Learner-Centered Design: A Cognitive View of Managing Complexity in Product, Information, and Environmental Design
Publication Year: 1999
Subject: Science, Technology & Society
The issue of complexity, as applied to the way we gather information and learn, is a hallmark of this information age. The sheer amount of data, in addition to the increasingly technological way in which the data are delivered, have had profound effects on the ways in which we process information and, hopefully, learn. In this cutting edge volume, Wayne Reeves, a professor as well as consultant to Sun Microsystems, provides an overview of the field of complexity (including chaos theory, information literacy, and Knowledge Management Tools) and presents a working framework to help guide further research. Aimed particularly at researchers, professors, and students in the areas of cognitive science and library//information sc
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: The Nature of Complexity
- Chapter 2: The Nature and Origins of Cognitive Complexity
- Complex, Complicated, and Complexity
- Complexity and the Foundations of the Future of Design
- Cognitive Complexity
- Chapter 3: Evaluating Cognitive Complexity
- Development of a Complexity Evaluation Scheme
- Word-Scale Scheme for Cognitive Complexity
- Looking Ahead
Part II: Managing Complexity
- Chapter 4: Learner as Perceiver
- About This Chapter
- Managing Complexity for the Learner as Perceiver
- Information Science: Information Design and Elements of Abstracting
- Interactive-Information-Field Design: Examples and Lessons
- Perception and Information Design: Managing Complexity
- Chapter 5: Learner as Model Builder
- About This Chapter
- The Organization of Research into Representation
- Hypertext Design Elements
- Information-Field Design: Examples and Lessons
- Representation and Hypertext: Managing Complexity
- Chapter 6: Learner as Categorizer
- About This Chapter
- Cognitive Science: Categorization
- Information Science: Using Categorization
- Categorization and Classification: Managing Complexity
- Chapter 7: Learner as Searcher
- About This Chapter
- Cognitive Science: Models and Authors
- Information Science: Models and Authors
- Information Systems: Examples, Lessons, and Trends
- Visualization and DQI: Managing Complexity
- Chapter 8: Learner as Expert
- About This Chapter
- Cognitive Science: Heuristics
- Cognitive Science: Expertise
- Information Science: Knowledge Engineering
- Expertise, Heuristics, and Knowledge Engineering: Managing Complexity
- Chapter 9: Learner as Student
- About This Chapter
- Cognitive Science: Areas Applied to Instructional Practice
- Information Science: Computer-Based LCD Agenda and Challenges
- Schema-Directed Instruction: Managing Complexity
- Chapter 10: Tools for Learner-Centered Design
- About This Chapter
- Cognitive Complexity—LCD and Evaluation
- LCD Designer's Checklist
- New Thinking, New Design, New World
Copyright © 1999 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Reeves, Wayne, W.
Learner-centered design: A cognitive view of managing complexity in product, information, and environmental design/by Wayne Reeves.
Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index.
ISBN 0-7619-0726-2 (cloth)—ISBN 0-7619-0727-0 (pbk.)
1. Learning, Psychology of. 2. Human information processing. 3. Complexity (Philosophy). 4. Cognitive science. 5. Categorization (Psychology). I. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
99 00 01 02 03 04 05 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisition Editor: Peter Labella
Editorial Assistant: Renée Piernot
Production Editor: Denise Santoyo
Editorial Assistant: Nevair Kabakian
Cover Designer: Candice Harman
To Doug Engelbart, for encouraging an unrelenting exploration of the future and our ability to augment the human capacity for understanding in the face of overwhelming complexity.[Page vi]
Preface: Consumers and Complexity[Page xi]
In the long run we can master change not through force or fear, but only through the free work of an understanding mind.—Robert F. Kennedy
Recent polls have shown that about 75% of the people in the United States feel that life is too complicated and that technology contributes to that complexity in a significant manner. In keeping with this sense of being overwhelmed, we have also recently seen the trend in the definition of success move from the “ability to travel” to simply “being in control of one's life.” Both of these growing trends are being addressed by advertisers pitching the simplicity or simplifying nature of their products. This has been the response of advertisers. What will be the response of the design world? This book is about an approach to design that can substantially lessen the cognitive complexity of a wide range of consumer products from ecommerce to workspaces. It is, of course, this actual new design of products, and not advertising slogans, that will ultimately ensure future competitiveness and true customer satisfaction.Complexity and Our Age
What is the correct moniker for this age? Some people have called it the Space Age or the Electronics Age or the postmodern era. Bell (1973) has often referred to it as the Postindustrial Information Age, and our society has been referred to as a postindustrial society. Just as Gergen (1991) bemoaned the use of the word postmodern because the term fails to specify any essence (defining [Page xii]itself merely as post) I believe that there is an essence to our era: complexity. We are living in the Age of Complexity. The fundamental task of this era is to address the scientific, technological, political, economic, psychological, and sociological complexity that threatens to overwhelm us. This book addresses a fundamental part of that overall task, the role of design, for it is inadequate design that contributes so much complexity to our daily lives.
This study of complexity and the design of products, information, and environments focuses on managing cognitive complexity: those elements and forces in our environment and society that add both a necessary and an unnecessary neural load to most of the aspects of our postindustrial lives. The basic weapon in our arsenal will be the practical aspects of what we have learned from 30 years of cognitive research about learning and understanding. To that powerful, insightful weapon I will add a fuller conceptualization of the nature of complexity and the design evaluation techniques pioneered by Nielsen (1995), Cooper (1999), and others.
This book is concerned with how to manage complexity and how we can use the design of products, information, and workspaces to aid in this management. In a sense, we are in a race with complexity. Will it overwhelm our capacity to deal with it, as is increasingly the case today, or will we use what we are learning in the cognitive and information sciences to stave off the chaos? Actually, chaos theory, or the science of the complex itself, may give us some insight into the future of learning and thinking and how scaffolding, or supporting understanding as a primary goal of design, could be the most effective strategy for the management of complexity in the long run. From these insights, and associated ones from distributed cognition, perhaps we will see a significant change in our paradigm of learning, instruction, and what constitutes understanding. Perhaps it will support the growing application of cognitive science research in education (Bruer, 1993). I say this because chaos theory, like the trajectory of cognitive science research, supports the concept of a complex world not reducible to artificial simplicities and because successful theories about our world often end up influencing our educational philosophies.
When learning theory was developed under the Newtonian paradigm of the world, learning was considered mechanical, behavioral, and individual. Learning systems were geared to stimulus-response activity, rote rehearsal, and simple association. To an extent, the paradigm shift to quantum mechanics and relativity lagged in its effect on learning theory. The quantum world was seen as more complex, more probabilistic and less directly observable, and this gained only partial translation into educational styles. But we have eventually moved to a point where learning is considered in terms of the internal functions of an active, constructive, motivated mind. At the same time, the idea of what constitutes learning has grown broader and more flexible than the all-too-brittle mechanistic perspective. We are currently engaged in an eclectic [Page xiii]synthesis of learning by scaffolding, collaboration, narrative, discovery, critical engagement, and heuristic example, as well as the more algorithmic, observational, and didactic informing methods. And all of these efforts have an impact on the methods of modern design. It is debatable whether people set out to consciously create learning theories that reflect the received scientific view of the time, but we are already experiencing a new shift in learning based on chaos theory's simpler, even more demonstrative view of the underlying order of our world. If we choose to take conscious strides to evolve our learning theory, informed by our understanding of how the world operates, we may have a chance of getting ahead of the evolutionary learning curve in our design processes as well because design practice flows from our educational models.
Long before mathematicians discovered that the world sits on the edge of chaos, the average person already saw that life could be overwhelmingly complex. We could see that many of the more difficult problems would remain untouched and left to future generations that would be just as inadequately prepared to solve them. We see the exacerbated effect of this evolution of complexity in our postindustrial information societies, but the effects are not isolated there. Technology has linked problems on a global basis, making them increasingly harder to visualize, let alone resolve.
We need an ongoing collaborative research effort for the development of newly informed learning systems and fully distributed information, product, and workspace design principles that will be capable of coping with the new set of problem-solving and decision-making complexities that, as the science of complexity itself contends, will arise irresistibly and irreversibly in the future (Cohen & Stewart, 1994; Goerner, 1990; Nicolis & Prigogine, 1989).
We cannot afford to ignore the rising cognitive complexity within our society and to pass it on unmanaged to future generations. This would be a growing deficit in our world's problem-solving capacity that we cannot afford to bequeath to our children. Three points seem clear:
- Complexity will follow an evolutionary projection (Laszlo, 1987; Prigogine & Stengers, 1984).
- The key to future information, product, and workspace design is a focus on the management of complexity at the cognitive level (individual and distributed) (Cohen & Stewart, 1994; Reeves, 1996).
- Understanding and design must be taken as a systemic distributed event comprising the quality of the transfer of information between object or workspace and user; the consumer's or learner's information-seeking and knowledge-building capacity; and and the presence of learner-centered interfaces and other knowledge management tools aimed at scaffolding the construction of useful mental models (Banathy, 1991; Collins & Mangieri, 1992; Kuhlthau, 1991; Marchionini, 1995; Norman, [Page xiv]1988; Norman and Spohrer, 1996; Soloway, Guzdial, & Hay 1994; Soloway & Pryor, 1996).
In developing a general-purpose learner-centered design (LCD) scheme, this book is organized around the following activities:
- Building a model of the origins and characteristics of cognitive complexity, including complexity-simplicity word-pair scales
- Proposing an LCD evaluation tool kit
- Reviewing matched pairs of cognitive and information science topics in a cognitive hierarchy
- Extracting and presenting from this review the content of the LCD evaluation tools and design principles
My particular approach is transdisciplinary in an attempt to bridge the already interdisciplinary fields of information science and cognitive science. Cognitive science supplies much of the philosophical and psychological foundations for the LCD scheme, and information science supplies many of the implications of application and implementation. And, as our discussions will exemplify, there are basic insights from each science that should be fruitful for the other, for both are ultimately engaged in an endeavor to better understand and manage human information and knowledge processing.
Thus, my task in Learner-Centered Design is to create an awareness of “managing complexity” as a fundamental design issue, to use cognitive insights to view all consumers as learners, and to expose the unique opportunity that design has in creating and sustaining human performance and organizational competitiveness.Sunnyvale, CA
Many people have contributed to making this book possible and guiding me in the management of its complexity. I would like to thank Professors Blanche Woolls, Stuart Sutton, Bill Fisher, David Loertscher, and Ruth Hafter of the School of Library and Information Science (SLIS) at San Jose State University (SJSU) for their ongoing encouragement and an opportunity to give the first course based on this material; Professor Christine Borgman of the University of California, Los Angeles, for the right word at the right time; Dr. Albert Lowe and David Wick of Sun Microsystems for their recognition of the value of learner-centered design in the corporate world; Drs. Doug Engelbart from the Bootstrap Institute; Donald Norman, Richard Wurman, Jakob Nielsen, and Robert Sternberg for their prodigious work in design, cognition, and learning that continues to inspire the development of my own creative processes; Sarah Rice for her outstanding research assistance from beginning to end; Anise Kirkpatrick for her special research efforts; and Paul Perrotta of Sequoia Document Design for his immeasurable editorial and graphic assistance. I would especially like to thank my editor at Sage, Peter Labella, my reviewers for their very helpful suggestions, and the students at SJSU SLIS, for their courage and encouragement in participating in the various stages of this eclectic and complex proposal for the future of product, workspace, and information design.[Page xvi]
Glossary of Key LCD Terms[Page 181]
The new circumstances under which we are placed call for new words, new phrases, and for the transfer of old words to new objects.—Thomas Jefferson
Anything that is made and designed by humans. In our context, this includes products for home or office, information designs such as maps and guides, electronic or computer-based information systems, or corporate workspaces/office designs. These are the designed objects of the person-object interaction I have termed an interactive-information-field.
- Chaos Theory
In this context, a theory that explains the growth of complex entities from the interaction of very simple components and processes. It is a set of principles that explains and predicts a broad scope of phenomena that have been thought to be random or chaotic but that, in reality, are governed by laws. Chaos theory may be better termed complexity science, for it reveals order out of what seems to be chaos.
- Cognitive Complexity
These are factors in our environment that make it difficult to understand how to use our artifacts effectively or efficiently. Complexity elements include societal forces such as rapid change and numerous social and informational interactions; information overload; difficult problems, [Page 182]such as poverty; complex systems, such as our environment; and incoherent design, design characterized by its useless complexity.
Difficult to understand. Intricate; so full of parts and the interrelationships between those parts that it is difficult to separate one from the other.
An approach to learning and instruction based on the work of Piaget and others. Its basic tenet in instruction is to consider students to be active co-constructors of their own understanding. This is opposed to the idea that students are empty vessels waiting to be filled up. Thus, under this scheme, learners are given a chance to discover understanding through inquiry rather than developing knowledge through the simple memorization of facts and figures.
- Distributed Cognition
Refers to the idea that people do not operate as cognitive silos (separate cognitive units), totally independent from others, designed artifacts, and the culture that surrounds them. In LCD, this is the recognition that a user's interaction with an artifact forms a systemic (whole) unit. This unit carries the responsibility for the total cognitive capacity of making the person-object interaction understandable, effective, and engaging. In LCD, the person-object unit is called an interactive-information-field.
This object of design includes workspaces and corporate office layout along with furniture and other equipment, plus in a broader conception of design, such things as the Vietnam War Memorial, the Reagan Library, a corporate information center, or a museum like the Getty in Los Angeles.
- Information Design/Architect
After the work of Wurman and Tufte, this is the design process and presentation of information geared toward understanding and usefulness. This includes artifacts from the textual Smart Yellow Pages, to the graphic explanations of David Macaulay, and the design of whole environments.[Page 183]
The frame of reference used in LCD; the communicative interaction between the designed object and the human. This frame of reference, borrowed from distributed cognition, focuses on distributing the neural load (the responsibility for understanding) between the user and the object being used. Information-fields are composed of human and designed artifacts. In this context, the “designed artifacts” are of three types: consumer and industrial products, information design and information systems, and workspaces and environments.
Reintroduced by Polya in his modern heuristic approach to solving math problems, a heuristic is a rule of thumb or a set of guidelines that supports problem solving and learning. It is any general guide to thinking that helps to direct one toward solutions without yielding a specific answer.
See Learner-Centered Design.
In this context, learnability refers to the elements of design that help to get a user started using an artifact.
- Learner-Centered Design (LCD)
This is an attitude or approach to design that views users of artifacts as active, participative learners seeking to understand the “what” and “how” of their environment. It is aimed at scaffolding or supporting users in gaining that understanding. It includes a set of design principles based on learnability, usability, and understandability, where understandability means not only a deep grasp of how to use something, the ability to interact with the design beyond a surface level, but also an understanding of the content or meaning conveyed by the system. LCD should be used on those objects of sufficient complexity as warranted. LCD extends understandability to the design of actual content (text, text flow, and graphics used within the artifact). It focuses on managing cognitive complexity and thus focuses on the design of artifacts that are of sufficient complexity to warrant the extra effort. The challenge of today is that a large percentage of our products do possess significant intricacy to be considered complex. It is important to note that LCD, in the context of this book, addresses the design of things other than computer-based learning systems (see Interactive-information-field).[Page 184]
- Mental Model
A version of a knowledge structure, found in long-term memory, that holds the understanding of a topic or procedure. In learner- and user-centered design one of the key design and performance goals is to facilitate the development of a mental model of how an application works.
This refers to the awareness one has of his or her own thinking processes. Metacognition comprises the monitoring or evaluative aspects of thinking. It is metacognition that selects a problem-solving method, monitors how successful it is, and changes to another method as appropriate. It is considered a key factor in learning success, along with domain knowledge, and higher-level thinking strategies. LCD should support metacognitive awareness.
- Neural Load
In LCD, this refers to the amount of effort it takes to understand something. A basic tenet of LCD is that proper design makes the designed object responsible for carrying more and more of the neural load of the artifact-human interaction.
Any of a wide variety of techniques to extend a learner to perform beyond his or her current knowledge and skill levels. These could include a just-in-time help system, mentoring, tutoring, training wheels on a bicycle, heuristics, or flying a plane with an instructor. In our LCD context, it broadly refers to any designed aids that support and facilitate the learning process.
- Schema, Script, Frame
Like mental models these are versions of knowledge structures or how knowledge of different types are represented in long-term memory.
- System-Content Competency
Understanding of the information provided within the system in terms of help screens, messages, displays, audio, video, hyperlinked text, and so on.
See User-Centered Design.[Page 185]
This concept has two parts. First, it is an extension of usability principles to include understanding the product or system one is working with to such a level that the user can easily do all the things the design of the system might require. For example, a television set of the 1960s or 1970s requires no understandability of design. One can run it easily from the obvious surface cues, knobs, and so on. However, a television of the year 2000 will require understandability because its use in connecting with the Internet and a hundred other appliances will be too complicated to be left to regular design principles. Thus, understandability is especially applicable to the design of complex products from pagers to workspaces. Second, understandability is concerned with the adequacy of the actual content (text, graphics, examples, audio clips, and so on) in delivering understanding, in being instructional. This becomes very important as we increasingly add information into our products, systems, and spaces. It is the difference in importance between understanding how to navigate the nodes and links of the Internet and understanding the information that the Internet provides. The Internet's ultimate usefulness will reside with the quality and understandability of its content.
Design elements associated with ease of learning, efficiency of use, protection against errors, and comfort of use.
- User-Centered Design
Developed in the 1980s by Donald Norman and others, this design philosophy was based on the tenet of moving design from being technology centered to being human centered. Its major tools are the application of cognitive-based design principles, with a special emphasis on facilitating mental models.
The workplace is undergoing profound changes as we move to self-directed teams of independent knowledge workers. Collaborative problem solving is increasing. All this change is supported by a steady flow of information circulating through the workplace in terms of technology and increased human-to-human interaction. This whole new working environment is the “workspace.” Those engaged in creating the workspaces of the future have a great opportunity to use integrated ergonomic and environmental designs to scaffold the cognitive capacities [Page 186]of teams that are often not ready to carry the increased load of decision making and information processing that is being demanded of them.
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About the Author[Page 199]
Wayne W. Reeves has served as the project manager and content architect for a variety of intranets at Sun Microsystems including SunWeb, Sun's first corporate intranet. He was also the founding Manager of the eLibrary and Information Services for Sun and the Manager of Engineering Information Development, Engineering Training, and Library Services for Siemens, IBM, and ROLM. He holds a bachelor of arts degree in philosophy from the University of California, Santa Cruz, a master's in psychology from Lone Mountain College, and a doctorate in human science/cognitive systems from the Saybrook Graduate Institute. He is currently an adjunct professor at San Jose State University's School of Library and Information Science, a creative thinking advocate, and a consulting cognitive architect, focusing on information design in corporate training, design, and knowledge management solutions.