Learning for Leadership: Developmental Strategies for Building Capacity in Our Schools

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Eleanor Drago-Severson, Jessica Blum-DeStefano & Anila Asghar

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  • Back Matter
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  • Part I: Foundations

    Part II: Lessons and Examples from Leaders in the Field

    Part III: Implications for Practice and Policy

  • Dedication

    With deep admiration, respect for, and gratitude to practicing and aspiring school leaders everywhere—and especially those who courageously opened their hearts and minds to help us all to learn.

    Copyright

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    Acknowledgments

    What we are able to share in pages that follow is, like most gifts, the result of the support and help of others. Many generous, inspiring, beautiful, thoughtful people—family members, leaders of all sorts, friends, colleagues, students, mentors, and partners in thought—have contributed to and supported this work in meaningful and important ways. We will acknowledge them here. We also hope that they have known and felt our tremendous gratitude long before reading about these expressions.

    First and foremost, we express our deep gratitude to all of the leaders who shared their experiences and practices of supporting adult development in their work contexts, including the triumphs and challenges of their work. While the lessons and wisdom presented in this book are gifts from the twenty leaders who participated in the interview phase of this research, there are some fifty leaders who participated in the survey phases of this work over the past ten years. An additional sixty leaders shared with us their experiences and leadership practices during interviews that we conducted and surveys that we administered in 2003, 2004, and 2005. We thank each and every one of you for your courageous sharing and for all that you have taught us. We thank you for the heroic work you are doing every day toward making schools better places for children and adolescents, as well as adults. While unable to name all of you here, we hope that you know and feel our heartfelt, tremendous gratitude. Your wisdom and insight infuse all that we are able to offer.

    We also express deep appreciation for the many contributions from additional students who have allowed us to learn from them, from their practices, and from their experiences and wisdom. In particular, we thank the students whom we have been privileged to teach and from whom we have been privileged to learn at Teachers College, Columbia University, Harvard University's Graduate School of Education, and McGill University. We also feel very grateful to have benefited for more than twenty years from the gift of learning from and with practicing and aspiring leaders in schools and districts. Thank you for welcoming us into your schools, onto your teams, and into your professional learning communities, your districts, your coaching practices, and your experiences. Thank you for sharing with us your inspiring teachings, insights, questions, and curiosities.

    Both Teachers College at Columbia University and Harvard University's Graduate School of Education have supported the longitudinal research from which the lessons in this book are drawn. We express deep appreciation for each institution and for the leaders within them for all of the many ways that they have supported this work. They created the conditions within which we were able to work with and learn from practicing and aspiring leaders.

    Collectively, we express our deep gratitude to Professor Robert Kegan of Harvard's Graduate School of Education for creating his constructive-developmental theory and for all of the ways in which it informs what and how we teach, and the learning-oriented model that we discuss throughout this work. Thank you for sharing your generous insights with us.

    As authors, we also thank Professor Howard Gardner of Harvard's Graduate School of Education for sharing his generous insights about this work. We appreciate very much the important ways in which Howard's theories of learning and leadership inform our work and our teachings, as they also inform the work of educators everywhere. We are most grateful to you.

    In addition, we voice special gratitude to Professor Pat Maslin-Ostrowski, Dr. Anne Jones, and Dr. Kara Popiel for thinking with us and for sharing with us their expertise about the implications of this work for policymakers and for policy development. We cherish your great company and mindful care.

    We have enjoyed the blessing of collaborating with Dan Alpert, Senior Acquisitions Editor of Corwin/SAGE. Thank you, Dan, for sharing with us your wisdom and for helping us to learn from and with insightful you. Thank you for your caring attention, careful listening, and for your enduring, sensitive support. This work is indebted to your belief in the importance of this project, to your patience throughout the contours of this journey, and to the many sage contributions you have made along the way to this book and to each of us. We are deeply grateful for the blessing of you, Dan.

    We also offer special thanks to all members of the Corwin team, and especially to Heidi Arndt, Melanie Birdsall, Lana Arndt, Kimberly Greenberg, Bryan Fishman, and Karen Ehrmann. Thank you for your thoughtful communications, for your reliable attention to detail, and especially for your support during final stages of producing this book. We are grateful for this chance to learn from you and from your generosity in sharing your expertise so that readers can benefit.

    We are also very grateful to and for the individuals who made time in their incredibly busy schedules to read and offer wise and generous feedback on an early draft of this work. Your ideas, suggestions, and insights have strengthened this work.

    I, Anila, would like to thank my teacher, Professor Drago-Severson, and my cherished colleague, Jessica Blum-DeStefano, for taking me along on this incredible learning journey. I don't have the words to thank you both for teaching me so much in this process. I also thank my family for their love and support, always.

    In addition to the sincere appreciations expressed above, I, Jessica, would also like to thank Ellie Drago-Severson for the incredible opportunity to be a part of this research and writing team. It has been an absolutely invaluable experience—and your genuine passion for supporting leaders and learners of all ages continues to amaze and inspire. Tremendous gratitude, as well, is offered to Anila Asghar for her insightful and poetic contributions throughout this collaboration. What a gift it has been to learn “with and from” both of you, as Ellie would say.

    I hope, too, that Linda and George DeStefano know how much I appreciate their time, generosity, and unfailing support. Please know that your care has strengthened this work in innumerable ways.

    Of course, I would also like to thank my parents, Deborah and Richard Blum, and my sister, Allison Blum-Kamalakaran, for being my first and best teachers, and for being constant pillars of strength, confidence, and love throughout my life. There are no words.

    Finally, with special love and gratitude, I would like to thank George, Orin, and Perry DeStefano for their smiles, patience, hugs, and support throughout this project … and every day. You fill my heart in new and beautiful ways.

    I, Ellie, would like to first express my tremendous admiration and deep appreciation for the gift of learning with and from you, Anila and Jessica, in general, and specifically for the many years during which we have collaborated on this learning project. Your wisdom, care, love, and insights continue to inspire and renew me. I feel incredibly grateful for the blessings of you in my life. This book is testament to the power of learning from and with each other. My heartfelt gratitude extends to each and to both of you.

    I also offer special and deep gratitude for two of my many teachers and mentors. I thank you, Bob Kegan, dear teacher, colleague, and cherished friend, for developing your theory, for the ways it has altered the course of my life, and for teaching and modeling how to support adult development. You help me to understand better how to hold others, how to help them grow, and how to create conditions that support growth. I thank you for sharing your light, commitments, and ways with me. I hope you feel my deepest gratitude as I work to share light with others.

    I offer heartfelt and sincere gratitude to you, Howard Gardner, for the gift of your special friendship and for your teaching, modeling, generosity, and theories, which continue to ever inspire my life, my teaching, and my commitments. You model goodness, and you inspire all who are blessed to know you. I am very grateful for your friendship, for your presence, for your brilliance, and for the gift that is you.

    I express my heartfelt appreciation for my family, friends, colleagues, and partners in thought for their care and support that have strengthened me, the contributions I can make, and this work in powerful and inspiring ways. While I could offer pages or even chapters about the influence of your different forms of love and care, I trust you know why I mention you here: Richard Ackerman, Dan Alpert, Mary Anton-Oldenburg, Anila Asghar, Janet Aravena, Jessica Blum-DeStefano, Ira Bogotch, Robb Clousse, Caroline Chauncey, Betty Drago, John Drago, Bud Drago, Joe Drago, Paul Drago, Carl Drago, Mariann Drago, Jane Ellison, Howard Gardner, Anne Jones, Robert Kegan, India Koopman, Neville Marks, Pat Moran, Victoria Marsick, Pat Maslin-Ostrowski, David McCallum, Peter Neaman, Aliki Nicolaides, Kara Popiel, Steve Silverman, and David Severson.

    In closing, I, Ellie, express my deepest gratitude for the many and different kinds of love those in my own family have and do give to me, love that has most shaped my life and what I am able to offer with care and in loving support to others. I thank my father, the late Dr. Rosario Drago, and my mother, the late Mrs. Betty Brisgal Drago, who have been my steadfast Guides and finest teachers. The memories of these two most wonderful human beings and teachers as well as their love carry, inspire, and lift me every day. Through their extraordinary love, wisdom, joy, exemplary hard work, and care, they modeled a love, a learning, a giving, a caring, and a leading that continues to lift, inspire, and hold me. I thank my siblings and their families for their love, care, support, and presence over many years and for all that you teach me.

    I express my deepest gratitude—the soul-felt kind—for and to my husband, David Severson. No words can capture the depths of my love and the breadth of my gratitude to you. Thank you for being my teacher, my soul mate, my treasured Friend. Thank you for the impossible-to-describe ways in which you, your strength, your love, your goodness, your modeling, your courage, and your generosity inspire, fill, and renew my soul and heart. Thank you for the gift of you, every step, every day. Thank you for your enduring and precious love, for helping me to grow, and for your Light.

    Publisher's Acknowledgments

    Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:

    • Deanna Burney
    • Executive Director, Leading by Learning, LLC
    • Haddonfield, NJ
    • Jane Ellison
    • Educational Consultant Highlands Ranch, CO
    • Kara Popiel
    • Teacher, Yonkers Public Schools
    • Yonkers, NY
    • William A. Sommers
    • Retired High School Principal
    • Austin, TX
    • Claudia Thompson
    • Academic Officer, Learning and Teaching, Peninsula School District
    • Gig Harbor, WA

    About the Authors

    Eleanor Drago-Severson is a professor of education leadership and adult learning and leadership at Teachers College, Columbia University. As a developmental psychologist, she is inspired in her work by the idea that schools must be places where adults and children can grow. She is dedicated to creating the conditions to achieve this and to helping leaders and educators of all kinds to do the same on behalf of supporting adults and youth. Ellie's work builds bridges between research and practice by supporting teachers, principals, assistant principals, superintendents, and other school and district leaders in their professional and personal learning and growth. Ellie is author of four recent books: Becoming Adult Learners: Principles and Practices for Effective Development (Teachers College Press, 2004); Helping Teachers Learn: Principal Leadership for Adult Growth and Development (Corwin, 2004); Leading Adult Learning: Supporting Adult Development in Our Schools (Corwin/The National Staff Development Council, 2009); and Helping Educators Grow: Practices and Strategies for Supporting Leadership Development (Harvard Education Press, 2012). Learning Forward (formerly The National Staff Development Council, NSDC) awarded the Outstanding Staff Development Book of the Year in 2004 to Helping Teachers Learn and selected Leading Adult Learning as their book for the Fall 2009. Ellie teaches, conducts research, and consults to leaders and organizations on professional and personal growth and learning, leadership that supports principal, faculty, and school development, capacity building, leadership development, coaching, qualitative research, and mentoring in K–12 schools, university contexts, Adult Basic Education (ABE), and English as a Second Language (ESOL) contexts. She is also an internationally certified developmental coach who works with principals, assistant principals, district leaders, and teachers to build internal capacity and achieve goals. She served as lead researcher on the Adult Development Team of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) at Harvard University and as teacher, program designer, program director, and professional developer in a variety of educational contexts, including K–12 schools, higher education, adult education centers, and ABE/ESOL programs (domestically and internationally). Her work explores the promise of practices that support adult development, leadership development, and capacity building within schools, districts, and organizations. Ellie's work has been recognized by and supported with awards from the Spencer Foundation, the Klingenstein Foundation, and Harvard Graduate School of Education (HGSE) where she served as lecturer on education for eight years. While serving at Harvard, Ellie was awarded the 2005 Morningstar Award for Excellence in Teaching. Most recently, she received three outstanding teaching awards from Teachers College. She has earned degrees from Long Island University (BA) and Harvard University (EdM, EdD, and Post-Doctoral Fellowship). Ellie grew up in the Bronx, New York, and lives in New York City.

    Jessica Blum-DeStefano is an advanced doctoral student in education leadership at Teachers College, Columbia University, who is exploring how at-risk high school students in alternative education settings understand and describe good teaching. Jessica was awarded a research fellowship by the Teachers College Office of Policy and Research to support her work, and she has worked closely with Ellie over the past five years as a research assistant, teaching fellow, and coinstructor.

    Anila Asghar is an associate professor in the Department of Integrated Studies in Education at McGill University. Her research and teaching encompass a number of interconnected areas: cognitive and emotional development; curriculum development; science pedagogy; teacher education; and educational leadership in a variety of international settings. She earned her doctorate from Harvard's Graduate School of Education and carried out her postdoctoral research at McGill University. She also received an EdM from Harvard University and an MA in science education from Teachers College, Columbia University.

  • Resource A: Research Appendix

    To help you understand the larger study and how we came to learn the insights and lessons from leaders that we've presented in this book, we share in this appendix an overview of the various research projects we conducted. We hope this sheds light on lessons we've learned and how we learned them.

    In this book, we have offered insights from one part of the longitudinal research we've been conducting for almost ten years. The learning presented stems largely from our latest work—interviews and surveys with three different cohorts of leaders who successfully completed the Leadership for Transformational Learning (LTL) course in 2003, 2004, and 2005. This work extends our prior work, which was also aimed at learning from and with school leaders who dedicate themselves to leading in support of adult development. In this appendix, we offer a brief summary of the different phases of this research with special attention to our most recent research with leaders, as it most directly informs the learnings presented in this book.

    Origins and Trajectory of Research Informing This Book: An Overview

    The research presented in this book is part of a larger nine-year mixed-methods study devoted to exploring LTL participants' understandings of their learning experiences in LTL and their conceptions of learning-oriented leadership practice in relation to their current work as leaders supporting adult growth. This longitudinal study, which informs this book, consists of surveys and in-depth interviews, and it took place during two distinct phases. In Phase 1, we collected data from LTL students before, during, and immediately after they completed the LTL course in 2003, 2004, or 2005. In Phase 2, we contacted the LTL graduates a few years after course completion to learn, through surveys and interviews, about their current leadership practice in support of their own and others' adult development. This work grew from three prior research efforts (conducted by the first author). We discuss these studies, as well as the current study, below.

    Supporting Adult Development in Schools: Foundational Inquiries into What It Means to Support Adults in Schools and Districts

    This research is an extension of earlier research that began in 1991 when the first author of this book, Ellie, received the gift of learning from one school principal, who was explicitly devoted to supporting adult development in her school. This was an ethnographic study (1991–1996) of how one principal, Dr. Sarah Levine, supported and nurtured teacher growth in her school.

    After this, Ellie conducted a study with twenty-five school principals from public, Catholic, and independent schools to learn how they supported teacher growth in their schools, the practices they found effective in doing so, as well as why they thought their practices worked well in supporting growth. This work was published in Helping Teachers Learn (Drago-Severson, 2004), and it included in-depth qualitative interviews (eighty-six hours of initial and subsequent interviews) exploring (a) the effective practices the principals employed to facilitate teacher development and learning; (b) the ways in which they felt those practices worked in their schools; (c) the influence of these practices on teacher development and learning; (d) the challenges they confronted in supporting teacher development and learning; and (e) the strategies they used to support their own self-renewal.

    Later, Ellie extended this work by learning from other educators and leaders (i.e., principals, assistant principals, superintendents, coaches, professional learning specialist, and district leaders) about how they worked to support educators' growth in their work. In addition, Ellie extended the developmental framework to include more about how to support adults who are growing toward the next way of knowing—the self-transforming way of knowing—by engaging them in pillar practices. Thus, this work also offers practices and protocols that are developmental in nature and aimed at helping educators to enhance the four pillar practices to support adults with different ways of knowing.

    Learnings from this study were presented in Leading Adult Learning: Supporting Adult Development in Our Schools (2009). This book details practical ideas and strategies for shaping professional learning contexts of all kinds as environments that support leaders' growth. It, like Ellie's most recent book, Helping Educators Grow: Strategies and Practices for Supporting Leadership Development (2012), highlights how creating these developmentally oriented learning environments can help leaders build internal capacities so that they are better equipped to meet the complex challenges of teaching, leading, learning, and living today. Learning Forward awarded Leading Adult Learning's contributions by recognizing it as one of their books of the Fall 2009. All of this work has also informed a model for leadership and adult development that is presented in Helping Educators Grow: Strategies and Practices for Leadership Development (2012).

    These works focus on learning with leaders and draw from mixed-methods research with principals, assistant principals, teachers, coaches, district leaders in their schools and districts, and practicing and aspiring school leaders in the workshops, institutes, and long-term professional learning engagements in schools and districts that Ellie facilitates. Furthermore, they focus on learning with and from practicing and aspiring leaders of all kinds in university education leadership and adult development classes in which Ellie teaches about leadership for adult development, the pillar practices for growth, and a new learning-oriented model for leadership development.

    The Current Study, Which Informs This Book: Exploring Transformational Learning and Transfer to Practice

    Our main goal in sharing what we learned from leaders in the research presented in this book was to extend prior research to understand how, if at all, leaders who were enrolled in three different fifteen-week LTL courses transformed how they thought about leading in support of adult growth and how, if at all, they employed learnings from LTL in their actual practice years after completing the course. More specifically, we wanted to understand their thinking about how to support adult growth in real-life practice, how they employed practices informed by their learning in LTL, and what developmental principles, theories, and practices they are using and finding meaningful years after successfully completing the LTL course.

    It is important to note here that our intention in this study was not to prove or disprove the effectiveness of any particular course. Rather, our goal was to illustrate how (if at all) developmental ideas and practices are currently being used in the field, to understand what is still hard about this work for leaders, and to illuminate the local and systemic supports that would help make things even better in terms of supporting other adults development and their own. In the sections that follow, we offer the research questions that guided each phase of this learning project as well as participant characteristics, data collection, and analytic strategies.

    Phase 1: LTL Graduates' Emerging Conceptions of Leadership for Supporting Adult Development (2003–2005)

    In this phase our research focused on learning from aspiring and practicing school leaders who participated in LTL in 2003, 2004, and 2005. We examined how LTL students experienced LTL-classroom structures, course content, and teaching strategies as supportive of their learning and development as leaders. We also wanted to learn how, if at all, these aspiring and practicing leaders' developing concepts of leadership were grounded in adult development principles, the pillar practices, and their aspirations and plans for using learning-oriented approaches to support other adults' learning and professional growth as leaders.

    Research Questions: What Were We Hoping to Learn?
    • What course structures and content support students' leadership development, and why?
    • What kinds of pedagogical practices and exercises facilitated student learning?
    • What do these aspiring leaders name as valuable in supporting their learning from adult development theories, and how do they experience practices aimed at supporting their learning and leadership development?
    • How did LTL support changes in students' conceptions of what it means to support adult development?
    • How, if at all, might their experience in LTL influence how they think about supporting adult growth?
    • How might LTL help students translate theories and practices for adult growth to their future leadership?
    Data Collection

    During this phase, we administered pre-/post-course surveys and interviews for our research—conducted after course completion and after grades were submitted—with volunteer LTL students, as detailed below. In addition, course documents, such as course syllabus, e-mail correspondence from students, and midterm and end-of-course evaluations provided important contextual data (see Table A.1).

    Table A.1 LTL Participants
    LTL YearNumber of StudentsData Collection Instruments
    200322/22 in class for surveys
    • Pre- and post-surveys
    • Midterm and end-of-course evaluations
    • Interviews after course completion (n = 15)
    200422/22 in class
    • Pre- and post-surveys
    • Midterm and end-of-course evaluations
    • Electronic communication with students
    • Interviews after course completion (n = 12)
    200522/22 in class
    • Pre- and post-surveys
    • Midterm and end-of-course evaluations
    • Electronic communication with students
    • Interviews after course completion (n = 14)

    Surveys. Pre- and post-surveys were administered to all of the LTL students (all volunteered). All who were invited to participate voluntarily agreed to do so (before and at the completion of the course in 2003, 2004, and 2005). Survey questions focused on exploring students' initial and emergent understandings of leadership before and after the course. Pre-survey (before LTL) centered on these themes: (a) students' initial conceptions of adult development; (b) students' prior experiences related to adult development in their professional settings; and (c) their expectations from the course.

    Post-survey (after LTL course was completed) focused on the following themes: (a) changes in students' conceptions of supporting adult learning and development; (b) their reflections about the course activities and experiences; (c) the course structures and practices that they thought were instrumental in transforming their notions of supporting adult development; and (d) hopes for their future leadership roles and work.

    The pre- and post-surveys were kept in sealed envelopes that were opened after students' final grades were submitted. Students knew that we would not look at their pre- and post-course surveys until after course grades were submitted.

    The post-surveys, in particular, served as an important source of information for participant selection to engage in qualitative interviews after the LTL course. These provided valuable information about students' conceptual development related to supporting transformational learning and adult development after the course. At the end of the survey, we asked if each student would be interested in volunteering to be interviewed after course completion and after final grades were submitted. Survey responses from selected participants represented a range of perspectives, which illuminated diverse experiences in LTL as described in Chapters 4 and 5.

    Interviews. In 2003, fifteen students volunteered to be interviewed after course completion. In 2004, fifteen students voluntarily agreed to participate in interviews immediately after completing LTL, and twelve of them (seven masters and five doctoral students) were purposefully selected to participate in the interviews. In 2005, sixteen students volunteered for interviews. Due to scheduling issues, we interviewed fourteen of them.

    Selection criteria for all interviews included students' voluntary acceptance for participation; their responses to the pre- and post-surveys (we invited them to volunteer for interviews, and if they did, we asked them to enter their best contact information after graduation); prior leadership position (e.g., teachers, aspiring principals, and leaders in ministry); and previous work contexts (e.g., K–12 schools, universities, nonprofits, and churches). Each year, we were able to interview a larger number of females (ten to twelve) and a smaller number of males (three to five). Since females constituted the majority in this class, we felt the interview samples were generally representative of the course as a whole.

    The interview sample each year was diverse in terms of prior number of years in their current role, gender, ethnicity, and prior educational background and leadership roles (e.g., teachers, aspiring principals, curriculum coordinators, leaders in ministry, and consultants) and in their work contexts (e.g., K–12 schools, universities, nonprofit organizations, and churches). We offered participants the option of using a pseudonym or their real names; all such requests were honored.

    Data Analysis: How Did We Make Sense of Data?

    We followed very similar analytic strategies when analyzing interview data from all three groups of students after course completion in 2003, 2004, and 2005. In total (for all three groups of students) we analyzed approximately seventy-eight hours of semi-structured, in-depth, qualitative interviews with forty-four students. All interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Participants were asked similar questions over the three years about various topics including (a) their experiences in LTL; (b) how, if at all, LTL served to support their learning and growth; (c) the course components that were particularly helpful to them to foster a deeper understanding of transformational learning; (d) the teaching practices that supported and challenged their development as leaders; and (e) how they planned to employ practices supportive of adult development in their future leadership work, and why.

    Analytic strategies included coding of interviews and field notes for salient concepts (e.g., safe spaces, holding environment, safety and trust, dialogue, reflection, connecting theory to practice, transfer to future practice, and supports and challenges for facilitating adult development); grouping related codes into broader categories and themes; organizing codes into thematic matrices (Geertz, 1974); creating narrative summaries (Coffey & Atkinson, 1996; Maxwell, 2005); and building profiles of individual participants (Seidman, 1998). Patterns across categories (e.g., the value of collective reflection in convenings; conceptual shifts in leadership orientation) were explored by writing analytic memos (Maxwell & Miller, 1998) and by creating matrices and visual displays (Miles & Huberman, 1994).

    Additionally, we, the team of researchers, crosschecked codes and discussed our interpretations with each other to incorporate alternative views and perspectives in analysis (Miles & Huberman, 1994). We also developed specific analytic questions to discover and illuminate the relationships between important concepts emerging from our analysis (Seidman, 1998). Examples of analytic questions included: (a) What kinds of classroom structures and pedagogical practices help in supporting participants' learning and why? (b) What were participants' initial conceptions of adult growth and development? (c) How did participants' ideas about supporting adult learning and development change during time in LTL? (d) How did they plan to use practices supportive of adult development in their future leadership work? These analytic questions helped in tracking and comparing participants' ideas and responses across the surveys and interviews. Because this was a qualitative study, the findings are generalized to the participants only. As Maxwell (2005) notes though, findings may have implications for other like cases.

    Primary Data Informing This Book: Phase 2 Study with LTL Leaders in the Field (2009–2012)

    In the second phase of this research, we were keen to learn from LTL graduates about the developmental practices that they were employing in their work contexts to support adult growth many years after completing LTL. We also hoped to gain insights into the particular challenges that they are facing in their efforts to lead with developmental intentions. This study explored the questions below.

    Research Questions: What Were We Hoping to Learn?
    • What course structures and content supported students' leadership development?
    • In what ways did LTL shape their current work as leaders and their practices for supporting adult growth and development in their work settings? How, if at all, are participants applying adult developmental theories and pillar practices to their leadership practice?
    • What obstacles do they encounter in their efforts to support adult development in their workplaces? How are they dealing with these challenges?
    • What kind of supports would help them do this work even better and in ways that would feel more satisfying? From whom would they like to receive these supports?
    Data Collection

    Data were collected from practicing LTL leaders through an online survey and in-depth interviews as described below. While we do share some key findings from the survey portion of this study, our primary focus throughout this book is on learnings from interviews.

    Survey. Of the forty-four possible participants from 2004 and 2005, we located e-mail addresses for forty, and all were invited to complete the survey. The response rate was 55%; twenty-two leaders completed the online survey. Later on, we decided to invite leaders from the 2003 cohort to engage in interviews in order to build the sample size for interviews.

    At the time of the study, survey participants were working in diverse educational contexts as principals, assistant principals, teacher-leaders, educational consultants, and university professors. Females constituted a significant majority in LTL as well as the survey respondents (over 80%). Most were in their thirties, and 66% had one to three years of experience in their current leadership position, with over 50% in K–12 schools. The survey was confidential and voluntary and was made available to the LTL graduates in an online format (i.e., Survey Monkey).

    The survey focused on learning about participants' understanding of leadership for adult development and their current practices to support adult development. Survey questions asked how and why, if at all, LTL influenced their conceptions of supporting adult growth, the practices they employ to support adult development in their leadership work, and which components of the course were most meaningful. Furthermore, participants were also invited to share the challenges and obstacles they have encountered while implementing practices to support other adults' learning in their particular work contexts. In addition to LTL, they were also asked to rate the influence of other academic, professional, and personal experiences on their personal growth and development, such as other coursework, professional development seminars before and after LTL, work experience before and after LTL, conferences, books, articles/journals, mentors, peers, and family and friends. Another set of survey questions explored participants' notions about their current and prior leadership experiences.

    Interviews. Initially, as noted above, we invited LTL leaders from 2004 and 2005 to participate in the survey and interview portion of this research. However, given response rate for volunteering for interviews from leaders in 2004 and 2005, we decided to also invite LTL leaders from 2003 to participate in interviews in order to increase the sample size. All who were invited to complete the survey from the 2004 and 2005 cohorts were also invited to volunteer for interviews in an e-mail we sent to them. We asked that they let us know if they would be willing to participate in a qualitative interview. However, because we do not know who completed the survey (we did not ask for their names), we cannot tell if leaders who provided interviews also completed the survey. Nevertheless, survey responses informed our questions and probes for in-depth interviews with individual participants, and leaders from LTL 2003 (for whom we could access e-mail addresses) were then invited to volunteer for interviews as well.

    In total, twenty leaders agreed to in-depth, one-to-two-hour follow-up interviews (three males and seventeen females from 2003, 2004, and 2005). Currently, these leaders are working in various leadership positions as principals of charter schools, public school principals, assistant principals, department chairs, teacher leaders, guidance counselors, educational consultants, tutors, university professors, and there is one Foreign Service officer (please see Table A.2). As mentioned earlier, the learnings presented in this book mainly draw from interviews with these LTL leaders. In case helpful, other LTL graduates also expressed interest in volunteering for interviews, but given the hectic and often unpredictable pace of their work lives, time conflicts prevented their participation in the interview part of this study.

    Table A.2 Characteristics of Education Leaders: Roles and Work Context
    Name1Leadership PositionWork Context
    AdrianSecondary school principalSingapore
    BrendaGraduate student; former academic dean and Spanish teacherNew York
    BrookeAssistant professor at a university, teaches educational psychology. In 2011, Brooke accepted a principalship in an urban high school.Georgia
    DanaHigh school English teacher; department chair; member of the instructional leadership team; conducts professional development, supports, mentors, and evaluates teachersCalifornia
    DianeWorked as special education intern/consultant for the State Education Resource Center and Pennsylvania Department of Education; completed a doctorate in education; working as special education consultant for the Connecticut State Resource CenterConnecticut
    ElizabethHigh school math teacher; math department leader; lead teacher for data; designs and facilitates professional developmentCalifornia
    GinaGuidance adjustment counselor; provides training in counseling; member of a professional learning community team; works with administratorsMassachusetts
    JackieAdjunct professor at a local college; doctoral candidate; English tutor for school and university studentsNew York
    JaneEducation consultant; works with schools and districts on data-driven improvement; former department head and teacherLarge Northeast Districts in the United States
    JedHead of charter school (K–12); works with principals from elementary, middle, and secondary sectionsMassachusetts
    JenaiIndependent consultant/education consultant for school districts and consulting firms; conducts special projects in school evaluationNew Mexico
    LaurenConducting research in cognitive science; former teacher at a private school; ESL (English as a Second Language) teacher for adultsMassachusetts
    LucyForeign Service officer working in U.S. embassies abroadU.S. embassies in foreign countries
    MarisaSelf-employed, entrepreneur, part-time English instructor at a postsecondary school; English tutor for adultsArgentina/South America
    MattLower school division head, works with other administrators, head teachers, and families; former director of curriculum at a private schoolNew York
    MelanieCurrently pursuing a doctorate in educational leadership; former middle school principal and instructional leaderMassachusetts
    PaliaHigh school assistant principal; conducts professional development; observes, coaches, and supervises teachers; works with students and families on achievement opportunitiesNew York
    RachelVice president of a charter management organization, manages the regional directors who work with principals; former literacy coach at a schoolMaryland/Oversees three to four schools on the East Coast (New York and Washington, DC)
    SarahAssistant professor at a graduate school of education in a universityMassachusetts
    TaraMiddle school assistant principal; instructional leader; intervention planning team coordinator; conducts teacher evaluations; former elementary teacherArizona

    1We are using pseudonyms for most of the participants in accordance with their wish to protect their privacy.

    To collect comparable data, we asked similar questions about specific interview topics that related to the broader research questions guiding this study. Interviews helped in developing a deeper understanding of participants' enduring understandings and context-specific applications of learning-oriented leadership practice. Consequently, our interview questions centered on the following themes: (a) LTL course learnings; (b) applications of developmentally oriented leadership theory and practice; (c) challenges and hopes for supporting adult development; and (d) how to support their own development as leaders (see Table A.3).

    Table A.3 Interview Themes and Interview Questions (Phase 2)
    LTL Course Learnings
    • What do you see as a few of the more important learnings you took away from your experience in LTL, in general?
    • Which learnings were most important to you regarding how you support other adults' growth?
    • Which specific parts of the course, if any, are most helpful to you now in terms of how you work to support other people's growth, and why?
    • How, if at all, were specific components/parts of LTL helpful to you—e.g., lectures, readings, case writing, papers, guest speakers, films, convenings, in-class exercises, and feedback?
    Application/Adaptation of LTL Learning-Oriented Practices
    • Given what you've learned from LTL, in what ways if any, have you been able to implement these ideas and practices in your work?
    • Please provide specific examples from your work to help us understand the learning-oriented strategies you are employing in your workplace.
    • How do you think they are working? What's going well? What is difficult?
    Challenges and Hopes for Supports and Development
    • What, if any, challenges, barriers, or obstacles have you encountered in your efforts to support adult development in your work?
    • How have you addressed them?
    • If you could have some kind of support to help you in this work, what would it be? From whom?
    • How do you think it would help? In what ways, if any, would you like to continue to develop your own practice of leadership in support to adult learning?
    Supporting YourOwnDevelopment
    • How do you go about supporting your own development? What kinds of practices do you use? How are they working?
    • What are some of the barriers or challenges that make it hard to support your own development or renewal? What do you think works well for you when someone else is trying to support your development?
    • Given your position and responsibilities, is this—supporting your own development—important to you? How is that working for you? What, if anything, do you see as the barriers or challenges that make it hard for other people to do this—help you with this?
    Data Analysis: How Did We Make Sense of Data?

    We employed various analytic strategies to address our questions. Analysis included coding interview transcripts for central concepts (Strauss & Corbin, 1998), organizing salient themes into categories and then matrices (Geertz, 1974; Coffey & Atkinson, 1996), constructing individual participant profiles around each theme (Seidman, 1998), and creating in-depth narrative summaries (Maxwell, 2005). All three researchers conducted open coding. We carefully read all the survey responses and interview transcripts line by line to identify important and recurring concepts from participants' descriptions of supporting adult development and the issues confronting their practice in relation to all research questions.

    After coding (both emic—in vivo—codes and theoretical codes), we clustered related codes into broader categories and themes. Examples of themes included developmental needs of leaders; change in leadership orientation; important learning/concept from LTL; important practice/activity from LTL; implemented LTL concept; implemented LTL practice; identified challenge to learning-oriented leadership; requested support for learning-oriented leadership; current strategies for continued growth and development; barriers to external support; hopes/pans for continued professional learning. These themes helped us to develop a set of analytic questions for even more focused analysis, such as the following: (a) What are participants' leadership roles and responsibilities? (b) How do they understand and describe developmental leadership? (c) In what ways, if any, did the adult developmental theories discussed in LTL change their conceptions of leadership? (d) How, if at all, did LTL practices inform their actions as leaders to support adult learning and development and the practices they employed in support of that? (e) What challenges and barriers do they face while trying to support other adults in their work contexts? (f) What strategies did they employ to overcome these? and (g) What would help them to better support adult growth in their workplaces?

    Thematic matrices and analytic memos (Miles & Huberman, 1994) enabled us to search for and identify patterns in the data. Creating narrative summaries (Maxwell, 2005), participant profiles (Seidman, 1998, 2006), visual displays (Miles & Huberman, 1994), and concept maps helped in uncovering connections among salient themes and concepts, and comparing patterns of similarities and differences within and across cases (Maxwell & Miller, 1998). Responses to the demographics questions and the 7-point Likert scale statements on the survey were analyzed to compute the frequencies and means.

    Our analysis progressed through an iterative process where we examined data independently to perform open and theoretical coding initially. Regular interpretive meetings helped us to conduct an in-depth cross-comparative analysis of the data. Codes, categories, and themes were regularly shared, compared, and refined. We employed a grounded theory approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) while incorporating various literatures into analysis. We conferred on coding and interpretations to incorporate alternative understandings and attend to interpretive validity. We attended to theoretical validity by examining data for both “confirming” and “disconfirming” instances of themes (Miles & Huberman, 1994, p. 216). For example, as we present in the book, there is no single “right” way to employ developmental practices and ideas in leadership, and it is clear that leaders are currently using LTL strategies in different ways and to different degrees. Toward this end, while we offer examples and cases from our research that we hope will be helpful to others looking to employ developmentally informed leadership practices, we often include “counts” when presenting findings to acknowledge discrepant data. We hope that these findings offer a useful framework to look at leadership practice in similar contexts, but because the sample size is limited, we generalize findings only to participants.

    Resource B: Leadership for Transformational Learning (LTL) Course Topics

    Readings and interactive exercises in LTL centered on the following global topics:

    TopicCitation
    Theoretical conceptions related to leadership(Boyatzis & McKee, 2005a, 2005b, 2005c, 2005d; Elmore, 2002, 2003, 2005b; Fullan, 2005; Heifetz, 1994a, 1994b).
    Various theories of adult learning(Levinson & Levinson, 1996; Levinson, Darrow, Klein, Levinson, & McKee, 1978; Marsick & Sauquet, 2000; Meier, 2002; Mezirow, 1991; Moller & Pancake, 2006; National Staff Development Council, 2005; O'Neil & Marsick, 2007; Osterman & Kottkamp, 1993a, 1993b, 1993c, 2004; Parks, 2005; Rogers, 2002; Rooke & Torbert, 2005; Rossiter, 2002; Schön, 1983; Schwarz, 2002; Sheehy, 1995a, 1995b; Wagner et al., 2006; Yorks & Marsick, 2000; York-Barr, Sommers, Ghere, & Montie, 2006a, 2006b).
    Constructive-developmental theory(Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberg, & Tarule, 1986; Berger, 2002; Daloz, 2000; Drago-Severson, 1994, 2004a, 2004b, 2006; Kegan, 1982, 1994, 2000; Kegan & Lahey, 1984; Kegan et al., 2001; Levine, 1989; Santos & Drago-Severson, 2005).
    Essential elements for creating positive learning environments for adults—providing appropriate supports and challenges(Arnold, 2005; Drago-Severson, 2004a, 2004b; Elmore, 2005a; Isaacs, 1999; Kegan & Lahey, 2001a, 2001b; Senge et al., 2000).
    Practices that support adults' transformational learning (e.g., teaming, assuming leadership roles, collegial inquiry, and mentoring) and the developmental principles informing them(Daloz, 1999a, 1999b; Drago-Severson, 2004a, 2004b, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009; Drago-Severson, Roloff-Welch, & Jones, 2007; Donaldson, 1998; Donaldson, 1999; Heifetz, 1994a, 1994b; Kemmler-Ernst, 2000; Maister, Green, & Galford, 2000; Schwarz, 2002; Schön, 1983; Weingarter, 2009; York-Barr et al., 2006; Zachary, 2000, 2005).
    The importance of caring for one's own development and learning while caring for the learning of others(Ackerman, Donaldson, & Van Der Bogert, 1996a, 1996b; Ackerman & Maslin-Ostrowski, 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2004; Boyatzis & McKee, 2005b; Donaldson, 2008; Drago-Severson, 2004b).
    Source: Adapted from Drago-Severson (2003, 2004, 2005); Drago-Severson, Asghar, Blum-DeStefano, & Roloff Welch (2011).

    Resource C: Leadership for Transformational Learning (LTL) Citations for Course Readings

    Ackerman, R. H., Donaldson, G. A., & Van Der Bogert, R. (1996a). Leadership as quest. In R. H.Ackerman, G. A.Donaldson, & R.Van Der Bogert (Eds.), Making sense as a school leader: Persisting questions, creative opportunities (pp. 1–12). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Ackerman, R. H., Donaldson, G. A., & Van Der Bogert, R. (1996b). Trusting yourself. In R. H.Ackerman, G. A.Donaldson, & R.Van Der Bogert (Eds.), Making sense as a school leader: Persisting questions, creative opportunities (pp. 153–162). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Ackerman, R. H., & Maslin-Ostrowski, P. (2002a). Anatomy of a wound: Where does it hurt? In R. H.Ackerman & P.Maslin-Ostrowski (Eds.), The wounded leader: How leadership emerges in times of crisis (pp. 15–34). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.
    Ackerman, R. H., & Maslin-Ostrowski, P. (2002b). Narrative healing: Once upon a time. In R. H.Ackerman & P.Maslin-Ostrowski (Eds.), The wounded leader: How leadership emerges in times of crisis (pp. 95–106). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.
    Ackerman, R. H., & Maslin-Ostrowski, P. (2002c). To the stars through adversity. In R. H.Ackerman & P.Maslin-Ostrowski (Eds.), The wounded leader: How leadership emerges in times of crisis (pp. 3–14). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.
    Ackerman, R. H., & Maslin-Ostrowski, P. (2002d). What wounding teaches. In R. H.Ackerman & P.Maslin-Ostrowski (Eds.), The wounded leader: How leadership emerges in times of crisis (pp. 107–126). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.
    Ackerman, R. H., & Maslin-Ostrowski, P. (2004, Summer). The wounded leader. In The best of educational leadership 2003-2004. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/summer04/vol61/num09/toc.aspx
    Arnold, R. (2005). Creating empathically intelligent organizations. In R.Arnold (Ed.), Empathic intelligence (pp. 191–222). Sydney, Australia: University of New South Whales.
    Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N. R., & Tarule, J. M. (1986). Women's ways of knowing. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Berger, J. (2002). Viewing the puzzle through a new lens: Understanding the perspective of alumni (Doctoral dissertation). In J.Berger (Ed.), Exploring the connection between teacher education and adult development theory (pp. 99–140). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education.
    Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2005a). Be the change you want to see in the world. In R.Boyatzis & A.McKee (Eds.), Resonant leadership: Renewing yourself and connecting with others through mindfulness, hope, and compassion (pp. 201–204). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.
    Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2005b). Compassion. In R.Boyatzis & A.McKee (Eds.), Resonant leadership: Renewing yourself and connecting with others through mindfulness, hope, and compassion (pp. 175–200). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2005c). Great leaders move us. In R.Boyatzis & A.McKee (Eds.), Resonant leadership: Renewing yourself and connecting with others through mindfulness, hope, and compassion (pp. 1–12). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2005d). The leader's challenge. In R.Boyatzis & A.McKee (Eds.), Resonant leadership: Renewing yourself and connecting with others through mindfulness, hope, and compassion (pp. 13–33). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.
    Daloz, L. A. (1999a). The dynamic of transformation: How learning changes the learner. In Mentor: Guiding the journey of adult learners (pp. 125–146). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Daloz, L. A. (1999b). The Yoda factor: Guiding adults through difficult transitions. In Mentor: Guiding the journey of adult learners (pp. 203–229). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Daloz, L. A. P. (2000). Transformative learning for the common good. In J. Mezirow & Associates (Eds.), Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress (pp. 103–123). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.
    Drago-Severson, E. (1994). What does staff development develop? How the staff development literature conceives adult growth (qualifying paper). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2004a). Becoming adult learners: Principles and practices for effective development. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2004b). Helping teachers learn: Principal leadership for adult growth and development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2006). Learning-oriented leadership: Transforming a school through a program of adult learning. Independent School Journal, 65, 58–61, 64.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2007). Helping teachers learn: Principals as professional development leaders. Teachers College Record, 109(1), 70–125.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2008). 4 practices serve as pillars for adult learning: Learning-oriented leadership offers a promising way to support growth. The Journal of Staff Development, 29(4), 60–63.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2009). Leading adult learning: Supporting adult development in our schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin and The National Staff Development Council.
    Drago-Severson, E., Asghar, A., Blum-DeStefano, J., & Roloff Welch, J. (2011). Conceptual changes in aspiring school leaders: Lessons from a university classroom. Journal of Research on Leadership Education, 6(4), 83–132.
    Drago-Severson, E., Roloff-Welch, J., & Jones, A. (2007). Learning and growing from convening. In R.Ackerman & S.McKenzie (Eds.), Uncovering teacher leadership: Essays and voices from the field (pp. 333–350). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Donaldson, G. A. (1998). Sharing the challenges: Critic-colleague teams and leadership development. In R.Van Der Bogert (Ed.), Making learning communities work: The critical role of leader as learner (pp. 21–27). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Donaldson, M. (1999). Teaching and traditionalism: Encounters with “the way it's always been.” In M.Donaldson & B.Poon (Eds.), Reflections of first-year teachers on school culture: Questions, hopes, and challenges (pp. 47–57). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Donaldson, G. A. (2008). The learning environment for leader growth. In G.Donaldson, How leaders learn: Cultivating capacities for school improvement (pp. 104–126). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Elmore, R. F. (2002). The limits of change. Harvard education letter, January/February, 1–4. Retrieved from http://www.edletter.org/past/issues/2002-jf/limitsofchange.shtml
    Elmore, R. F. (2003). The limits of change. In M.Pierce and D. L.Stapleton (Eds.), The 21st century principal: Current issues in leadership and policy (pp. 9–17). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
    Elmore, R. F. (2005a). Building a new structure for school leadership. In R. F. Elmore, School reform from the inside out (pp. 41–88). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
    Elmore, R. F. (2005b). School reform from the inside out: Policy, practice, and performance. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e565212006-012
    Fullan, M. (2005, November). 10 do and don't assumptions about CHANGE. The learning principal: For a dynamic community of school leaders ensuring success for all students. The Learning Principal, 1(3), 1, 6, 7. National Staff Development Council.
    Heifetz, R. A. (1994a). Assassination. In R. A.Heifetz, Leadership without easy answers (pp. 235–249). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Heifetz, R. A. (1994b). The personal challenge. In R. A.Heifetz, Leadership without easy answers (pp. 250–276). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Isaacs, W. (1999). What is dialogue? In W.Isaacs, Dialogue and the art of thinking together (pp. 17–70). New York, NY: Doubleday.
    Kegan, R. (1982). The evolving self: Problem and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Kegan, R. (1994). In over our heads: The mental demands of modern life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Kegan, R. (2000). What “form” transforms? A constructive-developmental approach to transformative learning. In J. Mezirow & Associates (Eds.), Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress (pp. 35–69). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Kegan, R., Broderick, M., Drago-Severson, E., Helsing, D., Popp, N., & Portnow, K. (2001). Toward a “new pluralism” in the ABE/ESL classroom. NCSALL Report #19. Boston, MA: World Education.
    Kegan, R., & Lahey, L. L. (1984). Adult leadership and adult development: A constructivist view. In B.Kellerman (Ed.), Leadership: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 199–230). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Kegan, R., & Lahey, L. L. (2001a). How the way we talk can change the way we work: Seven languages for transformation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.
    Kegan, R., & Lahey, L. (2001b, November). The real reason people don't change. Harvard Business Review, 85–92.
    Kemmler-Ernst, A. (2000). Portraits of teacher researchers in Boston: Perspectives on participation in a school-based collaborative inquiry group (Doctoral dissertation). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education.
    Levine, S. (1989). Promoting adult growth in schools: The promise of professional development. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
    Levinson, D. J., & Levinson, J. D. (1996). The seasons of a woman's life. New York, NY: Knopf.
    Levinson, D. J., Darrow, C. N., Klein, E. B., Levinson, M. H., & McKee, B. (1978). The seasons of a man's life. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.
    Maister, D. H., Green, C. H., & Galford, R. M. (2000). The trusted advisor. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
    Marsick, V. J., & Sauquet, A. (2000). Learning through reflection. In M.Deutsch and P. T.Coleman (Eds.), The handbook of conflict resolution: Theory and practice (pp. 382–399). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Meier, D. (2002). Learning in the company of adults. In D.Meier, In schools we trust (pp. 9–24). Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
    Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Moller, G., & Pancake, A. (2006). Lead with me: A principal's guide to teacher leadership. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.
    National Staff Development Council. (2005). Beware of the generation gap!The Learning Principal, 1(3), 4.
    O'Neil, J., & Marsick, V. J. (2007). Understanding action learning. New York, NY: American Academy of Management Association.
    Osterman, K. F., & Kottkamp, R. B. (1993a). Developing a reflective perspective: Gathering information. In K. F.Osterman & R. B.Kottkamp, Reflective practice for educators: Improving schools through professional development (pp. 66–83). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Osterman, K. F., & Kottkamp, R. B. (1993b). How to nurture reflection. In K. F.Osterman & R. B.Kottkamp, Reflective practice for educators: Improving schools through professional development (pp. 43–65). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Osterman, K. F., & Kottkamp, R. B. (1993c). Reflective practice: A powerful force for educational change. In K. F.Osterman & R. B.Kottkamp, Reflective practice for educators: Improving schools through professional development (pp. 1–17). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Osterman, K. F., & Kottkamp, R. B. (2004). Reflective practice for educators: Improving schooling through professional development (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Parks, D. S. (2005). Leadership for a changing world: A call to adaptive work. In S. D.Parks, Leadership can be taught: A bold approach for a complex world (pp. 1–17). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Rogers, C. (2002). Voices inside schools: Seeing student learning. Harvard Educational Review, 2(72), 230–253. http://dx.doi.org/10.17763/haer.72.2.5631743606m15751
    Rooke, D., & Torbert, W. R. (2005). Seven transformations of leadership. Harvard Business Review, 1–13.
    Rossiter, M. (2002). Narratives and stories in adult teaching and learning. Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocation Education. ERIC ID: ED473147.
    Santos, M., & Drago-Severson, E. (2005). Adult learning and development today. In D.Ness (Ed.), Encyclopedia on Education and Human Development. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe Publishers.
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    Schön, D. A. (1983). Professional knowledge and reflection-in-action. In D. A. Schön, The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action (pp. 3–69). New York, NY: Basic Books.
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    Weingarter, C. J. (2009). Principal mentoring: A safe, simple, and supportive approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin and The National Staff Development Council.
    Yorks, L., & Marsick, V. J. (2000). Organizational learning and transformation. In J. Mezirow & Associates (Eds.), Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress (pp. 253–281). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.
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    Source: Adapted from Drago-Severson (2003, 2004, 2005); Drago-Severson, Asghar, Blum-DeStefano, & Roloff Welch (2011).

    Glossary

    • Adaptive challenges are problems and situations (e.g., increasing accountability, closing the achievement gap, addressing the Common Core State Standards, highly diverse populations of students and caring for their academic achievement, new teacher effect and new teacher and principal evaluation standards, and instituting standards-based reform) for which neither the problem nor the solution is clearly known or identified (Heifetz, 1994). Managing and meeting these kinds of pressing challenges and problems most often require greater cognitive, emotional, intrapersonal, and interpersonal complexity and capacities, as well as new approaches and learning since they are often solved while we are in the process of working on them. Such processes require ongoing support for adult growth—internal capacity building—and new ways of working, learning, and leading together, as opposed to specific training for discrete skill acquisition. See Chapters 1, 2, and 3.
    • Assumptions are the taken-for-granted beliefs that we all have. These guide our thoughts, feelings, actions, and convictions about the learning, teaching, and leadership processes—and life. We hold our assumptions as Big Truths about how the world works. Furthermore, we rarely question them unless provided with opportunities that help us see and consider them. Examining assumptions and testing them in safe contexts allow us to learn if they are, in fact, true—and if they are not, we can revise them over time. Doing so is essential for personal growth, the development of lasting change.
    • Collegial inquiry (CI) is related to and different from reflective practice. Collegial inquiry, in the developmental sense, is a shared dialogue with at least one other person in a reflective context that involves purposefully dedicating time to reflecting on and engaging in dialog about one's assumptions, convictions, and values as part of the learning, teaching, and leadership processes. See Chapters 1, 2, and 4.
    • Constructive-developmental theory is the theory informing Drago-Severson's (2004b, 2009, 2012) new learning-oriented models of leadership and leadership development. It is based on two fundamental principles: (1) we actively make sense of our experiences, and (2) we can develop and grow our internal capacities if we are provided with developmentally appropriate supports and challenges (Kegan, 1982, 1994, 2000). See Chapter 3 for further explication of this theory. See alsoway of knowing.
    • Development is a process of growing our internal capacities. In other words, this means increasing differentiation and internalization (Kegan, 1982, 1994, 2000). When development occurs, a person has a broader perspective on himself or herself and others and is better able to manage the complexities and ambiguities of leadership, teaching, and life.
    • Developmental capacity refers to our cognitive, affective (emotional), interpersonal (self-to-other), and intrapersonal (self-to-self) abilities to manage the complexities of our lives and work. See Chapters 1, 2, and 3, in particular. See alsogrowth and transformational learning.
    • Developmental demands are the implicit and explicit expectations inherent in work, leadership, and life that may be beyond the developmental capacities of those expected to perform them.
    • Developmental diversity relates to the qualitatively different ways in which we, as adults, make sense of our experiences in all domains of our lives. In other words, as adults, we take in and experience our realities in qualitatively different ways. And because of this, we need different kinds of developmental supports and challenges to grow our internal capacities and ourselves. Since research suggests that in any school, team, leadership cabinet, or group adults will likely make sense of their experiences in developmentally different ways, we need to attend to this type of diversity. See Chapters 1 and 3, most specifically.
    • Developmental intentionality is a term we use to be mindful of the importance of imbuing any teaching and learning situation and all professional development initiatives with an understanding of how adults grow and the kinds of supports and challenges they need in order to increase their capacities (i.e., cognitive, affective, interpersonal, and interpersonal). See Chapters 1, 3, and 4, most specifically.
    • Goodness of fit (developmental match) concerns the match between a person's way of knowing (i.e., internal developmental capacities) and the implicit and explicit demands of an environment (e.g., school), practice, and/or role (e.g., leadership position) placed on the person. Sometimes these outpace what a person has the internal capacity to fulfill. See Chapter 3.
    • Growth from a developmental perspective is related to increases in cognitive, emotional (affective), interpersonal (person-to-person), and intrapersonal (self-to-self) capacities that enable a person to manage better the complexities of work (e.g., leadership, teaching, learning, adaptive challenges) and life. With the experience of growth, or transformational learning (we use these terms interchangeably), a qualitative shift occurs in how a person actively interprets, organizes, understands, and makes sense of his or her experience. See Chapters 1, 2, and 3.
    • Holding environment is a context or relationship that offers the gift of both high supports and challenges to support internal capacity building. Holding environments serve three functions: (1) meeting a person at his or her developmental level—where a person is without an urgent need to force them to change; (2) challenging adults, in a developmental sense (i.e., stretching by offering alternative perspectives)—when a person is ready to grow beyond his or her current level; and (3) providing continuity and stability. See Chapter 3.
    • Informational learning focuses on increasing the amount of knowledge and/or skills a person possesses, augmenting what a person knows. We refer to this as encyclopedia knowledge. This kind of knowledge is vital and helps us work to solve technical challenges. See Chapters 1 and 3, specifically.
    • Instrumental way of knowing is a system of meaning making. An instrumental knower understands the world and life in concrete terms. While able to control impulses, this knower does not have the developmental capacity to have a perspective on other people's needs, desires, and interests. Others are experienced as helpers or obstacles to having one's own needs met. See Chapter 3.
    • Ladder of Inference is a theoretical tool developed by organizational psychologist Chris Argyris (1990). The “rungs” of the ladder describe the steps we take when moving from observable data/facts to actions, which are often influenced by our beliefs and assumptions. See Chapter 5.
    • Leadership for Transformational Learning (LTL) is the graduate course that is at the center of this book. It is offered to educators and leaders of all kinds who attend graduate school. Furthermore, different versions of the course are offered to educators in schools, districts, and other venues. The course—or any version of it—introduces developmental theory and research-based practices and strategies for supporting adult growth in schools and school systems. In addition, the course and other versions of it were structured to intentionally model developmental practices as students were learning about them. See Chapter 2 for full description.
    • Learning centers are schools, school districts, and organizations where the adults and others are well supported in their learning and development.
    • Learning-oriented model for leadership development (Drago-Severson, 2012) is a new conceptualization of leadership preparation informed by developmental theory, Drago-Severson's learning-oriented model for school leadership (see definition), and more than twenty-five years of work and research with school leaders around the globe. These models both encompass and expand upon the pillar practices for growth.
    • Learning-oriented model for school leadership is informed by developmental theory and composed of four pillar practices—establishing teams, providing adults with leadership roles, engaging in collegial inquiry, and mentoring/developmental coaching. This learning-oriented model has proven to support effective, differentiated approaches to adult development in schools, school systems, and organizations. The pillar practices are developmentally robust, meaning any one of them can support growth (i.e., internal capacity building) in adults with different needs, preferences, and ways of knowing (developmental orientations). See Chapters 1 and 2 (for full description).
    • Meaning making is the sense we make of our lives with respect to the cognitive, affective (emotional), intrapersonal, and interpersonal aspects of life.
    • Mentoring is a pillar practice of the learning-oriented model. It takes myriad forms in different contexts, including (1) pairing experienced teachers with new teachers, (2) pairing teachers and university professors who have deep knowledge of the school mission and politics with other teachers, (3) pairing experienced teachers with graduate student interns from local universities, (4) pairing experienced principals with aspiring and/or newer principals, and (5) teacher team mentoring. See Chapter 2.
    • Mentoring communities are schools and school districts where the adults and youth are well supported in their learning and development. See alsolearning centers.
    • Object is, in developmental terms, what a person can take a perspective on, manage, be responsible for, control, and act on because the person is not run by it or identified with it (Kegan, 1982).
    • Preconditions are elements of mutual trust, respect, safety, and care that ITL leaders described as essential first steps toward supporting adult growth. Leaders stressed the importance of establishing the preconditions before and sustaining them during programs and practices that challenge or stretch—in a developmental sense—colleagues' thinking, feelings, and work.
    • Pillar practices, i.e., teaming, providing leadership roles, engaging in collegial inquiry, and mentoring, are the four developmentally oriented practices that compose the first author's learning oriented model for school leadership (Drago-Severson, 2004b, 2009, 2012). These practices, when employed with developmental intentions, can support internal capacity building (i.e., growth). See Chapters 2 and 3, most specifically.
    • Providing leadership roles is a pillar practice for growth in the learning-oriented model. It is an opportunity for adults to share power and decision-making authority and to grow from the role. As adults, we can grow and develop from being responsible for an idea's development or implementation, as well as from different kinds of opportunities to assume leadership. We use the term providing leadership roles rather than distributive leadership because of the intention behind these roles. This means that in providing leadership roles we need to offer developmental supports and challenges to the person in a leadership role so that he or she can grow from them. See Chapter 2.
    • Self-authoring way of knowing is a system of meaning making—a way of knowing. Self-authoring knowers have the capacity to take responsibility for internal authority and their actions. They can hold, reflect on, and prioritize different perspectives. See Chapter 3.
    • Self-transforming way of knowing is a system of meaning making or way of knowing. Self-transforming knowers have the internal capacity to take perspective on their own authorship, identity, and ideology, forming a meta-awareness. In other words, a person's self-system is available to the self for attention and constant judgment. These knowers have an appreciation for and frequently question their own self-system and how it works. They are able to understand and manage tremendous amounts of complexity and ambiguity. In addition, they are substantively less invested in their own identities and are more open to others' perspectives.
    • Socializing way of knowing is a system of meaning making—a way of knowing. Adults with this way of knowing have a greater internal capacity for reflection and abstract thought (i.e., to think about their own thinking). They can make generalizations from one context to another and have the capacity to reflect on their actions and the actions of others. Socializing knowers orient to their own internal psychological states and cannot take a perspective on shared mutuality or societal expectations. Approval and acceptance from authorities and valued others is ultimate for them. See Chapter 3.
    • Subject is, in a developmental sense, what a person cannot take a perspective on because he or she is so embedded in it. It is what “runs” a person. It is so much a part of the very fabric of the self that a person cannot look at it, be responsible for it, control it, or see it (Kegan, 1982).
    • Teaming is a pillar practice of the learning-oriented model of school leadership. It provides adults with opportunities to question their own and other people's philosophies and assumptions about leadership, teaching, leading, and learning. Teaming in a developmental sense provides a context, a holding environment, in which adults can examine and question their assumptions and engage in collaborative decision making. See Chapters 2 and 5.
    • Technical challenges are problems (e.g., managing budgets, schedules, and personnel) for which we can identify the problem or offer solutions to solve the problem at hand. In other words, even if we cannot solve these challenges ourselves, we can seek out an expert who can help us resolve them. See Chapter 1.
    • Transformational learning or growth—we use these terms interchangeably—relates to the development of increased cognitive, emotional, interpersonal, and intrapersonal capacities that enable a person to manage better the complexities of work (e.g., leadership, teaching, learning, adaptive challenges) and living. With the experience of transformational learning, or growth, a qualitative shift occurs in how a person actively interprets, organizes, understands, and makes sense of his or her experience, such that he or she develops increased capacities for better managing the complexities of daily life. See Chapters 1 and 3.
    • Way of knowing refers to the meaning system through which all experience is filtered and understood (Drago-Severson, 2004a, 2004b, 2009, 2012). It is also known as a developmental level, an order of consciousness, and a stage (Kegan, 1982, 1994, 2000). It is the filter through which we interpret our experiences, and it influences our capacities for perspective taking on self, other, and the relationship between the two. It dictates how learning, teaching, leadership, and all life experiences are taken in, managed, understood, and used. See Chapter 3.

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    Drago-Severson, E. (2004b). Helping teachers learn: Principal leadership for adult growth and development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
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    Drago-Severson, E. (2012). Helping educators grow: Strategies and practices for supporting leadership development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
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    Drago-Severson, E. (2004a). Becoming adult learners: Principles and practices for effective development. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2004b). Helping teachers learn: Principal leadership for adult growth and development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2009). Leading adult learning: Supporting adult development in our schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin and The National Staff Development Council.
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    Drago-Severson, E. (2004). Helping teachers learn: Principal leadership for adult growth and development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2009). Leading adult learning: Supporting adult development in our schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin and The National Staff Development Council.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2012). Helping educators grow: Strategies and practices for supporting leadership development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
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    Heifetz, R. (1994). Leadership without easy answers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Kegan, R. (1982). The evolving self: Problems and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.
    Kegan, R. (1994). In over our heads: The mental demands of modern life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.
    Kegan, R. (2000). What “form” transforms? A constructive-developmental approach to transformative learning. In J. Mezirow & Associates (Eds.), Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress (pp. 35–70). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
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    Resource A. Research Appendix
    Coffey, A., & Atkinson, P. (1996). Making sense of qualitative data: Complementary research strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2004). Helping teachers learn: Principal leadership for adult growth and development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2009). Leading adult learning: Supporting adult development in our schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin and The National Staff Development Council.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2012). Helping educators grow: Strategies and practices for leadership development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
    Geertz, C. (1974). From the native's point of view: On the nature of anthropological understanding. Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 28, 221–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3822971
    Maxwell, J. (2005). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (
    2nd ed.
    ). London, UK: Sage.
    Maxwell, J. A., & Miller, B. (1998). Categorization and contextualization as components of qualitative data analysis (Unpublished manuscript).
    Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). An expanded sourcebook: Qualitative data analysis (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Seidman, I. (1998). Interviewing as qualitative research. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Seidman, I. (2006). Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Resource B. Leadership for Transformational Learning (LTL) Course Topics
    Drago-Severson, E. (2003). Course syllabus. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2004). Course syllabus. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2005). Course syllabus. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education.
    Drago-Severson, E., Asghar, A., Blum-DeStefano, J., & Roloff Welch, J. (2011). Conceptual changes in aspiring school leaders: Lessons from a university classroom. Journal of Research on Leadership Education, 6(4), 83–132.
    Resource C. Leadership for Transformational Learning (LTL) Citations for Course Readings
    Drago-Severson, E. (2003). Course syllabus. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2004). Course syllabus. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2005). Course syllabus. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education.
    Drago-Severson, E., Asghar, A., Blum-DeStefano, J., & Roloff Welch, J. (2011). Conceptual changes in aspiring school leaders: Lessons from a university classroom. Journal of Research on Leadership Education, 6(4), 83–132.
    Glossary
    Argyris, C. (1990). Overcoming organizational defenses: Facilitating organizational learning. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2004a). Becoming adult learners: Principles and practices for effective development. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2004b). Helping teachers learn: Principal leadership for adult growth and development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2009). Leading adult learning: Supporting adult development in our schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin and The National Staff Development Council.
    Drago-Severson, E. (2012). Helping educators grow: Strategies and practices for supporting leadership development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
    Heifetz, R. A. (1994). Leadership without easy answers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Kegan, R. (1982). The evolving self: Problems and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Kegan, R. (1994). In over our heads: The mental demands of modern life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Kegan, R. (2000). What “form” transforms? A constructive-developmental approach to transformative learning. In J. Mezirow & Associates (Eds.), Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress (pp. 35–70). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

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