Leading Psychoeducational Groups for Children and Adolescents

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Janice L. DeLucia-Waack

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    To my grandparents and great aunts who provided me with support, love, and guidance as part of my family group.

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    Appendix A: Association for Specialists in Group Work Professional Standards for the Training of Group Workers

    Revision Approved by the Executive Board, January 22, 2000

    Prepared by F. Robert Wilson and Lynn S. Rapin, Co-Chairs, and Lynn Haley-Banez, Member, ASGW Standards Committee

    Consultants: Robert K. Conyne and Donald E. Ward

    Author's Note: From the Association for Specialists in Group Work, Professional Standards for the Training of Group Workers. In Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 25, pp. 327–342. Reprinted with permission of ASGW.

    Preamble

    For nearly two decades, the Association for Specialists in Group Work (herein referred to as ASGW or as the Association) has promulgated professional standards for the training group workers. In the early 1980s, the Association published the ASGW Training Standard for Group Leaders (1983) which established nine knowledge competencies, seventeen competencies, and clock-hour baselines for various aspects of supervised clinical experience in group counseling. The focus on group counseling embodied in these standards mirrored the general conception of the time that whatever counselors did with groups of individuals should properly be referred to as group counseling.

    New ground was broken in the 1990 revision of the ASGW Professional Standards for the Training of Group Workers with (a) the articulation of the term, group work, to capture the variety of ways in which counselors work with groups, (b) differentiation of core training, deemed essential for all counselors, from specialization training required of those intending to engage in group work as part of their professional practice, and (c) the differentiation among four distinct group work specializations: task and work group facilitation, group psychoeducational, group counseling, and group psychotherapy. Over the ten years in which these standards have been in force, commentary and criticism has been elicited through discussion groups at various regional and national conferences and through published analyses in the Association's journal, the Journal for Specialists in Group Work.

    In this Year-2000 revision of the ASGW Professional Standards for the Training of Group Workers, the foundation established by the 1990 training standards has been preserved and refined by application of feedback received through public discussion and scholarly debate. The Year-2000 revision maintains and strengthens the distinction between core and specialization training with requirements for core training and aspirational guidelines for specialization training. Further, the definitions of group work specializations have been expanded and clarified. Evenness of application of training standards across the specialization has been assured by creating a single set of guidelines for all four specializations with specialization specific detail being supplied where necessary. Consistent with both the pattern for training standards established by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Program accreditation standards and past editions of the ASGW training standard, the Year-2000 revision addresses both content and clinical instruction. Content instruction is described in terms of both course work requirements and knowledged object while clinical instruction is articulated in experiential requirements and skill objectives. This revision of the training standards was informed by and profits from the seminal ASGW Best Practice Guidelines (1998) and the ASGW Principles for Diversity-Competent Group Workers (1999). Although each of these documents have their own form of organization, all address the group work elements of planning, performing, and processing and the ethical and diversity competent treatment of participants in group activities.

    Purpose

    The purpose of the Professional Standards for the Training of Group Workers is to provide guidance to counselor training programs in the construction of their curricula for graduate programs in counseling (e.g., masters, specialist, and doctoral degrees and other forms of advanced graduate study). Specifically, core standards express the Association's view on the minimum training in group work all programs in counseling should provide for all graduates of their entry level, master's degree programs in counseling, and specialization standards provide a framework for documenting the training philosophy, objectives, curriculum, and outcomes for each declared specialization program.

    Core Training in Group Work

    All counselors should possess a set of core competencies in general group work. The Association for Specialists in Group Work advocates for the incorporation of core group work competencies as part of required entry level training in all counselor preparation programs. The Association's standards for core training are consistent with and provide further elaboration of the standards for accreditation of entry level counseling programs identified by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP, 1994). Mastery of the core competencies detailed in the ASGW training standards will prepare the counselor to understand group process phenomena and to function more effectively in groups in which the counselor is a member. Mastery of basic knowledge and skill in group work provides a foundation which specialty training can extend but does not qualify one to independently practice any group work specialty.

    Specialist Training in Group Work

    The independent practice of group work requires training beyond core competencies. ASGW advocates that independent practitioners of group work must possess advanced competencies relevant to the particular kind of group work practice in which the group work student wants to specialize (e.g., facilitation of task groups, group psychoeducational, group counseling, or group psychotherapy). To encourage program creativity in development of specialization training, the specialization guidelines do not prescribe minimum trainee competencies. Rather, the guidelines establish a framework within which programs can develop unique training experiences utilizing scientific foundations and best practices to achieve their training objectives. In providing these guidelines for specialized training, ASGW makes no presumption that a graduate program in counseling must provide training in a group work specialization nor that adequate training in a specialization can be accomplished solely within a well-rounded master's degree program in counseling. To provide adequate specialization training, completion of post-master's options such as certificates of post-master's study or doctoral degrees may be required. Further, there is no presumption that an individual who may have received adequate training in a given declared specialization will be prepared to function effectively with all group situations in which the graduate may want to or be required to work. It is recognized that the characteristics of specific client populations and employment settings vary widely. Additional training beyond that which was acquired in a specific graduate program may be necessary for optimal, diversity-competent, group work practice with a given population in a given setting.

    Definitions

    Group Work: is a broad professional practice involving the application of knowledge and skill in group facilitation to assist an interdependent collection of people to reach their mutual goals which may be intrapersonal, interpersonal, or work-related. The goals of the group may include the accomplishment of tasks related to work, education, personal development, personal and interpersonal problem solving, or remediation of mental and emotional disorders.

    Core Training in Group Work: includes knowledge, skills, and experiences deemed necessary for general competency for all master's degree prepared counselors. ASGW advocates for all counselor preparation programs to provide core training in group work regardless of whether the program intends to prepare trainees for independent practice in a group work specialization. Core training in group work is considered a necessary prerequisite for advanced practice in group work.

    Specialization Training in Group Work: includes knowledge, skills, and experiences deemed necessary for counselors to engage in independent practice of group work. Four areas of advanced practice, referred to as specializations, are identified: Task Group Facilitation, Group Psychoeducational, Group Counseling, and Group Psychotherapy. This list is not presumed to be exhaustive and while there may be no sharp boundaries between the specializations, each has recognizable characteristics that have professional utility. The definitions for these group work specializations have been built upon the American Counseling Association's model definition of counseling (adopted by the ACA Governing Council in 1997), describing the methods typical of the working stage of the group being defined and the typical purposes to which those methods are put and the typical populations served by those methods. Specialized training presumes mastery of prerequisite core knowledge, skills, and experiences.

    Specialization in Task and Work Group Facilitation:

    • The application of principles of normal human development and functioning
    • through group based educational, developmental, and systemic strategies
    • applied in the context of here-and-now interaction
    • that promote efficient and effective accomplishment of group tasks
    • among people who are gathered to accomplish group task goals.

    Specialization in Psychoeducational Group Leadership:

    • The application of principles of normal human development and functioning
    • through group based educational and developmental strategies
    • applied in the context of here-and-now interaction
    • that promote personal and interpersonal growth and development and the prevention of future difficulties
    • among people who may be at risk for the development of personal or interpersonal problems or who seek enhancement of personal qualities and abilities.

    Specialization in Group Counseling:

    • The application of principles of normal human development and functioning
    • through group based cognitive, affective, behavioral, or systemic intervention strategies
    • applied in the context of here-and-now interaction
    • that address personal and interpersonal problems of living and promote personal and interpersonal growth and development
    • among people who may be experiencing transitory maladjustment, who are at risk for the development of personal or interpersonal problems, or who seek enhancement of personal qualities and abilities.

    Specialization in Group Psychotherapy:

    • The application of principles of normal and abnormal human development and functioning
    • through group based cognitive, affective, behavioral, or systemic intervention strategies
    • applied in the context of negative emotional arousal
    • that address personal and interpersonal problems of living, remediate perceptual and cognitive distortions or repetitive patterns of dysfunctional behavior, and promote personal and interpersonal growth and development
    • among people who may be experiencing severe and/or chronic maladjustment.
    Core Training Standards
    I. Coursework and Experiential Requirements
    • Coursework Requirements. Core training shall include at least one graduate course in group work that addresses but is not limited to scope of practice, types of group work, group development, group process and dynamics, group leadership, and standards of training and practice for group workers.
    • Experiential Requirements. Core training shall include a minimum of 10 clock hours (20 clock hours recommended) observation of and participation in a group experience as a group member and/or as a group leader.
    II. Knowledge and Skill Objectives
    • Nature and Scope of Practice
      • Knowledge Objectives. Identify and describe:
        • the nature of group work and the various specializations within group work
        • theories of group work including commonalities and distinguishing characteristics among the various specializations within group work
        • research literature pertinent to group work and its specializations
      • Skill Objectives. Demonstrate skill in:
        • preparing a professional disclosure statement for practice in a chosen area of specialization
        • and applying theoretical concepts and scientific findings to the design of a group and the interpretation of personal experiences in a group
    • Assessment of Group Members and the Social Systems in Which They Live and Work
      • Knowledge Objectives. Identify and describe:
        • principles of assessment of group functioning in group work
        • use of personal contextual factors (e.g., family-of-origin, neighborhood-of-residence, organizational membership, cultural membership) in interpreting behavior of members in a group
      • Skill Objectives. Demonstrate skill in:
        • observing and identifying group process,
        • observing the personal characteristics of individual members in a group,
        • developing hypotheses about the behavior of group members,
        • employing contextual factors (e.g., family of origin, neighborhood of residence, organizational membership, cultural membership) in interpretation of individual and group data
    Planning Group Interventions
    • Knowledge Objectives. Identify and describe:
      • environmental contexts, which affect planning for group interventions
      • the impact of group member diversity (e.g., gender, culture, learning style, group climate preference) on group member behavior and group process and dynamics in group work
      • principles of planning for group work
    • Skill Objectives. Demonstrate skill in:
      • collaborative consultation with targeted populations to enhance ecological validity of planned group interventions
      • planning for a group work activity including such aspects as developing overarching purpose, establishing goals and objectives, detailing methods to be used in achieving goals and objectives, determining methods for outcome assessment, and verifying ecological validity of plan
    Implementation of Group Interventions
    • Knowledge Objectives. Identify and describe:
      • principles of group formation including recruiting, screening, and selecting group members
      • principles for effective performance of group leadership functions
      • therapeutic factors within group work and when group work approaches are indicated and contraindicated
      • principles of group dynamics including group process components, developmental stage theories, group member roles, group member behaviors
    • Skill Objectives. Demonstrate skill in:
      • encouraging participation of group members
      • attending to, describing, acknowledging, confronting, understanding, and responding empathetically to group member behavior
      • attending to, acknowledging, clarifying, summarizing, confronting, and responding empathetically to group member statements
      • attending to, acknowledging, clarifying, summarizing, confronting, and responding empathetically to group themes
      • eliciting information from and imparting information to group members
      • providing appropriate self-disclosure
      • maintaining group focus; keeping a group on task
      • giving and receiving feedback in a group setting
    Leadership and Co-Leadership
    • Knowledge Objectives. Identify and describe:
      • group leadership styles and approaches
      • group work methods including group worker orientations and specialized group leadership behaviors
      • principles of collaborative group processing
    • Skill Objectives. To the extent opportunities for leadership or co-leadership are provided, demonstrate skill in:
      • engaging in reflective evaluation of one's personal leadership style and approach
      • working cooperatively with a co-leader and/or group members
      • engaging in collaborative group processing
    Evaluation
    • Knowledge Objectives. Identify and describe:
      • methods for evaluating group process in group work
      • methods for evaluating outcomes in group work
    • Skill Objectives. Demonstrate skill in:
      • contributing to evaluation activities during group participation
      • engaging in self-evaluation of personally selected performance goals
    Ethical Practice, Best Practice, Diversity-Competent Practice
    • Knowledge Objectives. Identify and describe:
      • ethical considerations unique to group work
      • best practices in group work
      • diversity competent group work
    • Skill Objectives. Demonstrate skill in:
      • evidencing ethical practice in planning, observing, and participating in group activities;
      • evidencing best practice in planning, observing, and participating in group activities;
      • evidencing diversity-competent practice in planning, observing, and participating in group activities
    Specialization Guidelines
    I. Overarching Program Characteristics
    • The program has a clearly specified philosophy of training for the preparation of specialists for independent practice of group work in one of the forms of group work recognized by the Association (i.e., task and work group facilitation, group psychoeducational, group counseling, or group psychotherapy).
      • The program states an explicit intent to train group workers in one or more of the group work specializations.
      • The program states an explicit philosophy of training, based on the science of group work, by which it intends to prepare students for independent practice in the declared specialization(s).
    • For each declared specialization, the program specified education and training objectives in terms of the competencies expected of students completing the specializations training. These competencies are consistent with:
      • the program's philosophy and training model,
      • the substantive area(s) relevant for best practice of the declared specialization area, and
      • standards for competent, ethical, and diversity sensitive practice of group work.
    • For each declared specialization, the program specifies a sequential, cumulative curriculum, expanding in breadth and depth, and designed to prepare students for independent practice of the specialization and relevant credentialing.
    • For each declared specialization, the program documents achievement of training objectives in terms of student competencies.
    II. Recommended Coursework and Experience
    • Coursework. Specialization training may include coursework which provides the student with a broad foundation in the group work domain in which the student seeks specialized training.
      • Task/Work Group Facilitation: coursework includes but is not limited to organizational development, management, and consultation, theory and practice of task/work group facilitation.
      • Group Psychoeducational: coursework includes but is not limited to organizational development, school and community counseling/psychology, health promotion, marketing, program development and evaluation, organizational consultation, theory and practice of group psychoeducational.
      • Group Counseling: coursework includes but is not limited to normal human development, health promotion, theory and practice of group counseling.
      • Group Psychotherapy: coursework includes but is not limited to normal and abnormal human development, assessment and diagnosis of mental and emotional disorders, treatment of psychopathology, theory and practice of group psychotherapy.
    • Experience. Specialization training includes:
      • Task/Work Group Facilitation: a minimum of 30 clock hours (45 clock hours recommended) supervised practice facilitating or conducting an intervention with a task or work group appropriate to the age and clientele of the group leader's specialty area (e.g., school counseling, student development counseling, community counseling, mental health counseling).
      • Group Psychoeducational: a minimum of 30 clock hours (45 clock hours recommended) supervised practice conducting a psychoeducational group appropriate to the age and clientele of the group leader's specialty area (e.g., school counseling, student development counseling, community counseling, mental health counseling).
      • Group Counseling: a minimum of 45 clock hours (60 clock hours recommended) supervised practice conducting a counseling group appropriate to the age and clientele of the group leader's specialty area (e.g., school counseling, student development counseling, community counseling, mental health counseling).
      • Group Psychotherapy: a minimum of 45 clock hours (60 clock hours recommended) supervised practice conducting a psychotherapy group appropriate to the age and clientele of the group leader's specialty area (e.g., mental health counseling).
    III. Knowledge and Skill Elements

    In achieving its objectives, the program has and implements a clear and coherent curriculum plan that provides the means whereby all students can acquire and demonstrate substantial understanding of and competence in the following areas:

    • Nature and Scope of Practice. The program states a clear expectation that its students will limit their independent practice of group work to those specialization areas for which they have been appropriately trained and supervised.
    • Assessment of Group Members and the Social Systems in Which They Live and Work. All graduates of specialization training will understand and demonstrate competence in the use of assessment instruments and methodologies for assessing individual group member characteristics and group development, group dynamics, and process phenomena relevant for the program's declared specialization area(s). Studies should include but are not limited to:
      • methods of screening and assessment of populations, groups, and individual members who are or may be targeted for intervention;
      • methods for observation of group member behavior during group interventions;
      • methods of assessment of group development, process, and outcomes.
    • Planning Group Interventions. All graduates of specialization training will understand and demonstrate competence in planning group interventions consistent with the program's declared specialization area(s). Studies should include but are not limited to:
      • establishing the overarching purpose for the intervention;
      • identifying goals and objectives for the intervention;
      • detailing methods to be employed in achieving goals and objectives during the intervention;
      • selecting methods for examining group process during group meetings, between group sessions, and at the completion of the group intervention;
      • preparing methods for helping members derive meaning from their within-group experiences and transfer within-group learning to real-world circumstances;
      • determining methods for measuring outcomes during and following the intervention;
      • verifying ecological validity of plans for the intervention.
    • Implementation of Group Intervention. All graduates of specialization training will understand and demonstrate competence implementing group interventions consistent with the program's declared specialization area(s). Studies should include but are not limited to:
      • principles of group formation including recruiting, screening, selection, and orientation of group members;
      • standard methods and procedures for group facilitation;
      • selection and use of referral sources appropriate to the declared specialization;
      • identifying and responding constructively to extra-group factors which may influence the success of interventions;
      • applying the major strategies, techniques, and procedures;
      • adjusting group pacing relative to the stage of group development;
      • identifying and responding constructively to critical incidents;
      • identifying and responding constructively to disruptive members;
      • helping group members attribute meaning to and integrate and apply learning;
      • responding constructively to psychological emergencies;
      • involving group members in within group session processing and ongoing planning.
    • Leadership and Co-Leadership. All graduates of specialization training will understand and demonstrate competence in pursuing personal competence as a leader and in selecting and managing the interpersonal relationship with a co-leader for group interventions consistent with the program's declared specialization area(s). Studies should include but are not limited to:
      • characteristics and skills of effective leaders,
      • relationship skills required of effective co-leaders,
      • processing skills required of effective co-leaders.
    • Evaluation. All graduates of specialization training will understand and demonstrate competence in evaluating group interventions consistent with the program's declared specialization area(s). Studies should include but are not limited to methods for evaluating participant outcomes and participant satisfaction.
    • Ethical Practice, Best Practice, Diversity-Competent Practice. All graduates of specialization training will understand and demonstrate consistent effort to comply with principles of ethical, best practice, and diversity-competent practice of group work consistent with the program's declared specialization area(s). Studies should include but are not limited to:
      • ethical considerations unique to the program's declared specialization area,
      • best practices for group work within the program's declared specialization area,
      • diversity issues unique to the program's declared specialization area.
    Implementation Guidelines

    Implementation of the Professional Standards for the Training of Group Workers requires a commitment by a program's faculty and a dedication of program resources to achieve excellence in preparing all counselors at core competency level and in preparing counselors for independent practice of group work. To facilitate implementation of the training standards, the Association offers the following guidelines.

    Core Training in Group Work

    Core training in group work can be provided through a single, basic course in group theory and process. This course should include the elements of content instruction detailed below and may also include the required clinical instruction component.

    Content Instruction

    Consistent with accreditation standards (CACREP, 1994; Standard II.J.4), study in the area of group work should provide an understanding of the types of group work (e.g., facilitation of task groups, psychoeducational groups, counseling groups, psychotherapy groups); group development, group dynamics, and group leadership styles; and group leadership methods and skills. More explicitly, studies should include, but not be limited to the following:

    • principles of group dynamics including group process components, developmental stage theories, and group members’ roles and behaviors;
    • group leadership styles and approaches including characteristics of various types of group leaders and leadership styles;
    • theories of group counseling including commonalities, distinguishing characteristics, and pertinent research and literature;
    • group work methods including group leader orientations and behaviors, ethical standards, appropriate selection criteria and methods, and methods of evaluating effectiveness;
    • approaches used for other types of group work, including task groups, prevention groups, support groups, and therapy groups; and
    • skills in observing member behavior and group process, empathic responding, confronting, self-disclosing, focusing, protecting, recruiting and selecting members, opening and closing sessions, managing, explicit and implicit teaching, modeling, giving and receiving feedback.
    Clinical Instruction

    Core group work training requires a minimum of 10 clock hours of supervised practice (20 clock hours of supervised practice is recommended). Consistent with CACREP standards for accreditation, the supervised experience provides the student with direct experiences as a participant in a small group, and may be met either in the basic course in group theory and practice or in a specially conducted small group designed for the purpose of meeting this standard (CACREP, 1994; Standard II.D). In arranging for and conducting this group experience, care must be taken by program faculty to assure that the ACA ethical standard for dual relationships and ASGW standards for best practice are observed.

    Specialist Training in Group Work

    Though ASGW advocates that all counselor training programs provide all counseling students with core group work training, specialization training is elective. If a counselor training program chooses to offer specialization training (e.g., task group facilitation, group psychoeducational, group counseling, group psychotherapy), ASGW urges institutions to develop their curricula consistent with the ASGW standards for that specialization.

    Content Instruction

    Each area of specialization has its literature. In addition to basic coursework in group theory and process, each specialization requires additional coursework providing specialized knowledge necessary for professional application of the specialization:

    • Task Group Facilitation: coursework in such areas as organization development, consultation, management, or sociology so students gain a basic understanding of organizations and how task groups function within them.
    • Group Psychoeducational: coursework in community psychology, consultation, health promotion, marketing, curriculum design to prepare students to conduct structured consciousness raising and skill training groups in such areas as stress management, wellness, anger control and assertiveness training, problem solving.
    • Group Counseling: coursework in normal human development, family development and family counseling, assessment and problem identification of problems in living, individual counseling, and group counseling, including training experiences in personal growth or counseling group.
    • Group Psychotherapy: coursework in abnormal human development, family pathology and family therapy, assessment and diagnosis of mental and emotional disorders, individual therapy, and group therapy, including training experiences in a therapy group.
    Clinical Instruction

    For Task Group Facilitation and Group Psychoeducational, group specialization training recommends a minimum of 30 clock hours of supervised practice (45 clock hours of supervised practice is strongly suggested). Because of the additional difficulties presented by Group Counseling and Group Psychotherapy a minimum of 45 clock hours of supervised practice is recommended (60 clock hours of supervised practice is strongly suggested). Consistent with CACREP standards for accreditation, supervised experience should provide an opportunity for the student to perform under supervision a variety of activities that a professional counselor would perform in conducting group work consistent with a given specialization (i.e., assessment of group members and the social systems in which they live and work, planning group interventions, implementing group interventions, leadership and co-leadership, and within-group, between-group, and end-of-group processing and evaluation).

    In addition to courses offering content and experience related to a given specialization, supervised clinical experience should be obtained in practical and internship experience. Following the model provided by CACREP for master's practical, we recommend that one quarter of all required supervised clinical experience be devoted to group work:

    • Master's Practicum: At least 10 clock hours of the required 40 clock hours of direct service should be spent in supervised leadership or co-leadership experience in group work, typically in Task Group Facilitation, Group Psychoeducational, or Group Counseling (at the master's practicum level, experience in Group Psychotherapy would be unusual) (CACREP, 1994; Standard III.H.1).
    • Master's Internship: At least 60 clock hours of the required 240 clock hours of direct services should be spent in supervised leadership or co-leadership in group work consistent with the program's specialization offering(s) (i.e., in Task Group Facilitation, Group Psychoeducational, Group Counseling, or Group Psychotherapy).
    • Doctoral Internship: At least 150 clock hours of the required 600 clock hours of direct service should be spent in supervised leadership or co-leadership in group work consistent with the program's specialization offering(s) (i.e., in Task Group Facilitation, Group Psychoeducational, Group Counseling, or Group Psychotherapy).
    References
    Association for Specialists in Group Work. (1983). ASGW Professional Standards for Group Counseling. Alexandria, VA: Author.
    Association for Specialists in Group Work. (1990). Professional Standards for the Training of Group Workers. Alexandria, VA: Author.
    Association for Specialists in Group Work. (1998). ASGW Best Practice Guidelines. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 23, 237–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929808411397
    Association for Specialists in Group Work. (1999). ASGW Principles for Diversity-Competent Group Workers. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 24, 7–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929908411415
    Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP). (1994). CACREP accreditation standards and procedures manual. Alexandria, VA: Author.

    Appendix B: Association for Specialists in Group Work Best Practice Guidelines

    Approved by the Executive Board, March 29, 1998

    Prepared by Lynn S. Rapin and Linda Keel, ASGW Ethics Committee Co-Chairs

    Author's Note: From the Association for Specialists in Group Work, Professional Standards for the Training of Group Workers. In Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 24, pp. 7–14. Reprinted with permission from ASGW.

    Preamble

    The Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) is a division of the American Counseling Association whose members are interested in and specialize in group work. We value the creation of community; service to our members, clients, and the profession; and value leadership as a process to facilitate the growth and development of individuals and groups.

    The Association for Specialists in Group Work recognizes the commitment of its members to the Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice (as revised in 1995) of its parent organization, the American Counseling Association, and nothing in this document shall be construed to supplant that code. These Best Practice Guidelines are intended to clarify the application of the ACA Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice to the field of group work by defining Group Workers’ responsibility and scope of practice involving those activities, strategies, and interventions that are consistent and current with effective and appropriate professional ethical and community standards. ASGW views ethical process as being integral to group work and views Group Workers as ethical agents. Group Workers, by their very nature in being responsible and responsive to their group members, necessarily embrace a certain potential for ethical vulnerability. It is incumbent upon Group Workers to give considerable attention to the intent and context of their actions because the attempts of Group Workers to influence human behavior through group work always have ethical implications. These Best Practice Guidelines address Group Workers’ responsibilities in planning, performing and processing groups.

    Section A: Best Practice in Planning
    A.1. Professional Context and Regulatory Requirements

    Group Workers actively know, understand and apply the ACA Code of Ethics and Standards of Best Practice, the ASGW Professional Standards for the Training of Group Workers, these ASGW Best Practice Guidelines, the ASGW diversity competencies, the ACA Multicultural Guidelines, relevant state laws, accreditation requirements, relevant National Board for Certified Counselors Codes and Standards, their organization's standards, and insurance requirements impacting the practice of group work.

    A.2. Scope of Practice and Conceptual Framework

    Group Workers define the scope of practice related to the core and specialization competencies defined in the ASGW Training Standards. Group Workers are aware of personal strengths and weaknesses in leading groups. Group Workers develop and are able to articulate a general conceptual framework to guide practice and a rationale for use of techniques that are to be used. Group Workers limit their practice to those areas for which they meet the training criteria established by the ASGW Training Standards.

    A.3. Assessment
    • Assessment of self. Group Workers actively assess their knowledge and skills related to the specific group(s) offered. Group Workers assess their values, beliefs and theoretical orientation and how these impact upon the group, particularly when working with a diverse and multicultural population.
    • Ecological assessment. Group Workers assess community needs, agency or organization resources, sponsoring organization mission, staff competency, attitudes regarding group work, professional training levels of potential group leaders regarding group work, client attitudes regarding group work, and multicultural and diversity considerations. Group Workers use this information as the basis for making decisions related to their group practice, or to the implementation of groups for which they have supervisory, evaluation, or oversight responsibilities.
    A.4. Program Development and Evaluation
    • Group Workers identify the type(s) of group(s) to be offered and how they relate to community needs.
    • Group Workers concisely state in writing the purpose and goals of the group. Group Workers also identify the role of the group members in influencing or determining the group goals.
    • Group Workers set fees consistent with the organization's fee schedule, taking into consideration the financial status and locality of prospective group members.
    • Group Workers choose techniques and a leadership style appropriate to the type(s) of group(s) being offered.
    • Group Workers have an evaluation plan consistent with regulatory, organization and insurance requirements, where appropriate.
    • Group Workers take into consideration current professional guidelines when using technology, including but not limited to Internet communication.
    A.5. Resources

    Group Workers coordinate resources related to the kind of group(s) and group activities to be provided, such as: adequate funding; the appropriateness and availability of a trained co leader; space and privacy requirements for the type(s) of group(s) being offered; marketing and recruiting; and appropriate collaboration with other community agencies and organizations.

    A.6. Professional Disclosure Statement

    Group Workers have a professional disclosure statement which includes information on confidentiality and exceptions to confidentiality, theoretical orientation, information on the nature, purpose(s) and goals of the group, the group services that can be provided, the role and responsibility of group members and leaders, Group Workers’ qualifications to conduct the specific group(s), specific licenses, certifications and professional affiliations, and address of licensing/credentialing body.

    A.7. Group and Member Preparation
    • Group Workers screen prospective group members if appropriate to the type of group being offered. When selection of group members is appropriate, Group Workers identify group members whose needs and goals are compatible with the goals of the group.
    • Group Workers facilitate informed consent. Group Workers provide in oral and written form to prospective members (when appropriate to group type): the professional disclosure statement; group purpose and goals; group participation expectations including voluntary and involuntary membership; role expectations of members and leader(s); policies related to entering and exiting the group; policies governing substance use; policies and procedures governing mandated groups (where relevant); documentation requirements; disclosure of information to others; implications of out-of-group contact or involvement among members; procedures for consultation between group leader(s) and group member(s); fees and time parameters; and potential impacts of group participation.
    • Group Workers obtain the appropriate consent forms for work with minors and other dependent group members.
    • Group Workers define confidentiality and its limits (for example, legal and ethical exceptions and expectations; waivers implicit with treatment plans, documentation and insurance usage). Group Workers have the responsibility to inform all group participants of the need for confidentiality, potential consequences of breaching confidentiality and that legal privilege does not apply to group discussions (unless provided by state statute).
    A.8. Professional Development

    Group Workers recognize that professional growth is a continuous, ongoing, developmental process throughout their career.

    • Group Workers remain current and increase knowledge and skill competencies through activities such as continuing education, professional supervision, and participation in personal and professional development activities.
    • Group Workers seek consultation and/or supervision regarding ethical concerns that interfere with effective functioning as a group leader. Supervisors have the responsibility to keep abreast of consultation, group theory, process, and adhere to related ethical guidelines.
    • Group Workers seek appropriate professional assistance for their own personal problems or conflicts that are likely to impair their professional judgment or work performance.
    • Group Workers seek consultation and supervision to ensure appropriate practice whenever working with a group for which all knowledge and skill competencies have not been achieved.
    • Group Workers keep abreast of group research and development.
    A.9. Trends and Technological Changes

    Group Workers are aware of and responsive to technological changes as they affect society and the profession. These include but are not limited to changes in mental health delivery systems; legislative and insurance industry reforms; shifting population demographics and client needs; and technological advances in Internet and other communication and delivery systems. Group Workers adhere to ethical guidelines related to the use of developing technologies.

    Section B: Best Practice in Performing
    B.1. Self Knowledge

    Group Workers are aware of and monitor their strengths and weaknesses and the effects these have on group members.

    B.2. Group Competencies

    Group Workers have a basic knowledge of groups and the principles of group dynamics, and are able to perform the core group competencies, as described in the ASGW Professional Standards for the Training of Group Workers. Additionally, Group Workers have adequate understanding and skill in any group specialty area chosen for practice (psychotherapy, counseling, task, psychoeducational, as described in the ASGW Training Standards).

    B.3. Group Plan Adaptation
    • Group Workers apply and modify knowledge, skills and techniques appropriate to group type and stage, and to the unique needs of various cultural and ethnic groups.
    • Group Workers monitor the group's progress toward the group goals and plan.
    • Group Workers clearly define and maintain ethical, professional, and social relationship boundaries with group members as appropriate to their role in the organization and the type of group being offered.
    B.4. Therapeutic Conditions and Dynamics

    Group Workers understand and are able to implement appropriate models of group development, process observation and therapeutic conditions.

    B.5. Meaning

    Group Workers assist members in generating meaning from the group experience.

    B.6. Collaboration

    Group Workers assist members in developing individual goals and respect group members as co-equal partners in the group experience.

    B.7. Evaluation

    Group Workers include evaluation (both formal and informal) between sessions and at the conclusion of the group.

    B.8. Diversity

    Group Workers practice with broad sensitivity to client differences including but not limited to ethnic, gender, religious, sexual, psychological maturity, economic class, family history, physical characteristics or limitations, and geographic location. Group Workers continuously seek information regarding the cultural issues of the diverse population with whom they are working both by interaction with participants and from using outside resources.

    B.9. Ethical Surveillance

    Group Workers employ an appropriate ethical decision making model in responding to ethical challenges and issues and in determining courses of action and behavior for self and group members. In addition, Group Workers employ applicable standards as promulgated by ACA, ASGW, or other appropriate professional organizations.

    Section C: Best Practice in Group Process
    C.1. Processing Schedule

    Group Workers process the workings of the group with themselves, group members, supervisors or other colleagues, as appropriate. This may include assessing progress on group and member goals, leader behaviors and techniques, group dynamics and interventions; developing understanding and acceptance of meaning. Processing may occur both within sessions and before and after each session, at time of termination, and later follow up, as appropriate.

    C.2. Reflective Practice

    Group Workers attend to opportunities to synthesize theory and practice and to incorporate learning outcomes into ongoing groups. Group Workers attend to session dynamics of members and their interactions and also attend to the relationship between session dynamics and leader values, cognition and affect.

    C.3. Evaluation and Follow-Up
    • Group Workers evaluate process and outcomes. Results are used for ongoing program planning, improvement and revisions of current group and/or to contribute to professional research literature. Group Workers follow all applicable policies and standards in using group material for research and reports.
    • Group Workers conduct follow-up contact with group members, as appropriate, to assess outcomes or when requested by a group member(s).
    C.4. Consultation and Training with other Organizations

    Group Workers provide consultation and training to organizations in and out of their setting, when appropriate. Group Workers seek out consultation as needed with competent professional persons knowledgeable about group work.

    Appendix C: Association for Specialists in Group Work Principles for Diversity-Competent Group Workers

    Approved by the Executive Board, August 1, 1998

    Prepared by Lynn Haley-Banez, Sherlon Brown, and Bogusia Molina

    Consultants: Michael D'Andrea, Patricia Arredondo, Niloufer Merchant, and Sandra Wathen

    Author's Note: From the Association for Specialists in Group Work, Professional Standards for the Training of Group Workers. In Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 25, pp. 327–342. Reprinted with permission from ASGW.

    Preamble

    The Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) is committed to understanding how issues of diversity affect all aspects of group work. This includes but is not limited to: training diversity-competent group workers; conducting research that will add to the literature on group work with diverse populations; understanding how diversity affects group process and dynamics; and assisting group facilitators in various settings to increase their awareness, knowledge, and skills as they relate to facilitating groups with diverse memberships.

    As an organization, ASGW has endorsed this document with the recognition that issues of diversity affect group process and dynamics, group facilitation, training, and research. As an organization, we recognize that racism, classism, sexism, heterosexism, ableism, and so forth, affect everyone. As individual members of this organization, it is our personal responsibility to address these issues through awareness, knowledge, and skills. As members of ASGW, we need to increase our awareness of our own biases, values, and beliefs and how they impact the groups we run. We need to increase our awareness of our group members’ biases, values, and beliefs and how they also impact and influence group process and dynamics. Finally, we need to increase our knowledge in facilitating, with confidence, competence, and integrity, groups that are diverse on many dimensions.

    A. Definitions

    For the purposes of this document, it is important that the language used is understood. Terms such as “dominant,” “nondominant,” and “target” persons and/or populations are used to define a person or groups of persons who historically, in the United States, do not have equal access to power, money, certain privileges (such as access to mental health services because of financial constraints, or the legal right to marry, in the case of a gay or lesbian couple), and/or the ability to influence or initiate social policy because of unequal representation in government and politics. These terms are not used to denote a lack of numbers in terms of representation in the overall U.S. population. Nor are these terms used to continue to perpetuate the very biases and forms of oppression, both overt and covert, that this document attempts to address.

    For the purposes of this document, the term “disabilities” refers to differences in physical, mental, emotional, and learning abilities and styles among people. It is not meant as a term to define a person, such as a learning disabled person, but rather in the context of a person with a learning disability.

    Given the history and current cultural, social, and political context in which this document is written, the authors of this document are limited to the language of this era. With this in mind, we have attempted to construct a “living document” that can and will change as the sociopolitical and cultural context changes.

    The Principles
    I. Awareness of Self
    A. Attitudes and Beliefs
    • Diversity-competent group workers demonstrate movement from being unaware to being increasingly aware and sensitive to their own race, ethnic and cultural heritage, socioeconomic status (SES), sexual orientation, abilities, and religion and spiritual beliefs, and to valuing and respecting differences.
    • Diversity-competent group workers demonstrate increased awareness of how their own race, ethnicity, culture, gender, SES, sexual orientation, abilities, and religion and spiritual beliefs are impacted by their own experiences and histories, which in turn influence group process and dynamics.
    • Diversity-competent group workers can recognize the limits of their competencies and expertise with regard to working with group members who are different from them in terms of race, ethnicity, culture (including language), SES, gender, sexual orientation, abilities, religion, and spirituality and their beliefs, values, and biases. (For further clarification on limitations, expertise, and type of group work, refer to the training standards and best practice guidelines, Association for Specialists in Group Work, 1998; and the ethical guidelines, American Counseling Association, 1995.)
    • Diversity-competent group workers demonstrate comfort, tolerance, and sensitivity with differences that exist between themselves and group members in terms of race, ethnicity, culture, SES, gender, sexual orientation, abilities, religion, and spirituality and their beliefs, values, and biases.
    B. Knowledge
    • Diversity-competent group workers can identify specific knowledge about their own race, ethnicity, SES, gender, sexual orientation, abilities, religion, and spirituality, and how they personally and professionally affect their definitions of “normality” and the group process.
    • Diversity-skilled group workers demonstrate knowledge and understanding regarding how oppression in any form—such as racism, classism, sexism, heterosexism, ableism, discrimination, and stereotyping—affects them personally and professionally.
    • Diversity-skilled group workers demonstrate knowledge about their social impact on others. They are knowledgeable about communication style differences, how their style may inhibit or foster the group process with members who are different from themselves along the different dimensions of diversity, and how to anticipate the impact they may have on others.
    C. Skills
    • Diversity-competent group workers seek out educational, consultative, and training experiences to improve their understanding and effectiveness in working with group members who self-identify as Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or transgendered persons and persons with physical, mental/emotional, and/or learning disabilities, particularly with regard to race and ethnicity. Within this context, group workers are able to recognize the limits of their competencies and: (a) seek consultation, (b) seek further training or education, (c) refer members to more qualified group workers, or (d) engage in a combination of these.
    • Group workers who exhibit diversity competence are constantly seeking to understand themselves within their multiple identities (apparent and unapparent differences), for example, gay, Latina, Christian, working-class, and female, and are constantly and actively striving to unlearn the various behaviors and processes they covertly and overtly communicate that perpetuate oppression, particularly racism.
    II. Group Worker's Awareness of Group Member's Worldview
    A. Attitudes and Beliefs
    • Diversity-skilled group workers exhibit awareness of any possible negative emotional reactions toward Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or transgendered persons and persons with physical, mental/emotional, and/or learning disabilities that they may hold. They are willing to contrast in a nonjudgmental manner their own beliefs and attitudes with those of Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or transgendered persons and persons with physical, mental/emotional, and/or learning disabilities who are group members.
    • Diversity-competent group workers demonstrate awareness of their stereotypes and preconceived notions that they may hold toward Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or transgendered persons and persons with physical, mental/emotional, and/or learning disabilities.
    B. Knowledge
    • Diversity-skilled group workers possess specific knowledge and information about Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered people and group members who have mental/emotional, physical, and/or learning disabilities with whom they are working. They are aware of the life experiences, cultural heritage, and sociopolitical background of Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or transgendered persons and group members with physical, mental/ emotional, and/or learning disabilities. This particular knowledge-based competency is strongly linked to the various racial/minority and sexual identity development models available in the literature (Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, 1993; Cass, 1979; Cross, 1995; D'Augelli & Patterson, 1995; Helms, 1992).
    • Diversity-competent group workers exhibit an understanding of how race, ethnicity, culture, gender, sexual identity, different abilities, SES, and other immutable personal characteristics may affect personality formation, vocational choices, manifestation of psychological disorders, physical “dis-ease” or somatic symptoms, help-seeking behavior(s), and the appropriateness or inappropriateness of the various types of and theoretical approaches to group work.
    • Group workers who demonstrate competency in diversity in groups understand and have the knowledge about sociopolitical influences that impinge upon the lives of Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or transgendered persons and persons with physical, mental/emotional, and/or learning disabilities. Immigration issues, poverty, racism, oppression, stereotyping, and/or powerlessness adversely impacts many of these individuals and therefore impacts group process or dynamics.
    C. Skills
    • Diversity-skilled group workers familiarize themselves with relevant research and the latest findings regarding mental health issues of Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or transgendered persons and persons with physical, mental/emotional, and/or learning disabilities. They actively seek out educational experiences that foster their knowledge and understanding of skills for facilitating groups across differences.
    • Diversity-competent group workers become actively involved with Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or transgendered persons and persons with physical, mental/emotional, and/or learning disabilities outside of their group work/counseling setting (community events, social and political functions, celebrations, friendships, neighborhood groups, etc.) so that their perspective of minorities is more than academic or experienced through a third party.
    III. Diversity-Appropriate Intervention Strategies
    A. Attitudes and Beliefs
    • Diversity-competent group workers respect clients’ religious and/or spiritual beliefs and values, because they affect worldview, psychosocial functioning, and expressions of distress.
    • Diversity-competent group workers respect indigenous helping practices and respect Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or transgendered persons and persons with physical, mental/emotional, and/or learning disabilities and can identify and utilize community intrinsic help-giving networks.
    • Diversity-competent group workers value bilingualism and sign language and do not view another language as an impediment to group work.
    B. Knowledge
    • Diversity-competent group workers demonstrate a clear and explicit knowledge and understanding of generic characteristics of group work and theory and how they may clash with the beliefs, values, and traditions of Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or transgendered persons and persons with physical, mental/emotional, and/or learning disabilities.
    • Diversity-competent group workers exhibit an awareness of institutional barriers that prevent Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or trans-gendered members and members with physical, mental/emotional, and/or learning disabilities from actively participating in or using various types of groups, that is, task groups, psychoeducational groups, counseling groups, and psychotherapy groups or the settings in which the services are offered.
    • Diversity-competent group workers demonstrate knowledge of the potential bias in assessment instruments and use procedures and interpret findings, or actively participate in various types of evaluations of group outcome or success, keeping in mind the linguistic, cultural, and other self-identified characteristics of the group member.
    • Diversity-competent group workers exhibit knowledge of the family structures, hierarchies, values, and beliefs of Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or transgendered persons and persons with physical, mental/emotional, and/or learning disabilities. They are knowledgeable about the community characteristics and the resources in the community as well as about the family.
    • Diversity-competent group workers demonstrate an awareness of relevant discriminatory practices at the social and community level that may be affecting the psychological welfare of persons and access to services of the population being served.
    C. Skills
    • Diversity-competent group workers are able to engage in a variety of verbal and nonverbal group-facilitating functions, dependent upon the type of group (task, counseling, psychoeducational, psychotherapy), and the multiple, self-identified status of various group members (such as Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or transgendered persons and persons with physical, mental/emotional, and/or learning disabilities). They demonstrate the ability to send and receive both verbal and nonverbal messages accurately, appropriately, and across/between the differences represented in the group. They are not tied down to one method or approach to group facilitation and recognize that helping styles and approaches may be culture-bound. When they sense that their group facilitation style is limited and potentially inappropriate, they can anticipate and ameliorate its negative impact by drawing upon other culturally relevant skill sets.
    • Diversity-competent group workers have the ability to exercise institutional intervention skills on behalf of their group members. They can help a member determine whether a “problem” with the institution stems from the oppression of Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, or transgendered persons and persons with physical, mental/emotional, and/or learning disabilities, such as in the case of developing or having a “healthy” paranoia, so that group members do not inappropriately personalize problems.
    • Diversity-competent group workers do not exhibit a reluctance to seek consultation with traditional healers and religious and spiritual healers and practitioners in the treatment of members who are self-identified Indigenous Peoples, African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, Latinos/Latinas, gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered persons and/or group members with mental/emotional, physical, and/or learning disabilities when appropriate.
    • Diversity-competent group workers take responsibility for interacting in the language requested by the group member(s) and, if not feasible, make an appropriate referral. A serious problem arises when the linguistic skills of a group worker and a group member or members, including sign language, do not match. The same problem occurs when the linguistic skills of one member or several members do not match. This being the case, the group worker, should (a) seek a translator with cultural knowledge and appropriate professional background, and (b) refer to a knowledgeable, competent bilingual group worker or a group worker competent or certified in sign language. In some cases, it may be necessary to have a group for group members of similar languages or to refer the group member for individual counseling.
    • Diversity-competent group workers are trained and have expertise in the use of traditional assessment and testing instruments related to group work, such as in screening potential members, and they also are aware of the cultural bias/limitations of these tools and processes. This allows them to use the tools for the welfare of diverse group members following culturally appropriate procedures.
    • Diversity-competent group workers attend to as well as work to eliminate biases, prejudices, oppression, and discriminatory practices. They are cognizant of how sociopolitical contexts may affect evaluation and provision of group work and should develop sensitivity to issues of oppression, racism, sexism, heterosexism, classism, and so forth.
    • Diversity-competent group workers take responsibility in educating their group members to the processes of group work, such as goals, expectations, legal rights, sound ethical practice, and the group worker's theoretical orientation with regard to facilitating groups with diverse membership.
    Conclusion

    This document is the “starting point” for group workers as we become increasingly aware, knowledgeable, and skillful in facilitating groups whose memberships represent the diversity of our society. It is not intended to be a “how to” document. It is written as a call to action and/or a guideline and represents ASGW's commitment to moving forward with an agenda for addressing and understanding the needs of the populations we serve. As a “living document,” the Association for Specialists in Group Work acknowledges the changing world in which we live and work and therefore recognizes that this is the first step in working with diverse group members with competence, compassion, respect, and integrity. As our awareness, knowledge, and skills develop, so too will this document evolve. As our knowledge as a profession grows in this area and as the sociopolitical context in which this document was written changes, new editions of these Principles for Diversity-Competent Group Workers will arise. The operationalization of this document (article in process) will begin to define appropriate group leadership skills and interventions as well as make recommendations for research in understanding how diversity in group membership affects group process and dynamics.

    References
    American Counseling Association. (1995). Code of ethics and standards. Alexandria, VA: Author.
    Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development. (1996). Multicultural competencies. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
    Association for Specialists in Group Work. (1991). Professional standards for training of group workers. Together, 20, 9–14.
    Association for Specialists in Group Work. (1998). Best practice guidelines. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 23, 237–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929808411397
    Atkinson, D. R., Morten, G., & Sue, D. W. (Eds.). (1993). Counseling American minorities (
    4th ed.
    ). Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark.
    Cass, V. C. (1979). Homosexual identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 219–236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v04n03_01
    Cross, W. E. (1995). The psychology of Nigrescence: Revising the cross model. In J. G.Ponterotto, J. M.Casas, L. A.Suzuki, & C. M.Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 93–122). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    D'Augelli, A. R., & Patterson, C. J. (Eds.). (1995). Lesbian, gay and bisexual identities over the lifespan. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195082319.001.0001
    Helms, J. E. (1992). A race is a nice thing to have. Topeka, KS: Context Communications.

    Appendix D: Group Planning Sheet

    Date:__ Session #:__

    Group Leaders:__

    Members already excused:__

    __

    __

    __

    Check in With:

    • Members who need to be checked in with who didn't finish working on an issue last week: __
    • Members who were given an assignment or were going to report back this week: __
    • Other members who might need to be checked in with and about what: __

    Group Topics or Issues That Need to Be Finished and/or Revisited:

    • Related to individual member or group goals: __
    • Related to group process: __

    Group Topics or Issues to Be Addressed for the 1st Time:

    • Content issues that need to be addressed for the 1st time: __
    • Process issues that need to be addressed for the 1st time: __

    Specific Interventions:

    • Opening: __
    • __
    • Processing: __
    • __
    • The Closing: __
    • __
    • Other Issues/Topics to Be Addressed: __
    • __
    • __
    • Issues to Be Discussed in Supervision: __
    • __

    From DeLucia-Waack (2002c).

    Appendix E: Group Processing Sheet

    Group Process Notes

    Date: __ Session #: __

    Group Leaders: __

    Members Present: __

    Members Excused: __

    Members Not Excused:__

    • Themes for the Group:
      • Content:
      • Process:
    • Notes for the Group:
      • Opening:
      • Working:
      • Ending:
    • Notes About Each Group Member:
      • Member A:
      • Member B:
      • Member C:
      • Member D:
      • Member E:
      • Member F:

    (This ends what should be included in a group notes file and/or a client file.) (For a client file, include all the notes up to this point and then just the notes in the last section for that particular group member.)

    Processing of the Group Session
    • Comments About the Group:
      • Content:
      • Process:
      • Specific Members:
      • To Be Discussed in Supervision:
    • Evaluation of Intervention Strategies:
      • Executive Functions:
      • What worked?:
      • What didn't (and what could you do differently next time)?:
      • Meaning Attribution:
      • What worked?:
      • What didn't (and what could you do differently next time)?:
      • Caring:
      • What worked?:
      • What didn't (and what could you do differently next time)?:
      • Emotional Stimulation:
      • What worked:
      • What didn't (and what could you do differently next time)?:

    Critical Incidents Related to Therapeutic Factors: (Instillation of Hope, Universality, Imparting of Information, Altruism, The Corrective Recapitulation of the Primary Family Group, Interpersonal Learning-Input, Interpersonal Learning-Output, Cohesiveness, Catharsis, Existential Factors, Identification, Self-Understanding).

    Briefly describe the 3 most critical incidents that happened this week in group and how each illustrates a therapeutic factor.

    Now name the critical incident for each group member and what therapeutic factor it illustrates.

    • Member A:
    • Member B:
    • Member C:
    • Member D:
    • Member E:
    • Member F:
    • Member G:
    • Member H:

    Countertransference:

    Towards Specific Members: Briefly describe the feeling towards the member, who the person reminds you of (if any), and how you behave towards the member based on this. Is your reaction based on something that a person is doing in group or based on assumptions you are making about the person based on relationships with others? What could you do in the future to respond to this person as they are in the group and not as if they were someone else?

    Towards Specific Incidents or Group Topics: Briefly describe the event, the feeling(s) elicited from you as a result of the event, what other situation this reminds you of, what behavior it is based on, what your personal reactions and issues are related to this event, and what you can do differently in future interactions.

    From DeLucia-Waack (2002c).

    Appendix F: Examples of Group Planning and Processing Session Notes for a Psychoeducational Children-of-Divorce Group

    Group Planning Sheet for a 10-Session Children-of-Divorce Group

    Date: 10/12 Session #: 8 Group Leaders: J

    Members already excused:

    • Sandra (told us last week that she has a doctor's appt.)

    Check in with:

    Members who need to be checked in with who didn't finish working on an issue last week:

    • Tommy still didn't think he could tell his Dad to stop asking him to relay messages to his Mom
    • Members who were given an assignment or were going to report back this week:
    • Kristin was going to talk to her older sister about her feelings about the divorce
    • Other members who might need to be checked in with and about what:
    • Justin was very quiet last session

    Group Topics or Issues That Need to Be Finished and/or Revisited:

    • Related to individual member or group goals:
    • Check-in on how members expressed their feelings during the week
    • Related to group process:
    • How to let each person have some time to talk

    Group Topics or Issues to Be Addressed for the 1st Time:

    • Content issues that need to be addressed for the 1st time:
    • How to deal with parents’ new relationships
    • Process issues that need to be addressed for the 1st time:
    • Members being quiet for a whole session

    Specific Interventions:

    Session: I Tried to Get My Mom and Dad Back Together Again

    Materials:

    • Banner with group name and ground rules hanging on the wall
    • “If You Believe in You” tape (specifically the “I Tried” song)
    • A large notepad with markers
    Group Session
    Review and Check-in (7 Minutes)
    • Play the “I Tried” song (3 minutes).
    • What's the song about? Emphasize how hard it is to meet the new boyfriends and girlfriends when parents start dating and how most children of divorce want their parents to get back together again (4 minutes).
    Working Activities (30 Minutes)
    • “Getting My Parents Back Together” (5 minutes). Today we are going to talk about the idea that just about everyone wants his or her parents to get back together. Let's start by talking about why this is so. Why do children want both of their parents to live in the same house?
    • “When My Parents Lived Together” (10 minutes). Now let's try to remember what it was like when both parents did live in the same house. (If some of the children don't remember, ask them to think about what it is like when their parents spend time together now). Let's make a list of the good things and the not-so-good things about parents being together. Use the large notepad to record two columns: Good Things and Not-So-Good Things. (Leave room between the columns so that you can add two more columns later.)
    • “How Would It Be Different?” (5 minutes). Now let's work on both of those lists one at a time. Let's first talk about the Not-So-Good Things list. How would those be different if your parents got back together now? Do you think they would change? Emphasize that parents would probably still fight and argue about the same things because they are still different people.
    • “Good Things and How to Make Them Happen” (10 minutes). Now let's work on the list of the Good Things. Let's add another column called How to Make the Good Things Happen Now. How can this happen now? Let's brainstorm ways to make this happen. Let's also identify things that can't happen and maybe suggest other things that can take their place (e.g., Sunday dinner with Mom and Dad both being replaced with Sunday dinner with Mom and her family).
    Processing (5 Minutes)
    • When families change, some good things happen and some bad things happen. Let's everyone go around and finish the sentence: One good thing that can still happen in my family is XXX.
    Closing (3 Minutes)
    • Let's listen to “I Tried” again. Feel free to sing along. Let's listen to the end to the message. … I let go and stopped trying to get my parents back together again.
    Other Issues/Topics to be Addressed

    This is our last session to talk about new issues and strategies; termination sessions begin next week.

    Issues to be Discussed with Supervisor

    How to introduce termination without taking too much time but to get the children to start to think about what they have learned and what they can do outside of group.

    Group Processing Sheet for 10-Session Children-of-Divorce Group
    Group Process Notes

    Date: 10/13 Session #: 8 Group Leaders: J & T

    • Members Present: Tommy, Justin, Kristin, Susan, Andy
    • Members Excused: Sandy
    • Members Not Excused:
    Themes for the Group
    • Content: How kids try to get their parents back together again
    • Sadness over the divorce
    • Good things that happen now that parents are divorced
    • Process: It's hard to talk about feelings
    Notes for the Group
    • Opening: Listened to “I Tried.” Talked about how Kelly and Cory didn't like their parents’ new boyfriends and girlfriends.
    • Working: Came up with several reasons why children want their parents in the same house: to see both of them, to be a family, to get love from both of them. Made lists of Good Things and Not-So-Good Things about parents being together. Then talked about how things from the Not-So-Good Things list would/would not change if their parents got back together. Tommy and Justin started by saying that things would be different and their parents wouldn't fight anymore. But then Susan pointed out that her parents still fight when they are living apart, so she didn't think it would change if they lived together again. Shifted the discussion about How to Make the Good Things Happen Now. Susan suggested that her parents could both still come to her soccer game, but they didn't need to sit with each other. Tommy said he could have a special dinner with Mom once a week, just she and him, like they used to. Others talked about how they could ask to do things with their father that they had stopped doing because they didn't live together, like helping with homework, washing the car, or taking walks.
    • Ending: Everyone took a turn and stated “One good thing that can still happen in my family is …” Answers focused on spending time with both parents. Sang “I Tried.”
    Notes about each Group Member
    • Andy: Really wanted to believe that his parents wouldn't fight anymore and could get back together again.
    • Justin: Still quiet but did talk and had some good ideas about good stuff that he could do with his family right now, particularly his Dad.
    • Kristin: Wants her parents back together but not if they will fight.
    • Sandy: Excused.
    • Susan: Seems to have accepted that her parents are divorced; doesn't like that they still argue now. Was going to talk to her Mom about things they could do together.
    • Tommy: Was quiet at the beginning when talking about parents’ boyfriends or girlfriends; laughed really hard about spilling wine on her dress. Says Mom doesn't date now.

    (This ends what should be included in a group notes file and/or a client file.) (For a client file, include all the notes up to this point and then just the notes in the last section for that particular group member.)

    Processing of the Group Session
    Comments about the Group
    • Content: Lots of talk about what was bad when parents were together but hard to make suggestions to make it good now
    • Process: Laughed a lot about not liking parents’ new boyfriends and girlfriends. Had a hard time at first coming up with good things that happened after the divorce but then were able to
    • Specific Members: Justin talked more this session
    • To Be Discussed in Supervision: How to get them all to talk more about their feelings
    Evaluation of Intervention Strategies
    Executive Functions
    • What worked: Starting on time
    • What didn't (and what could you do differently next time): Trying to nonverbally get Tommy to stop tapping his pencil (sit next to him)
    Meaning Attribution
    • What worked: Asking them what was different now so that their parents wouldn't fight anymore if they got back together
    • What didn't (and what could you do differently next time): Asking them if they had similar feelings to Kelly and Cory about their parents’ boyfriends and girlfriends (ask them how Kelly and Cory might act out their feelings)
    Caring
    • What worked: Saying yes, this is tough to talk about sometimes and then asking for a group hug
    • What didn't (and what could you do differently next time): Asking them to say what is tough at the end
    Emotional Stimulation
    • What worked: I don't think I did anything to do this, this time What didn't (and what could you do differently next time):

    Critical Incidents Related to Therapeutic Factors: (Instillation of Hope, Universality, Imparting of Information, Altruism, The Corrective Recapitulation of the Primary Family Group, Interpersonal Learning-Input, Interpersonal Learning-Output, Cohesiveness, Catharsis, Existential Factors, Identification, Self-Understanding). Briefly describe the 3 most critical incidents that happened this week in group and how each illustrates a therapeutic factor.

    • Instillation of hope when Susan said that she had hoped for a long time that her parents would stop fighting and it didn't happen, but she focuses on how much each of them loves her and that makes her feel better.
    • Universality when all of the members said that sometimes they wished their parents would get back together again.
    • Imparting of information when I said that it is normal to want your parents back together, most children do, and they are sad when it doesn't happen.
    Countertransference

    Towards Specific Members: Briefly describe the feeling towards the member, who the person reminds you of (if any), and how you behave based on this towards the member. Is your reaction based on something that a person is doing in group or based on assumptions you are making about the person based on relationships with others? What could you do in the future to respond to this person as they are in the group and not as if they were someone else?

    • I don't feel very connected to Justin because it is so hard to know what he is thinking because he is so quiet and doesn't display many nonverbals. I am trying to engage him more to see what he does think and who he is like as a person.
    • Susan reminds me of myself when I was young—wanting very much for everything to be OK and to connect with all members of her family. I probably support her more than others because of this so I need to watch and make sure that I don't smooth things over to make them OK for her, but do support her efforts to connect with others.

    Towards Specific Incidents or Group Topics: Briefly describe the event, the feeling(s) elicited from you as a result of the event, what other situation this reminds you of, what behavior it is based on, what your personal reactions and issues are related to this event, and what you can do differently in future interactions.

    • It is hard to listen to the children say that they want their parents back together when I know rationally that it was probably a pretty uncomfortable situation for a lot of them. I want to fix it for them and may rush in too soon. I need to step back, help them discuss and process feelings, and come to their own conclusions.

    From Delucia-Waack (2001).

    Appendix G: Resource Guide for Group Interventions by Topic, Including Books, Games, and Videos

    ADHD/ADD
    For Parents
    General Resources
    Barkley, R. A. (2000). Taking charge of ADHD: The complete, authoritative guide for parents (
    rev. ed.
    ). New York: Guilford.
    Copeland, E., & Love, V. (1991). Attention, please! A comprehensive guide for successfully parenting children with attention disorders and hyperactivity. Atlanta, GA: SPI.
    Dendy Zeigler, C. A. (1995). Teenagers with ADD: A parents’ guide. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.
    Fowler, M. (1990). Maybe you know my kid: A parent's guide to identifying, understanding, and helping your child with ADHD. New York: Birch Lane Press.
    Monastra, V. J. (2004). Parenting children with ADHD: 10 lessons that medicine cannot teach. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Morris, J. (1998). Facing AD/HD: A survival guide for parents of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Munden, A., & Arcelus, J. (1999). The ADHD handbook: A guide for parents and professionals. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
    Rief, S. F. (2002). The ADD/ADHD checklist. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Taylor, J. F. (2001). Helping your ADD child: Hundreds of practical solutions for parents and teachers of ADD children and teens (with or without hyperactivity) (
    3rd ed.
    ). Three Rivers, MI: Three Rivers Press.
    Umansky, W., & Steinberg Smalley, B. (2003). AD/HD: Helping your child: A comprehensive program to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders at home and in school (
    rev. ed.
    ). New York: Warner Books.
    Weiss, L. (1996). Give your ADD teen a chance: A guide for parents of teenagers with attention deficit disorder. Colorado Springs, CO: Pinon Press.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Kevin Dawkins Production. (Producer). (1993). ADHD—What can we do? [Video]. New York: Guilford.
    The Parents Resource Network's Lecture Library. (Producer). (1996). An evening with Dr. Russell Barkley: New thoughts on ADHD [Video]. New York: Guilford.
    Rief, S. F. (n.d.). How to help your child succeed in school: Strategies and guidance for parents of children with ADHD and/or learning disabilities [Video]. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources.
    Wagonseller, B. R. (n.d.). What every parent should know about ADD [Video]. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Asher, M. J., & Gordon, S. B. (1998). The AD/HD forms book: Identification, measurement, and intervention. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Barkley, R. A. (1998). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Guilford.
    DuPaul, G. J., & Stoner, G. (2004). ADHD in the schools: Assessment and intervention strategies (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Guilford.
    Lovecky, D. V. (2004). Different minds: Gifted children with AD/HD, Asperger Syndrome, and other learning deficits. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
    Nadeau, K. G., Littman, E., & Quinn, P. O. (2000). Understanding girls with AD/HD. Longwood, FL: Advantage Books.
    Rief, S. F. (2003). The ADHD book of lists: A practical guide for helping children and teens with attention deficit disorders. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Robin, A. L. (1999). ADHD in adolescents: Diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford.
    Ryser, G., & McConnell, K. (2002). Scales for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2004). Treating adolescents with ADHD [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Campbell & Co. (Producer). (2001). Attention deficit disorder in the 21st century. [Video].
    DuPaul, G. J., & Stoner, G. (Producer). (1998). Assessing ADHD in the schools [Video]. New York: Guilford.
    DuPaul, G. J., & Stoner, G. (Producer). (1998). Classroom interventions for ADHD [Video]. New York: Guilford.
    Rief, S. F. (2004). ADHD & LD: Powerful teaching strategies and accommodations (K-8) [Video]. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources.
    For Use in Group
    General Resources
    Carpenter, P., & Ford, M. (2000). Sparky's excellent misadventures: My A.D.D. journal. Washington, DC: Magination Press.
    Galvin, M. (1998). Otto learns about his medicine: A story about medication for children with ADHD (
    3rd ed.
    ). Washington, DC: Magination Press.
    Gordon, M. (1991). Jumpin’ Johnny, get back to work! A child's guide to ADHD/hyperactivity. DeWitt, NY: GSI Publications.
    Quinn, P. O. (1995). Adolescents and ADD: Gaining the advantage. Washington, DC: Magination Press.
    Rogers, B. T., Montgomery, T. R., Lock, T. M., & Accardo, P. J. (2001). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The clinical spectrum. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Walker, B. (2004). The girls’ guide to AD/HD: Don't lose this bookBethesda, MD: Woodbine House.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    American Psychological Asssociation. (Producer). (2004). Treating adolescents with ADHD [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Group Activities
    Flick, G. L. (2002). ADD/ADHD behavior-change resource kit: Ready-to-use strategies and activities for helping children with attention deficit disorder. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    McConnell, K., & Ryser, G. R. (2005). Practical ideas that really work for students with ADHD (
    2nd ed.
    ). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Nadeau, K. G., & Dixon, E. B. (1997). Learning to slow down and pay attention: A book for kids about ADD. Washington, DC: Magination Press.
    Power, T. J., Karustis, J. L., & Habboushe, D. F. (2001). Homework success for children with ADHD: A family-school intervention program. New York: Guilford.
    Quinn, P. O., & Stern, J. M. (2000). The best of brakes: An activity book for kids with ADD. Washington, DC: Magination Press.
    Quinn, P. O., Stern, J. M., & Russell, N. (1993). The “putting on the brakes” activity book for young people with ADHD. Washington, DC: Magination Press.
    Rief, S. F. (1993). How to reach and teach ADD/ADHD children: Practical techniques, strategies, and interventions for helping children with attention problems and hyperactivity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Anger Management/Aggression
    For Parents
    General Resources
    Bloomquist, M. L. (1996). Skills training for children with behavior disorders: A parent and therapist guidebook. New York: Guilford.
    Kellner, M. H. (2003). Staying in control: Anger management skills for parents of young adolescents. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Moles, K. (2003). Strategies for anger management: Reproducible worksheets for teens and adults. Plainsview, NY: Wellness Reproductions & Publishing.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Beck, R., & Fernandez, E. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of anger: A meta-analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22, 63–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1018763902991
    Bloomquist, M. L., & Schnell, S. V. (2002). Helping children with aggression and conduct problems: Best practices for interventions. New York: Guilford.
    Charlesworth, J. (2004). Helping students manage anger. In B. T.Erford (Ed.), Professional school counseling: A handbook of theories, programs, and practices (pp. 805–811). Austin, TX: CAPS Press.
    Fryxel, D., & Smith, D. C. (2000). Personal, social, and family characteristics of angry students. Professional School Counseling, 4, 86–97.
    Goldstein, A., Nensen, R., Daleflod, B., & Kalt, M. (Eds.). (2004). New perspectives on aggression replacement training: Practice, research, and application. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0470030380
    Goldstein, A. P. (1999). Low-level aggression: First steps on the ladder to violence. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Kassinove, H., & Tafrate, R. C. (2002). Anger management: The complete treatment guide for practitioners. Atascadero, CA: Impact.
    Larson, J., & Lochman, J. E. (2002). Helping school children cope with anger: A cognitive-behavioral intervention. New York: Guilford.
    Simmons, R. (2001). Odd girl out: The hidden culture of aggression in girls. Orlando, FL: Harcourt.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Amendola, M., Feindler, E. L., McGinnis, E., & Oliver, R. (Producer). Aggression replacement training video: A comprehensive intervention for aggressive youth. [Video]. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Anger. (1995). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Anger management. (2001). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Coping with anger. (1994). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Understanding anger. (2002). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    For Use in Group
    General Resources
    Carr, T. (2001). 131 creative strategies for reaching children with anger problems. Minneapolis, MN: Educational Media Corporation.
    Clark, L. (1998). SOS! Help for emotions: Managing anxiety, anger, and depression. Berkeley, CA: Parents’ Press.
    Cummings, A. L., Hoffman, S., & Leschied, A. W. (2004). A psychoeducational group for aggressive girls. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 29, 285–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933920490477020
    Ditta-Donahue, G. (2003). Josh's smiley faces: A story about anger. Washington, DC: Magination Press.
    Dwivedi, K., & Gupta, A. (2000). Keeping cool: Anger management through group work. Support for Learning, 15, 76–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9604.00150
    Kooser, D. (2000). Potter pig in control. Warminster, PA: Marco Products.
    Larson, J. (2003). Group counseling with aggressive adolescents in the school setting: A cognitive-behavioral perspective. In C. T.Dollarhide & K. A.Saginak (Eds.), School counseling in the secondary schools: A comprehensive process and program (pp. 342–352). Boston: Pearson.
    Sharry, J., & Owens, C. (2000). “The rules of engagement”: A case study of a group with “angry” adolescents. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 5, 53–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359104500005001006
    Shechtman, Z. (2001). Prevention groups for angry and aggressive children. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 26, 228–236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933920108414214
    Shechtman, Z., & Nachshol, R. (1996). A school-based intervention to reduce aggressive behavior in maladjusted adolescents. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 17, 535–553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973%2896%2990015-5
    Simmons, R. (2004). Odd girl speaks out. Orlando, FL: Harcourt.
    Snyder, K. V., Kymissis, P., & Kessler, K. (1999). Anger management for adolescents: Efficacy of brief group therapy. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1409–1416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199911000-00016
    Verdick, E., & Lisovskis, M. (2003). How to take the grrr out of anger. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Aggression replacement training: A comprehensive intervention for aggressive youth. (2003). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Anger: Who's to blame? (2003). [Video]. Hawthorne, NY: Sunburst Visual Media.
    Cage the rage: Handling your anger. (1997). [Video]. Plainview, NY: The Bureau for At-RiskYouth.
    Hammond, W. R., & Gipson, V. (n.d.). Dealing with anger: A violence prevention program for African American youth [Video]. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Institute for Mental Health Initiatives. (Producer). (n.d.). Learning to manage anger: The RETHINK workout for teens [Video]. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Youth life skills series: Anger management. (n.d.). [Video]. Plainview, NY: The Bureau for At-RiskYouth.
    Group Activities
    Akin, T. (2000). Learning the skills of anger management. Carson, CA: Jalmar.
    Bohensky, A. (2001). Anger management workbook for kids and teens. New York: Growth Publishing.
    Carrell, S. (2000). Living with emotionality. In S.Carrell (Ed.), Group exercises for adolescents: A manual for therapists (pp. 121–140). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452230450
    Currie, M. (2004). Doing anger differently: A group percussion therapy for angry adolescent boys. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 54, 275–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/ijgp.54.3.275.40335
    Davidson, P. (1997). The mad game. In H. G.Kaduson & C. E.Schaefer (Eds.), 101 favorite play therapy techniques (pp. 224–225). Northvale, NJ: Aronson.
    Driscoll, N. A. (2002). Anger bingo for teens [Board game]. Modesto, CA: Nasco.
    From rage to reason. (2000). [Board game]. Plainview, NY: The Bureau for At-Risk Youth.
    Goldstein, A. P. (1999). The prepare curriculum (
    2nd ed.
    ). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Goldstein, A. P., Glick, B., & Gibbs, J. C. (1998). Aggression replacement training: A comprehensive intervention for aggressive youth. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Hanna, F. J., & Hunt, W. P. (1999). Techniques for psychotherapy with defiant, aggressive adolescents. Psychotherapy, 36, 56–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0087842
    Jewett, J. (2000). Aggression and cooperation: Helping young children develop constructive strategies. Elementary and Early Childhood Education, 7, 23–28.
    Kellner, M. H. (2001). In control: A skill-building program for teaching young adolescents to manage anger. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Madrid, L. (2001). Activities and songs for healing and support. Carson, CA: Jalmar.
    Modrcin-McCarthy, M. A., Barnes, A. F., & Alpert, J. (1998). Childhood anger: So common, yet so misunderstood. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 11, 69–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6171.1998.tb00433.x
    Morganett, R. S. (1990). Better ways of getting mad: Anger management skills. In R. S.Morganett, Skills for living: Group counseling activities for young adolescents (pp. 129–151). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Phillips-Hershey, E., & Kanagy, B. (1996). Teaching students to manage personal anger constructively. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 30, 229–234.
    Rose, S. D., & Martsch, M. D. (1998). Group strategies for reducing anger and aggression. In S. D.Rose, Group therapy with troubled youth: A cognitive behavioral interactive approach (pp. 433–460). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Simmonds, J. (2003). Seeing red: An anger management and peacemaking curriculum for kids. Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada: New Society Publishers.
    Smead, R. (2000). Agree to disagree: Learning to manage anger. In R.Smead, Skills for living: Group counseling activities for young adolescents (pp. 203–231). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Stewart, J. (2004). Learning about anger. Alameda, CA: Hunter House.
    Wilde, J. (2001). Interventions for children with anger problems. Journal of Rational Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 19, 191–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1011135622841
    Antisocial Behavior/Defiance
    For Parents
    General Resources
    Barkely, R. A., & Benton, C. M. (1998). Your defiant child: Eight steps to better behavior. New York: Guilford.
    Dishion, T. J., & Kavanagh, K. (2003). Intervening in adolescent problem behavior: A family-centered approach. New York: Guilford.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Counseling and parenting difficult teens. (1995). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Kevin Dawkins Production. (Producer). (1997). Managing the defiant child: A guide to parent training [Video]. New York: Guilford.
    Managing the defiant child. (1997). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Barkley, R. A., Edwards, G. H., & Robin, A. L. (1999). Defiant teens: A clinician's manual for assessment and family intervention. New York: Guilford.
    Conner, D. F. (2002). Aggression and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: Research and treatment. New York: Guilford.
    Hall, R. V., & Hall, M. L. (Eds.). (1998). How to manage behavior series. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Holmes-Robinson, J. (2004). Helping at-risk students. In B. T.Erford (Ed.), Professional school counseling: A handbook of theories, programs, and practices (pp. 735–744). Austin, TX: CAPS.
    McMahon, R. J., & Forehand, R. L. (2003). Helping the noncompliant child: Family-based treatment for oppositional behavior (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Guilford.
    Reid, J. B., Patterson, G., & Snyder, J. J. (Eds.). (2002). Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10468-000
    Sells, S. P. (1998). Treating the tough adolescent: A family-based, step-by-step guide. New York: Guilford.
    Wachtel, E. F. (1994). Treating troubled children and their families. New York: Guilford.
    Wagner, C. L., & Heflin, L. J. (1994). Managing behaviors: A therapist's guide. San Antonio, TX: Communication Skill Builders.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Barkley, R. (Presenter). (1997). Understanding the defiant child [Video]. New York: Guilford.
    Kevin Dawkins Production. (Producer). (1997). Understanding the defiant child [Video]. New York: Guilford.
    Managing oppositional youth. (1997). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Working with hostile and resistant teens. (1992). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    For Use in Group
    General Resources
    Dennison, S. T. (1997). Creating positive support groups for at-risk children: Ten complete curriculums for the most common problems among elementary students, grades 1–8. Carson, CA: Jalmar.
    McConnell, K., Ryser, G., & Patton, J. R. (2002). Practical ideas that really work for students with disruptive, defiant, or difficult behaviors. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    O'Dell, F. L., Rak, C. F., Chermonte, J. P., & Hamlin, A. (1994). The boost club: A program for at-risk third-and fourth-grade students. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 19, 227–231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929408414368
    Wilson, F. R., & Owens, P. C. (2001). Group-based prevention programs for at-risk adolescents and adults. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 26, 246–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933920108414216
    Group Activities
    Bloomquist, M. L. (1996). Skills training for children with behavior disorders: A parent and therapist guidebook. New York: Guilford.
    Body Image/Eating Disorders
    For Parents
    General Resources
    Hollis, J. (1996). Fat is a family affair. Cedar City, MN: Hazelden.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Baumann, J. (1992). Reflections on group psychotherapy with eating disorder patients. Group Psychotherapy for Eating Disorders, 16, 95–100.
    Berg, F. (2001). Children and teens afraid to eat: Helping youth in today's weight-obsessed world. Hettinger, ND: Healthy Weight Network.
    Bilker, L. (1993). Male or female therapists for eating-disordered adolescents: Guidelines suggested by research and practice. Adolescence, 28, 393–422.
    Brooks, U., & Tepper, I. (1997). High school students’ attitudes and knowledge of food consumption and body image: Implications for school based education. Patient Education and Counseling, 28, 155–164.
    DeLucia-Waack, J. L. (1999). Supervision for counselors working with eating disordered groups: Countertransference issues related to body image, food, and weight. Journal of Counseling & Development, 77, 379–888. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1999.tb02463.x
    Hamburg, P., & Herzog, D. (1990). Supervising the therapy of patients with eating disorders. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 44, 369–380.
    Johnson, N. G., Roberts, M. C, & Worell, J. (Eds.). (2001). Beyond appearance: A new look at adolescent girls. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Kalodner, C. R., & DeLucia-Waack, J. L. (2003). Theory and research on eating disorders and disturbances in women: Suggestions for practice. In M.Kopala & M.Keitel (Eds.), Handbook of counseling and women (pp. 506–532). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Lask, B. (2000). Eating disorders in childhood and adolescents. Current Pediatrics, 10, 254–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1054/cupe.2000.0122
    Lock, J., Le Grange, D., Agras, W. S., & Dare, C. (2002). Treatment manual for anorexia nervosa: A family-based approach. New York: Guilford.
    Lynch, M., Myers, B. J., Kliewer, W., & Kilmartin, C. (2001). Adolescent self-esteem and gender: Exploring relations to sexual harassment, body image, media influences, and emotional expression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30, 225–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010397809136
    Mussell, M. P., Binford, R. B., & Fulkerson, J. A. (2000). Eating disorders: Summary of risk factors, prevention programming, and prevention research. The Counseling Psychologist, 28, 764–796. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000000286002
    Thompson, J. K., Heinberg, L. J., Altabe, M., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting beauty: Theory, assessment, and treatment of body image disturbance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10312-000
    Thompson, J. K., & Smolak, L. (Eds.). (2001). Body image, eating disorders, and obesity in youth: Assessment, prevention, and treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Eating disorders. (1996). [Video]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences.
    Understanding eating disorders. (2002). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    For Use in Group
    General Resources
    Bardick, A. D., Bernes, K. B., McCulloch, A. R. M., Witko, K. D., Spriddle, J. W., & Roest, A. R. (2004). Eating disorder intervention, prevention, and treatment: Recommendations for school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 8, 168–175.
    Brisman, J., & Siegel, M. (1985). The bulimia workshop: A unique integration of group treatment approaches. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 35, 585–601.
    Cash, T. (1995). What do you see when you look in the mirror? Helping yourself to a positive body image. New York: Bantam.
    Dokter, D. (Ed.). (1994). Art therapies and clients with eating disorders. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
    Fettes, P. A., & Peters, J. M. (1992). A meta-analysis of group treatment for bulimia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11, 97–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-108X%28199203%2911:2%3C97::AID-EAT2260110202%3E3.0.CO;2-H
    Harvey, K. H., & Powers, P. S. (1998). The “Free to Be Me” psychoeducational group: A conceptual model for coping with being overweight. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 23, 312–325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929808411403
    Jensen-Scott, R. L., & DeLucia-Waack, J. L. (1993). Developing guidance programming in junior and senior high schools: Eating disorders and weight management units. The School Counselor, 41, 109–117.
    Kalodner, C. R., & Coughlin, J. (2004). Psychoeducational and counseling groups to prevent and treat eating disorders and disturbances. In J. L.DeLucia-Waack, D. A.Gerrity, C. R.Kalodner, & M. T.Riva (Eds.), Handbook of group counseling and psychotherapy (pp. 481–496). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452229683
    Levitt, D. H. (2004). Helping students with eating disorders. In B. T.Erford (Ed.), Professional school counseling: A handbook of theories, programs, and practices (pp. 503–514). Austin, TX: CAPS.
    O'Dea, J. (2000). School-based interventions to prevent eating problems: First do no harm. Eating Disorders, 8, 123–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10640260008251219
    O'Dea, J. A., & Abraham, S. (2000). Improving body image, eating attitudes, and behaviors of young male and female adolescents: A new educational approach that focuses on self-esteem. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 28, 43–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291098-108X%28200007%2928:1%3C43::AID-EAT6%3E3.0.CO;2-D
    Paxton, S. (1993). A prevention program for disturbed eating and body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls: A one-year follow-up. Health Education Research: Theory & Practice, 8, 43–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/8.1.43
    Phelps, L., Dempsey, M., Sapia, J., & Nelson, L. (1999). The efficacy of an eating disorder school-based prevention program: Building physical self-esteem and personal competence. In N.Piran, M.Levine, & C.Steiner-Adair (Eds.), Preventing eating disorders: A handbook of interventions and special challenges. Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel.
    Phelps, L., Sapia, J., Nathanson, D., & Nelson, L. (2000). An empirically supported eating disorder prevention program. Psychology in the Schools, 37, 443–452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6807%28200009%2937:5%3C443::AID-PITS4%3E3.0.CO;2-8
    Rhyne-Winkler, M. C., & Hubbard, G. T. (1994). Eating attitudes and behavior: A school counseling program. The School Counselor, 41, 195–198.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Angel, C. (Producer), Weber, A. (Producer), & Friedman, G. (Producer). (2000). Eating disorders: The inner voice [Video]. Monmouth Junction, NJ: Cambridge Educational.
    Cambridge Educational Production. (Producer). (2002). Body image for boys [Video]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences.
    Picture perfect: Chasing an impossible goal. (2000). [Video]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences.
    The thin line: Eating disorders and teens. (2004). [Video]. Plainview, NY: The Bureau for At-Risk Youth.
    Wasting away: Anorexia nervosa. (2000). [Video]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences.
    When food is the enemy: Eating disorders. (1996). [Video]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences.
    Group Activities
    Cash, T. F. (1997). The body image workbook: An 8-step program for learning to like your looks. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.
    Daigneault, S. D. (2000). Body talk: A school based intervention for working with disordered eating behaviors. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 25, 191–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933920008411461
    Goodman, L., & Villapiano, M. (2001). Eating disorders: Journal to recovery workbook. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Goodman, L., & Villapiano, M. (2001). Eating disorders: A time for change: Plans, strategies, and worksheets. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Migliore, M. A., with Ross, P. (1998). The hunger within: A twelve-week guided journey from compulsive eating to recovery. New York: Main Street.
    Piran, N., Levine, M. P., & Steiner-Adair, C. (1999). Preventing eating disorders: A handbook of interventions and special challenges. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Russell, S., & Ryder, S. (2001a). BRIDGE (Building the relationship between body image and disordered eating graph and explanation): A tool for parents and professionals. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 9, 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/106402601300187704
    Russell, S., & Ryder, S. (2001b). BRIDGE 2 (Building the relationship between body image and disordered eating graph and explanation): Interventions and transitions. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 9, 15–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/106402601300187704
    Russell, S., Ryder, S., & Marcoux, G. (2001). BRIDGE: A resource collection for promoting healthy body image, grades 7–9, grades 10–12!. Available from Alberta Mental Health Board, http://www.amhb.ab.ca.
    Sacker, I. M., & Zimmer, M. A. (1987). Dying to be thin: Understanding and defeating anorexia nervosa and bulimia: A practical, lifesaving guide. New York: Warner.
    Stout, E. J., & Frame, M. W. (2004). Body image disorder in adolescent males: Strategies for school counselors. Professional School Counselor, 8, 176–181.
    Van Lone, J. S., Kalodner, C. R., & Coughlin, J. W. (2002). Using short stories to address eating disturbances in group. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 27, 59–77.
    Weiss, L., Katzman, M., & Wolchick, S. (1985). Treating bulimia: A psychoeducational approach. New York: Pergamon.
    Bullying Prevention
    For Parents
    General Resources
    Coloroso, B. (2004). The bully, the bullied, and the bystander: From preschool to high school, how parents and teachers can help break the cycle of violence. New York: Harper Resource.
    Freedman, J. S. (2002). Easing the teasing: Helping your child cope with name-calling, ridicule, and verbal bullying. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill.
    Fried, S., & Fried, P. (1996). Bullies and victims: Helping your child survive the schoolyard battlefield. New York: M. Evans.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Bierman, K. L. (2003). Peer rejection: Developmental processes and intervention strategies. New York: Guilford.
    Bortner, L. (2004). Resolving conflicts, providing skills. ASCA School Counselor, 42, 14–15.
    Cowen, D. (1992). Teaching the skills of conflict resolution. Torrance, CA: Innerchoice.
    Frenzen, A. (2004). Sugar and spice and everything nice?ASCA School Counselor, 42, 20–24.
    Guerra, N. G., Tolan, P. H., & Hammond, R. W. (1994). Prevention and treament of adolescent violence. In L. D.Eron, J. H.Gentry, & P.Schlegel (Eds.), A reason to hope: A psychosocial perspective on violence and youth (pp. 383–403). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10164-015
    Hoover, J. H., & Oliver, R. (1993). The bullying prevention handbook: A guide for principals, teachers and counselors. Amherst, MA: National Educational Service.
    Juvonen, J., & Graham, S. (2001). Peer harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized. New York: Guilford.
    Renshaw, D. C. (2001). Bullies. The Family Journal, 9, 341–342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1066480701093016
    Ross, D. M. (2003). Childhood bullying, teasing, and violence: What school personnel, other professionals, and parents can do (
    2nd ed.
    ). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
    Saufler, C. (2004). A promising approach. ASCA School Counselor, 42, 14–18.
    Stephens, R. D. (2004). Gangs in schools. ASCA School Counselor, 42, 10–13.
    Underwood, M. K. (2003). Social aggression among girls. New York: Guilford.
    Weinhold, B. K. (2002). Uncovering the hidden causes of bullying and school violence. In J.Carlson & J.Lewis (Eds.), Counseling the adolescent: Individual, family, and school interventions (
    4th ed.
    , pp. 181–213). Denver, CO: Love Publishing.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Managing school violence: Before, during, and after. (2000). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Shore, K. (2004). The ABC's of bullying prevention [Video]. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources.
    For Use in Group
    General Resources
    Brinson, J. A., Kottler, J. A., & Fisher, T. A. (2004). Cross-cultural conflict resolution in the schools: Some practical intervention strategies for counselors. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82, 294–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2004.tb00313.x
    Crothers, L. M., & Levinson, E. M. (2004). Assessment of bullying: A review of methods and instruments. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82, 496–503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2004.tb00338.x
    DePino, C. (2004). Blue cheese breath and stinky feet: How to deal with bullies. Washington, DC: Magination Press.
    Kaufman, G., Raphael, L., & Espeland, P. (1999). Stick up for yourself! Every kid's guide to personal power and positive self-esteem. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Moss, P. (2004). Say something. Gardiner, ME: Tilbury House.
    Palomares, S., & Schilling, D. (2001). How to handle a bully. Torrance, CA: Innerchoice.
    Taylor, J. (2004). Middle grade madness—Debunking the myth of the queen bee. ASCA School Counselor, 42, 24–26.
    Weinhold, B. (Ed.). (1996). Spreading kindness: A program guide for reducing youth violence in the schools. Colorado Springs, CO: Kindness Campaign.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Beane, A. L. (1999). The bully free classroom [CD-ROM]. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Bullying: You don't have to take it anymore (grade level: 7–12). (2002). [Video]. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources.
    Elkind and Sweet Communication. (Producer). (1995). Prevent violence with Groark (grades K-3) [Video]. San Francisco: Live Wire Media.
    Fisher, R. (Producer). (1995). Conflict resolution: Elementary grades [Video]. Pleasantville, NY: Sunburst Communications.
    Group Activities
    The assignment: Girls, cliques, and cruelty. (2003). [DVD]. Plainview, NY: The Bureau for At-Risk Youth.
    Beane, A. L. (1999). The bully free classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Boulden, J., & Boulden, J. (1994). Push & shove: The bully and victim activity book. Weaverville, CA: Boulden Publishing.
    Boulden, J., & Boulden, J. (1995). Give and take: A conflict resolution activity book. Weaverville, CA: Boulden Publishing.
    Huerta, J. P. (1991). Refusal skills: Middle school, high school. In G.Brigman & B.Earley (Eds.), Group counseling for school counselors: A practical guide (pp. 120–130). Portland, ME: J. Weston Walch.
    Newman-Carlson, D., & Horne, A. M. (2004). Bully busters: A psychoeducational intervention for reducing bullying behavior in middle school students. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82, 259–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2004.tb00309.x
    Perlstein, R., & Thrall, G. (1998). Ready-to-use conflict resolution activities for secondary students. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.
    Pittman, S. (1991). Handling conflict: Stand up to bullies. In G.Brigman & B.Earley (Eds.), Group counseling for school counselors: A practical guide (pp. 131–142). Portland, ME: J. Weston Walch.
    Romain, T. (2000). Bullies are a pain in the brain. New York: Scholastic.
    Romain, T. (2001). Cliques, phonies, and other baloney. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Sheridan, S. M. (1998). Why don't they like me?Longmount, CO: Sopris West.
    Teolis, B. (1998). Ready-to-use conflict resolution activities for elementary students. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.
    Children of Divorce
    For Parents
    General Resources
    Beyer, R., & Winchester, K. (2001). Speaking of divorce: How to talk with your kids and help them cope. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Duncan, T. R., & Duncan, D. (1979). You're divorced, but your children aren't. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Gardner, R. (1991). The parents’ book about divorce. New York: Bantam.
    Kalter, N. (1990). Growing up with divorce: Helping your child avoid immediate and later emotional problems. New York: Free Press.
    Sommers-Flanagan, R., Elander, C, & Sommers-Flanagan, J. (2000). Don't divorce us! Kids advice to divorcing parents. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
    Stahl, P. M. (2000). Parenting after divorce: A guide to resolve conflicts and meeting your children's needs. Atascadero, CA: Impact.
    Wallerstein, J. S., & Kelly, J. B. (1980). Surviving the break-up: How children and parents cope with divorce. New York: Basic Books.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Alpert-Gillis, L. J., Pedro-Carroll, J. L., & Cowen, E. L. L. (1989). Children of Divorce Intervention program: Development, implementation, and evaluation of a program for young urban children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 538–587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.57.5.583
    Bernstein, J. (1990). Books to help children cope with separation and loss (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Bowker.
    Berry, J. (1990). Good answers to tough questions about divorce. San Francisco: Children's Press.
    Freeman, K. A., Adams, C. D., & Drabman, R. S. (1998). Divorcing parents: Guidelines for promoting children's adjustment. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 20, 1–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J019v20v03_01
    Hodges, W. (1986). Interventions for children of divorce: Custody, access and psychotherapy. New York: Wiley.
    Lesowitz, M., Kalter, N., Pickar, J., Chethik, M., & Schaefer, M. (1987). School-based developmental facilitation groups for children of divorce: Issues of group process. Psychotherapy, 24, 90–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085696
    Lockhart, E. J. (2004). Helping students from changing families. In B. T.Erford (Ed.), Professional school counseling: A handbook of theories, programs, and practices (pp. 719–733). Austin, TX: CAPS.
    Oppawsky, J. (1991). Utilizing children's drawings in working with children following divorce. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 15, 125–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J087v15n03_07
    Wilcoxon, S. A., & Magnusom, S. (1999). Considerations for school counselors serving noncustodial parents: Premises and suggestions. Professional School Counseling, 2, 275–279.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Stepfamilies: A coming together. (1984). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Working with stepfamilies. (2004). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    For Use in Group
    Books
    Berger, F. (1983). Nuisance. New York: Morrow.
    Beyer, R., & Winchester, K. (2001). What in the world do you do when your parents divorce? A survival guide for kids. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Blume, J. (1972). It's not the end of the world. New York: Bradbury.
    Boekman, C. (1980). Surviving your parents’ divorce. Danbury, CT: Franklin Watts.
    Boelts, M. (1992). With my Mom, with my Dad. New York: Pacific Press.
    Brown, L. K., & Brown, M. (1986). Dinosaurs’ divorce. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Cain, B., & Benedek, E. (1976). What would you do? A child's book about divorce. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
    Cantor, D.W., & Drake, E. A. (1983). Divorced parents and their children. New York: Springer.
    Field, M., & Shore, H. (1994). My life turned upside down, but I turned it rightside up: A self-esteem book about dealing with shared custody. New York: Center for Applied Psychology.
    Heegaard, M. (1991). When Mom and Dad separate: Children can learn to cope with grief about divorce. Minneapolis, MN: Woodland.
    Hoffman, E. (1995). Kids can cope with divorce. Warminster, PA: Marco Products.
    Lash, M. (1990). My kind of family: A book for kids in single-parent homes. Burlington, VT: Waterfront.
    MacGregor, C. (2001). The divorce helpbook for kids. Atascadero, CA: Impact.
    MacGregor, C. (2004). The divorce helpbook for teens. Atascadero, CA: Impact.
    Mayle, P. (1988). Why are we getting a divorce?New York: Harmony.
    Rogers, F. (1996). Let's talk about it: Stepfamilies. New York: Putnam.
    Rogers, F. (1997). Let's talk about it: Divorce. New York: Putnam.
    Swan-Jackson, A. (1998). When your parents split up … How to keep yourself together. New York: Penguin Putnam.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Cambridge Educational Media. (Producer). (2002). Divorce: A survival guide for kids [Video]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences.
    Cooper, J., & Martenz, A. (1993). Divorce I. Warminster, PA: Marco Products.
    Cooper, J., & Martenz, A. (1993). Stepfamilies I. Warminster, PA: Marco Products.
    Kids Rights. (1995). No fault kids: A focus on kids with divorced parents [Video]. Charlotte, NC: Author.
    Kids Rights. (1995). When Mom and Dad break up [Video]. Charlotte, NC: Author.
    Sunburst Communications. (1997). If your parents break up … [Video]. Pleasantview, NYAuthor.
    Yours, mine, and ours. (1988). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Group Activities
    Banks, A. (1990). When your parents get a divorce: A kid's journal. New York: Viking.
    Beyer, R. (2002). The Mom and Dad pad: A divorce communication tool. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Deaton, W. (1994). A separation in my family: A child's workbook about parental separation and divorce. New York: Hunter House.
    DeLucia-Waack, J. L. (1996). Children of divorce group work in the schools. In S. T.Gladding (Ed.), Group process and group counseling (pp. 27–28). Greensboro, NC: ERIC/CASS.
    DeLucia-Waack, J. L. (2001). Effective children of divorce groups for elementary school children. The Family Journal, 9, 273–284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1066480701093006
    DeLucia-Waack, J. L. (2001). Using music in children of divorce groups: A session-by-session manual for counselors. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
    Earley, B. (1991). Family group—Divorce. In G.Brigman & B.Earley (Eds.), Group counseling for school counselors: A practical guide (pp. 145–164). Portland, ME: J. Weston Walch.
    Epstein, Y. M., & Borduin, C. M. (1985). Could this happen? A game for children of divorce. Psychotherapy, 22, 770–773. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085567
    Games, T. (1997). The divorce game. Pleasantville, NY: Sunburst Communications.
    Garigan, E., & Urbanski, M. (1991). Living with divorce—Primary grades: Activities to help children cope with difficult situations. New York: Good Apple.
    Hage, S. M., & Nosanow, M. (2000). Becoming stronger at broken places: A model for group work with young adolescents from divorced families. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 25, 50–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933920008411451
    Hayes, R. L., & Hayes, B. A. (2002). Remarried families: Counseling parents and their children. In J.Carlson & J.Lewis (Eds.), Counseling the adolescent: Individual, family, and school interventions (
    4th ed.
    , pp. 303–315). Denver, CO: Love Publishing.
    Ives, S. (1985). The divorce workbook: A guide for kids and families. New York: Waterfront.
    Ives, S., Fassler, D., & Lash, M. (1985). The divorce workbook. Burlington, VT: Waterfront.
    Margolin, S. (1996). Changes activity. In Complete group counseling program for children of divorce (pp. 46–50). West Nyack, NY: The Center for Applied Research in Education.
    Margolin, S. (1996). Complete group counseling program for children of divorce: Ready-to-use plans and materials for small and large divorce groups, 1–6. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.
    Morganett, R. S. (1990). Dealing with a divorce in the family. In R. S.Morganett, Skills for living: Group counseling activities for young adolescents (pp. 13–30). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Muro, J. J., & Kottman, T. (1995). Counseling specific populations: Children of divorce. In J. J.Muro & T.Kottman, Guidance and counseling in the elementary and middle schools: A practical approach (pp. 217–250). Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark.
    Pedro-Carroll, J. L. (1985). The Children of Divorce Intervention program: A procedures manual for facilitating a divorce support group for 4th-6th grade children. Rochester, NYUniversity of Rochester Center for Community Study.
    Pedro-Carroll, J. L., & CowenE.L. (1987). The Children of Divorce Intervention program: Implementation and evaluation of a time-limited group approach. In J. P.Vincent (Ed.), Advances in family intervention, assessment and theory (Vol. 4, pp. 281–307). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Prokop, M. (1986). Divorce happens to the nicest kids: A self-help book for kids and adults. Warren, OH: Alegra House.
    Rose, S. R. (1998). Applications of group work: Parental divorce. In S. R.Rose, Group work with children and adolescents: Prevention and intervention in school and community systems (pp. 87–105). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Worthen, T. (Ed.). (2001). Broken hearts … healing: Young poets speak out on divorce. Logan, UT: Poet Tree Press.
    For a complete list see: DeLucia-Waack (2001).
    Children of Parents Who Have Cancer
    For Parents
    General Resources
    American Cancer Society. (1986). Helping children understand: A guide for a parent with cancer [Pamphlet]. Atlanta, GA: Author.
    Heiney, S. P., Hermann, J. F., Bruss, K. V., & Fincannon, J. L. (2001). Cancer in the family: Helping children cope with a parent's illness. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society.
    Kroll, L., Barnes, J., Jones, A. L., & Stein, A. (1998). Cancer in parents: Telling children. British Medical Journal, 316, 880–881. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.316.7135.880
    McCue, K. (1994). How to help children through a parent's serious illness. New York: St. Martin's.
    Russell, N. (2001). Can I still kiss you? Answering your children's questions about cancer. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications Inc.
    Texas Medical Center, Methodist Hospital Cancer Program. (1997). How to talk to a child when you have cancer. Houston, TX: Author.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Call, D. A. (1990). School-based groups: A valuable support for children of cancer patients. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 8, 97–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J077v08n01_07
    Compas, B. E., Ey, S., Worsham, N. L., & Howell, D. C. (1996). When Mom or Dad has cancer: II. Coping, cognitive appraisals, and psychological distress in children of cancer patients. Health Psychology, 15, 167–175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.15.3.167
    Stanko, C.A., & Taub, D.J. (2002). A counseling group for children of cancer patients. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 27, 43–58.
    Taylor-Brown, J., Acheson, A., & Farber, J. M. (1993). Kids can cope: A group for children whose parents have cancer. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 11, 41–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J077V11N01_03
    For Use in Group
    General Resources
    Ackermann, A., & Ackermann, A. (2001). Our Mom has cancer. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society.
    Bedway, A. J., & Smith, L. H. (1996). “For Kids Only”: Development of a program for children from families with a cancer patient. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 14, 19–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J077v14n04_02
    Carney, K. L. (2001). What is cancer anyway? Explaining cancer to children of all ages. Wethersfield, CT: Dragonfly.
    Kohlenberg, S. (1994). Sammy's mommy has cancer. Milwaukee, WI: Gareth Stevens.
    Lansdale, M. T., Jr. (2000). Cancer books for children. Health Information Resources. Michigan Electronic Library. Available: http://mel.lib.mi.us/health/cancerbooks
    Lewandowski, L. A. (1996). A parent has cancer: Needs and responses of children. Pediatric Nursing, 22, 518–523.
    Numeroff, L., & Schlessel Harpham, W. (2001). The hope tree: Kids talk about breast cancer. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Speltz, A. (2002). The year my mother was bald. Washington, DC: Magination Press.
    Group Activities
    American Cancer Society. (2002). Because someone I love has cancer: Kids’ activity book. Atlanta, GA: Author.
    Bedway, A. J., & Smith, L. H. (1996). “For Kids Only”: Development of a program for children from families with a cancer patient. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 14, 19–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J077v14n04_02
    Greening, K. (1992). The “Bear Essentials” program: Helping young children and their families cope when a parent has cancer. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 10, 47–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J077v10n01_05
    Harpham, W. (1997). When a parent has cancer: A guide to caring for your children/Becky and the worry cup: A children's book about a parent's cancer (2-book package). New York: HarperCollins.
    National Cancer Institute and National Institutes of Health. (2001). When someone in your family has cancer!. Available: http://rex.nci.nih.gov/NCI_Pub_Interface/guide_for_kids/kidscontents.html
    Taylor-Brown, J., Acheson, A., & Farber, J. M. (1993). Kids can cope: A group for children whose parents have cancer. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 11, 41–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J077V11N01_03
    Communication Skills
    For Parents
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Communication in single-parent and other family forms. (1997). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Communication rules and family secrets. (1997). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Teaching families new skills. (1996). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Clark, M. A. (2005). Building connections, communication and character in classrooms. ASCA School Counselor, 42, 8–13.
    Corder, B. F. (1994). Structured adolescent psychotherapy groups. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.
    For Use in Group
    General Resources
    McGann, W., & Werven, G. (1999). Social communication skills for children: A workbook for principle centered communication. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Nims, D. R. (1998). Searching for self: A theoretical model for applying family systems to adolescent group work. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 23(2), 133–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929808411386
    Palomares, S., Schuster, S., & Watkins, C. (1992). The sharing circle handbook: Topics for teaching self-awareness, communication, and social skills. Torrance, CA: Innerchoice.
    Robin, A. L., & Foster, S. L. (2002). Negotiating parent-adolescent conflict: A behavioral-family systems approach. New York: Guilford.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Communication. (2004). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Communication. (n.d.). [Youth Life Skills Series Video]. Plainview, NY: The Bureau for At-Risk Youth.
    Group Activities
    Gettinger, M., Doll, B., & Salmon, D. (1994). Effects of social problem solving, goal setting, and parent training on children's peer relations. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 141–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0193-3973%2894%2990010-8
    Hargrave, G. E., & Hargrave, M. C. (1979). A peer group socialization therapy program in the school: An outcome investigation. Psychology in the Schools, 16, 546–550. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6807%28197910%2916:4%3C546::AID-PITS2310160418%3E3.0.CO;2-V
    Hess, L. J. (1993). FACE to FACE: Facilitating adolescent communication experiences. San Antonio, TX: Communication Skill Builders/Therapy Skill Builders.
    Hightower, E., & Riley, B. (2002). Our family meeting book: Fun and easy ways to manage time, build communication, and share responsibility. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Jones, A. E. (1998). 104 activities that build: Self-esteem, teamwork, communication, anger management, self-discovery, and coping skills. Richland, WA: Rec. Room.
    Kelly, A. (2001). Talkabout: A social communication skills package. Oxfordshire, UK: Speechmark.
    Kelly, A. (2003). Talkabout activities: Developing social communication skills. Oxfordshire, UK: Speechmark.
    Mood swings flipchart. (n.d.). [Activity]. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Walker, H. M., Todis, B., Holmes, D., & Horton, G. (1987). The ACCESS program: Adolescent curriculum for communication and effective social skills. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Depression
    For Parents
    General Resources
    Fassler, D. G., & Dumas, L. S. (1998). “Help me, I'm sad”: Recognizing, treating, and preventing childhood and adolescent depression. East Rutherford, NJ: Penguin.
    Fristad, M. A., & Goldberg, J. S. (2003). Raising a moody child: How to cope with depression and bipolar disorder. New York: Guilford.
    Kaufman, M. (2001). Overcoming teen depression: A guide for parents (issues in parenting). Toronto, Ontario: Firefly.
    Miller, J. A. (1999). The childhood depression sourcebook. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Mondimore, F. M. (2002). Adolescent depression: A guide for parents. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Oster, G. D., & Montgomery, S. S. (1994). Helping your depressed teenager: A guide for parents and caregivers. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.
    Wilens, T. E. (2001). Straight talk about psychiatric medications for kids (
    rev. ed
    ). New York: Guilford.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Asarnow, J. R., Jaycox, L. H., & Tompson, M. C. (2001). Depression in youth: Psychosocial interventions. Journal of Clinical & Child Psychology, 30, 33–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3001_5
    Cash, R. E. (2001). Depression in children and adolescents. Bethesda, MD: The Guidance Channel and the National Association of School Psychologists.
    Clarke, G., Lewinsohn, P., & Hops, H. (1990). Coping with adolescent depression course: Leader's manual for adolescent groups. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
    Cytryn, L., & McKnew, D. H. (1998). Growing up sad: Childhood depression and its treatment. New York: Norton.
    Empfield, M., & Bakalar, N. (2001). Understanding teenage depression: A guide to diagnosis, treatment, and management. New York: Owl Books.
    Hazler, R. J., & Mellin, E. A. (2004). The developmental origins and treatment needs of female adolescents with depression. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82, 18–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2004.tb00281.x
    Herman-Stahl, M., & Peterson, A. (1996). The protective role of coping social resources for depressive symptoms among young adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 25, 733–753. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01537451
    Kaslow, N. J., & Thompson, M. P. (1998). Applying the criteria for empirically supported treatments to studies of psychosocial interventions for child and adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 146–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2702_2
    Kazdin, A. E. (1987). Assessment of childhood depression: Current issues and strategies. Behavioral Assessment, 9, 291–319.
    Koplewicz, H. S. (2003). More than moody: Recognizing and treating adolescent depression!. Available: http://www.AboutOurKids.org
    Lewinsohn, P. M., Pettit, J. W., Joiner, T. E., Jr., & Seeley, J. R. (2003). The symptomatic expression of major depressive disorder in adolescents and young adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 244–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.112.2.244
    Maag, J. W., & Forness, S. R. (2002). Depression in children and adolescents. In J.Carlson & J.Lewis (Eds.), Counseling the adolescent: Individual, family, and school interventions (
    4th ed.
    , pp. 135–165). Denver, CO: Love Publishing.
    Merrell, K. W. (2001). Helping students overcome depression and anxiety: A practical guide. New York: Guilford.
    Mufson, L., Dorta, K. P., Moreau, D., & Weissman, M. M. (Eds.). (2004). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Guilford.
    Newcomer, P. L., Barenbaum, E. M., & Bryant, B. R. (1994). Depression and Anxiety in Youth Scale. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Newsome, D. (2004). Helping students with depression. In B. T.Erford (Ed.), Professional school counseling: A handbook of theories, programs, and practices (pp. 515–531). Austin, TX: CAPS.
    Possell, P. D., Horn, A. B., Groen, G., & Hautzinger, M. (2004). School-based prevention of depression symptoms in adolescence: A six-month follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 1003–1010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000126975.56955.98
    Pozanski, E. O., & Mokros, H. B. (1996). Children's Depression Rating Scale—Revised edition. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Reynolds, W. M. (1990). Depression in children and adolescents: Nature, diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. School Psychology Review, 19, 158–174.
    Rice, A. (1995). Structured groups for the treatment of depression. In K. R.MacKensie (Ed.), Effective use of group therapy in managed care (pp. 61–96). Washington, DC: Psychiatric Press.
    Shocket, I. M., Dadds, M. R., Holland, D., Whitefield, K., Hartnet, P. H., & Osgarby, S. (2001). The efficacy of a universal school-based program to prevent adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 303–315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3003_3
    Spence, S. H., Sheffield, J. K., & Donovan, C. L. (2003). Preventing adolescent depression: An evaluation of the problem solving for life program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 3–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.1.3
    Stark, K. D. (1990). Childhood depression: School-based intervention. New York: Guilford.
    Stark, K. D., & Kendall, P. C. (1996). Treating depressed children: Therapist's manual for ACTION. Ardmore, PA: Workbook Publishing.
    Vandervoort, D. J., & Fuhriman, A. (1991). The efficacy of group therapy for depression: A review of the literature. Small Group Research, 22, 320–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046496491223003
    Wilkes, T. C. R., Belsher, G., Rush, A. J., & Frank, E. (1994). Cognitive therapy for depressed adolescents. New York: Guilford.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    CBT for depressed adolescents. (1998). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Distance Learning Network. (Producer). (1998). Treatment and assessment of childhood depression and anxiety [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    For Use in Group
    General Resources
    Burak-Maholik, S. (1993). Psychoeducational strategies for depressed students. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, 2, 45–47.
    Cobain, R. N. (1998). When nothing matters anymore: A survival guide for depressed teens. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Frank, K., & Smith-Rex, J. (1996). Getting over the blues: A kid's guide to understanding and coping with unpleasant feelings and depression. Minneapolis, MN: Educational Media.
    Garland, E. J. (1997). Depression is the pits, but I'm getting better: A guide for adolescents. Washington, DC: Magination Press.
    Rice, A. H. (2004). Group treatment of depression. In J. L.DeLucia-Waack, D. A.Gerrity, C. R.Kalodner, & M. T.Riva (Eds.), Handbook of group counseling and psychotherapy (pp. 532–546). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452229683
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center. (Producer). (2000). Childhood depression [Video]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences.
    Depression: A teenager's guide. (1999). [Video]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences.
    Group Activities
    Copeland, M. E., & Copans, S. (2002). Recovering from depression: A workbook for teens (
    rev. ed.
    ). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
    Hendricks, B. C., Robinson, B., Bradley, L. J., & Davis, K. (1999). Using music techniques to treat adolescent depression. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 38, 39–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2164-490X.1999.tb00160.x
    Sommers-Flanagan, R., Barrett-Hakanson, T., Clarke, C, & Sommers-Flanagan, J. (2000). A psychoeducational school-based coping and social skills group for depressed students. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 25, 170–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933920008411460
    Stark, K. D., Simmons Brookman, C, & Frazier, R. (1990). A comprehensive school-based treatment program for depressed children. School Psychologists Quarterly, 5, 111–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0090609
    Friendship Skills
    For Parents
    General Resources
    Frankel, F., & Wetmore, B. (1996). Good friends are hard to find: Helping your child find, make, and keep friends. London: Perspective.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Brown, L. M., Way, N., & Duff, J. L. (1999). The others in my I: Adolescent girls’ friendships and peer relations. In N. G.Johnson, M. C.Roberts, & J.Worell (Eds.), Beyond appearance: A new look at adolescent girls (pp. 205–226). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10325-008
    Grunnebaum, H., & Solomon, L. (1991). Peer relationships, self-esteem and self. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 37, 475–506.
    Kupersmidt, J. B., & Dodge, K. A. (2004). Children's peer relations: From development to intervention. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10653-000
    Schwartz, L. (1988). Feelings about friends: Grades 3–6. New York: Learning Works.
    Sharabany, R. (1994). Continuities in the development of intimate friendships: Object relations, interpersonal and attachment perspectives. In R.Guilmour & R.Erber (Eds.), Theoretical frameworks for personal relationships (pp. 157–178). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    For Use in Group
    General Resources
    Herron, R., & Peter, V. J. (1998). A good friend: How to make one, how to be one. Boys Town, NE: Boys Town Press.
    Packer, A. J. (2004). The How Rude! handbook of friendship and dating manners for teens. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Rose, S. R. (1998). Applications of group work: Peer relationships and social competence. In S. R.Rose, Group work with children and adolescents: Prevention and intervention in school and community systems (pp. 106–122). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Shechtman, Z. (1996). Group psychotherapy and close friendships. In S. T.Gladding (Ed.), Group process and group counseling (pp. 77–79). Greensboro, NC: ERIC/CASS.
    Shechtman, Z., Freidman, Y., Kashti, Y., & Sharabany, R. (2002). Group counseling to enhance adolescents’ close friendships. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 52, 537–553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/ijgp.52.4.537.45519
    Silverstein, S. (1981). The missing piece meets the big O. New York: HarperCollins.
    Smead, R. (2000). Girlfriends: Understanding and managing friendships. In R.Smead, Skills for living: Group counseling activities for young adolescents (pp. 29–54). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Group Activities
    Brigman, G. (1991). Friendship: Middle school. In G.Brigman & B.Earley (Eds.), Group counseling for school counselors: A practical guide (pp. 69–84). Portland, ME: J. Weston Walch.
    Cheatham, G. B. (1991). Friendship: Upper elementary. In G.Brigman & B.Earley (Eds.), Group counseling for school counselors: A practical guide (pp. 59–68). Portland, ME: J. Weston Walch.
    Morganett, R. S. (1990). Meeting, making, and keeping friends. In R. S.Morganett, Skills for living: Group counseling activities for young adolescents (pp. 31–55). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Schmidt, J. J. (2002). Making and keeping friends: Ready-to-use lessons, stories, and activities for building relationships. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Tips for making and keeping friends [Poster]. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Grief
    For Parents
    General Resources
    The Dougy Center. (1999). What about the kids? Understanding their needs in funeral planning and services. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Grollman, E. (1990). Talking about death: A dialogue between parent and child. Boston: Beacon.
    Kroen, W. C., & Espeland, P. (1996). Helping children cope with the loss of a loved one: A guide for grownups. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2003). Helping bereaved parents: A clinicians guide. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Akin, T., Cowan, D., Palomares, S., & Schilling, D. (2000). Helping kids manage grief, fear, and anger. Torrance, CA: Innerchoice.
    Aspinall, S. Y. (1996). Educating children to cope with death: A preventative model. Psychology in the Schools, 33, 341–349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291520-6807%28199610%2933:4%3C341::AID-PITS9%3E3.0.CO;2-P
    Bernstein, J. (1990). Books to help children cope with separation and loss (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Bowker.
    The Dougy Center. (1998). Helping children cope with death. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    The Dougy Center. (1999). Helping teens cope with death. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    The Dougy Center. (1999). 35 ways to help a grieving child. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Freudenberger, H. J., & Gallagher, K. M. (1995). Emotional consequences of loss for our adolescents. Psychotherapy, 32(5), 150–153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.32.1.150
    Glass, J. C. (1991). Death, loss, and grief among middle school children: Implications for the school counselor. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 26, 139–148.
    Goldman, L. (1999). Life and loss: A guide to helping grieving children. Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge.
    Haasl, B., & Marnocha, J. (1999). Bereavement support group program for children: Leader manual and participant workbook. Philadelphia: Accelerated Development.
    Heegaard, M. (1991). When something terrible happens: Children can learn to cope with grief. Minneapolis, MN: Woodland.
    Heegaard, M. (1992). Drawing out feelings: Facilitator's guide for leading grief support groups. Minneapolis, MN: Woodland.
    Klicker, R. L. (2000). A student dies, a school mourns: Dealing with death and loss in the school community. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis.
    Perschy, M. K. (2004). Helping teens work through grief (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Seager, K. M., & Spencer, S. C. (1996). Meeting the bereavement needs of kids in patient/families—Not just playing around. Hospice Journal, 11, 41–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J011v11n04_05
    Stroebe, M. S., Hansson, R. O., Stroebe, W., & Schut, H. (Eds.). (2001). Handbook of bereavement research: Consequences, coping, and care. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10436-000
    Webb, N. B. (1993). Assessment of the bereaved child. In N. B.Webb (Ed.), Helping bereaved children: A handbook for practitioners (pp. 19–42). New York: Guilford.
    Webb, N. B. (2002). Helping bereaved children: A handbook for practitioners (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Guilford.
    Worden, J.W. (2001). Children and grief: When a parent dies. New York: Guilford. Videos and Audio Tapes
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Grieving for children. (2000). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    A look at children's grief. (2001). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    For Use in Group
    General Resources
    Baulkwill, J., & Wood, C. (1995). Sharing experiences—The value of groups for bereaved children. In S. C.Smith & M.Pennells (Eds.), Interventions with bereaved children (pp. 160–171). London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Beckman, R. (1999). Children who grieve: A manual for conducting support groups. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications.
    Buscaglia, L. (1982). The fall of Freddie the leaf. Thorofare, NJ: Slack.
    Cunningham, A. (2001). A child's simple guide through grief. Carson, CA: Jalmar.
    Cunningham, A. (2001). A teen's simple guide through grief. Carson, CA: Jalmar.
    Desetta, A., & Wolin, S. (2000). The struggle to be strong: True stories by teens about overcoming tough times. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Finn, C. A. (2003). Helping students cope with loss: Incorporating art into group counseling. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 28, 155–165.
    Goldberg, F. R. (1998). Left and left out: Teaching children to grieve through a rehabilitation curriculum. Professional School Counseling, 2, 123–127.
    Granot, T. (2004). Without you: Children and young people growing up with loss and its effects. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
    Healy-Romanello, M. A. (1993). The invisible griever: Support groups for bereaved children. Special Services in the Schools, 8, 67–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J008v08n01_04
    Heegaard, M. E. (1988). Facilitator's guide: For when someone very special dies. Minneapolis, MN: Woodland.
    Hetzel, S., Winn, V., & Tolstoshev, H. (1991). Loss and change: New directions in death education for adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 14(4), 323–334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-1971%2891%2990001-8
    Huss, S. N., & Ritchie, M. (1999). Effectiveness of a group for parentally bereaved children. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 24, 186–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929908411429
    Keitel, M. A., Kopala, M., & Robin, L. (1998). Loss and grief groups. In K. C.Stoiber & T. R.Kratochwill (Eds.), Handbook of group intervention for children and families (pp. 159–171). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Mallon, B. (1998). Helping children to manage loss: Positive strategies for renewal and growth. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
    Mills, J. C. (2003). Gentle willow: A story for children about dying (
    2nd ed.
    ). Washington, DC: Magination Press.
    Palmer, P. (1994). “I wish I could hold your hand …”: A child's guide to grief and loss. Atascadero, CA: Impact.
    Peterson, J. (1995). Talk with teens about feelings, family, relationships, and the future: 50 guided discussions for school and counseling groups. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Rofes, E. (1985). The kids’ book about death and dying. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Romain, T., & Verdick, E. (1999). What on earth do you do when someone dies?Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Salloum, A. (2004). Group work with adolescents after violent death: A manual for practitioners. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Samide, L. L., & Stockton, R. (2002). Letting go of grief: Bereavement group for children in the school setting. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 27, 192–204.
    Schoeman, L. H., & Kreitzman, R. (1997). Death of a parent: Group intervention with bereaved children and their caregivers. Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy, 14, 221–245.
    Tait, D. C, & Depta, J. L. (1993). Play therapy group for bereaved children. In N. B.Webb (Ed.), Helping bereaved children: A handbook for practitioners (pp. 169–188). New York: Guilford.
    Turner, M. (2004). Someone very important has just died: Immediate help for people caring for children of all ages at the time of a close bereavement. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Teens dealing with death. (2004). [Video]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences.
    Group Activities
    Blair, S. J. (2001). Group activities for kids who hurt. Torrance, CA: Innerchoice.
    Brigman, G., & Earley, B. (1991). Loss group: All levels. In G.Brigman & B.Earley (Eds.), Group counseling for school counselors: A practical guide (pp. 165–174). Portland, ME: J. Weston Walch.
    Brown, L. K., & Brown, M. T. (1996). When dinosaurs die: A guide to understanding death. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Buscaglia, L. (1982). The fall of Freddie the leaf: A story of life for all ages. New York: C. B. Slack.
    Desetta, A., Wolin, S., & Hefner, K. (2000). The leader's guide to the struggle to be strong: How to foster resilience in teens. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    The Dougy Center. (2001). After a suicide: A workbook for grieving kids. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    The Dougy Center. (2002). After a murder: A workbook for grieving kids. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Dower, L. (2001). I will remember you: What to do when someone you love dies: A guidebook through grief for teens. New York: Scholastic.
    Engel, G. L. (1980). A group dynamics approach to teaching and learning about grief. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 11, 45–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/72P1-90GQ-Y2MC-NJB3
    Morganett, R. S. (1990). Coping with grief and loss. In R.S.Morganett, Skills for living: Group counseling activities for young adolescents (pp. 181–200). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Murthy, R., & Smith, L. L. (2005). Grieving, sharing, and healing: A guide for facilitating early adolescent bereavement groups. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Smith, S. C., & Pennells, M. (1995). Interventions with bereaved children. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
    When a loved one dies. (n.d.). Plainview, NY: The Bureau for At-Risk Youth.
    Zalaznik, P. W. (1986). Dimensions of loss and death education: A resource and curriculum guide. Minneapolis, MN: EDU-PAC.
    Relationship Skills
    For Parents
    General Resources
    Miron, A. G., & Miron, C. D. (2002). How to talk with teens about love, relationships, and s-e-x. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2004). Parenting young children [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Family togetherness. (2004). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Burnett, P. C. (1994). Self-concept and self-esteem in elementary school. Psychology in the Schools, 31, 164–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6807%28199404%2931:2%3C164::AID-PITS2310310211%3E3.0.CO;2-U
    Davies, D. (1999). Child development: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford.
    Hamilton, S. F., & Hamilton, M. A. (Eds.). (2004). The youth development handbook: Coming of age in American communities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232560
    Kupersmidt, J. B., & Dodge, K. A. (2004). Children's peer relations: From development to intervention. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10653-000
    Patterson, J., Pryor, J., & Field, J. (1995). Adolescent attachment to parents and friends in relation to aspects of self-esteem. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24, 365–376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01537602
    Siegel, D. J. (2001). The developing mind: How relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are. New York: Guilford.
    For Use in Group
    General Resources
    Abrahams, G., & Ahlbrand, S. (2002). Boy vs. girl: How gender shapes who we are, what we want, and how we get along. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Akos, P. (2000). Building empathic skills in elementary school children through group work. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 25, 214–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933920008411462
    Fox, A. (2000). Can you relate? Real-world advice for teens on guys, girls, growing up, and getting along. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Packer, A. J. (2004). The How Rude! handbook of friendship and dating manners for teens. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Smead, R. (2000). Dating and relating: Male/female relationship issues. In R.Smead, Skills for living: Group counseling activities for young adolescents (pp. 83–118). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Smead, R. (2000). Give a little, take a little: Relationships at home. In R.Smead, Skills for living: Group counseling activities for young adolescents (pp. 147–172). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Cambridge Educational Production. (Producer). (2000). Healthy relationships [Video]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences.
    Group Activities
    Carrell, S. (2000). Living with sexuality. In S.Carrell, Group exercises for adolescents: A manual for therapists (pp. 111–119). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452230450
    Espeland, P. (2001). Knowing you, knowing me: The 1-sight way to understand yourself and others. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Kaufman, G., Raphael, L., & Epseland, P. (1999). Stick up for yourself! Every kid's guide to personal power and positive self-esteem. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Kaufman, G., Raphael, L., & Epseland, P. (1999). Stick up for yourself! In a jar. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Peterson, J. S. (1995). Talk with teens about feelings, family, relationships, and the future. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Self-Harm/Suicide Prevention
    For Parents
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    It's never too late: Stopping teen suicide. (2004). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Bongar, B. (2001). The suicidal patient: Clinical and legal standards of care (
    2nd ed.
    ). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Fox, C, & Hawton, K. (2004). Deliberate self-harm in adolescence. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
    Goldston, D. B. (2003). Measuring suicidal behavior and risk in children and adolescents. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10609-000
    Kirk, W. G. (1993). Adolescent suicide: A school-based approach to assessment and intervention. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Klott, J., & Jongsman, A. E. (2004). The suicide and homicide risk assessment and prevention treatment planner. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.
    McBrian, R. (1983). Are you thinking of killing yourself? Confronting suicidal thoughts. School Counselor, 31, 75–82.
    Nelson, R., & Crawford, B. (1990). Suicide among elementary school-age children. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 25, 123–128.
    Rittner, B., & Smyth, N. (1999). Time-limited cognitive-behavioral interventions with suicidal adolescents. Social Work with Groups, 22(3), 55–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J009v22n02_05
    Sattem, L. (1991). Suicide prevention in elementary schools. In A.Leenaars & S.Wenckstern (Eds.), Suicide prevention in schools (pp. 71–82). New York: Hemisphere.
    Shneidman, E. S. (2001). Comprehending suicide: Landmarks in 20th-century suicidology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10406-000
    Smaby, M., Peterson, T., Bergmann, P., Bacig, K., & Swearingen, S. (1990). School-based community intervention: The school counselor as lead consultant for suicide prevention and intervention programs. School Counselor, 37, 370–377.
    Stefanowski-Harding, S. (1990). Child suicide: A review of the literature and implications for school counselors. School Counselor, 37, 328–336.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Assessing suicide risk. (1997). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Cambridge Educational Production. (Producer). (2000). Skin deep: Understanding self-injury [Video]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences.
    Depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents. (1996). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Helping students in crisis. (2001). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Suicide: A guide for prevention. (2000). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Teenage suicide: The silent threat. (1999). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    For Use in Group
    General Resources
    Muro, J. J., & Kottman, T. (1995). Crisis intervention: Working with suicidal children. In J. J.Muro & T.Kottman, Guidance and counseling in the elementary and middle schools: A practical approach (pp. 320–328). Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark.
    Nelson, R. E., & Galas, J. C. (1994). The power to prevent suicide: A guide for teens helping teens. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Robertson, D., & Mathews, B. (1989). Preventing adolescent suicide with group counseling. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 14, 34–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933928908411884
    Schmidt, U., & Davidson, K. (2004). Life after self-harm: A guide to the future. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Tierney, R., Ramsay, R., Tanney, B., & Long, W. (1991). Comprehensive school suicide prevention programs. In A.Leenaars & S.Wenckstern (Eds.), Suicide prevention in schools (pp. 83–96). New York: Hemisphere.
    Vidal, J. A. (1986). Establishing a suicide prevention program. National Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin, 70, 68–71.
    White Kress, V. E., Gibson, D. M., & Reynolds, C. A. (2004). Adolescents who self-injure: Implications and strategies for school counselors. Professional School Counselor, 7, 195–201.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Cambridge Educational Production. (Producer). (2000). Skin deep: Understanding self-injury [Video]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences.
    Self-Esteem
    For Parents
    General Resources
    Huebner, E. S. (1995). Best practices in assessment and intervention with children with low self-esteem. In A.Thomas & J.Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology-III (pp. 831–840). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.
    Johnston, P. J. (2001). Help your child develop self-esteem. Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, 17, 1–3.
    Roehlkepartain, J. L. (2001). Raising healthy children day by day: 366 readings for parents, teachers, and caregivers (birth to age 5). Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Akin, T. (1990). The best self-esteem activities for the elementary grades. Torrance, CA: Innerchoice.
    Arnold, E., Estreicher, D., & Arnold, L. E. (1985). Parent-child group therapy: Building self-esteem in a cognitive behavioral group. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
    Dunne, G. (1990). IMPACT!: A self-esteem based skill-development program for secondary students. Torrance, CA: Innerchoice.
    Elbaum, B., & Vaughn, S. (2001). School-based interventions to enhance the self-concept of students with learning disabilities: A meta-analysis. Elementary School Journal, 101, 303–329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/499670
    Khalsa, S. S. (1996). Group exercises for enhancing social skills & self-esteem. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.
    Social Skills
    For Parents
    General Resources
    Borba, M. (2003). No more misbehavin′: 38 difficult behaviors and how to stop them. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Borba, M. (2004). Don't give me that attitude: 24 rude, selfish, insensitive things kids do and how to stop them. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.
    Christophersen, E. R., & Mortweet, S. L. (2003). Parenting that works: Building skills that last a lifetime. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Vernon, A., & Al-Mabuk, R. H. (1995). What growing up is all about: A parent's guide to child and adolescent development. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Teaching social competence video. (n.d.). [Video]. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Bear, G. T., Minke, K. M., Griffin, S. M., & Deemer, S. A. (2000). Self-concept. In G. T.Bear, K. M.Minke, & A.Thomas (Eds.), Children's needs II: Development, problems and alternatives (pp. 257–269). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
    Bursuk, W. D., & Asher, S. R. (1986). The relationship between social competence and achievement in elementary school children. Journal of Child Clinical Psychology, 15, 41–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp1501_5
    Cartledge, G., & Milburn, J. F. (1996). Cultural diversity and social skills instruction: Understanding ethnic and gender differences. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Elliot, S. N., & Gresham, F. M. (1993). Social skills interventions for children. Behavior Modification, 17, 287–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01454455930173004
    Gresham, F. M. (2002). Best practices in social skills training. In A.Thomas & J.Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology IV (pp. 1007–1028). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
    Husson, A. (2005). Character counts in elementary school. ASCA School Counselor, 42, 25.
    Kennedy, J. H. (1990). Determinants of peer social status: Contributions of physical appearance, reputation, and behavior. Journal of Youths and Adolescents, 19, 233–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01537889
    Luxmoore, N. (2000). Listening to young people in school, youth work and counseling. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
    Mehaffey, J. I., & Sandberg, S. K. (1992). Conducting social skills training groups with elementary school children. School Counselor, 40, 61–67.
    Ramsey, P. G. (1991). Making friends in school: Promoting peer relationships in early childhood. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Shechtman, Z., & Bar-El, O. (1994). Group guidance and group counseling to foster social acceptability and self-esteem in adolescence. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 19, 188–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929408414364
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Explosions: Biosocial development during adolescence. (2003). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    For Use in Group
    General Resources
    Akos, P. (2000). Building empathic skills in elementary school children through group work. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 25(2), 214–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933920008411462
    Cain, B. (2001). Double-dip feelings: Stories to help children understand emotions (
    2nd ed.
    ). Washington, DC: Magination Press.
    Campbell, C. A., & Brigman, G. (2005). Closing the achievement gap: A structured approach to group counseling. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 30, 67–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933920590908705
    Foster, C. (1995). Teenagers preparing for the real world. Conyers, GA: Chad Foster.
    Hanken, D., & Kennedy, J. (2000). Getting to know you! A social skills curriculum. Minneapolis, MN: Educational Media.
    Herron, R. (1996). Getting along with others: An activity book. Boys Town, NE: Boys Town Press.
    Katz, L. G., McClellan, D. E., Fuller, J. O., & Walz, G. R. (1995). Building social competence in children: A practical handbook for counselors, psychologists, and teachers. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Mannix, D. (2002). Social skills activities for secondary students with special needs. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Packer, A. J. (1997). How rude! The teenagers’ guide to good manners, proper behavior, and not grossing people out. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.
    Palmer, P., & Froehner, M. A. (2000). Teen esteem: A self-direction manual for young adults (
    2nd ed.
    ). Atascadero, CA: Impact.
    Pearson, M. (2004). Emotional healing and self-esteem: Inner-life skills of relaxation, visualization and mediation for children and adolescents. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
    Plummer, D. (2001). Helping children to build self-esteem: A photocopiable activities book. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
    Plummer, D. (2004). Helping adolescents and adults to build self-esteem: A photocopiable resource book. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
    Stallard, P. (2002). Think good, feel good: A cognitive behavioral therapy workbook for children and young people. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Teens: That's another story. (2000). [Video]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences.
    Group Activities
    Altman, H., & Firnesz, K. (1973). A role playing approach to influencing behavioral change and self-esteem. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 7, 276–281.
    Baker, S. B. (2001). Coping-skills training for adolescents: Applying cognitive behavioral principles to psychoeducational groups. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 26, 219–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933920108414213
    Barrett, P. M., Webster, H. M., & Wallis, J. R. (1999). Adolescent self-esteem and cognitive skills training: A school-based intervention. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 8, 217–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022044119273
    Begun, R. (1996). Ready-to-use social skills lessons and activities: For grades 4–6. New York: Center for Applied Research in Education.
    Begun, R. (2002). Ready-to-use social skills lessons and activities: For grades 1–3. New York: Center for Applied Research in Education.
    Begun, R. (2002). Ready-to-use social skills lessons and activities: For grades PreK-K. New York: Center for Applied Research in Education.
    Borba, M. (1996). Esteem builders program: Complete kit. Carson, CA: Jalmar.
    Brigman, G., & Earley, B. (1991). Understanding yourself and others: Upper elementary, middle school. In G.Brigman & B.Earley (Eds.), Group counseling for school counselors: A practical guide (pp. 37–58). Portland, ME: J. Weston Walch.
    Canfield, J., & Wells, H. (1994). 100 ways to enhance self-concept in the classroom (
    2nd ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Coombs-Richardson, R., & Evans, E. T. (1997). Connecting with others: Lessons for teaching social and emotional competence (Grades 6–8). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Coombs-Richardson, R., & Meisgeier, C. H. (2001). Connecting with others: Lessons for teaching social and emotional competence (Grades 9–12). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Curtis, K., & Whitman, W. (n.d.). Hidden treasure of assets: For children and adolescents [Board Game]. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Fox, R. G. (1990). Social skills training: Teaching troubled youths to be socially competent. In M. A.Krueger & N. W.Powell (Eds.), Choices in caring: Contemporary approaches to child and youth care work (pp. 39–64). Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.
    Hazel, J. S., Schumaker, J. B., Sherman, J. A., & Sheldon, J. (n.d.). ASSET: A social skills program for adolescents. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Hildreth, A. (1991). Self-concept: Elementary 4–5. In G.Brigman & B.Earley (Eds.), Group counseling for school counselors: A practical guide (pp. 93–106). Portland, ME: J. Weston Walch.
    Khalsa, S. S. (1996). Group exercises for enhancing social skills & self-esteem. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.
    Leber, N. (2002). Easy activities for building social skills. New York: Scholastic.
    LeCroy, C. W. (1987). Teaching children social skills: A game format. Social Work, 32, 440–442.
    McGinnis, E., & Goldstein, A. P. (1997). Skillstreaming the elementary school child: New strategies and perspectives for teaching prosocial skills (
    rev. ed.
    ). Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Muldoon, J. A. (1998). Helping teens cope: When personal problems become school problems. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    O'Dell, F. L., Rak, C. F., Chermonte, J. P., & Hamlin, A. (1994). The boost club: A program for at-risk third and fourth grade students. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 19(4), 227–231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929408414368
    Schilling, D., & Dunne, G. (1992). Understanding me: Activity sheets for building life skills and self-esteem in secondary students. Torrance, CA: Innerchoice.
    Schilling, D., & Palomares, S. (1997). Social skills activities for the elementary grades. Torrance, CA: Innerchoice.
    Sheridan, S. M. (1995). The tough kid social skills book. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.
    Snider, M., & Crate, P. (1991). Celebrating self: Middle school. In G.Brigman & B.Earley (Eds.), Group counseling for school counselors: A practical guide (pp. 107–119). Portland, ME: J. Weston Walch.
    Stahler, S. (1991). Self-concept: Elementary K-1. In G.Brigman & B.Earley (Eds.), Group counseling for school counselors: A practical guide (pp. 84–92). Portland, ME: J. Weston Walch.
    Stickel, S. A. (1990). Using a multimodal social-skills group with kindergarten children. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 24, 281–288.
    Vernon, A. (1998). The PASSPORT program: A journey through emotional, social, cognitive, and self-development. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Waksman, S. (1988). The Waksman social skills curriculum for adolescents (
    3rd ed.
    ). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Walker, H. M., McConnell, S., Holmes, D., Todis, B., Walker, J., & Golden, N. (1988). The ACCEPTS PROGRAM: A curriculum for children's effective peer and teacher skills. Austin, TX: Pro-ed.
    Substance Abuse
    For Parents
    General Resources
    Ketcham, K., & Pace, N. A. (2003). Teens under the influence: The truth about kids, alcohol, and other drugs—How to recognize the problem and what to do about it. New York: Ballantine.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    American Academy of Pediatrics. (1995). Alcohol use and abuse: A pediatric concern. American Academy of Pediatrics, 95, 439–442.
    Biglan, A., Brennan, P. A., Foster, S. L., Holder, H. D., & Associates. (2004). Helping adolescents at risk: Prevention of multiple problem behaviors. New York: Guilford.
    Bleuer, J. (2005). Counseling young students at risk. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
    Bukstein, O. (1996). Aggression, violence, and substance abuse in adolescents. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Dual Disorders, 5, 93–109.
    Carrell, S. (2000). Group exercises for adolescents: A manual for therapists (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452230450
    Goldberg, R. (1997). Drugs across the spectrum. Englewood, CO: Morton.
    Kulic, K. R., Horne, A. M., & Dagley, J. C. (2004). A comprehensive review of prevention groups for children and adolescents. Group Dynamics, 8, 139–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1089-2699.8.2.139
    Leccese, M., & Waldron, H. (1994). Assessing adolescent substance use: A critique of current measurement instruments. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 11, 553–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0740-5472%2894%2990007-8
    Martino, S., Grilo, C, & Fehon, D. (2000). Development of the drug abuse screen test for adolescents (DAST-A). Addictive Behaviors, 25(1), 57–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603%2899%2900030-1
    Monti, P. M., Colby, S. M., & O'Leary, T. A. (Eds.). (2001). Adolescents, alcohol, and substance abuse: Reaching teens through brief interventions. New York: Guilford.
    Perkinson, R. R. (2004). Treating alcoholism: Helping your clients find the road to recovery. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.
    Sales, A. (Ed.). (2000). Substance abuse and counseling. Austin, TX: CAPS.
    Sales, A. (2004). Preventing substance abuse: A guide for school counselors. Austin, TX: CAPS.
    Segal, B., & Stewart, J. (1996). Substance use and abuse in adolescence: An overview. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 26(4), 193–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02353237
    Tapert, S., & Brown, S. (1999). Neuropsychological correlates of adolescent substance abuse: Four-year outcomes. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 5, 481–493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355617799566010
    Van Doren, D. (2003). The role of the secondary school counselor in substance abuse prevention. In C. T.Dollarhide & K. A.Saginak (Eds.), School counseling in the secondary schools: A comprehensive process and program (pp. 373–379). Boston: Pearson.
    Walton, S. C. (2001). Get the dope on dope: First Response guide to street drugs. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: Burnand.
    White, H., Brick, J., & Hansell, S. (1993). A longitudinal investigation of alcohol use and aggression in adolescence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 11(Suppl.), 62–77.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Alcohol and drug counseling skills. (2002). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    For Use in Group
    General Resources
    Juhnke, G. A. (2004). Helping students with alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems: Cognitive-behavioral interventions for school counselors. In B. T.Erford (Ed.), Professional school counseling: A handbook of theories, programs, and practices (pp. 495–501). Austin, TX: CAPS.
    Robinson-Kurpius, S. E. (2002). Prevention of substance abuse among teenagers. In J.Carlson & J.Lewis (Eds.), Counseling the adolescent: Individual, family, and school interventions (
    4th ed.
    , pp. 121–134). Denver, CO: Love Publishing.
    Wodarski, J. S., & Smyth, N. J. (1994). Adolescent substance abuse: A comprehensive approach to prevention and intervention. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 2, 22–58.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Alternative to substance abuse. (2002). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Breaking the cycle of addiction and abuse: Donna's story. (2001). [Video]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Science.
    Elgin, S. H. (1980). The gentle art of saying no: Principles of assertiveness [Filmstrip kit]. Pleasantville, NY: Sunburst Communications.
    Martin, G. (Producer). (2001). Meeting at the crossroads: Straight talk from real teens about substance abuse [Video]. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Social skills. (2002). [Video]. New York: Insight Media.
    Straight talk: Alcohol and other drugs: Voices of addiction, voices of recovery. (1992). [Video]. Plainview, NY: The Bureau for At-Risk Youth.
    Group Activities
    Carrell, S. (2000). Living with chemicals. In S.Carrell, Group exercises for adolescents: A manual for therapists (pp. 171–180). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452230450
    Dunne, G., Palomares, S., & Schuster, S. (1991). Prime time: A comprehensive drug education program. Torrance, CA: Innerchoice.
    Drug prevention bingo. (n.d.). [Board Game]. Plainview, NY: The Bureau for At-Risk Youth.
    Wagner, E., Brown, S., Monti, P., Myers, M., & Waldron, H. (1999). Innovations in adolescent substance abuse intervention. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 23, 236–249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1999.tb04106.x
    Teen Pregnancy/Parenting Skills
    For Parents
    General Resources
    Gulley, B. (1982). Parent education. Carbondale: University of Illinois, Division of Human Development.
    Schooler, J. E., & Baer, K. (2004). Mom, Dad … I'm pregnant: When your daughter or son faces an unplanned pregnancy. Colorado Springs, CO: Navpress.
    For Counselors
    General Resources
    Bradley, L. J., Jarcow, E., & Robinson, B. (1999). All about sex: The school counselor's guide to handling tough adolescent problems. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Furstenberg, F. F. (1976). Unplanned parenthood: The social consequences of teenage child-bearing. New York: Free Press.
    Hardy, J. B., & Zabin, L. S. (1991). Adolescent pregnancy in an urban environment: Issues, programs, and evaluations. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
    Jones, D. J., & Battle, S. F. (1990). Teenage pregnancy: Developing strategies for change in the twenty-first century. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.
    Kiselica, M. S., & Pfaller, J. (1993). Helping teenage parents: The independent and collaborative roles of counselor educators and school counselors. Journal of Counseling and Development, 72, 42–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1993.tb02275.x
    Mathes, P. G. (1993). Teen pregnancy and parenting handbook: Discussion guide. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Musick, J. S. (1993). Young, poor, and pregnant: The psychology of teenage motherhood. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Romer, D. (Ed.). (2003). Reducing adolescent risk: Toward an integrated approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452233611
    For Use in Group
    General Resources
    Arther, S., & Bergman, P. (1996). Surviving teen pregnancy: Your choices, dreams, and decisions (
    rev. ed.
    ). Buena Park, CA: Morning Glory Press.
    Barnes, N. D., & Harrod, S. E. (1993). Teen pregnancy prevention: A rural model using school and community collaboration. School Counselor, 41, 137–140.
    Basso, M. J. (2003). The underground guide to teenage sexuality: An essential handbook for today's teens and parents (
    2nd ed.
    ). Minneapolis, MN: Fairview Press.
    Bell, R. (1998). Changing bodies, changing lives: A book for teens on sex and relationships (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: Three Rivers Press.
    Carrera, M. A. (1992). Involving adolescent males in pregnancy and STD prevention programs. Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, 3, 1–13.
    Davis, D. (2004). You look too young to be a mom: Teen mothers speak out on love, learning, and success. East Rutherford, NJ: Perigee.
    Kiselica, M. S., Rotzien, A., & Doms, J. (1994). Preparing teenage fathers for parenthood: A group psychoeducational approach. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 19, 83–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929408413767
    Lindsay, J. W. (1998). Your baby's first year: A guide for teenage parents (teens parenting series) (
    rev. ed.
    ). Buena Park, CA: Morning Glory Press.
    Lindsay, J. W., & Brunelli, J. (2004). Your pregnancy and newborn journey: A guide for pregnant teens (teen pregnancy and parenting series) (
    3rd ed.
    ). Buena Park, CA: Morning Glory Press.
    Mathes, P. G., & Irby, B. J. (1994). Teen pregnancy and parenting handbook. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Williams-Wheeler, D. (2004). The unplanned pregnancy book for teens and college students. Virginia Beach, VA: Sparkledoll Productions.
    Videos and Audio Tapes
    Baby talk: The video guide for new parents. (2000). [Video]. Poly Health Media.
    Baby to be: The video guide to pregnancy. (2002). [Video]. Poly Health Media.
    Discipline from birth to three series. (2001). [Video]. Buena Park, CA: Morning Glory Press.
    Planned Parenthood Association of Cincinnati. (Producer). (1987). Fathers too soon? [Motion picture]. Cincinnati: Producer.
    Teen files: The truth about sex. (1999). [Motion picture]. Plainview, NY: The Bureau for At-Risk Youth.
    Wagonseller, B. R. (Producer). (n.d.). The practical parenting series: Teenage pregnancy. [Motion picture]. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Your baby's first year series. (n.d.). [Motion picture]. Buena Park, CA: Morning Glory Press.
    Group Activities
    Grimes, M. B. (1991). Pregnancy education/support group: Middle school, high school. In G.Brigman & B.Earley (Eds.), Group counseling for school counselors: A practical guide (pp. 231–244). Portland, ME: J. Weston Walch.
    Lindsay, J. W., & Enright, S. G. (1997). Books, babies and school-age parents: How to teach pregnant and parenting teens to succeed. Buena Park, CA: Morning Glory Press.
    Smallwood, D. (2000). Two-in-one pregnancy bingo [Board Game]. Buena Park, CA: Morning Glory Press.

    For a complete list see: DeLucia-Waack (2001).

    Appendix H: Example of Group Interest Survey Form

    Place a check next to any and all topics for group meetings in which you and/or other students might be interested.

    Now tell us, How likely are you to attend these groups? How likely is it that other students will attend these groups? And finally, give reasons why you might or might not want to meet on these topics. (For example, you might want to meet for a topic but don't think others will, or you might not be interested but you think your best friend needs a group on this topic.)

    • 1 = No way!
    • 2 = Maybe or somewhat likely
    • 3 = Set it up and I am there

    Appendix I: Example of an Informational Sheet for Parents about Psychoeducational Groups

    Purpose of the Group

    This section should be tailored to the specific type of psychoeducational group being led. Include a brief paragraph on the problem or focus of the group (e.g., self-esteem, social skills, body image) and then another brief paragraph on how this group is typically helpful for children and adolescents.

    The following two paragraphs are examples of what appears in an informational sheet for parents about children-of-divorce groups.

    Divorce has long-term implications for children as well as their parents. The National Center for Health estimates that one million divorces are granted each year in the United States. One million children experience the divorce of their parents each year. Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for elementary school children. Children of divorce need a place to receive support, talk about their experiences of the divorce, and realize that they are not alone in these experiences or feelings. This group will be a psychoeducational group that focuses on supporting children as they experience a divorce as well as promoting new skills to cope with the feelings and experiences related to the divorce.

    We have formed this group for a couple of reasons. The first is that people, particularly children, are often uncomfortable talking about family stresses. This group will encourage them to talk about it and give them a safe place to do so. Second, children tend to talk to each other better than they do to adults, and so this will be a place for your child to express some of his or her thoughts and feelings about the divorce with other children who are having similar experiences. Hopefully, your child will find others that he or she can talk with long after the group ends. Because all children who are experiencing a divorce are encouraged to join, the groups are not designed just for those who are having problems.

    What is a Psychoeducational Group?

    Psychoeducational groups emphasize the usefulness of a group setting to help children to not feel isolated, to connect with and learn from others, and to normalize some of their experiences. Psychoeducational groups, in contrast to counseling and therapy groups, focus specifically on the teaching of skills that may be helpful in difficult situations, such as communication skills, assertiveness, anger management, and expression of feeling. Problem solving, communication skills, role-playing, and conflict resolution will be emphasized.

    The Group Leaders

    The group leaders are responsible for using their knowledge of group dynamics to promote and facilitate individual and group growth. They are also responsible for creating an atmosphere of trust and support through specific ground rules, discussions of confidentiality, and their direction of each session. The group leaders are trained counselors who have a good understanding of the issues that children and adolescents may be dealing with and a series of interventions that may be helpful to these children.

    Appendix J: Example of a Group Screening Interview Outline

    Hello __. I'm __, a counselor here at __. What I'd like to do today is share some basic information related to the group, so that you can get a sense of what the group is about and so that you can begin to think about a goal for the group.

    The group that we are running is a psychoeducational group. This means that many of the activities are designed to teach participants skills or behaviors that they can use in their lives. This is not a counseling group, so the focus will not be big problems and/or deep personality change. This is an important distinction. Do you have any questions about that?

    The goals of this group are: 1. __, 2. __, 3. __. Groups can be beneficial in this process. They allow people to learn ideas from others, meet others who have similar concerns, and practice new behaviors.

    Now let's go over some administrative issues.

    • __ and I will be the co-leaders of this group. __is a counselor at __.
    • There will be 6 to 8 participants in the group as well.
    • Our group will meet for __ sessions. Each session will last for __minutes.

    I'd like to go over some of the ground rules for our group.

    • In order for the group to operate effectively, we must be able to share personal things, but you may choose what you share. You won't be forced to share something you consider private.
    • It is important to participate in all activities.
    • Another important ground rule is that there is no fighting or hurting other members, either physically or emotionally. This is so that everyone will feel safe in the group.
    • Also, each group member is responsible for creating and working toward his or her own goal or goals. This includes practicing skills learned in group in other places.
    • Confidentiality is a very important aspect of any group. Nothing said or done in group is talked about outside the group. Other group members will also have this expectation. It is important to note, though, that there are limits to confidentiality. These relate to situations involving injury to self or others, abuse, or when required by the courts. Under these circumstances, information could be shared.
    • You will be asked to share reactions to activities that we do.
    • One last important note. Everyone needs to be on time for the group. Otherwise, the activities will become disrupted.
    Questions to Ask to Assess Appropriateness for Group
    • Do you have any questions about what I've already told you? Is there anything else that you'd like to know about the group or the leaders?
    • Can you tell me some examples of __?
    • Tell me some times when you have been able to __. What happened then?
    • Are you willing to talk about some of these things with other students who might be having the same kinds of problems?
    • Here's an important question. What would you most like to work on in group? What would you change right now if you could? In other words, what goals are you most interested in fulfilling?
    • Are you willing to work on making progress toward your goals?
    • Do you think the group will help you meet your goals?
    • How do you work with others?
    • What would you bring to the group?
    • Can you keep what others say confidential? Can you follow the other rules of the group?
    • Do you have any other questions or concerns relating to anything we've said or to the questionnaires you've completed?

    Appendix K: Example of a Preparation Session Outline

    1. Introduce (Or Reintroduce) Yourself as the Group Leader

    Explain that the preparation session occurs after students have been selected to participate in the group, but prior to the first session. It allows potential group members to gain a better understanding of how the group will work, as well as gives them an opportunity to practice some of the behaviors that will be expected. Some may elect not to participate in group after the preparation session. It also allows group leaders to assess members’ participation and interactions in group, and with each other. Preparation sessions are often used to give potential group members a preview of how groups work and to make sure that this group would be a good fit for them.

    People learn differently, so a preparation session has been designed that includes three different kinds of learning. Hopefully, at least one will match your style of learning: cognitive, vicarious, and experiential. The cognitive part consists of a handout that describes how groups typically work and how to get the most out of it. Please take about 5 minutes and read the handout. You'll have a chance to ask questions after you have read.

    Note: If there are two or more group members participating in the preparation session, ask them to introduce themselves with first names only. Suggest that it will be a little more comfortable if we at least know each other's first names. Remind them, however, that confidentiality is essential and that even if you decide not to join the group, please don't disclose who attended this session.

    2. Cognitive Component (Typically 10 Minutes)

    a. Pass out Handout #1, “What Are Psychoeducational Groups?” Say: “The goal of this session is to provide a chance to gain information about how groups work as well as to observe and practice behaviors that will be used in group.” Ask each group member to read the handout. Ask if there are any questions.

    This handout covers a wide range of topics such as the value and goals of psychoeducational groups, the role of the group leader(s), typical things that happen in group, common stumbling blocks, and how to get the most out of their group experience.

    Note: Keep the questions focused on the information in the handout. Questions about specifics on ground rules such as confidentiality will be discussed in more detail when the group begins, in the first session.

    3. Vicarious Component (Typically 15 Minutes)
    • Show a 10-minute clip of a group session (e.g., Corey & Corey, 1999; Smead, 1996) that includes the working and processing stages.
    • Tell the group: “Some people learn vicariously—by watching—so we have a videotape of a simulated group, one where the group members have gotten to know and trust each other, and they are taking some risks to learn new information about themselves. Groups typically follow a developmental sequence. This group has just moved into the working stage, which is characterized by increased member self-disclosure, the expression of both positive and negative feelings, active listening, resistance to deeper self-exploration, and caring confrontation. The leader's role at this stage of the group development is that of a facilitator, encouraging members to relate to each other honestly and directly and to share responsibility for leadership.
    • As you watch the video, look for examples of these and other group dynamics. There will be a brief discussion afterward to identify key behaviors and interventions.”
    • Show the video.
    • Process reactions to the video:
      • How was this group session similar to what you expected a group session to be like? How was it different?
      • Ask specific questions about what they saw in the video related to the behaviors they will be practicing (i.e., behaviors discussed in the handout and vignettes).
        • What examples of self-disclosure did you observe? What were the group members’ reactions?
        • What examples of challenging did you observe? What were the group members’ reactions?
        • What examples of giving and receiving positive and negative feedback did you see?
          • POSITIVE FEEDBACK:
          • __
          • __
          • NEGATIVE FEEDBACK:
          • __
          • __
          • What were the members’ reactions?
          • TO POSITIVE FEEDBACK:
          • __
          • __
          • TO NEGATIVE FEEDBACK:
          • __
          • __
        • What examples of role-playing did you observe? What were the members’ reactions?
        • What did the group leader do that facilitated these behaviors?
    4. Experiential Behavioral Practice
    • Tell the group: “This is the part where you get to practice and experience some of what happens in groups. In the next 10 to 15 minutes, you will be practicing a series of group skills to assist you in becoming more familiar with and comfortable using self-disclosure, challenging, and giving and receiving positive feedback (and other behaviors that have been described in the handout or identified in the video). For each behavior, one dyad will model it, all of you will have a chance to role-play the behavior, and then your partner will have a chance to respond.
    • Distribute the exercises (Handout #2)
    • Pair up group members. If there is an odd number of members, use one triad or one group leader can role-play with one group member (choose that member carefully to facilitate cohesion and/or trust). Have the group members count off as 1 or 2 and remind them that if they are Person #1, they are always Person #1 and if they are Person #2, they are always Person #2. This allows them to practice new skills and also how to respond to someone using that skill.
    • Ask one dyad to take a risk and be first to model the behaviors in Vignette 1A. One dyad will read and then role-play a vignette for each of the four behaviors highlighted, so really, everyone will have a chance to model skills for the group. Or, you and your co-leader could model the first one if that seems to work better.
    • Critique the exchange. If the member performs the skill correctly, provide positive reinforcement about the member's accurate delivery and note the (hopefully) appropriate response it generated from the receiver.

      If the person does not portray the skill accurately, encourage him or her for the effort, explain why he or she did not perform the skill appropriately, demonstrate the accurate portrayal of the skill, then have the member repeat the effort until the skill is mastered. Also note the reaction of the receiver to the appropriate and inappropriate demonstrations of the skill.

      If you and your co-leader perform the role-play ask the group members to give you feedback, both positive and constructive, related to what you did.

    • Have remaining dyads practice Vignette 1A.
    • After about 3 minutes, with group leaders circulating and giving feedback (positive and corrective where needed), ask all pairs to practice Vignette 1B. Remind them that Person #1 is still Person #1 and Person #2 is still Person #2, so this time Person #2 gets to practice self-disclosing.
    • Ask another dyad to model for the group the next skill in Vignette 2A.
    • Critique the exchange.
    • Have remaining dyads practice Vignette 2A.
    • After about 2 minutes, with group leaders circulating and giving feedback (positive and corrective where needed), ask the pairs to practice Vignette 2B. Remind them that Person #1 is still Person #1 and Person #2 is still Person #2, so this time Person #2 gets to practice the new skill.

    Continue until all skills have been practiced by both partners.

    At the end, thank all group members for coming and remind them of the status of participation. (If they are planning on being in the group, they should come at this time; if they are not sure or do not want to participate, they should schedule a meeting with you, etc. Be specific.)

    Appendix L: Example of a Parent and Group Member Consent Form for Psychoeducational Groups

    This is to certify that I, __, agree to allow my child, __, to participate in a psychoeducational group titled __, under the leadership of __.

    I understand that my child will attend a small group experience with the goals of: 1. __, 2. __, 3. __.

    Topics will include self-esteem, communication skills, problem solving, __, __, and __.∗∗

    I understand that any information that I and my child provide will remain confidential except as discussed below.

    I understand that if my child discloses that a minor is being abused or neglected in any way, the group facilitator and/or principal investigators are required by law to report this information to Child Protective Services and/or law enforcement agencies, even without my permission to do so.

    I have been given the opportunity to ask any questions that I have. I am aware that if I have any more questions, I may contact __ at __.

    Add group goals.

    ∗∗ Add specific topics related to group goals.

    Appendix M: Group-Related Measures: Readiness for Group Assessment

    Date: __ Name: __

    Directions: Check one of the five statements in each of the following categories that best described the behavior of the group member and the focus of the group leader.

    Author's Note: From Kivlighan & Goldfine (1991). Critical Incidents in Group Work. Journal of Counseling Psychology. Reprinted with permission.

    I. Amount of Communication (Participation)
    • None, silence, total withdrawal.
    • Minimum “yes” and “no” answers, pays some attention.
    • Somewhat more talkative.
    • Usually has something to say, readily responsive.
    • Always talking.
    II. Quality of Relatedness and Communication
    • Not listening to group leader.
    • Listening, but not always hearing what leader is saying.
    • Reacts to group leaders, not always on topic.
    • Initiates topics, mostly relevant to group goals.
    • Expresses self well, very perceptive, able to relate both interpersonally and intrapersonally.
    III. Capacity for Change
    • Passive, no involvement, more disturbed, participation mostly defensive.
    • No indication of apparent change, guarded talk, resistive, poor motivation for change.
    • Some slight improvement, interested in discussions, beginning to reach out to others.
    • Seems to be changing, grasps ideas, more interest in transferential involvement.
    • Making good use of therapy, gaining some insight, apparent desire to change.
    IV. Amount of Interviewer Verbal Activity
    • Talking most of the time.
    • Talks more than client, but client expresses him/herself.
    • Equal participation by client/interviewer.
    • Interviewer speaks less than client.
    • Interviewer mostly listening, almost never speaks.
    V Group Member Willingness to Discuss Problems Openly
    • States has no problems to work on.
    • States has few problems with people; doesn't need help with them.
    • States has some problems to work on but expresses major concern about discussing them in group.
    • States has some problems to work on but expresses some concern about discussing them in group.
    • States has some problems to work on but expresses little or no concern about discussing them in group.
    VI. Group Member Stated Commitment to Change
    • Not willing to make changes.
    • Hesitant to change.
    • Willing to examine behavior but some hesitation.
    • Some commitment to change.
    • A great deal of commitment to change.
    VII. Group Member Identification of Goals
    • Not willing to identify a goal.
    • Hesitant to identify a goal.
    • With some help was able to identify a goal.
    • Identified a goal; with some help, made it very realistic, interpersonal, and/or here-and-now focused.
    • Clearly identified a goal that was realistic, interpersonal, and/or here-and-now focused.
    VIII. Specificity of Goals
    • No goals.
    • One vague goal.
    • Several goals but vague.
    • One goal that was realistic, interpersonal, and/or here-and-now focused.
    • Two or more goals that were realistic, interpersonal, and/or here-and-now focused.
    IX. Potential for Connection with Other Group Members
    • No one in the group with whom he or she would connect.
    • Possibly one member.
    • At least one or two members.
    • Probably three or four members.
    • Most or all group members.

    Names: __

    X. Ability to Serve as a Role Model for Others
    • No one in the group for whom he or she could serve as a role model.
    • Possibly one member for whom he or she could serve as a role model.
    • At least one or two members for whom he or she could serve as a role model.
    • Probably three or four members for whom he or she could serve as a role model.
    • Most or all group members for whom he or she could serve as a role model.

    Names: __

    XI. Interviewer Connection with Potential Group Member
    • No connection at all.
    • Very little connection.
    • A little to some connection.
    • Moderate connection.
    • Strong rapport and respect for group member.
    XII. Expectation That Group Will Be Beneficial
    • Expressed no benefit in group participation.
    • Expressed a great deal of hesitation that group would be helpful.
    • Expressed some hesitation but some belief that group would be helpful.
    • Expressed that group would probably be helpful.
    • Expressed strong belief that group would be helpful.
    Critical Incidents in Group Work

    Of the events that occurred in this group session today, which one do you feel was the most important to/for you personally? Describe the event: what actually took place, the group members involved, and their reactions.

    • Why was this important to you?
    • What did you learn from this event? (Kivlighan & Goldfine, 1991)
    Evaluation at the End of Group by Members (for Grades K-12)

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    About the Author

    Janice L. DeLucia-Waack is currently Associate Professor and Program Director for School Counseling in the Department of Counseling, School, and Educational Psychology at the University at Buffalo, SUNY. She is the former editor of the Journal for Specialists in Group Work and is a fellow in the Association for Specialists in Group Work division of the American Counseling Association and in Division 49, Group Psychology and Group Psychotherapy, of the American Psychological Association. She is author/editor of two books, Using Music in Children of Divorce Groups: A Session-by-Session Manual for Counselors (2001) and Multicultural Counseling and Training: Implications and Challenges for Practice (1996), and co-editor/author of three other books: Handbook of Group Counseling and Psychotherapy (2004, with Cynthia Kalodner, Maria Riva, and Deborah Gerrity), The Practice of Multicultural Group Work: Visions and Perspectives From the Field (2004, with Jeremiah Donigian); and Group Work Experts Share Their Favorite Activities: A Guide to Choosing, Planning, Conducting, and Processing (2002, with Karen Bridbord and Jennifer Kleiner).

    She received a bachelor's degree in Psychology from Eisenhower College, a master's degree in Family Studies from the University of Maryland, and a PhD in Counseling Psychology from Pennsylvania State University.


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