communication among all those concerned is an indispensable ingredient of a change process.
      • A thorough analysis carried out beforehand is indispensable if a change is to succeed.
      • The change agent must be authentic no matter how confrontational this might seem to others.
      • The change agent must show empathy to others.
      • If the change agent is forced to choose, he or she should give preference to changing a “hard” aspect within the organization, for example, its structure, systems, or strategy.
      • If the change agent is forced to choose, he or she should give preference to changing a “soft” aspect within the organization, for example, management style, culture, or personnel.
      • It is important to offer people support and safety while they are creating and implementing solutions.
      • It is important to limit the number of options before decision making takes place because agreements are otherwise hard to reach.
      • A change agent must ensure that people reach agreements.
      • A change agent must motivate people.
      • A change agent must gain substantial insight into the context of the problem and the networks of people associated with it.
      • A change agent must gain substantial insight into the underlying patterns that sustain the problem.
    Scoring Your “Thinking”

    Testing Your “Actions”

    This second part of the Color Test is designed to characterize the way you act as a change agent.

    Before completing this part of the test, think of three change processes in which you have played an important role. The test works best if your role and style in these processes are representative of your behavior during most change processes. Preferably, they should concern change processes that took place within the past two years. First, try to recall the circumstances of the three change processes, the aims of these processes, and your contributions to them.

    Now turn your attention to the statements listed below. Base your choice of statement as much as possible on your actual behavior in the three change processes.

    Circle your answers:

      • I was a role model for others.
      • I ensured that new role models were given enough space.
      • I supported solutions that generated lively interactions.
      • I supported the best solution.
      • I helped management agree with each other on solutions and assisted further implementation from the top down.
      • I attempted to find and catalyze intrinsic drivers for change wherever I could find them in the organization.
      • I encouraged and supported people to make change happen in their own work arenas.
      • I ensured that the previously formulated outcome was not amended by those carrying out the implementation.
      • I held a mirror up to people. I gave them feedback.
      • I persuaded the staff to act in the right direction.
      • In the change process, I supported people in developing their talents.
      • In the change process, I tried to spot and create new “heroes.”
      • People remarked on my carefulness and meticulousness when dealing with others.
      • People remarked on my systematic, planned way of working.
      • I ensured that none of the major parties involved suffered loss of face.
      • I ensured that everyone's performance was rewarded or criticized based on the same procedure and criteria.
      • I opted for the best solution.
      • I opted for the most feasible solution.
      • When facilitating groups, I used my position (of authority) when needed.
      • When facilitating groups, I left the responsibility for the results with them.
      • I made clear agreements with all those concerned and made sure that I and everyone else stuck to them.
      • I allowed people to reach agreement concerning the direction we were going without involving myself too much with the details.
      • I always ensured I had room to maneuver.
      • I always ensured complete openness: Everyone involved knew the score.
      • I measured progress using predetermined criteria and norms.
      • I helped people discuss progress with one another. I concentrated on the way they communicated while doing so.
      • During the change process, I helped people develop the competencies that we had identified as crucial.
      • During the change process, I helped people become aware of the many aspects involved and their interrelationships.
      • I created situations that enabled people to work on their own learning goals.
      • I ensured that there were training programs where specific groups could master predetermined competencies.
      • I managed conflicts in order to reach a consensus between the major players.
      • I optimized conflicts to create dynamics and energy within the organization.
      • I strived for the best solution within the stated margins.
      • I encouraged people to find their own solutions and to implement them.
      • I concentrated on neutralizing the forces that block new initiatives and emerging solutions.
      • I concentrated on clearly defining the desired end result and planning its implementation.
      • I stimulated the exchange of ideas and experiences.
      • I uncovered and shared more fundamental ways of looking at things.
      • I strived for open communication and showed empathy.
      • I guarded my independent position and was self-controlled.
      • I attempted to create and retain support for a solution.
      • I ensured that all activities were goal oriented.
      • I carefully recorded my goals and stuck to them.
      • I constantly reflected on what was going on and based my actions on that from moment to moment.
      • I always acted diplomatically in keeping with the situation.
      • I stuck my neck out and stood up for what I believed in.
      • I motivated people by rewarding good performance.
      • I assisted learning by giving people feedback on their performance.
      • I held up a mirror to people.
      • I stuck to agreements and ensured that others did so as well.
      • I acted as an arbiter in conflict situations.
      • I coached people to improve their communication skills.
      • I made the change process manageable.
      • I created room for change.
      • I encouraged people to change their standpoints when doing so would break deadlock situations.
      • I attempted to create a good atmosphere and to motivate people.
      • I aimed at achieving a result that would hurt or compromise no one.
      • I aimed at achieving the best possible result.
      • I aimed at creating a secure learning environment.
      • I aimed at creating constructive conflicts and dialogues.
    Scoring Your “Actions”

    Your Test Result

    Enter the “total” scores in the next table. Record the accumulated test scores for each of the colored “thoughts” below the black bar: This tells you how you tend to think about and evaluate specific change processes. The accumulated test scores for your colored “actions” can be recorded above the black bar. This tells you how you generally act in change processes.

    An interpretation of the colors is given in Chapter 3 (which predominantly addresses how people think about change) and in Chapters 7 and 8 (which concentrate on how people act as change agents). The cartoons shown here represent stereotypes of the different types of change agents.

    For further interpretation you can concentrate on two aspects.

    How Multicolored is Your Thinking?

    The more experienced change agents are, the more inclined they probably are to develop their own visions on change and show their “true colors.” Based on experience and reflection they consciously choose an approach they feel comfortable with and believe in. This is reflected in their often having only one or two dominant colors. Inexperienced change agents also often have one or two colors dominant in their thinking, but these are generally less a product of conscious and informed choice. If your thinking score is not dominated by one or two colors chances are you are neither a beginning nor a mature change agent. If you show such eclecticism in your thinking the time might be ripe to discriminate more and to show your true colors.

    Do Your Thoughts Fit Your Actions?

    The greater the difference between your scores on “thinking” and “acting,” the harder it would be for you to reconcile your thoughts and actions with one another. This can have a number of causes.

    One possibility is that you are not quite able to act the way you would like to act. Perhaps you lack the necessary competencies. In this case, the difference in the scores can help you to draw up learning goals.

    Conversely you might already have the desired competencies but not yet be in a position to claim the role you desire. The difference in scores here can help you draw up career goals.

    A third possibility is that your thoughts and actions seem to live separate lives. They are loosely coupled (see Chapter 2, section 2.1.2.). This might be the case when the outcome of the test is a complete surprise to you. Such “separate lives” can occur when you as a change agent do not reflect sufficiently on your own actions. As a result your thinking might represent somewhat of a fantasy world while your actions give a more realistic indication of what you actually believe in. For instance, white-print thinking is very popular at the moment. It is a socially acceptable way of thinking. At the same time, however, we have noticed that when organizations get serious about change, they rarely put their trust in this approach. They don't put their money where their mouth is. Such actions demonstrate more clearly than their words what they really believe in, which might be yellow-print thinking. If your thoughts and actions are loosely coupled, feedback from others can help you bring the two (back) in line with each other.

    Aggregated Results

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    List of Figures

    • 1.1. The Book's Structure 3
    • 2.1. Interacting Spheres Model 16
    • 2.2. Five Areas 23
    • 2.3. Autonomous Development (Zuijderhoudt) 26
    • 2.4. Structural Conflict 29
    • 2.5. Formal and Informal Organization 33
    • 2.6. Four Clusters of Theories About Irrationalities 38
    • 4.1. Elements of Planned Change
    • 4.2. Results of the Change Process 74
    • 4.3. Driving Factors Behind the Change Idea 80
    • 4.4. Actors Involved in Change 84
    • 4.5. Phases in a Change Process 86
    • 4.6. Communication and Sense-Making 90
    • 4.7. Steering Cycle 94
    • 4.8. Three Cycles 97
    • 5.1. The Four Phases 104
    • 5.2. Three Integrated Diagnostic Models 110
    • 5.3. Static vs. Dynamic Diagnosis (Luscuere, freely translated) 113
    • 5.4. System Archetype “Shifting the Burden” 118
    • 5.5. From Six Basic Questions to the Choice of a Strategy 131
    • 5.6. Intervention Plan With Eight Interventions 137
    • 5.7. Elements of Every Intervention 141
    • 5.8. Examples of Two-Dimensional Intervention Overviews 143
    • 5.9. Two Intervention Overviews in the Form of Cubes 144
    • 6.1. Prioritization Matrix 163
    • 6.2. Maister's Formula for Professional Firms 166
    • 6.3. Balanced Scorecard 169
    • 6.4. Porter's Five Forces 172
    • 6.5. Ofman's Core Quadrant 176
    • 6.6. Belbin's Roles 180
    • 6.7. Four Culture Types 185
    • 6.8. Spectrum of Network Formats 190
    • 6.9. Biological and Psychological Age 194
    • 6.10. Optimal Conflict Level 197
    • 6.11. Looten's Clock Model 201
    • 6.12. Field of Influence 205
    • 8.1. Styles and Values According to Westra and van de Vliert 258
    • 8.2. Competing Values Framework of Leadership Roles 258
    • 8.3. Kolb's Learning Cycle 268

    List of Tables

    • 3.1. Assumptions Underlying the Five Ways of Thinking 45
    • 3.2. The Five Colors and Aspects of the Change Process 50
    • 3.3. The “Table” Example 57
    • 3.4. Example of a Workshop, a Mission, and Knowledge Management 58
    • 4.1. Planned Change Is … 71
    • 4.2. The Five Dimensions of Change Processes (Vinkenburg, 1995) 72
    • 4.3. Definitions of the Terms Used in Figure 4.2 76
    • 4.4. Phases in the Change Process (Kanter, 1992) 89
    • 4.5. Choices for Organizing Communication 92
    • 5.1. Dysfunctional Diagnostic Patterns 106
    • 5.2. Steps in the Realization Phase of a Diagnosis 107
    • 5.3. Diagnostic Matrix With Sample Questions 114
    • 5.4. Matrix With Diagnostic Models 116
    • 5.5. Six Basic Questions That Precede the Choice of a Change Strategy 121
    • 5.6. Depth/Scope of Change Processes 122
    • 5.7. Improvement and Renewal 123
    • 5.8. Resistance on Different Levels 124
    • 5.9. Examples of Role Divisions in Change Processes (Cummings & Worley 1993) 139
    • 5.10. Overview of a Sample of Colored Interventions for Each Level of the Organization 146
    • 5.11. Statements as Small “Colored” Interventions 148
    • 6.1. Matrix With Diagnostic Models 160
    • 6.2. Format for the Description of the Diagnostic Models 161
    • 7.1. Overview of Sample Interventions for Each Color and for Each Level in the Organization 210
    • 7.2. Format for the Descriptions in Each Cell 212
    • 8.1. Change Agent's Roles 257
    • 8.2. Intention, Role, and Focus of the Change Agent 260
    • 8.3. Competencies for the Change Agent 262
    • 8.4. Competencies of the Change Agent by Color 264
    • 8.5. Learning Activities 275

    About the Authors

    Léon de Caluwé (1950) is senior partner with the Twynstra Group, management consultants, and part-time professor at the Free University in Amsterdam. He studied social psychology at the University of Utrecht and received his science degree in 1975 and his Ph.D. in 1997 at Tilburg University. He was appointed Professor in Amsterdam in 2000. Working for all types of clients in government and industry, he leads the Center for Research on Consultancy at the Free University, which is part of an international network, and regularly works as an expert for the OECD and the Council of Europe.

    At Twynstra Gudde, where he's been affiliated since 1988, de Caluwé is a member of the company think tank and specializes in change, conflict resolution, quality of cooperation, culture interventions, and facilitation of policy development sessions. He works regularly with games and gaming methods as an intervention for advanced learning.

    He has published more than 80 articles and more than 15 books, several of which are in English, including Changing Organizations With Gaming/Simulation (2000). His doctoral dissertation, Veranderen moet je leren (1997), received the “Best Book of the Year” award from the Dutch Association of Management Consultants. His subjects are change, consultancy, and interventions.

    De Caluwé is a member of the Academy of Management, editor of several scientific journals, and lecturer in many postgraduate and master's programs.

    Hans Vermaak (1961) studied chemistry and organizational psychology in Utrecht and Florida and received his degree in Utrecht in 1985. He worked as a faculty member in both the science and the psychology departments of the University of Utrecht between 1982 and 1987. For many years a social activist, he worked with the Institute of Environmental and Systems Analysis from 1987–1992, where he mediated conflicts of (mostly) multinational industries or trade houses with governments and environmental groups. He also helped these companies to set up strategic environmental management.

    Vermaak completed different course programs in psychotherapy and counseling. Since 1987, he has taught counseling and still works part-time as a psychotherapist. In 1990, he began teaching yoga classes and was the interim manager of a spiritual center in 1992 and 1993.

    Taking a master's degree in management consulting from the Free University in Amsterdam in 1994, Vermaak has worked as a management consultant with the Twynstra Group since 1993, where he is a partner. His principal area of consulting concerns the diagnosing, planning, and implementing of organizational change in professional firms and institutions. He does most of his work as a process consultant, working in many different kinds of organizations. Generally, a substantial part of his work takes place in an international context. He trains and coaches change agents, and he heads the Change Management knowledge center of the Twynstra Group.

    Vermaak has been a guest lecturer at several universities and has published articles and books on change management, dilemmas of professional organizations, environmental issues, coaching and counselling, group systems, visions of the future, and approaches to learning. He has received several publication awards. His English publications include Conspiring Fruitfully With Professionals: New Management Roles for Professional Organisations; Managers Learning to Be Green Competitors, and In Search of Corporate Learning: The Archipelago of Learning.


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