Leadership and Management in Police Organizations

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Matthew J. Giblin

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    Preface

    This textbook is about police organizations, including their operations, structures, administration, and employees. It is designed for use in both undergraduate and graduate courses in police administration, management, leadership, and organizations. As a current or future employee of a police organization—sworn and civilian, front-line and supervisory—the topics are particularly salient, helping the reader understand broader organizational decisions (e.g., why a particular strategy is adopted) and specific employee behaviors (e.g., what are common stressors in the field). In light of recent calls for reform, it places accidents and other errors in policing within an organizational context and discusses likely changes coming to the policing industry. For those studying policing with no plans to work in the field, the knowledge garnered from this text serves the reader as an organizational constituent. How is quality police work measured? Why is the community’s department engaging in a certain strategy? Will the city’s recruitment standards affect officer behavior? The theme of the book is that police organizations matter and the study of police organizations matters. This is true regardless of an individual’s relationship with a police department.

    This volume derives its foundation from the broader literature on organizational theory and behavior, a well-established field with roots dating back to the early 1900s. It eschews training in favor of a thorough review of the theoretical and empirical literature on organizations. Unlike many other textbooks devoted to police organizations, it addresses both classical and contemporary (e.g., contingency, resource, and institutional) theories combined with empirical tests of these frameworks by police organization scholars. In doing so, this text moves beyond simple description and explanation toward an assessment of the validity of those explanations. For instance, it is conventional wisdom to identify dangerous situations as a common stressor in policing, but empirical research shows that officers anticipate danger, as indicated by elevated heart rates, when they drive through dangerous areas or place their hands on their weapons. The comprehensiveness and depth of the theoretical and empirical reviews contained within this text are demonstrated by the roughly 1,200 references cited within the chapters’ endnotes. These sources are not only summarized and integrated throughout the book but serve as useful starting points for students and researchers interested in additional inquiry into police organizations. Instead of wondering whether the textbook material is simply a set of abstract frameworks with limited utility, readers will see the application to everyday practice in each chapter. A significant portion of the 1,200 references is devoted to news stories, union contracts, and case laws that demonstrate the practical relevance of textbook material.

    The presentation and application of textbook content is enhanced by several features. First, each of the chapters (introduction excluded) includes a contribution from a current or former member of a police-related organization. These individuals serve(d) unique roles—officer, investigator, upper-level manager, training director, victim services coordinator, and accreditation director. They each provided their Policing Insights, sharing their own thoughts on chapter topics. Their insights, written without reading the chapter for which they were contributing, further demonstrate the relevance of organizational theory and behavior-related topics to police practice.

    Second, each chapter is positioned between two short examples. At the beginning of each chapter (introduction excepted), a brief summary of a news story, research study, or speech introduces chapter-related subject matter without being weighed down by overly technical language or definitions. Essentially, readers are immediately exposed to an application of the material to come. At the end of the chapter, after the presentation of all content, another example is presented under the heading Your Turn. In this case, readers are given the opportunity to review the example with the added benefit of the chapter’s theoretical and conceptual knowledge in mind. Each Your Turn example is followed by three discussion questions that encourage readers to think critically instead of simply recalling information.

    Finally, each chapter includes several concluding elements designed to foster student learning. Three additional discussion questions draw upon material from the entire chapter, not just the Your Turn example. Key terms (and a corresponding glossary) highlight key concepts from throughout the chapter. Web resources point to sites of interest related to topics covered in the text.

    Acknowledgments

    I have now had two opportunities to work with the team at SAGE Publications. Executive Editor Jerry Westby has been a constant source of knowledge, encouragement, and patience. He trusts authors to produce quality texts by providing suggestions and support without dictating the content and direction of manuscripts. I am grateful for his support. Thank you to Laura Kirkhuff, Libby Larson, Amy Harris, Nicole Mangona, Dennis Webb, and Karen Wiley for shepherding the manuscript through the publication process to final book form. Your assistance at each stage was critical for tying everything together into the finished product. Thank you to Jordan Galehan and Phillip Galli for producing the ancillary materials for the text.

    I benefited at the proposal and draft manuscript stages from the feedback of a number of subject matter experts. These reviewers devoted their time and energy, sharing information about their own courses and approaches to teaching while providing constructive comments that I am sure improved the overall quality of the final textbook. Thank you to the following:

    • Jeffrey J. Ahn, Chaminade University
    • Gerald P. Fisher, Georgia College and State University
    • Ryan M. Getty, California State University at Sacramento
    • Larry Karson, University of Houston–Downtown
    • Billy Long, Ferrum College
    • Stephen L. Mallory, University of Mississippi
    • Benjamin F. Stickle, Campbellsville University
    • Robert Swan, California State University, Stanislaus
    • Brenya Twumasi, University of Phoenix and Webster University
    • Harold A. Wells, Tennessee State University
    • Michael Wigginton Jr., University of Mississippi
    • James E. Williams, Chief of Police, Staunton Police Department
    • Charles E. Wilson, University of Detroit Mercy

    This textbook reflects my strong interest in the study of organizations, particularly police organizations. This interest developed over time, fostered by coursework and interactions with three outstanding scholars early in my career. Steve Chermak (Michigan State University) established a foundation for organizational and systems inquiry in one of my first graduate school classes nearly two decades ago. Steve Herbert (University of Washington) introduced me to institutional theory a short time later, stimulating an interest in a theoretical framework that would come to define a significant portion of my professional career. Bob Langworthy (University of Central Florida) shared his knowledge as the “godfather” of police organizational research during my two-plus years as a research associate at the University of Alaska Anchorage. These three individuals will likely never truly know the effect they had on my thinking about organizations and, more generally, my career. I can only affirm their great influence and extend my sincere appreciation.

    This work is strengthened by the collection of 11 voices who contributed Policing Insights on a diverse range of topics. My connection to each of these individuals is quite varied: lifelong family friend, colleagues, students, and professional referrals. What they share in common is a history of working in the policing field—as an officer, a chief, a victim services coordinator, an investigator, or some other position—and a willingness to share their experiences with me and readers of this volume. I am extremely grateful that they each responded to my e-mails or calls, especially when I only had vague ideas about what I was after. The results are compelling and illustrate the applicability of many organizational theory and behavior concepts to the policing field. Thank you to Paul Echols, Saly Fayez, Eric Gumina, Daniel Isom, Michael Kyle, Lori Mizell, Rick Myers, Michael Schlosser, Nate Thompson, David White, and Valerie Womack.

    I would also like to extend my gratitude to several members of the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. My colleague Joe Schafer helped identify some of the gaps in the current police management textbook market and contributed to what would become the Policing Insights sections within each chapter. Graduate students Zachary Kodatt, Alaina Steele, and Esmie Zamora provided library assistance at various points throughout the development of this manuscript. To each of them, I am truly thankful.

    Finally, and most importantly, I would like thank my wife, Melissa, and two sons, Connor and Ryan. Melissa has been a constant source of light since we first met over 22 years ago. I would not be where I am personally or professionally without her support and encouragement. My family helped boost my spirits on days where I struggled to place few, if any, words on a page, and they cheered when I reported significant progress. Thank you, and I love you.

  • Glossary

    1033 Program:

    Part of the 1997 National Defense Authorization Act, the program allows the Department of Defense to transfer surplus equipment (e.g., vehicles, weapons, supplies) to law enforcement agencies to support both drug enforcement and counterterrorism activities.

    360-degree feedback:

    A performance evaluation scheme in which multiple raters are used to provide assessments of employee performance, thereby overcoming any biases and observational limitations associated with a single rater.

    accreditation:

    A state or national process that designates police organizations as adhering to a set of prescribed policies and practices. Agencies generally seek accreditation on a voluntary basis in order to modernize policies, reduce civil liability, and improve the overall status of the department, among other benefits.

    achievement motive:

    A prominent motive (symbolized n achievement) addressed by scholar David McClelland by which people desire to be successful and do something better. To develop a sense of achievement, people with a high n achievement need to establish challenging but reachable goals, take responsibility for their work, and receive feedback on job performance.

    active failures:

    Accidents caused by individual failures, specifically by those directly involved in the organization’s production activities or service delivery. The accident is typically the result of some individual mistake, oversight, or violation that produces an immediate but relatively isolated event.

    acute stressors:

    Stressors that occur less frequently but often suddenly. They may include traumatic events such as police-involved shootings and notifying families of deaths.

    administrative breakdown:

    A cause of organizational accidents produced by the failure to implement or enforce administrative principles (e.g., unity of command, discipline).

    affiliation motive:

    A prominent motive (symbolized n affiliation) addressed by scholar David McClelland by which people desire interaction and interpersonal relationships. They seek approval from others and wish to avoid conflict.

    anticipatory socialization:

    Part of the organizational socialization process, it includes the learning and preparation that occurs before individuals formally enter an organization.

    assessment centers:

    Screening tools with which new applicants to organizations or individuals under consideration for promotion are subjected to a variety of behavioral exercises, allowing evaluators to assess how situations are handled.

    authority:

    The right to make demands of others, usually derived from a person’s position within a hierarchically structured organization. Others have a duty to comply and generally do so willingly, as long as the requests fall within an appropriate range.

    authorized-level approach:

    A method of determining staffing levels in law enforcement organizations based on funds allocated to the organization. The availability of resources determines the appropriate number of officers.

    automatic vehicle location systems (AVL):

    Electronic systems that emerged in the 1970s that allowed police departments to track patrol cars in real time using stationary sensors or radio systems. Modern systems incorporate global positioning satellite systems.

    behavioral theories of leadership:

    A group of theories emerging from research conducted at The Ohio State University beginning in the 1940s; the focus was on what leaders did rather than the traits they possessed. Generally, two key dimensions of leader behavior dominate the literature: initiating structure and consideration (these dimensions were also referred to by other names including, but not limited to, concern for production and concern for people).

    big-city bias:

    A tendency to base our understanding of police organizations on only the practices of the largest agencies. This occurs due to media coverage, researcher site selection, and the practical implications associated with most officers working in large agencies.

    big data:

    A general movement in society toward the use of massive amounts of diverse and, in many cases, real-time data points to guide decision-making and predict outcomes. In policing, the big data movement takes the form of predictive policing.

    blue flu:

    A type of job action when a large number of employees collectively take sick leave at the same time (mass sick-outs), potentially disrupting the organization’s operations. It is referred to as blue flu when performed by police personnel.

    body-worn cameras:

    Small recording devices that, depending upon the manufacturer, attach to an officer’s chest, lapel, shoulder, glasses, or helmet and, assuming they are activated, record activities within their field of view.

    bona fide occupational qualifications:

    Conditions or abilities necessary to successfully perform job tasks. For example, law enforcement organizations can restrict employment to individuals with drivers’ licenses and clean criminal records since operating a motor vehicle, public trust, and carrying a handgun (potentially restricted by a criminal record) are necessary for the performance of police work.

    bureaucracy:

    An organizational structure identified in the writings of Max Weber characterized by a division of labor, hierarchy of authority, extensive formalization, merit selection and promotion, and impersonal relations.

    burnout:

    A condition or syndrome involving a combination of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a diminished sense of personal accomplishment that most commonly affects workers in human service fields such as policing, social work, and nursing.

    career plateau:

    A term used to describe the point in a person’s career when he or she cannot advance or promote any further, either due to a limited number of promotional slots or to personal deficiencies.

    central tendency:

    A potential problem with performance evaluations when rater assessments overwhelmingly cluster near the midpoint of ratings scales. This often occurs when raters lack sufficient evidence to justify a rating or are unable to provide a rating.

    centralization:

    Refers to the location in the organization where important decisions are made. If decisions are left in the hands of people at the top, the organization is centralized. If decision-making authority is pushed down to lower points in the organization, decentralization is evident. Centralization tends to produce uniformity since decisions are applicable to everyone below.

    chronic stressors:

    A set of demands or stressors encountered regularly and largely connected to the features of the organization itself. Examples include poor compensation or ineffective management.

    civilianization:

    The employment of civilians in police organizations, particularly in positions once filled by sworn personnel. Civilians often fill specialized positions, including dispatch, records management, crime analysis, planning, and lab positions.

    coercive power:

    Power based on the perceived capacity of the power holder to sanction those who fail to comply with directives. Compliance with demands allows the power recipient to avoid punishment.

    collaborative advantage:

    When a collaboration or partnership allows an organization to produce outcomes superior to those possible than if it had acted alone.

    Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA):

    Formed in 1979, CALEA is a national accrediting body that first issued standards for police organizations in 1983. As of 2000, just over 500 agencies had secured CALEA accreditation.

    complexity (normal accidents):

    A dimension of normal accidents theory capturing the degree of predictability in how the parts of a system operate. When system parts are complex—either serving many functions or interacting with many other parts—accidents become more likely. When system parts are linear, the parts operate in more predictable ways.

    complexity (structure):

    The degree to which an organization divides its work across vertical, horizontal, and spatial dimensions. The more divisions, the more complex the organization.

    Compstat:

    A police innovation that originated in New York City in 1994 that combines the technical capacity to provide up-to-date performance measures with management accountability over geographically dispersed operational commanders.

    concentration:

    The distribution of employees across an organization’s hierarchical levels. It is often illustrated by the shape of a pyramid (e.g., the relative size or thickness of the pyramid at each of its levels).

    consent decree:

    Legal agreements negotiated between organizations and other parties (e.g., government) designed to remedy the conditions that give rise to disputes. Consent decrees typically require changes to organizational structures and practices and the court monitors’ compliance with the order.

    consideration:

    One of two key dimensions of behavioral or style theories of leadership (see also initiating structure). A considerate leader is concerned about relationships with followers and pays attention to their needs (e.g., satisfaction, stress).

    content theories:

    A broad category of motivational theories linked by their focus on identifying either an exhaustive list of human needs producing motivation or the most important needs driving behavior. Examples of content theories include need theory; motivator-hygiene theory; and achievement, affiliation, and power motives. Contrasts with process theories.

    contingency theory:

    An open systems theory developed in the 1960s suggesting that there is no single best way to organize. The best structure depends on (is contingent upon) a variety of factors, including organization size and environmental conditions.

    contingent reward:

    A type of transactional leadership behavior that involves using positive reinforcement in order to promote goal achievement.

    contract:

    An agreement wherein one police department, typically a larger agency, agrees to provide specified services for another municipality. The Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department, for example, provides services for a fee to roughly 40 municipalities within Los Angeles County.

    coupling:

    A dimension of normal accidents theory, it is the degree of dependency or connectedness of system parts. When coupling is evident, there is no slack in the system to absorb the effects of other system parts, so accidents become more likely.

    culture:

    A set of beliefs, values, and behavioral guides shared by an organization’s members. Some organizations have a single culture, while others are composed of many different cultures operating within different subpopulations (e.g., police subculture, management subculture).

    decouple:

    Occurs when organizations separate institutionally prescribed practices from day-to-day activities. Decoupling allows the organization to maintain its regular workflow but also meet external demands.

    de-policing:

    A reduction in police activity that results from the reluctance on the part of police officers to engage the public out of fear of criticism and/or discipline.

    differentiated:

    A characteristic of organizations that reflects the division of labor or work across members.

    distributive justice:

    A component of organizational justice, it addresses the perceived fairness of outcome distributions received by any individual or group in the workplace.

    divergence:

    A problem associated with individual organizational action. Organizations pursue individual goals rather than common system goals. Resources are spread out across multiple targets rather than focused on a larger or singular target. Collaboration is intended to prevent divergence in goals.

    early intervention system:

    Also known as early warning systems, these are data systems that allow managers to identify and intervene with potentially troublesome officers in order to prevent more serious or patterns of misbehavior.

    effort performance expectancy:

    A part of the expectancy theory of motivation stating that people can only act if they believe they have the ability or opportunity to perform. Absent ability or capacity, motivation will suffer, even if the outcomes are valued and likely.

    emotion-focused coping:

    Attempts to endure emotional strains, suppress or vent feelings, or redefine the situation as less threatening.

    environment:

    External elements that both influence and support an organization. The environment generally consists of individuals, groups, organizations, and institutions outside of the boundaries of the focal organization.

    equitable sharing:

    A federal program which provides up to 80 percent of assets seized during state and local drug investigations back to state or local governments and, in some cases, their law enforcement agencies.

    equity theory:

    A process theory of motivation that argues motivation and other work-related behaviors and attitudes are determined by the perceived fairness of exchanges in the workplace. Individuals compare their ratio of inputs (e.g., their education, skills, effort) to outputs (e.g., pay, job assignments) against other workers or to themselves at a different point in time in a subjective process when determining fairness. If inequity is observed, motivation may suffer.

    evidence-based policing:

    A police innovation with roots in medicine, social work, and education that stresses the importance of using scientific evidence as a decision-making tool. Departments are encouraged to adopt best practices as determined by external and internal research rather than hunches, tradition, intuition, or personal experience.

    Evidence-Based Policing Matrix:

    A tool developed by scholars to visually depict effective and ineffective police tactics (as determined by research) across three dimensions—the target of the intervention, the specificity of the strategy, and its level of proactivity.

    expectancy:

    In expectancy theory, it is the probability of any given outcome occurring. Even if an outcome is valued, it may not be motivating if the likelihood of the outcome occurring is low.

    expectancy theory:

    Also known as VIE (valence, instrumentality, expectancies) theory, it is a process theory of motivation wherein people are assumed to base behavioral decisions on a calculation. They must value the reward or outcome that follows any particular action (valence), they must believe that the outcomes are likely (performance-outcome expectancy), and they must have the opportunity and capability to engage in the behavior that produces the outcome (effort-performance expectancy). Motivation will suffer if any one or more of these three components breaks down.

    expert power:

    Power based on the power holder’s extensive knowledge in a specific field. Power recipient compliance is based on deference to this expertise.

    extrinsic motivators:

    Rewards or needs that are considered external to the individual or provided by others. The reward is provided by some outside agent upon completion of a task. Examples include pay, promotions, health benefits, and commendations.

    Ferguson effect:

    Named after the site of a widely covered police shooting, it suggests that increases in crime are the result of de-policing caused by hostility toward and scrutiny of police actions.

    Fiedler’s contingency theory of leadership:

    A theory developed by Fred Fiedler representing a major advancement in the study of leadership. Fiedler argued that the best style of leadership—task-motivated behavior or relationship-motivated behavior—was contingent upon relationships with followers, the amount of power possessed by the leader, and the clarity of the task. Task-oriented behavior was appropriate when all contingencies were either favorable or unfavorable; relationship-oriented behavior was appropriate when the favorability of contingencies was mixed. Leadership style was measured using the least preferred coworker score.

    field training officer:

    A specially trained officer tasked with mentoring new officers as they begin their careers. The San Jose Police Department created the first formal field training officer program in 1972.

    fixed point system:

    A supervision system used in England that required officers to patrol a walkable patrol beat determined at the beginning of each shift. The officers were to reach certain fixed points on the beat at designated intervals during the work day. The strategy persisted into the early 1960s but only ensured that officers were doing some work at the time they made the fixed points. The system could not ensure compliance during other times.

    focused deterrence partnership:

    Also known as a pulling levers strategy, the innovation originated in Boston in the mid-1990s as part of Operation Ceasefire. It is based on the notion that deterring all offenders may prove difficult but a concerted, multiagency effort targeting the most chronic offenders can send a strong deterrence message and reduce criminal activity.

    formalization:

    The degree to which an organization and its members are guided by written rules and procedures intended to produce predictable behavior (more rules equals greater formalization). Organizations may attempt to standardize how work is performed, the outcomes to be achieved, or the characteristics of the people assuming a role.

    frankpledge:

    An early system of communal law enforcement that existed for several centuries through the late 1200s. Groups of ten families were organized together, and male members were obligated to apprehend offenders and produce them for trial or face punishments themselves.

    full-range leadership model:

    A model of leadership combining both transformational and transactional leadership behaviors. The model suggests that both behaviors are necessary, but effective leadership is more likely to occur when transactional leadership is displayed infrequently relative to transformational leadership.

    functional differentiation:

    The degree to which an organization’s workers are grouped into identifiable units, departments, or divisions, each with its own chain of command. It is an indicator of horizontal complexity.

    halo error:

    A problem that occurs when raters, such as followers asked to assess their leader, evaluate a subject similarly across all dimensions based on their opinions of the subject on only a small range of dimensions.

    Hawthorne studies:

    A series of studies begun in 1924 that established the human relations school of management. The studies found that informal organization and worker needs influenced productivity as much or more than formal organizational structures.

    hierarchy of needs:

    Associated with the work of Abraham Maslow, the hierarchy of needs is a set of five needs—physiological, security/safety, belonging, esteem, and self-actualization—organized according to their potency (the hierarchy starts with physiological needs). As one need is satisfied, the next in the hierarchy takes over as the primary motivator.

    horizontal complexity:

    The degree to which the organization subdivides its work into specific jobs and separate structural divisions within any given rank or hierarchical level.

    human relations school:

    A major school of thought about organizations. Recognized the importance of the worker’s needs and behaviors, as well as the informal organizational structure, in shaping the overall effectiveness of the organization.

    idealized influence:

    A component of transformational leadership, it refers to the qualities of a leader that others admire or seek to emulate. These qualities, often referred to as charisma, tend to encourage motivation among followers.

    implicit biases:

    Unconscious or automatic beliefs possessed by an unaware individual that may affect behavior. For example, many people implicitly associate weapons with race, a belief that could affect street-level decision-making.

    individualized consideration:

    A component of transformational leadership, it refers to a recognition of the uniqueness of each follower. Leaders must address the individual needs of each follower.

    information power:

    Power based on the power holder’s control of information flows within an organization or access to information sought by others. Compliance by power recipients is based on their desire to receive this information from the power holder. It is also a source of persuasion, providing power holders with information needed to convince others.

    informational justice:

    A dimension of interactional justice, it refers to the truthfulness and adequacy of explanations provided by decision-makers to individuals affected by those decisions.

    initiating structure:

    One of two key dimensions of behavioral or style theories of leadership (see also consideration). Leaders who initiate structure provide followers with direction on accomplishing the work (e.g., how to complete work, deadlines).

    inspirational motivation:

    A component of transformational leadership, it refers to arousing motivation by making emotional appeals, establishing high expectations, and pushing followers to set aside their self-interests.

    institutional theory:

    Contemporary theory of organization suggesting that organizational structures and practices are a product of expectations of what organizations should do, irrespective of efficiency and effectiveness concerns.

    instrumental rationality:

    An organization’s focus on selecting and implementing the best (i.e., effective) means for achieving organizational goals.

    instrumentality:

    A component of expectancy theory, it refers to the usefulness of one outcome in leading to another. For example, making a lot of arrests might be instrumental for securing a promotion.

    intellectual stimulation:

    A component of transformational leadership, it refers to behaviors that promote creative and innovative thinking among followers.

    interactional justice:

    A component of organizational justice, it addresses the interpersonal conduct of the individuals who make decisions. Individuals assess fairness based on how they are treated (respect and information provided), independent of assessments of fairness of outcomes or procedures.

    interpersonal justice:

    A dimension of interactional justice, it refers to the quality of treatment (e.g., respect, politeness) between decision-makers and individuals affected by decisions.

    intrinsic motivators:

    Internal rewards that come from the work itself. Task performance produces feelings such as accomplishment, achievement, or self-esteem. These are provided by the individual completing the work, not others.

    involuntary turnover:

    The loss or exit of agency personnel due to agency decisions. Common reasons include dismissals, probationary officer rejections, or medical separations.

    isomorphism:

    The tendency of organizations to resemble one another as a result of coercive, mimetic, and normative processes. The environment only supports a limited number of structural options, so organizations tend to take similar forms.

    job analysis:

    A process undertaken by organizations to identify the key components of any particular job. This may include specifying tasks associated with a job, important behaviors, and the expected work products.

    job characteristics model:

    A model of job design produced by Hackman and Oldham in the 1970s. The model suggests that internal motivation is produced when people believe that their work is meaningful, experience responsibility, and receive knowledge of results. Enhancing skill variety, task identity, and task significance can increase feelings of meaningfulness, affording autonomy can provide a sense of responsibility, and giving feedback can improve overall knowledge of results.

    job content:

    The key tasks associated with a given position. A job’s content is often determined by asking employees to keep track of their daily activities during a fixed period of time or respond to surveys about the importance of particular work behaviors.

    job design:

    A method of matching workers to tasks and manipulating the nature of the work (e.g., changing the level of responsibilities, providing additional feedback) in order to facilitate feedback. Hackman and Oldham produced a widely known job design model known as the job characteristics model.

    Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment:

    A research project supported by the Police Foundation conducted in 1972 and 1973 in 15 of the Kansas City (Missouri) Police Department’s patrol beats. The findings showed that, within reasonable limits (up to 2–3 times the level of patrol), visible random patrol had very little effect on a broad range of outcomes, including reported crime, reported victimization, arrest behavior, and citizen fear of crime.

    knowledge conflict:

    A perspective on organizational accidents that suggests that the knowledge possessed by any one person in an organization is determined by his or her position in the hierarchy. Conflict occurs when a manager’s knowledge is incompatible with a line-level worker’s knowledge.

    laissez-faire:

    A leadership style characterized by the failure to take action at all. It is widely regarded as very ineffective.

    latent conditions:

    Characteristics of organizations, including structures and management, that contribute to accidents when multiple factors converge at a specific time and location.

    lateral entry:

    The practice of hiring already trained and certified officers with experience working in other agencies. Law enforcement agencies are most likely to permit lateral entry for street-level (e.g., patrol or deputy) personnel.

    least preferred coworker:

    Fred Fiedler developed the least preferred coworker (LPC) score to measure leadership behavior as part of his contingency theory of leadership. Survey respondents are asked to think about a coworker who they have difficulty working with and rate that individual on a variety of items. If the coworker is described in favorable terms, the respondent is viewed as manifesting relationship-motivated behavior. If the coworker is described in unfavorable terms, the respondent is viewed as relying upon task-motivated behavior.

    legitimacy:

    A belief among organizational stakeholders that the organization’s actions are appropriate and consistent with societal expectations.

    legitimacy crisis:

    A period when the public’s trust in and cooperation with law enforcement officials suffers, often due to one or more events (e.g., use-of-force incidents) that are inconsistent with societal expectations. Research shows that public attitudes toward the police turned more negative in 2014 and 2015; as a result, both the public and government pushed for reforms.

    legitimate power:

    Power based on the power holder’s right to make demands and secure compliance, usually derived from position or rank. It may also be based on a sense of reciprocity by which the power recipient feels a sense of duty to comply to fulfill part of an exchange.

    leniency:

    A potential problem with performance evaluations when rater assessments overwhelmingly cluster at the upper or positive ends of a rating scale.

    light switch effect:

    A term used to describe the rapid and significant, as opposed to gradual, reduction in crime in certain cities implementing focused deterrence partnerships.

    management:

    A collection of tasks within an organization involving planning, assigning human and physical resources, ensuring performance, disciplining noncompliance, and resolving problems. Management tasks are designed to create predictability in organizations. It generally occurs over a much more limited time frame and is considered distinct from leadership.

    management by exception-active:

    A type of transactional leadership behavior, it involves proactively monitoring for deviations from acceptable procedures and stepping in when departures occur.

    management by exception-passive:

    A type of transactional leadership behavior, it involves intervening only after something goes wrong. It contrasts with management by exception-active where leaders are searching for deviations.

    managerial grid:

    A creation of Robert Blake and Jane Mouton, the Managerial Grid served as a visual display of the two dimensions of leadership behavior: concern for people and concern for production. An individual’s leadership style was determined by the point on the grid where the two leadership behaviors intersected. Although the grid included 81 separate points of intersection, the most attention was paid to the middle and five corners and their associated leadership styles.

    metropolitan departments:

    A type of police agency consolidation that occurs when two or more agencies with overlapping jurisdictions—a city police department and county sheriff’s department—merge into a single agency.

    minimum-staffing approach:

    A method of determining staffing levels in law enforcement agencies that requires personnel—managers and street-level—to identify a sufficient number of officers needed to maintain officer safety and protect the public. Minimum staffing is often dictated in collective bargaining agreements.

    miscarriage of justice:

    A term used to describe wrongful convictions, situations when individuals are convicted of crimes that have not occurred or convicted of crimes for which they are innocent.

    motivator-hygiene theory:

    A content theory of motivation developed through empirical research by Frederick Herzberg and his colleagues in the 1950s. The theory classifies needs into two independent categories. Hygiene factors, generally matters related to the work context (e.g., quality of supervision, workplace policies) contributed to dissatisfaction but did not necessarily lead to motivation. Motivators represented intrinsic factors that drove employees, such as challenging work, achievement, and responsibility.

    near miss:

    An act that could have resulted in an accident, but for any number of reasons (e.g., chance), harms were avoided. Studying near misses such as a firearms discharge that does not hit its target can provide valuable information to avoid actual accidents.

    normal accidents:

    A theory used to describe the likelihood of organizational accidents when systems are complex and system parts tightly coupled.

    occupational choice:

    An individual’s decision about a specific career path to follow (e.g., education, law enforcement). The decision is generally made over time and shaped by various influences, including family and friends, educational experiences, and the media.

    occupational differentiation:

    Also referred to as role specialization, it is the degree to which the work of an organization is broken down into smaller parts and individuals are assigned to handle only their part. Occupational differentiation is an indicator of horizontal complexity.

    Office of Community Oriented Policing Services:

    Also known as the COPS Office, the organization is part of the US Department of Justice and is tasked with administering grant programs, providing technical assistance to law enforcement agencies, and encouraging the spread of community policing.

    open systems:

    A perspective on organizations that views them as influenced by and, in some cases, dependent upon the environment.

    organization:

    A collective of individuals or groups who work together on a relatively consistent basis to realize common goals by dividing up and coordinating the work.

    organizational accidents:

    Incidents that occur relatively infrequently and unexpectedly, depart from the organization’s goals, and produce significantly harmful outcomes such as loss of life or erroneous convictions.

    organizational behavior:

    Field of study that focuses on the individuals and groups within an organization. The primary interest is in how the larger organizational context shapes worker/group behavior and attitudes.

    organizational choice:

    An individual’s decision to pursue work in a specific agency or department. Once an occupational choice is made, the organizational choice may occur much more rapidly, sometimes as soon as a job announcement is posted or a job offer is made.

    organizational justice:

    A process theory of motivation extending equity theory arguments. It is concerned with fairness in the workplace in three areas: distributive justice (rewards and outcomes), procedural justice (decision-making procedures), and interactional justice (interpersonal treatment).

    organizational socialization:

    Process whereby individuals learn the skills, values, and behaviors associated with and required for completion of a job.

    organizational theory:

    Field of study that examines the organization itself as a unit or part of a larger group of relationships (e.g., an industry).

    outcomes:

    Performance measures that indicate the results or quality of the work performed. In policing, this may include reduced crime, fear, and disorder; improved traffic safety; and enhanced citizen satisfaction with the police. Outputs (e.g., number of arrests, clearance rates, meetings attended) are presumably linked with outcomes.

    outputs:

    Performance measures that indicate the work performed in terms of quantity. Common output measures in policing include the number of arrests, citations or warnings issued, and clearance rates.

    peer evaluations:

    A procedure used to collect employee evaluation information when peers are asked to rate co-workers.

    per capita approach:

    A method of determining staffing levels in law enforcement organizations that is based on some ideal ratio of officers to the jurisdiction’s population.

    performance-outcome expectancy:

    A part of the expectancy theory of motivation stating that individuals gauge the likelihood that certain outcomes will follow their performance. If the outcomes are unlikely to occur, then motivation will suffer, even if the outcome’s valence is high.

    personal power:

    Power related and unique to individuals, independent of their position in the organization. Examples include referent and expert power.

    personal power concern:

    Using power for personal or selfish reasons, such as to secure individual rewards or status.

    position power:

    Power derived from a person’s location within the organization, such as reward and coercive power.

    post-arrest processing:

    A description of the work performed by criminal investigators (detectives) once a perpetrator is identified. A significant amount of time is spent strengthening the case and preparing it for a prosecutor.

    power:

    A tool for controlling behavior and obtaining compliance, especially in the face of resistance. In many situations, power has reciprocal qualities where the power flows in both directions in a relationship.

    power motive:

    A prominent motive (symbolized n power) addressed by scholar David McClelland. Individuals are motivated by the desire to exert control and influence. Some use this power to demonstrate superiority over others (personalized power motive), while others use it to benefit the organization as a whole (socialized power motive).

    predictive policing:

    An innovation by which police agencies draw upon vast, diverse, and extremely timely data in order to predict and prevent crime that may occur in the future.

    predictive validity:

    The ability of screening techniques to successfully identify officers most likely to excel during academy training and, upon graduation, on the streets. Critics contend that physical fitness and psychological tests, along with other screening mechanisms, are unable to adequately distinguish well qualified from unqualified recruits.

    primacy effects:

    A potential problem with performance evaluations when rater assessments are based largely on initial or early observations rather than the full evaluation period.

    primary appraisal:

    The process whereby an individual determines whether the stressors are of such a magnitude to produce strain.

    primary intervention:

    Efforts to reduce occupational stress by reducing or modifying the intensity of stressors within the organization. Common strategies include clarifying roles, adjusting workloads, and altering organizational structures.

    problem-focused coping:

    A strategy intended to remedy strain-causing situations such as securing information or developing a plan of action.

    procedural justice:

    A component of organizational justice, it is focused on the perceived fairness of the procedures used to make decisions about rewards, punishments, and dispute resolution. The same logic applies to encounters between organizational actors and clients (e.g., police officers and citizens). Procedural justice involves giving individuals the opportunity to provide input or a voice, acting in an objective or neutral fashion, behaving according to trustworthy motives, and treating others with dignity and respect.

    process theories:

    A broad category of motivational theories concerned with how needs are translated into actual behavior. Rather than assume that unfulfilled needs will automatically lead to action, these theories focus on factors such as rewards (e.g., expectancy theory) and fairness in the workplace (e.g., equity theory). Contrasts with content theories.

    readiness:

    The critical contingency in situational leadership theory, it refers to both job readiness and psychological readiness. Job readiness refers to an individual’s ability to perform a task, including experience, training, and education. Psychological readiness addresses follower motivation and willingness to perform a task. In earlier writings about the theory, authors referred to readiness as maturity.

    recency effects:

    A potential problem with performance evaluations when rater assessments are based largely on observations closely preceding the actual review.

    referent power:

    Power based on the power recipient’s admiration or respect for, or desire to associate with, the power holder.

    regional departments:

    A type of police agency consolidation in which agencies covering separate but often adjacent geographic areas merge to create a single police force.

    reliability:

    The ability of organizations to operate continuously even when confronted with unexpected challenges.

    religiosity:

    A type of coping behavior by which individuals pray, meditate, or turn toward religious outlets for guidance and relief.

    resilience:

    A quality of organizations related to accidents and disasters. Resilient organizations plan and train for contingencies and make appropriate decisions as events unfold.

    resource dependence theory:

    A contemporary organizational theory addressing power and dependence relationships between organizations. Organizations adopt structures and practices supported by providers of critical resources (e.g., money). The level of external control increases as resources become more important or scarcer.

    reward power:

    Power based on the power holder’s perceived ability to distribute intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Power recipients comply if they want to receive valued rewards (e.g., extra privileges).

    risk homeostasis:

    A phenomenon that occurs when the introduction of new technologies designed to increase safety actually encourages greater risk taking, offsetting any risk-reduction benefits.

    San Jose Model:

    A model of field training initiated by the San Jose (California) Police Department in 1972 that paired recently graduated recruits with specially trained officers for a period of post-academy on-the-job mentoring.

    scientific management:

    Scientific management was a classical school theory associated with the early-twentieth-century writings of Frederick Taylor. He argued that managers could reduce inefficiencies and increase workplace productivity by using scientific principles to identify the best way to perform tasks.

    secondary appraisal:

    A process whereby an individual determines what can be done about stressors in order to minimize their effects. This is essentially a coping stage.

    secondary intervention:

    Efforts to reduce occupational stress by addressing the ways that individuals respond to stressors. Organizations have implemented a variety of wellness programs designed to alter the primary appraisal process, hoping to prevent stressors from becoming strains.

    segmentation:

    The number of layers in the chain of command of an organization (e.g., count of rank levels) from top to bottom. It is often visually depicted by the height of a pyramid representing the organization.

    self-appraisals:

    Also known as self-evaluations, they are assessments performed by the focus of the evaluation. They allow an individual to highlight aspects of the work record that may be overlooked by others.

    sentinel event:

    An organizational accident or near miss that serves as a signal of some weakness in the organization or system.

    sexual harassment:

    Behaviors including gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion that occur in a range of settings (e.g., workplace, education). Perpetrators of sexual harassment may include peers, supervisors, clients, or others.

    shift work:

    Working outside of a typical 9-to-5 schedule and, in many instances, rotating from one shift to another on a regular basis. Shift work is often frequently mentioned as a stressor for police officers.

    situational leadership theory:

    A contingency theory of leadership that argues that the most appropriate style of leadership depends upon the psychological and job readiness of followers. The four styles of leadership behavior—telling, selling, participating, and delegating—are linked to the subordinate’s understanding of and willingness to perform the work.

    slack:

    The ability of one part of a system to absorb the effects of another system part.

    social support:

    Assistance from within an individual’s social networks (e.g., coworkers, family, friends) that serves to buffer the effects of various stressors. Social support can come in a variety of forms, such as providing referrals or showing empathy.

    socialized power concern:

    Using power to benefit others—the organization or the broader society—rather than for one’s own personal interests.

    span of control:

    The number of subordinates-working under the direction of each supervisor. Narrow spans of control refer to situations in which fewer workers are under a single supervisor’s control, thereby facilitating enhanced supervision. Wider spans are evident when a supervisor oversees more workers.

    spatial complexity:

    Degree to which an organization’s parts are spread across some geographic area such as a jurisdiction or state. In policing, spatial complexity is often measured by the number of police beats or district stations operated by a single organization.

    split-second syndrome:

    A phenomenon in which officers are required to make rapid decisions during stressful situations using information available at the time. Given the nature of the encounter and the speed of decision-making, errors in judgment may occur.

    strain:

    The psychological, physiological, and behavioral reactions to actual or perceived stressors that occur when immediate or effective coping mechanisms are unavailable.

    street-level bureaucrats:

    Government workers (e.g., police officers, social workers) who possess considerable discretion but work with limited resources. The fact that discretion is exercised suggests that policy is, for all intents and purposes, a product of the decision-making of street-level workers rather than policy makers.

    stress:

    The overall process wherein stressors (causes) produce strain (outcomes) in individuals if coping is unsuccessful.

    stressors:

    These are the demands or stimuli (e.g., factors intrinsic to the job, role problems, relationships at work, career development issues, structural factors, work-home interface) that contribute to strain.

    structural secrecy:

    A contributor to organizational accidents produced by the limited information sharing inherent in a structurally complex (horizontally, vertically, spatially) organization. The structural divisions preclude fully rational decision-making.

    structure:

    The division of work within an organization and the methods used to coordinate or control the parts. Structure generally includes two broad dimensions: complexity and control mechanisms.

    substitutability:

    A principle of organizations that allows them to continuing operating independent of specific members. That is, the organization functions even with employee turnover.

    surveillance:

    Direct or indirect managerial oversight that allows supervisors to observe compliant behavior. Without surveillance and the ability to ensure compliance, a power holder’s coercive and reward power bases are weakened.

    Task Force on 21st Century Policing:

    A group of police leaders, academics, criminal justice officials, and other experts created by President Barack Obama in December 2014. The group was charged with offering recommendations to improve the quality of modern policing. A final report was issued in the spring of 2015, detailing dozens of recommendations.

    termination:

    Also referred to as organizational death or disbanding, it is a term used to describe the end of operations of police agencies no longer sanctioned or supported by the sponsoring government agency (e.g., municipality or county).

    tertiary intervention:

    Efforts to address occupational stress targeting negative strain outcomes (e.g., aggression, absenteeism, health problems) once they appear. Programs include counseling, therapy, and medical care intended to address the symptoms of strain.

    tokens:

    Members of a subgroup within an organization typically representing no more than 15 percent of the organization’s members who experience increased pressures due to their visibility, perceived differences from the dominant group, and stereotypes regarding appropriate behavior.

    trait theory:

    A theory of leadership that dominated thinking until the 1940s. Researchers were interested in identifying individual traits and characteristics that distinguished leaders from nonleaders and effective leaders from ineffective leaders. A large number of traits were subsequently identified through research but generally fell into four categories: personality, skills and abilities, social factors, and physical characteristics.

    transactional leadership:

    A type of leadership based on an exchange between leader and follower in which both parties satisfy their immediate interests. For example, a police chief can highlight the rewards officers would receive if they perform as expected. The chief obtains desired behavior from officers, and officers receive rewards from the chief.

    transformational leadership:

    A type of leadership based on the notion of inspiring followers to move beyond self-interests in order to achieve and help the organization flourish. It is made up of four dimensions: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration.

    upward feedback:

    A performance evaluation process in which supervisors are evaluated by their subordinates on matters such as leadership skills, judgment, training ability, communication skills, and other criteria.

    valence:

    A component of expectancy theory, it refers to the importance of a particular outcome to any one person. If an outcome is not important, it is unlikely that a person will engage in the behavior that produces the outcome.

    vertical complexity:

    The hierarchical division of work within an organization, usually designated by military-like job titles in police departments. Related to power, authority, and supervision.

    voluntary turnover:

    The loss or exit of agency personnel as a result of employee choice. Individuals may voluntarily separate from the organization for various reasons, including nonmedical retirements or relocation.

    workload-based approach:

    A method of determining staffing levels in law enforcement agencies that requires managers to carefully consider a range of factors, including calls for service, crime types and levels, time of day and day of week, and the time spent on different tasks.

    workplace bullying:

    A workplace stressor associated with repeated aggression (e.g., workplace humiliation, impossible deadlines) directed at an individual, sometimes from a supervisor. It is usually related to some difference in power between the bully and the victim (e.g., rank differences), thereby leading to challenges for the victim trying to address the problem.

    Notes

    Chapter 1

    1. Brian A. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2013: Personnel, Policies, and Practices (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2015).

    2. Brian A. Reaves, Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2008 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2012).

    3. For purposes of the text, the terms law enforcement and policing will be used interchangeably. Where the distinction is relevant, greater clarity will be provided. For example, if a study draws specifically upon a city department sample rather than a sheriff’s department sample, reference will be made to a municipal agency.

    4. Brian Forst, “The Privatization and Civilianization of Policing,” in Boundary Changes in Criminal Justice Organizations, ed. Charles M. Friel, vol. 2, Criminal Justice 2000 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2000), 19–80.

    5. Lyman W. Porter, Edward E. Lawler, and J. Richard Hackman, Behavior in Organizations (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975); W. Richard Scott and Gerald F. Davis, Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural, and Open System Perspectives (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2007); Jonathan R. Tompkins, Organization Theory and Public Management (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2005).

    6. Edward R. Maguire and Craig D. Uchida, “Measurement and Explanation in the Comparative Study of American Police Organizations,” in Measurement and Analysis of Crime and Justice, ed. David E. Duffee (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice National Institute of Justice, 2000), 491–558.

    7. Christopher S. Koper et al., Realizing the Potential of Technology in Policing: A Multisite Study of the Social, Organizational, and Behavioral Aspects of Implementing Policing Technologies (Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum, 2015).

    8. CBS News, “Eric Garner Case: Why Weren’t Protests as Violent as in Ferguson?” CBS News, December 5, 2014, para. 3, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/eric-garner-case-why-werent-protests-as-violent-as-in-ferguson/.

    9. Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations, 19; Tompkins, Organization Theory.

    10. Greg Ridgeway et al., Strategies for Improving Officer Recruitment in the San Diego Police Department (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2008).

    11. Ibid., 89.

    12. Ibid., 100.

    13. Ibid., 87.

    14. Ibid., 86–87.

    15. David N. Falcone, L. Edward Wells, and Ralph A. Weisheit, “The Small-Town Police Department,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management 25, no. 2 (2002): 371–84.

    16. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2013.

    17. Falcone, Wells, and Weisheit, “The Small-Town Police Department,” 372.

    18. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2013.

    19. George W. Burruss et al., “Homeland Security in Small Law Enforcement Jurisdictions: Preparedness, Efficacy, and Proximity to Big-City Peers” (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2012); John P. Crank and L. Edward Wells, “The Effects of Size and Urbanism on Structure Among Illinois Police Departments,” Justice Quarterly 8, no. 2 (1991): 169–85; Falcone, Wells, and Weisheit, “The Small-Town Police Department.”

    20. Burruss et al., “Homeland Security in Small Law Enforcement Jurisdictions.”

    21. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2013.

    22. Graham Lee Brewer, “Oklahoma County Sheriff Says Reserve Deputies Are Essential to Department,” NewsOK.com, April 19, 2015, http://newsok.com/article/5411759.

    23. Bruce L. Berg and William G. Doerner, “Volunteer Police Officers: An Unexamined Personnel Dimension in Law Enforcement,” American Journal of Police 7 (1988): 81–89; Brewer, “Oklahoma County Sheriff Says Reserve Deputies Are Essential to Department.”

    24. “Reserve Police Officer Program,” Los Angeles Police Department, n.d., http://www.lapdonline.org/join_the_team/content_basic_view/542.

    25. “Reserve or Intermittent Recruit Police Officer Training,” Public Safety and Security, 2011, http://www.mass.gov/eopss/law-enforce-and-cj/law-enforce/mptc/training-and-academies/recruit-officer-courses/reserve-recruit-officer-courses/index.html.

    26. Corey Jones, “Internal Audit: 64 of 112 Tulsa County Reserve Deputies’ Files Missing Training, Qualification Records,” Tulsa World, September 25, 2015, http://www.tulsaworld.com/news/local/internal-audit-of-tulsa-county-reserve-deputies-files-missing-training/article_bb8b2045-d51d-55a7-aa86-fb960413f34b.html.

    27. Peter M. Blau and W. Richard Scott, Formal Organizations: A Comparative Approach (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003); Amitai Etzioni, Modern Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1964); Scott and Davis, Organizations and Organizing.

    28. Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations, 69.

    29. Blau and Scott, Formal Organizations, 1; Etzioni, Modern Organizations, 3; Scott and Davis, Organizations and Organizing, 11.

    30. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2013.

    31. Richard H. Hall, Organizations: Structures, Processes, and Outcomes, 7th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999).

    32. Daniel Katz and Robert L. Kahn, The Social Psychology of Organizations (New York: Wiley, 1966); W. Richard Scott, “Theory of Organizations,” in Handbook of Modern Sociology, ed. Robert E. L. Faris (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1964), 485–529; Scott and Davis, Organizations and Organizing.

    33. Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations.

    34. Scott, “Theory of Organizations,” 520.

    35. Scott, “Theory of Organizations.”

    36. Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations.

    37. Blau and Scott, Formal Organizations, 3.

    38. T. A. Critchley, A History of Police in England and Wales 900–1966 (London: Constable, 1967); Carl B. Klockars, The Idea of Police (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1985); Craig D. Uchida, “The Development of the American Police: An Historical Overview,” in Critical Issues in Policing: Contemporary Readings, ed. Roger G. Dunham and Geoffrey P. Alpert (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1997), 18–35.

    39. Critchley, A History of Police, 2.

    40. Klockars, The Idea of Police.

    41. Critchley, A History of Police.

    42. Ibid.; Klockars, The Idea of Police; Eric H. Monkkonen, “History of Urban Police,” in Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, ed. Michael Tonry, vol. 15 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), 547–80.

    43. Critchley, A History of Police; Richard J. Lundman, Police and Policing: An Introduction (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1980).

    44. Lundman, Police and Policing, 14.

    45. Velmer S. Burton et al., “The Prescribed Roles of Police in a Free Society: Analyzing State Legal Codes,” Justice Quarterly 10, no. 4 (1993): 683–95.

    46. Herbert L. Packer, “Two Models of the Criminal Process,” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 113, no. 1 (1964): 1–70; Wesley Skogan and Kathleen Frydl, eds., Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004).

    47. Hall, Organizations, 45.

    48. Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations.

    49. Hall, Organizations; Curt Tausky, Work Organizations: Major Theoretical Perspectives (Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock, 1970).

    50. Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations.

    51. Blau and Scott, Formal Organizations, 1; see also Hall, Organizations.

    52. For a general discussion, see Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations.

    53. Ibid., 98.

    54. David R. Johnson, American Law Enforcement: A History (Arlington Heights, IL: Forum Press, 1981); Dorothy Moses Schulz, “US Marshals Service,” ed. Dorothy Moses Schulz, Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005).

    55. H. Kenneth Bechtel, State Police in the United States: A Socio-Historical Analysis (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995).

    56. William R. King, “Time, Constancy, and Change in American Municipal Police Organizations,” Police Quarterly 2, no. 3 (1999): 338–64.

    57. William R. King, “Organizational Failure and the Disbanding of Local Police Agencies,” Crime and Delinquency 60, no. 5 (2014): 667–92.

    58. Margaret S. Gillerman, “Wellston Mayor Gets Community Support for Decision to Outsource Policing,” Stltoday.com, June 3, 2015, http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/crime-and-courts/wellston-mayor-gets-community-support-for-decision-to-outsource-policing/article_4e2123d4-84c1-5fa0-899c-3654e4203bfa.html.

    59. Federal Bureau of Investigation, “All Data Analysis Tools,” Uniform Crime Reporting Statistics, May 29, 2010, http://www.bjs.gov/ucrdata/.

    60. Justin L. Mack, “‘It’s Like a War Zone’: Indy Records Its Deadliest Year in 2015,” Indianapolis Star, January 3, 2016, http://www.indystar.com/story/news/crime/2016/01/03/indy-records-deadliest-year-record-2015/78229074/.

    61. Steven Chermak and Edmund McGarrell, “Problem-Solving Approaches to Homicide: An Evaluation of the Indianapolis Violence Reduction Partnership,” Criminal Justice Policy Review 15, no. 2 (2004): 165.

    62. Chermak and McGarrell, “Problem-Solving Approaches to Homicide”; Edmund F. McGarrell et al., “Reducing Homicide Through a ‘Lever-Pulling’ Strategy,” Justice Quarterly 23, no. 2 (2006): 214–31.

    63. Edmund F. McGarrell, Steven Chermak, and Alexander Weiss, Targeting Firearms Violence Through Directed Police Patrol (Indianapolis: Crime Control Policy Center, Hudson Institute, 1999).

    64. City of Indianapolis v. Edmond, 531 US 32 (US Supreme Court 2000).

    65. Linda Greenhouse, “Supreme Court Bars Roadblocks Set Up to Search for Drugs,” The New York Times, November 29, 2000, sec. US, http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/29/us/supreme-court-bars-roadblocks-set-up-to-search-for-drugs.html.

    66. City of Indianapolis v. Edmond, 531 US 32 (US Supreme Court 2000).

    67. Ibid.

    68. Greenhouse, “Supreme Court Bars Roadblocks Set Up to Search for Drugs.”

    Chapter 2

    1. Scott H. Decker, “Expand the Use of Police Gang Units,” Criminology & Public Policy 6, no. 4 (2007): 729–33.

    2. National Gang Center, “National Youth Gang Survey Analysis,” n.d., http://www.nationalgangcenter.gov/Survey-Analysis.

    3. Arlen Egley and James C. Howell, Highlights of the 2011 National Youth Gang Survey, Juvenile Justice Fact Sheet (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2013).

    4. During the period 1996–2011, prevalence peaked at 40 percent in 1996 and dipped to a low of about 24 percent in 2001.

    5. James C. Howell et al., US Gang Problem Trends and Seriousness, 1996–2009, National Gang Center Bulletin (Tallahassee, FL: National Gang Center, 2011).

    6. Decker, “Expand the Use of Police Gang Units.”

    7. National Gang Center, “National Youth Gang Survey Analysis.”

    8. Howell et al., US Gang Problem.

    9. Malcolm W. Klein and Cheryl L. Maxson, Gang Structures, Crime Patterns, and Police Responses (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1996).

    10. Egley and Howell, Highlights.

    11. National Gang Center, “National Youth Gang Survey Analysis.”

    12. Decker, “Expand the Use of Police Gang Units,” 732.

    13. Klein and Maxson, Gang Structures.

    14. Lyman W. Porter, Edward E. Lawler, and J. Richard Hackman, Behavior in Organizations (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975).

    15. Peter V. Marsden, Cynthia R. Cook, and Arne L. Kalleberg, “Organizational Structures: Coordination and Control,” American Behavioral Scientist 37, no. 7 (1994): 911.

    16. Edward R. Maguire, Organizational Structure in American Police Agencies: Context, Complexity, and Control (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2003); Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations.

    17. Richard H. Hall, Organizations: Structures, Processes, and Outcomes, 7th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999); Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations.

    18. David Eitle, “The Influence of Mandatory Arrest Policies, Police Organizational Characteristics, and Situational Variables on the Probability of Arrest in Domestic Violence Cases,” Crime & Delinquency 51, no. 4 (2005): 573–97.

    19. Elizabeth A. Stanko, “Domestic Violence,” in What Works in Policing? Operations and Administration Examined, ed. Gary W. Cordner and Donna C. Hale (Cincinnati, OH: Anderson, 1992), 44–61.

    20. Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), 2007,” 2007, http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NACJD/studies/31161; Brian A. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2007 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2010).

    21. Peter M. Blau, “A Formal Theory of Differentiation in Organizations,” American Sociological Review 35, no. 2 (1970): 201–18; Cheng-Kuang Hsu, Robert M. Marsh, and Hiroshi Mannari, “An Examination of the Determinants of Organizational Structure,” American Journal of Sociology 88, no. 5 (1983): 975–96.

    22. Thomas. J. Cowper, “The Myth of the ‘Military Model’ of Leadership in Law Enforcement,” Police Quarterly 3, no. 3 (2000): 228–46; John P. Crank and L. Edward Wells, “The Effects of Size and Urbanism on Structure Among Illinois Police Departments,” Justice Quarterly 8, no. 2 (1991): 169–85; William R. King, “Toward a Better Understanding of the Hierarchical Nature of Police Organizations: Conception and Measurement,” Journal of Criminal Justice 33, no. 1 (2005): 97–109.

    23. King, “Toward a Better Understanding.”

    24. Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge, Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2008), 233.

    25. Henry Mintzberg, The Structuring of Organizations: A Synthesis of the Research (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1979); Henry Mintzberg, “Structure in 5’s: A Synthesis of the Research on Organization Design,” Management Science 26, no. 3 (1980): 322–41; Henry Mintzberg, Structure in Fives: Designing Effective Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1983); Stanley M. Nealey and Fred E. Fiedler, “Leadership Functions of Middle Managers,” Psychological Bulletin 70, no. 5 (1968): 313–29.

    26. Michael Lipsky, Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services (New York: Russell Sage, 1980), 3.

    27. Mintzberg, Structure in Fives.

    28. Thomas J. Bernard, Eugene A. Paoline, and Paul-Philippe Pare, “General Systems Theory and Criminal Justice,” Journal of Criminal Justice 33, no. 3 (2005): 203–11.

    29. Steven G. Brandl and James Frank, “The Relationship Between Evidence, Detective Effort, and the Disposition of Burglary and Robbery Investigations,” American Journal of Police 13, no. 3 (1994): 149–68.

    30. Dennis S. Mileti, David F. Gillespie, and J. Eugene Haas, “Size and Structure in Complex Organizations,” Social Forces 56, no. 1 (1977): 208–17.

    31. Mintzberg, Structure in Fives, 15.

    32. Raymond G. Hunt and John M. Magenau, Power and the Police Chief: An Institutional and Organizational Analysis, Studies in Crime, Law, and Justice (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1993).

    33. Herbert Kaufmann and David Seidman, “The Morphology of Organizations,” Administrative Science Quarterly 15, no. 4 (1970): 439–51; Robert H. Langworthy, The Structure of Police Organizations (New York: Praeger, 1986); Maguire, Organizational Structure.

    34. William M. Evan, “Indices of the Hierarchical Structure of Industrial Organizations,” Management Science 9, no. 3 (1963): 468–77; Maguire, Organizational Structure.

    35. Maguire, Organizational Structure.

    36. Kaufmann and Seidman, “The Morphology of Organizations”; Langworthy, Structure of Police; Maguire, Organizational Structure. Some scholars use the width of the pyramid to represent the horizontal complexity of organizations in which a wider pyramid base indicates a greater level of functional differentiation within the organization. When focusing exclusively on the vertical dimension, the pyramid’s shape represents the relative size of each level.

    37. George L. Kelling and William J. Bratton, Implementing Community Policing: The Administrative Problem (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1993), 2.

    38. Evan, “Indices of the Hierarchical Structure”; King, “Toward a Better Understanding.”

    39. King, “Toward a Better Understanding.”

    40. King, “Toward a Better Understanding”; Maguire, Organizational Structure.

    41. King, “Toward a Better Understanding.”

    42. Ibid.

    43. Elizabeth Reuss-Ianni, Two Cultures of Policing: Street Cops and Management Cops (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1983).

    44. Dorothy Guyot, “Bending Granite: Attempts to Change the Rank Structure of American Police Departments,” Journal of Police Science and Administration 7, no. 3 (1979): 253–84.

    45. Charles Perrow, Complex Organizations: A Critical Essay, 3rd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986).

    46. Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations.

    47. Catherine Humphreys, “Exploring New Territory: Police Organizational Responses to Child Sexual Abuse,” Child Abuse & Neglect 20, no. 4 (1996): 337–44.

    48. David N. Falcone, L. Edward Wells, and Ralph A. Weisheit, “The Small-Town Police Department,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management 25, no. 2 (2002): 374.

    49. David N. Falcone and L. Edward Wells, “The County Sheriff as a Distinctive Policing Modality,” American Journal of Police 14, no. 3/4 (1995): 123–49.

    50. Wesley G. Skogan and Susan M. Hartnett, Community Policing, Chicago Style (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

    51. Ibid., 90.

    52. Roger B. Parks et al., “How Officers Spend Their Time With the Community,” Justice Quarterly 16, no. 3 (1999): 483–518.

    53. Peter M. Blau and Richard A. Schoenherr, The Structure of Organizations (New York: Basic Books, 1971).

    54. Ibid.

    55. Matthew J. Hickman and Alex R. Piquero, “Organizational, Administrative, and Environmental Correlates of Complaints About Police Use of Force: Does Minority Representation Matter?,” Crime & Delinquency 55, no. 1 (2008): 3–27; Langworthy, Structure of Police.

    56. Langworthy, Structure of Police, 65.

    57. Guyot, “Bending Granite”; William King, “Civilianization,” in Implementing Community Policing: Lessons From 12 Agencies, ed. Edward Maguire and William Wells (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2009), 65–70.

    58. Brian Forst, “The Privatization and Civilianization of Policing,” in Boundary Changes in Criminal Justice Organizations, ed. Charles M. Friel, vol. 2, Criminal Justice 2000 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2000), 19–80.

    59. Guyot, “Bending Granite.”

    60. Megan Alderden and Wesley G. Skogan, “The Place of Civilians in Policing,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 37, no. 2 (2014): 259–84.

    61. King, “Civilianization.”

    62. Alderden and Skogan, “The Place of Civilians in Policing”; Forst, “The Privatization and Civilianization of Policing.”

    63. Jihong Zhao, Matthew C. Scheider, and Quint Thurman, “Funding Community Policing to Reduce Crime: Have Cops Grants Made a Difference?,” Criminology and Public Policy 2, no. 1 (2002): 7–32.

    64. Alderden and Skogan, “The Place of Civilians in Policing”; King, “Civilianization.”

    65. Alderden and Skogan, “The Place of Civilians in Policing.”

    66. Timothy C. O’Shea and Keith Nicholls, Crime Analysis in America: Findings and Recommendations (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2003), 18.

    67. Guyot, “Bending Granite,” 278.

    68. Decker, “Expand the Use of Police Gang Units.”

    69. Langworthy, Structure of Police; Maguire, Organizational Structure.

    70. Samuel Walker and Charles M. Katz, “Less Than Meets the Eye: Police Department Bias-Crime Units,” American Journal of Police 14, no. 1 (1995): 29–48.

    71. Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), 2007.”

    72. Humphreys, “Exploring New Territory.”

    73. Ibid., 342.

    74. King, “Toward a Better Understanding.”

    75. Skogan and Hartnett, Community Policing, Chicago Style.

    76. Edward Maguire and Megan Gantley, “Specialist and Generalist Models,” in Implementing Community Policing: Lessons From 12 Agencies, ed. Edward Maguire and William Wells (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2009), 49.

    77. John P. Crank and Robert Langworthy, “An Institutional Perspective of Policing,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 83, no. 2 (1992): 338–63; Charles M. Katz, “The Establishment of a Police Gang Unit: An Examination of Organizational and Environmental Factors,” Criminology 39, no. 1 (2001): 37–73.

    78. Maguire, Organizational Structure, 16.

    79. Hayley Peterson, “Four Reasons Why In-N-Out Burger Won’t Expand to the East Coast,” 2013, http://www.businessinsider.com/why-in-n-out-burger-wont-come-to-east-coast-2013-12; “Top 10 Global Fast-Food Brands,” Forbes, http://www.forbes.com/pictures/feji45hfkh/top-10-global-fast-food-brands-2/.

    80. Richard H. Hall, Norman J. Johnson, and J. Eugene Haas, “Organizational Size, Complexity, and Formalization,” American Sociological Review 32, no. 6 (1967): 903–12; Hal W. Hendrick, “Organizational Design and Macroergonomics,” in Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics, ed. Gavriel Salvendy, 2nd ed. (New York: Wiley, 1997), 594–636.

    81. Langworthy, Structure of Police; Maguire, Organizational Structure.

    82. David A. Klinger, “Negotiating Order in Patrol Work: An Ecological Theory of Police Response to Deviance,” Criminology 35, no. 2 (1997): 277–306.

    83. Saul I. Gass, “On the Division of Police Districts Into Patrol Beats,” in Proceedings of the 1968 23rd ACM National Conference, ACM ’68 (New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1968), 459–73.

    84. Ibid.; Phillip S. Mitchell, “Optimal Selection of Police Patrol Beats,” The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science 63, no. 4 (1972): 577–84.

    85. Stephen D. Mastrofski, Michael D. Reisig, and John D. McCluskey, “Police Disrespect Toward the Public: An Encounter-Based Analysis,” Criminology 40, no. 3 (2002): 519–52.

    86. Maguire, Organizational Structure.

    87. Klinger, “Negotiating Order,” 281.

    88. Matthew J. Hickman and Brian A. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2003 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2006).

    89. Lee P. Brown and Mary Ann Wycoff, “Policing Houston: Reducing Fear and Improving Service,” Crime & Delinquency 33, no. 1 (1987): 71–89.

    90. Hickman and Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2003.

    91. Klinger, “Negotiating Order.”

    92. Hickman and Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2003.

    93. Todd Masse and William Krouse, “The FBI: Past, Present, and Future,” CRS Report for Congress (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2003).

    94. Brown and Wycoff, “Policing Houston,” 77.

    95. Ibid., 83.

    96. Hickman and Piquero, “Organizational, Administrative, and Environmental Correlates.”

    97. John D. McCluskey et al., “Does Organizational Structure Matter? Investigation Centralization, Case Clearances, and Robberies,” Police Quarterly 17, no. 3 (2014): 250–75.

    98. Ibid., 264–65.

    99. Amy B. Zegart, Spying Blind: The CIA, FBI, and the Origins of 9/11 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007).

    100. Ibid., 103.

    101. Maguire, Organizational Structure; Mintzberg, Structure in Fives.

    102. Mintzberg, Structure in Fives.

    103. Maguire, Organizational Structure; Mintzberg, Structure in Fives; D. S. Pugh, D. J. Hickson, C. R. Hinings, and C. Turner. “Dimensions of Organization Structure.” Administrative Science Quarterly 13, no. 1 (1968): 65–105.

    104. Mintzberg, “Structure in 5’s”; Mintzberg, Structure in Fives.

    105. Crank and Wells, “The Effects of Size and Urbanism.” Some scholars refer to the span of control as the supervisory ratio.

    106. Ibid.; Jeffrey S. Slovak, Styles of Urban Policing: Organization, Environment, and Police Styles in Selected American Cities (New York: New York University Press, 1986).

    107. Lyndall F. Urwick, “The Manager’s Span of Control,” Harvard Business Review 34 (1956): 39–47.

    108. Herbert A. Simon, “The Proverbs of Administration,” Public Administration Review 6, no. 1 (1946): 57.

    109. King, “Toward a Better Understanding”; Lyman W. Porter and Edward E. Lawler, “Properties of Organization Structure in Relation to Job Attitudes and Job Behavior,” Psychological Bulletin 64, no. 1 (1965): 23–51.

    110. O. W. Wilson and Roy Clinton McLaren, Police Administration, 3rd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972), 70.

    111. King, “Toward a Better Understanding.”

    112. Bloomington Police Department, “Organizational Chart: Bloomington Police Department,” n.d., http://bloomingtonmn.gov/cityhall/dept/police/poorgcht.htm.

    113. Crank and Wells, “The Effects of Size and Urbanism.”

    114. Kenneth J. Meier and John Bohte, “Ode to Luther Gulick: Span of Control and Organizational Performance,” Administration & Society 32, no. 2 (2000): 115–37.

    115. Ibid., 120.

    116. Gerald D. Bell, “Determinants of Span of Control,” American Journal of Sociology 73, no. 1 (1967): 100–109; John Bohte and Kenneth J. Meier, “Structure and the Performance of Public Organizations: Task Difficulty and Span of Control,” Public Organization Review 1, no. 3 (2001): 341–54.

    117. Lipsky, Street-Level Bureaucracy.

    118. James Q. Wilson, Varieties of Police Behavior: The Management of Law and Order in Eight Communities (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968).

    119. Larry L. Tifft, “Control Systems, Social Bases of Power and Power Exercise in Police Organizations,” in Policing: A View From the Street, ed. Peter K. Manning and John Van Maanen (Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear, 1978), 99.

    120. Abilene Police Department, “Abilene Police Department Organizational Chart,” 2014, http://www.abilenepolice.org/divisions.htm.

    121. Marshall W. Meyer, “Expertness and the Span of Control,” American Sociological Review 33, no. 6 (1968): 950.

    122. Herman Goldstein, Problem-Oriented Policing (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990).

    123. Gaylene S. Armstrong, “Factors to Consider for Optimal Span of Control in Community Supervision Evidence-Based Practice Environments,” Criminal Justice Policy Review 23, no. 4 (2012): 427–46.

    124. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2007.

    125. Ibid.

    126. Dan R. Dalton et al., “Organization Structure and Performance: A Critical Review,” The Academy of Management Review 5, no. 1 (1980): 49–64.

    127. Slovak, Style of Urban Policing.

    128. Ibid., 29–30.

    129. E. J. Williams, “Structuring in Community Policing: Institutionalizing Innovative Change,” Police Practice and Research 4, no. 2 (2003): 119–29.

    130. Joseph Goldstein, “Police Discretion Not to Invoke the Criminal Process: Low-Visibility Decisions in the Administration of Justice,” The Yale Law Journal 69, no. 4 (1960): 543.

    131. Mintzberg, “Structure in 5’s”; Mintzberg, Structure in Fives.

    132. Dalton et al., “Organization Structure and Performance”; Maguire, Organizational Structure.

    133. La Crosse Police Department, La Crosse Police Department: General Orders & Directives Manual, 2014, https://www.cityoflacrosse.org/index.aspx?NID=546; Louisville Metro Police Department, Standard Operating Procedures for the Louisville Metro Police Department, n.d., http://www.louisvilleky.gov/MetroPolice/Resources.htm.

    134. David L. Carter and Allen D. Sapp, “Issues and Perspectives of Law Enforcement Accreditation: A National Study of Police Chiefs,” Journal of Criminal Justice 22, no. 3 (1994): 195–204; Stephen D. Mastrofski, “Police Agency Accreditation: The Prospects of Reform,” American Journal of Police 5 (1986): 45–81.

    135. Mastrofski, “Police Agency Accreditation,” 49.

    136. Ibid.

    137. William G. Doerner and William M. Doerner, “The Diffusion of Accreditation Among Florida Police Agencies,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 32, no. 4 (2009): 781–98.

    138. Terry E. Gingerich and Gregory D. Russell, “Accreditation and Community Policing: Are They Neutral, Hostile, or Synergistic? An Empirical Test Among Street Cops and Management Cops,” Justice Policy Journal 3, no. 2 (2006): 2–28.

    139. Carter and Sapp, “Issues and Perspectives of Law Enforcement Accreditation.”

    140. William M. Doerner and William G. Doerner, “Police Accreditation and Clearance Rates,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 35, no. 1 (2012): 8.

    141. Ibid.; Mastrofski, “Police Agency Accreditation: The Prospects of Reform.”

    142. Carter and Sapp, “Issues and Perspectives of Law Enforcement Accreditation.”

    143. Carol A. Archbold, “Commission on the Accreditation of Law Enforcement Agencies,” Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005).

    144. Commission on Florida Law Enforcement Accreditation, “Accredited Agencies,” Florida Accreditation, 2015, http://www.flaccreditation.org/accagencies.htm; Pennsylvania Chiefs of Police Association, “PCPA Accreditation Program,” n.d., http://www.pachiefs.org/Accreditation.

    145. Doerner and Doerner, “The Diffusion of Accreditation Among Florida Police Agencies.”

    146. Lawrence W. Sherman, Policing Domestic Violence: Experiments and Dilemmas (New York: Free Press, 1992).

    147. Lawrence W. Sherman and Richard A. Berk, “The Specific Deterrent Effects of Arrest for Domestic Assault,” American Sociological Review 49 (1984): 261–72.

    148. Ibid.

    149. Sherman, Policing Domestic Violence, 3.

    150. Lawrence W. Sherman and Ellen G. Cohn, “The Impact of Research on Legal Policy: The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment,” Law & Society Review 23, no. 1 (1989): 117–44.

    151. Sherman, Policing Domestic Violence; Sherman and Cohn, “The Impact of Research on Legal Policy.”

    152. Janell D. Schmidt and Lawrence W. Sherman, “Does Arrest Deter Domestic Violence?,” American Behavioral Scientist 36, no. 5 (1993): 601–9.

    153. Louisville Metro Police Department, Standard Operating Procedures for the Louisville Metro Police Department. See SOP No. 8.6.

    154. Sherman, Policing Domestic Violence.

    155. John J. DiIulio, “Rethinking the Criminal Justice System: Toward a New Paradigm,” in Performance Measures for the Criminal Justice System, ed. John J. DiIulio et al. (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1993), 4.

    156. Nathaniel Bronstein, “Police Management and Quotas: Governance in the CompStat Era,” Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems 48 (2015), http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2424912.

    157. Jonathan Rubinstein, City Police (New York: Noonday Press, 1973).

    158. Richard J. Lundman, “Organizational Norms and Police Discretion,” Criminology 17, no. 2 (1979): 159–71.

    159. Peter Moskos, Cop in the Hood: My Year Policing Baltimore’s Eastern District (Princeton University Press, 2008), 148.

    160. Geoffrey Ritter, “Carbondale Police ‘Quota’ Issue Boils Over,” Carbondale Times, July 22, 2013, http://carbondaletimes.com/072213police.

    161. Bronstein, “Police Management and Quotas,” 15.

    162. NY Labor Law §215-a. See Bill A06729A, 2009.

    163. Al Baker and Ray Rivera, “In Secret Tape, New York Police Press Ticket Quotas,” The New York Times, September 9, 2010, sec. N.Y. / Region, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/10/nyregion/10quotas.html.

    164. Ibid.

    165. Bronstein, “Police Management and Quotas.”

    166. Jon M. Shane, What Every Chief Executive Should Know: Using Data to Measure Police Performance (Flushing, NY: Looseleaf Law, 2007).

    167. Goldstein, Problem-Oriented Policing, 15.

    168. John A. Eterno and Eli B. Silverman, “The NYPD’s Compstat: Compare Statistics or Compose Statistics?” International Journal of Police Science and Management 12, no. 3 (2010): 426–49; Mark H. Moore, “Sizing Up CompStat: An Important Administrative Innovation in Policing,” Criminology & Public Policy 2, no. 3 (2003): 469–94.

    169. Phyllis P. McDonald, Managing Police Operations: Implementing the New York Crime Control Model CompStat (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2002); James J. Willis, Stephen D. Mastrofski, and David Weisburd, “COMPSTAT and Bureaucracy: A Case Study of Challenges and Opportunities for Change,” Justice Quarterly 21, no. 3 (2004): 463–96.

    170. Vincent E. Henry, The COMPSTAT Paradigm: Management Accountability in Policing, Business, and the Public Sector (Flushing, NY: Looseleaf Law, 2002), 18.

    171. Eli B. Silverman, NYPD Battles Crime: Innovative Strategies in Policing (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1999).

    172. President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice, The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1968).

    173. Ibid., 279.

    174. Ibid., 280.

    175. Robert M. Fogelson, Big-City Police (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977), 155.

    176. Mintzberg, The Structuring of Organizations.

    177. D. S. Pugh et al., “A Conceptual Scheme for Organizational Analysis,” Administrative Science Quarterly 8, no. 3 (1963): 289–315.

    178. John Child, “Organization Structure and Strategies of Control: A Replication of the Aston Study,” Administrative Science Quarterly 17, no. 2 (1972): 163–77; Pugh et al., “A Conceptual Scheme for Organizational Analysis.”

    179. Kimberly D. Hassell, Jihong Zhao, and Edward R. Maguire, “Structural Arrangements in Large Municipal Police Organizations: Revisiting Wilson’s Theory of Local Political Culture,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 26, no. 2 (2003): 231–50.

    180. Dalton et al., “Organization Structure and Performance.”

    181. Jerald Hage, “An Axiomatic Theory of Organizations,” Administrative Science Quarterly 10, no. 3 (1965): 289–320.

    182. Blau and Schoenherr, The Structure of Organizations.

    183. Maguire, Organizational Structure.

    184. Hassell, Zhao, and Maguire, “Structural Arrangements in Large Municipal Police Organizations.”

    185. Jeremy M. Wilson, “Measurement and Association in the Structure of Municipal Police Organizations,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management 26, no. 2 (2003): 276–97.

    186. McCluskey et al., “Does Organizational Structure Matter?”

    187. Wilson, “Measurement and Association in the Structure of Municipal Police Organizations.”

    188. John E. Angell, “Toward an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangements: A Democratic Model,” Criminology 9, no. 2/3 (1971): 195.

    189. Hage, “An Axiomatic Theory of Organizations,” 299.

    190. Maguire, Organizational Structure, 106.

    191. John Child, “Predicting and Understanding Organization Structure,” Administrative Science Quarterly 18, no. 2 (1973): 168–85; Maguire, Organizational Structure; Wilson, “Measurement and Association in the Structure of Municipal Police Organizations.”

    192. Maguire, Organizational Structure.

    193. Craig D. Uchida, “The Development of the American Police: An Historical Overview,” in Critical Issues in Policing: Contemporary Readings, ed. Roger G. Dunham and Geoffrey P. Alpert (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1997), 18–35.

    194. Wilson and McLaren, Police Administration.

    195. Ibid., 99.

    196. Angell, “Toward an Alternative to the Classic Police.”

    197. Ibid., 191.

    198. Angell, “Toward an Alternative to the Classic Police.”

    199. Samuel Walker, “Does Anyone Remember Team Policing? Lessons of the Team Policing Experience for Community Policing,” American Journal of Police 12, no. 1 (1993): 33–55.

    200. Angell, “Toward an Alternative to the Classic Police,” 192.

    201. Wilson and McLaren, Police Administration.

    202. Douglas A. Smith and Jody R. Klein, “Police Control of Interpersonal Disputes,” Social Problems 31, no. 4 (April 1, 1984): 468–81.

    Chapter 3

    1. Robert A. Lorinskas and Joseph C. Kulis, “The Military Model and Policing: A Misunderstood Ideology,” Police Studies: The International Review of Police Development 9 (1986): 184–93.

    2. T. A. Critchley, A History of Police in England and Wales 900–1966 (London: Constable, 1967); Lorinskas and Kulis, “Military Model and Policing.”

    3. Robert M. Fogelson, Big-City Police (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977), 57.

    4. Samuel Walker, A Critical History of Police Reform: The Emergence of Professionalism (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1977).

    5. Louis W. Fry and Leslie J. Berkes, “The Paramilitary Police Model: An Organizational Misfit,” Human Organization 42, no. 3 (1983): 225–34.

    6. David J. Bordua and Albert J. Reiss Jr., “Command, Control, and Charisma: Reflections on Police Bureaucracy,” American Journal of Sociology 72, no. 1 (1966): 68–76; Thomas. J. Cowper, “The Myth of the ‘Military Model’ of Leadership in Law Enforcement,” Police Quarterly 3, no. 3 (2000): 228–46.

    7. Cowper, “The Myth of the ‘Military Model.’”

    8. Egon Bittner, “The Functions of Police in Modern Society: A Review of Background Factors, Current Practices, and Possible Role Models,” in Aspects of Police Work, ed. Egon Bittner (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1990), 143.

    9. Harold F. Gortner, Julianne Mahler, and Jeanne Bell Nicholson, Organization Theory: A Public Perspective (Chicago: Dorsey Press, 1987); W. Richard Scott and Gerald F. Davis, Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural, and Open System Perspectives (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2007).

    10. Scott and Davis, Organizations and Organizing, 35.

    11. Gortner, Mahler, and Nicholson, Organization Theory.

    12. Joseph L. Massie, “Management Theory,” in Handbook of Organizations, ed. James March (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1965), 387–422; Curt Tausky, Work Organizations: Major Theoretical Perspectives (Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock, 1970).

    13. Daniel A. Wren, The Evolution of Management Thought (New York: Ronald Press Company, 1972).

    14. Ibid.

    15. Frederick Winslow Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1913).

    16. Ibid., 9.

    17. Jonathan R. Tompkins, Organization Theory and Public Management (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2005), 73.

    18. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management.

    19. Ibid., 67.

    20. Ibid., 123.

    21. Scott and Davis, Organizations and Organizing.

    22. Tompkins, Organization Theory, 81.

    23. Tompkins, Organization Theory; Max Weber, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, trans. H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946); Wren, Evolution of Management Thought.

    24. Peter M. Blau and W. Richard Scott, Formal Organizations: A Comparative Approach (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1962).

    25. Edward R. Maguire, “Police Organizations and the Iron Cage of Rationality,” in The Oxford Handbook of Police and Policing, ed. Robert J. Kane and Michael D. Reisig (Oxford University Press, 2014), 68–98; Scott and Davis, Organizations and Organizing; Tompkins, Organization Theory; Wren, Evolution of Management Thought.

    26. Scott and Davis, Organizations and Organizing; Tompkins, Organization Theory.

    27. Blau and Scott, Formal Organizations: A Comparative Approach, 31.

    28. Derek S. Pugh and David J. Hickson, Writers on Organizations, 6th ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2007), 6.

    29. Richard H. Hall, “The Concept of Bureaucracy: An Empirical Assessment,” American Journal of Sociology 69, no. 1 (1963): 32–40.

    30. Weber, From Max Weber, 196.

    31. Ibid.

    32. Blau and Scott, Formal Organizations: A Comparative Approach, 32.

    33. Weber, From Max Weber, 196.

    34. Ibid., 202.

    35. Blau and Scott, Formal Organizations: A Comparative Approach, 33.

    36. Ibid.

    37. Gareth Morgan, Images of Organization (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006).

    38. Blau and Scott, Formal Organizations: A Comparative Approach.

    39. Tausky, Work Organizations.

    40. Robert K. Merton, “Bureaucratic Structure and Personality,” Social Forces 18, no. 4 (1940): 560–68.

    41. Herman Goldstein, “Improving Policing: A Problem-Oriented Approach,” Crime & Delinquency 25, no. 2 (1979): 238.

    42. Henri Fayol, General and Industrial Management, trans. Constance Storrs (London: Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, 1949); Scott and Davis, Organizations and Organizing; Wren, Evolution of Management Thought.

    43. Norman M. Pearson, “Fayolism as the Necessary Complement of Taylorism,” The American Political Science Review 39, no. 1 (1945): 68–80.

    44. Fayol, General and Industrial Management; Massie, “Management Theory.”

    45. Wren, Evolution of Management Thought.

    46. Fayol, General and Industrial Management, xii.

    47. Ibid., xiv.

    48. Wren, Evolution of Management Thought.

    49. Fayol, General and Industrial Management, 19.

    50. Ibid., 20.

    51. Ibid., 21.

    52. Ibid., 22.

    53. Ibid., 24.

    54. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management.

    55. Fayol, General and Industrial Management, 25.

    56. Ibid., 26.

    57. Ibid.

    58. Ibid., 33.

    59. Ibid., 34–35.

    60. Ibid., 36.

    61. Ibid., 38.

    62. Ibid., 39.

    63. Ibid.

    64. Ibid., 40.

    65. Herbert A. Simon, “The Proverbs of Administration,” Public Administration Review 6, no. 1 (1946): 53–67.

    66. Hal G. Rainey, Understanding and Managing Public Organizations, 4th ed. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2009).

    67. Raymond B. Fosdick, European Police Systems (New York: Century, 1915), 100–101.

    68. Walker, Critical History of Police Reform.

    69. Fogelson, Big-City Police.

    70. George D. Eastman, “Police Organization,” in Municipal Police Administration, ed. George D. Eastman and Esther M. Eastman, 7th ed. (Washington, DC: International City Management Association, 1971), 20–21.

    71. Fogelson, Big-City Police.

    72. O. W. Wilson, Police Administration (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950), 10.

    73. Rainey, Understanding and Managing, 31–32.

    74. Tausky, Work Organizations; Wren, Evolution of Management Thought.

    75. Ryan Olson et al., “What We Teach Students about the Hawthorne Studies: A Review of Content Within a Sample of Introductory I-O and OB Textbooks,” The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist 41, no. 3 (2004): 23–39. In their review of industrial organization and organizational behavior textbooks, the researchers found that the early experiments in lighting were discussed more than any other of the Hawthorne studies.

    76. F. J. Roethlisberger and William J. Dickson, Management and the Worker (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1939).

    77. Ibid.; Tausky, Work Organizations; Wren, Evolution of Management Thought.

    78. Roethlisberger and Dickson, Management and the Worker.

    79. Wren, Evolution of Management Thought, 277.

    80. Elton Mayo, The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization (New York: Viking Press, 1960); Roethlisberger and Dickson, Management and the Worker.

    81. Mayo, Human Problems.

    82. Ibid.; Elton Mayo, The Social Problems of an Industrial Civilization (Boston: Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Administration, Division of Research, 1945).

    83. Mayo, Human Problems, 67.

    84. Roethlisberger and Dickson, Management and the Worker.

    85. Ibid.

    86. Ibid.

    87. Tausky, Work Organizations, 50.

    88. Scott and Davis, Organizations and Organizing, 65.

    89. Alex Carey, “The Hawthorne Studies: A Radical Criticism,” American Sociological Review 32, no. 3 (1967): 403–16; Richard Herbert Franke and James D. Kaul, “The Hawthorne Experiments: First Statistical Interpretation,” American Sociological Review 43, no. 5 (1978): 623–43.

    90. Scott and Davis, Organizations and Organizing; Herbert Alexander Simon, Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organization, 3rd ed. (New York: Free Press, 1976).

    91. Scott and Davis, Organizations and Organizing; Henry A. Landsberger, Hawthorne Revisited (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1958).

    92. Daniel R. Denison, “What Is the Difference Between Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate? A Native’s Point of View on a Decade of Paradigm Wars,” The Academy of Management Review 21, no. 3 (July 1, 1996): 619–54; Joanne Martin, Cultures in Organizations: Three Perspectives (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992); Edgar H. Schein, “Defining Organizational Culture,” in Classics of Organization Theory, ed. Jay M. Shafritz, J. Steven Ott, and Yong Suk Jang, 6th ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2005), 360–67.

    93. Ann Swidler, “Culture in Action: Symbols and Strategies,” American Sociological Review 51, no. 2 (1986): 277.

    94. William A. Westley, Violence and the Police: A Sociological Study of Law, Custom, and Morality (Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1970).

    95. Ibid.

    96. Eugene A. Paoline, “Taking Stock: Toward a Richer Understanding of Police Culture,” Journal of Criminal Justice 31, no. 3 (2003): 199–214.

    97. Robin N. Haarr, “Patterns of Interaction in a Police Patrol Bureau: Race and Gender Barriers to Integration,” Justice Quarterly 14, no. 1 (1997): 53–85; Eugene A. Paoline and William Terrill, “The Impact of Police Culture on Traffic Stop Searches: An Analysis of Attitudes and Behavior,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 28, no. 3 (2005): 455–72.

    98. Paoline and Terrill, “Impact of Police Culture.”

    99. Ibid., 467–68.

    100. Harvey Sherman, It All Depends: A Pragmatic Approach to Organization (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1966); Joan Woodward, Industrial Organization: Theory and Practice (London: Oxford University Press, 1965).

    101. Tom Burns and G. M. Stalker, The Management of Innovation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1961); Paul R. Lawrence and Jay W. Lorsch, Organizations and Environment: Managing Differentiation and Integration (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1967); Woodward, Industrial Organization.

    102. Lawrence and Lorsch, Organizations and Environment.

    103. Ibid., 209.

    104. Lex Donaldson, The Contingency Theory of Organizations (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001), 2.

    105. Stephanie Strom, “McDonald’s Happy Meal to Get Healthier,” The New York Times, July 26, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/27/business/mcdonalds-happy-meal-to-get-healthier.html.

    106. Stephanie Strom, “McDonald’s Seeks Its Fast-Food Soul,” The New York Times, March 7, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/08/business/mcdonalds-seeks-its-fast-food-soul.html; Jessica Wohl, “McDonald’s to Trim US Menu,” Chicago Tribune, December 10, 2014, http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/breaking/ct-mcdonalds-investor-meeting-1211-biz-20141208-story.html.

    107. Edward R. Maguire and Craig D. Uchida, “Measurement and Explanation in the Comparative Study of American Police Organizations,” in Measurement and Analysis of Crime and Justice, ed. David E. Duffee (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice National Institute of Justice, 2000), 535.

    108. Peter M. Blau, “A Formal Theory of Differentiation in Organizations,” American Sociological Review 35, no. 2 (1970): 201–18; Robert H. Langworthy, The Structure of Police Organizations (New York: Praeger, 1986); Peter V. Marsden, Cynthia R. Cook, and Arne L. Kalleberg, “Organizational Structures: Coordination and Control,” American Behavioral Scientist 37, no. 7 (1994): 911–29.

    109. Edward R. Maguire, Organizational Structure in American Police Agencies: Context, Complexity, and Control (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2003).

    110. Blau, “Formal Theory”; Langworthy, Structure of Police.

    111. Donaldson, Contingency Theory.

    112. George W. Burruss and Matthew J. Giblin, “Modeling Isomorphism on Policing Innovation: The Role of Institutional Pressures in Adopting Community-Oriented Policing,” Crime and Delinquency 60, no. 3 (2014): 331–55; Melissa Schaefer Morabito, “The Adoption of Police Innovation: The Role of the Political Environment,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 31, no. 3 (2008): 466–84; Wesley G. Skogan and Susan M. Hartnett, “The Diffusion of Information Technology in Policing,” Police Practice and Research: An International Journal 6, no. 5 (2005): 401–17.

    113. Kenneth Lee Mullen, “The Computerization of Law Enforcement: A Diffusion of Innovation Study” (PhD, State University of New York at Albany, 1996).

    114. Maguire, Organizational Structure; Scott and Davis, Organizations and Organizing.

    115. Woodward, Industrial Organization.

    116. Charles Perrow, Complex Organizations: A Critical Essay, 3rd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986).

    117. Langworthy, Structure of Police.

    118. Perrow, Complex Organizations, 142.

    119. Langworthy, Structure of Police; Maguire, Organizational Structure.

    120. Donaldson, Contingency Theory, 22–23.

    121. George W. Burruss, Matthew J. Giblin, and Joseph A. Schafer, “Threatened Globally, Acting Locally: Modeling Law Enforcement Homeland Security Practices,” Justice Quarterly 27, no. 1 (2010): 77–101; Lois M. Davis et al., When Terrorism Hits Home: How Prepared Are State and Local Law Enforcement? (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2004). Risk is generally captured by the perceived risk of the survey respondent rather than some objective measure.

    122. James J. Willis, Stephen D. Mastrofski, and David Weisburd, “Making Sense of COMPSTAT: A Theory-Based Analysis of Organizational Change in Three Police Departments,” Law & Society Review 41, no. 1 (2007): 151.

    123. Charles M. Katz, Edward R. Maguire, and Dennis W. Roncek, “The Creation of Specialized Police Gang Units: A Macro-Level Analysis of Contingency, Social Threat, and Resource Dependency Explanations,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management 25, no. 3 (2002): 472–506.

    124. Michael Lipsky, Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services (New York: Russell Sage, 1980); Gerald R. Salancik, “The Effectiveness of Ineffective Social Service Systems,” in Organization and the Human Services, ed. H. D. Stein (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981), 142–50.

    125. Jeffrey Pfeffer, Organizations and Organization Theory (Boston: Pitman, 1982); Jeffrey Pfeffer and Gerald R. Salancik, The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective (New York: Harper & Row, 1978).

    126. Pfeffer and Salancik, External Control.

    127. Daniel Eisenberg, “Evaluating the Effectiveness of Policies Related to Drunk Driving,” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 22, no. 2 (2003): 249–74.

    128. Ibid.

    129. Christopher O’Neill, “Legislating Under the Influence: Are Federal Highway Incentives Enough to Induce State Legislatures to Pass a 0.08 Blood Alcohol Concentration Standard?,” Seton Hall Legislative Journal 28 (2004): 415–38.

    130. Ibid.

    131. Governors Highway Safety Association, “Drunk Driving Laws” (Washington, DC: Governors Highway Safety Association, 2011), http://www.ghsa.org/html/stateinfo/laws/impaired_laws.html.

    132. Jeffrey A. Roth et al., National Evaluation of the COPS Program: Title I of the 1994 Crime Act (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2000).

    133. William N. Evans and Emily G. Owens, “COPS and Crime,” Journal of Public Economics 91, no. 1–2 (2007): 181–201; Jeffrey A. Roth and Joseph F. Ryan, The COPS Program After 4 Years: National Evaluation (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2000).

    134. Nathan James, “Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS): Background, Legislation, and Funding,” CRS Report for Congress (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2011).

    135. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, Community Policing Defined (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2012), 2.

    136. Roth et al., National Evaluation.

    137. Ibid.

    138. Evans and Owens, “COPS and Crime”; James, “Community Oriented Policing Services.”

    139. Government Accountability Office, “Community Policing Grants” (Washington, DC: US Government Accountability Office, 2005).

    140. Roth et al., National Evaluation.

    141. Ibid.

    142. Government Accountability Office, “Community Policing Grants.”

    143. Evans and Owens, “COPS and Crime”; John L. Worrall and Jihong Zhao, “The Role of the COPS Office in Community Policing,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 26, no. 1 (2003): 64–87.

    144. Government Accountability Office, “Community Policing Grants.”

    145. Roth and Ryan, The COPS Program.

    146. Evans and Owens, “COPS and Crime”; Roth and Ryan, The COPS Program.

    147. Roth et al., National Evaluation.

    148. Ibid.

    149. Ibid., 26.

    150. Ibid., 43.

    151. S. Marlon Gayadeen and Scott W. Phillips, “The Innovation of Community Policing and the COPS Office: Does Diffusion of Innovation Theory Hold in a Manipulated Environment?,” International Journal of Police Science & Management 16, no. 3 (2014): 228–42; Willard M. Oliver, “The Third Generation of Community Policing: Moving Through Innovation, Diffusion, and Institutionalization,” Police Quarterly 3, no. 4 (2000): 367–88.

    152. Roth and Ryan, The COPS Program.

    153. Oliver, “The Third Generation,” 379–80.

    154. Worrall and Zhao, “Role of the COPS Office,” 81.

    155. Andrew B. Whitford and Jeff Yates, “Policy Signals and Executive Governance: Presidential Rhetoric in the War on Drugs,” Journal of Politics 65, no. 4 (2003): 995–1012.

    156. James E. Hawdon, “The Role of Presidential Rhetoric in the Creation of a Moral Panic: Reagan, Bush, and the War on Drugs,” Deviant Behavior 22, no. 5 (2001): 419–45; Whitford and Yates, “Policy Signals.”

    157. Radley Balko, Rise of the Warrior Cop: The Militarization of America’s Police Forces (New York: PublicAffairs, 2013); Edmund F. McGarrell and Kip Schlegel, “The Implementation of Federally Funded Multijurisdictional Drug Task Forces: Organizational Structure and Interagency Relationships,” Journal of Criminal Justice 21, no. 3 (1993): 231–44; Kip Schlegel and Edmund F McGarrell, “An Examination of Arrest Practices in Regions Served by Multijurisdictional Drug Task Forces,” Crime & Delinquency 37, no. 3 (1991): 408–26.

    158. Balko, Rise of the Warrior Cop.

    159. Robert MacCoun and Peter Reuter, “Drug Control,” in The Handbook of Crime and Punishment, ed. Michael Tonry (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 207–40.

    160. Marc Mauer and Ryan S. King, A 25-Year Quagmire: The War on Drugs and Its Impact on American Society (Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project, 2007).

    161. MacCoun and Reuter, “Drug Control”; Mauer and King, A 25-Year Quagmire.

    162. Bruce L. Benson, David W. Rasmussen, and David L. Sollars, “Police Bureaucracies, Their Incentives, and the War on Drugs,” Public Choice 83, no. 1–2 (1995): 21–45.

    163. Balko, Rise of the Warrior Cop; Benson, Rasmussen, and Sollars, “Police Bureaucracies.”

    164. Benson, Rasmussen, and Sollars, “Police Bureaucracies,” 29.

    165. John L Worrall, “Addicted to the Drug War: The Role of Civil Asset Forfeiture as a Budgetary Necessity in Contemporary Law Enforcement,” Journal of Criminal Justice 29, no. 3 (2001): 171–87.

    166. Balko, Rise of the Warrior Cop, 153.

    167. J. Mitchell Miller and Lance H. Selva, “Drug Enforcement’s Double-Edged Sword: An Assessment of Asset Forfeiture Programs,” Justice Quarterly 11, no. 2 (1994): 328.

    168. Balko, Rise of the Warrior Cop; Jefferson E. Holcomb, Tomislav V. Kovandzic, and Marian R. Williams, “Civil Asset Forfeiture, Equitable Sharing, and Policing for Profit in the United States,” Journal of Criminal Justice 39, no. 3 (2011): 273–85.

    169. Balko, Rise of the Warrior Cop; Holcomb, Kovandzic, and Williams, “Civil Asset Forfeiture”; John L. Worrall and Tomislav V. Kovandzic, “Is Policing for Profit? Answers From Asset Forfeiture,” Criminology & Public Policy 7, no. 2 (2008): 219–44.

    170. Holcomb, Kovandzic, and Williams, “Civil Asset Forfeiture.”

    171. Ibid.; Worrall and Kovandzic, “Is Policing for Profit?”

    172. Holcomb, Kovandzic, and Williams, “Civil Asset Forfeiture.”

    173. Robert O’Harrow, Sari Horwitz, and Steven Rich, “Holder Limits Seized-Asset Sharing Process That Split Billions With Local, State Police,” The Washington Post, January 16, 2015, https://www.washingtonpost.com/investigations/holder-ends-seized-asset-sharing-process-that-split-billions-with-local-state-police/2015/01/16/0e7ca058-99d4-11e4-bcfb-059ec7a93ddc_story.html.

    174. Christoopher Ingraham, “The feds have resumed a controversial program that lets cops take stuff and keep it,” The Washington Post, March 28, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/03/28/the-feds-have-resumed-a-controversial-program-that-lets-cops-take-stuff-and-keep-it/.

    175. Peter B. Kraska and Louis J. Cubellis, “Militarizing Mayberry and Beyond: Making Sense of American Paramilitary Policing,” Justice Quarterly 14, no. 4 (1997): 607–29; Peter B. Kraska and Victor E. Kappeler, “Militarizing American Police: The Rise and Normalization of Paramilitary Units,” Social Problems 44, no. 1 (1997): 1–18.

    176. Kraska and Kappeler, “Militarizing American Police.”

    177. Daniel H. Else, “The ‘1033 Program,’ Department of Defense Support to Local Law Enforcement,” CRS Report for Congress (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2014).

    178. Ibid.; Abigail R. Hall and Christopher J. Coyne, “The Militarization of US Domestic Policing,” The Independent Review 17, no. 4 (2013): 485–504.

    179. National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center, “Another Man’s Treasure,” TECH Beat, Winter 1998, 1–2.

    180. Balko, Rise of the Warrior Cop, 210.

    181. Matt Apuzzo, “War Gear Flows to Police Departments,” The New York Times, June 8, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/09/us/war-gear-flows-to-police-departments.html.

    182. Niraj Chokshi and Sarah Larimer, “Ferguson-Style Militarization Goes on Trial in the Senate,” The Washington Post, September 9, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2014/09/09/ferguson-style-militarization-goes-on-trial-in-the-senate/.

    183. Andrew Becker and G. W. Schulz, “Local Police Stockpile High-Tech, Combat-Ready Gear,” Center for Investigative Reporting, 2011, http://cironline.org/reports/local-police-stockpile-high-tech-combat-ready-gear-2913.

    184. James, “Community Oriented Policing Services.”

    185. Willard M. Oliver, “The Fourth Era of Policing: Homeland Security,” International Review of Law, Computers, and Technology 20, no. 1–2 (2006): 49–62.

    186. Ronald Helms and Ricky S. Gutierrez, “Federal Subsidies and Evidence of Progressive Change: A Quantitative Assessment of the Effects of Targeted Grants on Manpower and Innovation in Large US Police Agencies,” Police Quarterly 10, no. 1 (2007): 87–107.

    187. John W. Meyer and Brian Rowan, “Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony,” American Journal of Sociology 83, no. 2 (1977): 340–63.

    188. Bob Hinings and Royston Greenwood, “The Normative Prescription of Organizations,” in Institutional Patterns and Organizations, ed. Lynne G. Zucker (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1988), 53–70.

    189. Meyer and Rowan, “Institutionalized Organizations.”

    190. Dennis P. Rosenbaum, “Just Say No to DARE,” Criminology & Public Policy 6, no. 4 (2007): 815–24; Carol Hirschon Weiss, Erin Murphy-Graham, and Sarah Birkeland, “An Alternate Route to Policy Influence: How Evaluations Affect D.A.R.E.,” American Journal of Evaluation 26, no. 1 (2005): 12–30.

    191. Greg Berman and Aubrey Fox, Lessons From the Battle Over D.A.R.E.: The Complicated Relationship Between Research and Practice (New York: Center for Court Innovation, 2009), 1.

    192. Sarah Birkeland, Erin Murphy-Graham, and Carol Weiss, “Good Reasons for Ignoring Good Evaluation: The Case of the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) Program,” Evaluation and Program Planning 28, no. 3 (2005): 247–56.

    193. Ibid.

    194. Peter Frumkin and David Reingold, “Evaluation Research and Institutional Pressures: Challenges in Public-Nonprofit Contracting,” Working Paper (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations, 2004), 18–19.

    195. John P. Crank and Robert Langworthy, “An Institutional Perspective of Policing,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 83, no. 2 (1992): 338–63.

    196. Dorothy Guyot, “Bending Granite: Attempts to Change the Rank Structure of American Police Departments,” Journal of Police Science and Administration 7, no. 3 (1979): 253–84.

    197. Crank and Langworthy, “An Institutional Perspective”; Guyot, “Bending Granite.”

    198. Guyot, “Bending Granite,” 274.

    199. Charles M. Katz, “The Establishment of a Police Gang Unit: An Examination of Organizational and Environmental Factors,” Criminology 39, no. 1 (2001): 37–73.

    200. Ibid.

    201. Katz, “The Establishment of a Police Gang Unit,” 56.

    202. John P. Crank and Robert Langworthy, “Fragmented Centralization and the Organization of the Police,” Policing and Society 6, no. 3 (1996): 213–29.

    203. Paul J. DiMaggio and Walter W. Powell, “The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields,” American Sociological Review 48, no. 2 (1983): 147–60.

    204. Ibid.

    205. David A. Harris, “Racial Profiling Revisited: ‘Just Common Sense’ in the Fight Against Terror?,” Criminal Justice 17 (2002): 38.

    206. Mark H. Moore, “Sizing up COMPSTAT: An Important Administrative Innovation in Policing,” Criminology & Public Policy 2, no. 3 (2003): 469–94.

    207. David Weisburd et al., “Reforming to Preserve: Compstat and Strategic Problem Solving in American Policing,” Criminology & Public Policy 2, no. 3 (2003): 421–56.

    208. Willis, Mastrofski, and Weisburd, “Making Sense of COMPSTAT.”

    209. Weisburd et al., “Reforming to Preserve.”

    210. Willis, Mastrofski, and Weisburd, “Making Sense of COMPSTAT,” 160.

    211. Rob Tillyer, Robin S. Engel, and Jennifer Calnon Cherkauskas, “Best Practices in Vehicle Stop Data Collection and Analysis,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 33, no. 1 (2010): 69–92.

    212. Crank and Langworthy, “Fragmented Centralization,” 216.

    213. Meyer and Rowan, “Institutionalized Organizations.”

    214. Roger B. Parks et al., “How Officers Spend Their Time With the Community,” Justice Quarterly 16, no. 3 (1999): 483–518.

    215. Ibid., 516.

    216. Jihong Zhao, Nicholas P. Lovrich, and T. Hank Robinson, “Community Policing: Is It Changing the Basic Functions of Policing? Findings From a Longitudinal Study of 200+ Municipal Police Agencies,” Journal of Criminal Justice 29, no. 5 (2001): 365–77.

    217. Willis, Mastrofski, and Weisburd, “Making Sense of COMPSTAT.”

    218. Weisburd et al., “Reforming to Preserve.”

    219. Willis, Mastrofski, and Weisburd, “Making Sense of COMPSTAT.”

    220. Ibid., 166.

    221. W. Richard Scott, “Institutional Theory: Contributing to a Theoretical Research Program,” in Great Minds in Management: The Process of Theory Development, ed. Ken G. Smith and Michael A. Hitt (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 460–84.

    222. Pamela S. Tolbert and Lynne G. Zucker, “Institutional Sources of Change in the Formal Structure of Organizations: The Diffusion of Civil Service Reform, 1880–1935,” Administrative Science Quarterly 28, no. 1 (1983): 22–39.

    223. David Weisburd and Cynthia Lum, “The Diffusion of Computerized Crime Mapping in Policing: Linking Research and Practice,” Police Practice and Research 6, no. 5 (2005): 419–34.

    224. Oliver, “The Third Generation.”

    225. Paul Ingram and Karen Clay, “The Choice-Within-Constraints New Institutionalism and Implications for Sociology,” Annual Review of Sociology 26 (2000): 525–46.

    226. Scott, “Institutional Theory.”

    227. Oliver, “The Fourth Era of Policing.”

    228. Naomi J. Freeman and Jeffrey C. Sandler, “The Adam Walsh Act: A False Sense of Security or an Effective Public Policy Initiative?,” Criminal Justice Policy Review 21, no. 1 (2010): 31–49; Andrew J. Harris and Christopher Lobanov-Rostovsky, “Implementing the Adam Walsh Act’s Sex Offender Registration and Notification Provisions: A Survey of the States,” Criminal Justice Policy Review 21, no. 2 (2010): 202–22.

    229. Justice Policy Institute, Registering Harm: A Briefing Book on the Adam Walsh Act (Washington, DC: Justice Policy Institute, 2011).

    230. Freeman and Sandler, “Adam Walsh Act.”

    231. Ibid.

    232. Justice Policy Institute, Registering Harm; “SORNA,” Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking, accessed March 24, 2015, http://www.smart.gov/sorna.htm.

    233. Freeman and Sandler, “Adam Walsh Act”; Justice Policy Institute, Registering Harm.

    234. Justice Policy Institute, Registering Harm.

    235. “SORNA.”

    236. Justice Policy Institute, Registering Harm.

    237. State of Hawaii, Department of the Attorney General, “Report of the Adam Walsh Act Compliance Working Group,” 2009, http://ag.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/awa-report.pdf.

    238. Heather Caygle, “Texas Clashing With Feds Over Adam Walsh Act,” San Antonio Express-News, March 7, 2011, http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/local/article/Texas-clashing-with-feds-over-Adam-Walsh-Act-1046840.php.

    239. Justice Policy Institute, Registering Harm.

    Chapter 4

    1. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Top Picks (Most Requested Statistics): US Bureau of Labor Statistics: Unemployment Rate (Seasonally Adjusted),” n.d., http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/surveymost?bls.

    2. Jeff Grogger, “An Economic Model of Recent Trends in Violence,” in The Crime Drop in America, ed. Alfred Blumstein and Joel Wallman, rev. ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 266–87; Andrew Karmen, New York Murder Mystery: The True Story Behind the Crime Crash of the 1990s (New York: New York University Press, 2000).

    3. Bruce Taylor et al., Cop Crunch: Identifying Strategies for Dealing With the Recruiting and Hiring Crisis in Law Enforcement (Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum, 2005).

    4. Fox Butterfield, “Urban Police Jobs Are Losing Their Appeal,” The New York Times, July 30, 2001, sec. National, http://www.nytimes.com/2001/07/30/national/30POLI.html. Other factors contributed to the shortage of applicants, including public perceptions of the police and the police bureaucracy. These additional factors are discussed throughout this chapter.

    5. Howard Goodman, “Timoney: Police in a ‘Hiring Crisis’,” Philadelphia Inquirer, October 28, 1998, http://articles.philly.com/1998-10-28/news/25759708_1_police-officers-applicants-commissioner-john-f-timoney.

    6. Eric Ferkenhoff, “City Works to Win More Recruits for Police Force,” Chicago Tribune, January 4, 2001, http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2001-01-04/news/0101040101_1_recruits-police-officers-terry-hillard.

    7. Butterfield, “Urban Police Jobs Are Losing Their Appeal”; Ferkenhoff, “City Works to Win More Recruits for Police Force”; Goodman, “Timoney”; Taylor et al., Cop Crunch; Lindsay Wise, “HPD Hopes to Lure Cadets With $12,000 Bonuses,” Houston Chronicle, February 15, 2008, http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/HPD-hopes-to-lure-cadets-with-12-000-bonuses-1538705.php.

    8. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Top Picks (Most Requested Statistics).”

    9. Hector Castro, “Bad Economy Good for Police Recruiting,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, October 1, 2009, http://www.seattlepi.com/local/article/Bad-economy-good-for-police-recruiting-888439.php.

    10. Michael S. Schmidt, “A Flood of Applicants to a Shrinking Police Dept.,” The New York Times, November 18, 2009, sec. New York Region, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/18/nyregion/18recruit.html.

    11. Kevin Modesti, “LAPD Hopes to Recruit by Offering Recession-Proof Jobs,” Los Angeles Daily News, January 4, 2009, para. 1, http://www.dailynews.com/20090104/lapd-hopes-to-recruit-by-offering-recession-proof-jobs.

    12. Schmidt, “A Flood of Applicants to a Shrinking Police Dept.”

    13. Robert M. Fogelson, Big-City Police (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977); James F. Richardson, The New York Police: Colonial Times to 1901 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970); Craig D. Uchida, “The Development of the American Police: An Historical Overview,” in Critical Issues in Policing: Contemporary Readings, ed. Roger G. Dunham and Geoffrey P. Alpert (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1997), 18–35; Samuel Walker, A Critical History of Police Reform: The Emergence of Professionalism (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1977).

    14. Roger Lane, “Urban Police and Crime in Nineteenth-Century America,” in Modern Policing, ed. Michael Tonry and Norval Morris (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), 1–50; Uchida, “The Development of the American Police.”

    15. Fogelson, Big-City Police, 28.

    16. Fogelson, Big-City Police; Uchida, “The Development of the American Police.”

    17. Uchida, “The Development of the American Police.”

    18. Gene E. Carte and Elaine H. Carte, Police Reform in the United States: The Era of August Vollmer (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975); Fogelson, Big-City Police.

    19. Fogelson, Big-City Police.

    20. John Van Maanen and Edgar H. Schein, “Toward a Theory of Organizational Socialization,” in Research in Organizational Behavior, ed. Barry M. Straw, vol. 1 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1979), 209–64.

    21. Brian A. Reaves, Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement Officers, 2008—Statistical Tables (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2012).

    22. Jeremy M. Wilson and Alexander Weiss, A Performance-Based Approach to Police Staffing and Allocation (Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2012).

    23. James McCabe, An Analysis of Police Department Staffing: How Many Officers Do You Really Need?, ICMA Center for Public Safety Management White Paper (Washington, DC: International City/County Management Association, Center for Public Safety Management, 2012); Wilson and Weiss, A Performance-Based Approach.

    24. Brian A. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2007 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2010).

    25. Ibid.

    26. Wilson and Weiss, A Performance-Based Approach.

    27. Ibid.

    28. Edward R. Maguire, “Influencing Police Strength in the United States,” in Hiring and Retention Issues in Police Agencies: Readings on the Determinants of Police Strength, Hiring, and Retention of Officers, and the Federal COPS Program, ed. Christopher S. Koper et al. (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center, 2001), 7–25.

    29. International Association of Chiefs of Police, “Police Officer to Population Ratios Bureau of Justice Statistics Data,” Research Center Directorate Perspectives, n.d., para. 2, http://www.theiacp.org/Portals/0/pdfs/Officer-to-Population-Ratios.pdf.

    30. Anne Ryman and Rob O’Dell, “ASU Police Staffing Trails Campus Growth,” The Arizona Republic, September 22, 2014, http://www.azcentral.com/story/news/local/tempe/2014/09/21/asu-police-staffing-lags-campus-growth/15999573/.

    31. Andrea M. Burch, Sheriffs’ Offices, 2007—Statistical Tables (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2012); Jeff Horseman, “Supervisors Commit to Hiring More Deputies,” Press Enterprise, March 27, 2013, http://www.pe.com/articles/county-672219-deputies-million.html.

    32. Horseman, “Supervisors Commit to Hiring More Deputies.”

    33. Christopher S. Koper and Gretchen E. Moore, “A Survey-Based Assessment of Factors Causing Changes in Sworn Police Force Size: Examining the Perceptions of Police,” in Hiring and Retention Issues in Police Agencies: Readings on the Determinants of Police Strength, Hiring, and Retention of Officers, and the Federal COPS Program, ed. Christopher S. Koper et al. (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center, 2001), 27–40; McCabe, An Analysis of Police Department Staffing; Wilson and Weiss, A Performance-Based Approach.

    34. Wilson and Weiss, A Performance-Based Approach, 26.

    35. Koper and Moore, “A Survey-Based Assessment of Factors.”

    36. Jeremy M. Wilson, Bernard D. Rostker, and Cha-Chi Fan, Recruiting and Retaining America’s Finest: Evidence-Based Lessons for Police Workforce Planning (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2010), xvi.

    37. Koper and Moore, “A Survey-Based Assessment of Factors”; Wilson and Weiss, A Performance-Based Approach.

    38. Wilson and Weiss, A Performance-Based Approach, 24.

    39. Collective Bargaining Agreement Between the Stamford Police Association and the City of Stamford, 2007, 28, http://www.stamfordct.gov/sites/stamfordct/files/file/file/city_of_stamford_and_spa_police_contract_2005_to_2009.pdf.

    40. Agreement by and Between the City of Seattle and Seattle Police Officers’ Guild, 2013, 19, http://www.seattle.gov/personnel/resources/pubs/SPOG.pdf.

    41. Wilson and Weiss, A Performance-Based Approach.

    42. Ibid.

    43. McCabe, An Analysis of Police Department Staffing; Wilson and Weiss, A Performance-Based Approach.

    44. Wilson and Weiss, A Performance-Based Approach.

    45. McCabe, An Analysis of Police Department Staffing; Wilson and Weiss, A Performance-Based Approach.

    46. Reaves, Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement.

    47. Sara L. Rynes and Alison E. Barber, “Applicant Attraction Strategies: An Organizational Perspective,” The Academy of Management Review 15, no. 2 (1990): 286–310; Jeremy M. Wilson and Clifford A. Grammich, Police Recruitment and Retention in the Contemporary Urban Environment (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2009).

    48. Taylor et al., Cop Crunch, 3.

    49. Lyman W. Porter, Edward E. Lawler, and J. Richard Hackman, Behavior in Organizations (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975).

    50. Rynes and Barber, “Applicant Attraction Strategies.” Although the authors distinguish between attraction and recruitment activities, they acknowledge that the terms are often used interchangeably. Both terms will be used in the discussion presented within this chapter.

    51. Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations, 143.

    52. Fredric M. Jablin, “Organizational Entry, Assimilation, and Disengagement/Exit,” in The New Handbook of Organizational Communication, ed. Fredric M. Jablin and Linda L. Putnam (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001), 732–819; Michael W. Kramer, Organizational Socialization: Joining and Leaving Organizations (Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2010); John P. Wanous, “Organizational Entry: Newcomers Moving From Outside to Inside,” Psychological Bulletin 84, no. 4 (1977): 601–18.

    53. Jablin, “Organizational Entry, Assimilation, and Disengagement/Exit”; Wanous, “Organizational Entry.”

    54. Robert J. Kaminski, “Police Minority Recruitment: Predicting Who Will Say Yes to an Offer for a Job as a Cop,” Journal of Criminal Justice 21 (1993): 395–409.

    55. Joan C. Barker, Danger, Duty, and Disillusion: The Worldview of Los Angeles Police Officers (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1999), 8–9.

    56. John P. Wanous, Organizational Entry: Recruitment, Selection, and Socialization of Newcomers (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980).

    57. Jablin, “Organizational Entry, Assimilation, and Disengagement/Exit.”

    58. Jeremy M. Wilson et al., Police Recruitment and Retention for the New Millennium: The State of Knowledge (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2010), 74.

    59. Taylor et al., Cop Crunch; Thomas S. Whetstone, John C. Reed, and Phillip C. Turner, “Recruiting: A Comparative Study of the Recruiting Practices of State Police Agencies,” International Journal of Police Science & Management 8, no. 1 (2006): 52–66.

    60. Taylor et al., Cop Crunch.

    61. Ibid.

    62. Jablin, “Organizational Entry, Assimilation, and Disengagement/Exit.”

    63. Taylor et al., Cop Crunch.

    64. Whetstone, Reed, and Turner, “Recruiting,” 57.

    65. Taylor et al., Cop Crunch.

    66. Whetstone, Reed, and Turner, “Recruiting”; Wilson et al., Police Recruitment and Retention for the New Millennium.

    67. Whetstone, Reed, and Turner, “Recruiting.”

    68. Dwayne Orrick, Best Practices Guide: Recruitment, Retention, and Turnover in Law Enforcement (Washington, DC: International Association of Chiefs of Police, 2008); W. Dwayne Orrick, Recruitment, Retention, and Turnover of Police Personnel: Reliable, Practical, and Effective Solutions (Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 2008); Whetstone, Reed, and Turner, “Recruiting”; Wilson et al., Police Recruitment and Retention for the New Millennium.

    69. The recruiting site is located at https://twitter.com/nypdrecruit, while the news site is located at https://twitter.com/nypdnews.

    70. Jack McKeever and April Kranda, “Recruitment and Retention of Qualified Police Personnel: A Best Practices Guide,” Big Ideas for Smaller Departments 2, no. 1 (2000): 3–9; Wilson et al., Police Recruitment and Retention for the New Millennium.

    71. Orrick, Recruitment, Retention, and Turnover; Taylor et al., Cop Crunch; Whetstone, Reed, and Turner, “Recruiting.”

    72. David Murphy, Wyatt Merritt, and Stephen Gibbons, “Student and Supervisor Perspectives on the Benefits of Criminal Justice Internships,” Journal of Criminal Justice Education 24, no. 2 (2013): 235–50.

    73. Dorothy Guyot, “Bending Granite: Attempts to Change the Rank Structure of American Police Departments,” Journal of Police Science and Administration 7, no. 3 (1979): 275.

    74. Taylor et al., Cop Crunch. One exception is the chief or commission position, for which agencies may hire an experienced leader from outside of the department.

    75. http://www.joinraleighpd.org/lateral.html. Those with longer gaps in their employment histories must fulfill additional training academy hours.

    76. Jablin, “Organizational Entry, Assimilation, and Disengagement/Exit.”

    77. Orrick, Best Practices Guide, 5.

    78. Orrick, Best Practices Guide; Taylor et al., Cop Crunch.

    79. Taylor et al., Cop Crunch.

    80. Rudolph Bush, “Dallas Council Approves Elimination of Police Signing Bonus, Furlough Days for Civilian Employees,” City Hall Blog, May 27, 2009, http://cityhallblog.dallasnews.com/2009/05/dallas-council-approves-elimna.html/.

    81. Taylor et al., Cop Crunch.

    82. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2007.

    83. Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations.

    84. Jablin, “Organizational Entry, Assimilation, and Disengagement/Exit”; Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations; Rynes and Barber, “Applicant Attraction Strategies.”

    85. Jablin, “Organizational Entry, Assimilation, and Disengagement/Exit”; Kramer, Organizational Socialization.

    86. Rynes and Barber, “Applicant Attraction Strategies,” 293.

    87. Pamela F. Foley, Christina Guarneri, and Mary E. Kelly, “Reasons for Choosing a Police Career: Changes Over Two Decades,” International Journal of Police Science & Management 10, no. 1 (2008): 2–8; Greg Ridgeway et al., Strategies for Improving Officer Recruitment in the San Diego Police Department (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2008); William A. Westley, Violence and the Police: A Sociological Study of Law, Custom, and Morality (Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1970); Michael D. White et al., “Motivations for Becoming a Police Officer: Re-Assessing Officer Attitudes and Job Satisfaction After Six Years on the Street,” Journal of Criminal Justice 38, no. 4 (2010): 520–30.

    88. Ridgeway et al., Strategies for Improving Officer Recruitment; White et al., “Motivations for Becoming a Police Officer.”

    89. Foley, Guarneri, and Kelly, “Reasons for Choosing a Police Career”; Ridgeway et al., Strategies for Improving Officer Recruitment; White et al., “Motivations for Becoming a Police Officer.”

    90. http://www.greenwoodpd.org/Divisions/Administration/Recruiting.

    91. Radley Balko, “The Disturbing Messages in Police Recruiting Videos,” The Washington Post, April 16, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-watch/wp/2014/04/16/the-disturbing-messages-in-police-recruiting-videos/. The author suggests that the adventure-and-aggressiveness message is supplanting the community-serving-and-helping theme. See Web Resources at the end of the chapter.

    92. Kramer, Organizational Socialization.

    93. Sherah VanLaerhoven and Gail Anderson, “The Science and Careers of CSI,” in The CSI Effect, ed. Michele Byers and Val Marie Johnson (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2009), 31.

    94. Rynes and Barber, “Applicant Attraction Strategies.”

    95. Megan Alderden et al., “The Diversification of Police Departments,” National Police Research Platform (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2011).

    96. Wesley Skogan and Kathleen Frydl, eds., Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004), 312.

    97. Hannah Levintova et al., “Just How Segregated Is Ferguson?,” Mother Jones, August 13, 2014, http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/08/10-insane-numbers-ferguson-killing; “Racial History behind the Ferguson Protests,” The New York Times, August 12, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/13/opinion/racial-history-behind-the-ferguson-protests.html.

    98. Emily Badger, Dan Keating, and Kennedy Elliott, “Where Minority Communities Still Have Overwhelmingly White Police,” The Washington Post, August 14, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2014/08/14/where-minority-communities-still-have-overwhelmingly-white-police/.

    99. Brian A. Reaves and Andrew L. Goldberg, Local Police Departments, 1997 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000).

    100. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2007.

    101. Ibid.

    102. Ibid.

    103. Ibid.

    104. Ibid.

    105. Skogan and Frydl, Fairness and Effectiveness, 313.

    106. Pan Suk Kim and Berhanu Mengistu, “Women and Minorities in the Work Force of Law-Enforcement Agencies,” American Review of Public Administration 24, no. 2 (1994): 161–79; Jihong Zhao, Ni He, and Nicholas Lovrich, “Predicting the Employment of Minority Officers in US Cities: OLS Fixed-Effect Panel Model Results for African American and Latino Officers for 1993, 1996, and 2000,” Journal of Criminal Justice 33, no. 4 (2005): 377–86; Jihong Zhao and Nicholas Lovrich, “Determinants of Minority Employment in American Municipal Police Agencies: The Representation of African American Officers,” Journal of Criminal Justice 26, no. 4 (1998): 267–77.

    107. Zhao, He, and Lovrich, “Predicting the Employment of Minority Officers in US Cities”; Zhao and Lovrich, “Determinants of Minority Employment in American Municipal Police Agencies.”

    108. Larry D. Stokes and James F. Scott, “Affirmative Action and Selected Minority Groups in Law Enforcement,” Journal of Criminal Justice 24, no. 1 (1996): 29–38; Zhao and Lovrich, “Determinants of Minority Employment in American Municipal Police Agencies.”

    109. Amie M. Schuck, “Female Representation in Law Enforcement: The Influence of Screening, Unions, Incentives, Community Policing, CALEA, and Size,” Police Quarterly 17, no. 1 (2014): 54–78; Michael D. White and Gipsy Escobar, “Making Good Cops in the Twenty-First Century: Emerging Issues for the Effective Recruitment, Selection and Training of Police in the United States and Abroad,” International Review of Law, Computers & Technology 22, no. 1–2 (2008): 119–34.

    110. Zhao and Lovrich, “Determinants of Minority Employment in American Municipal Police Agencies.”

    111. Schuck, “Female Representation in Law Enforcement”; Zhao and Lovrich, “Determinants of Minority Employment in American Municipal Police Agencies.”

    112. Schuck, “Female Representation in Law Enforcement.”

    113. William T. Jordan et al., “Attracting Females and Racial/Ethnic Minorities to Law Enforcement,” Journal of Criminal Justice 37, no. 4 (2009): 333–41.

    114. Schuck, “Female Representation in Law Enforcement.”

    115. Jordan et al., “Attracting Females and Racial/Ethnic Minorities to Law Enforcement.”

    116. Kaminski, “Police Minority Recruitment.”

    117. Hubert Williams, Reconciling Higher Educational Standards and Minority Recruitment: The New York City Model, Police Foundation Reports (Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 1992).

    118. Susan Erlich Martin, Breaking and Entering: Policewomen on Patrol (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), 115.

    119. Alderden et al., “The Diversification of Police Departments.”

    120. Although presented as discrete stages, screening and selection is an ongoing process that occurs from the moment an agency decides to recruit new members. After all, the very existence of selection criteria is enough to cause some individuals to avoid application or remove themselves from consideration during later stages.

    121. James A. Breaugh and Mary Starke, “Research on Employee Recruitment: So Many Studies, so Many Remaining Questions,” Journal of Management 26, no. 3 (2000): 405–34; Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations.

    122. Lisa Kay Decker and Robert G. Huckabee, “Law Enforcement Hiring Practices and Narrowing the Applicant Pool,” Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 29, no. 3/4 (1999): 57–70. The Indianapolis Police Department now exists as the Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department. The number of applicants undoubtedly shrunk from the original 1,545 as attrition occurred.

    123. Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations; Wanous, “Organizational Entry.”

    124. Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations.

    125. Breaugh and Starke, “Research on Employee Recruitment”; Kramer, Organizational Socialization.

    126. Taylor et al., Cop Crunch.

    127. Eric Metchik, “An Analysis of the ‘Screening Out’ Model of Police Officer Selection,” Police Quarterly 2, no. 1 (1999): 86.

    128. Mark C. Hogue, Tommie Black, and Robert T. Sigler, “The Differential Use of Screening Techniques in the Recruitment of Police Officers,” American Journal of Police 13 (1994): 113–24.

    129. Metchik, “An Analysis of the ‘Screening Out’ Model of Police Officer Selection.”

    130. Ibid., 85.

    131. Mark J. Schmit and Ann Marie Ryan, “Applicant Withdrawal: The Role of Test-Taking Attitudes and Racial Differences,” Personnel Psychology 50, no. 4 (1997): 855–76.

    132. Taylor et al., Cop Crunch.

    133. Reaves, Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement.

    134. Benjamin Wright, Mengyan Dai, and Kathryn Greenbeck, “Correlates of Police Academy Success,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 34, no. 4 (2011): 625–37.

    135. Gregory S. Anderson, Darryl Plecas, and Tim Segger, “Police Officer Physical Ability Testing: Re Validating a Selection Criterion,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 24, no. 1 (2001): 8–31; Daryl Bissett, Jennifer Bissett, and Clete Snell, “Physical Agility Tests and Fitness Standards: Perceptions of Law Enforcement Officers,” Police Practice and Research 13, no. 3 (2012): 208–23.

    136. Beth A. Caillouet et al., “Predictive Validity of the MMPI-2 PSY-5 Scales and Facets for Law Enforcement Officer Employment Outcomes,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 37, no. 2 (2010): 217–38; M. L. Dantzker, “Psychological Preemployment Screening for Police Candidates: Seeking Consistency If Not Standardization.,” Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 42, no. 3 (2011): 276–83; Penelope Wasson Dralle and Rebecca M. Baybrook, “Screening of Police Applicants: A Replication of a 5-Item MMPI Research Index Validity Study,” Psychological Reports 57, no. 3f (1985): 1031–34; Jonathan Lough and Kathryn Von Treuer, “A Critical Review of Psychological Instruments Used in Police Officer Selection,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 36, no. 4 (2013): 737–51.

    137. Mark Handler et al., “Integration of Pre-Employment Polygraph Screening Into the Police Selection Process,” Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology 24, no. 2 (2009): 69–86; Frank Horvath, “Polygraphic Screening of Candidates for Police Work in Large Police Agencies in the United States: A Survey of Practices, Policies, and Evaluative Comments,” American Journal of Police 12 (1993): 67–86.

    138. Agnes L. Baro and David Burlingame, “Law Enforcement and Higher Education: Is There an Impasse?,” Journal of Criminal Justice Education 10, no. 1 (1999): 57–73; David L. Carter, Allen D. Sapp, and Darrel W. Stephens, “Higher Education as a Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BJOQ) for Police: A Blueprint,” American Journal of Police 7 (1988): 1; Roy Roberg and Scott Bonn, “Higher Education and Policing: Where Are We Now?,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 27, no. 4 (2004): 469–86; Michael D. White, “Identifying Good Cops: Early Predicting Recruit Performance in the Academy,” Police Quarterly 11, no. 1 (2008): 27–49.

    139. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2007.

    140. Helen Lam and Mark Harcourt, “The Use of Criminal Record in Employment Decisions: The Rights of Ex-Offenders, Employers and the Public,” Journal of Business Ethics 47, no. 3 (2003): 249.

    141. J. Bonneau and J. Brown, “Physical Ability, Fitness and Police Work,” Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine 2, no. 3 (1995): 157–64; Larry K. Gaines, Steve Falkenberg, and Joseph A. Gambino, “Police Physical Agility Testing: An Historical and Legal Analysis,” American Journal of Police 12 (1993): 47–66.

    142. Gary F. Coulton and Hubert S. Feild, “Using Assessment Centers in Selecting Entry-Level Police Officers: Extravagance or Justified Expense?,” Public Personnel Management 24, no. 2 (1995): 223–54; Guyot, “Bending Granite”; Metchik, “An Analysis of the ‘Screening Out’ Model of Police Officer Selection”; Joan E. Pynes and H. John Bernardin, “Predictive Validity of an Entry-Level Police Officer Assessment Center,” Journal of Applied Psychology 74, no. 5 (1989): 831–33.

    143. Coulton and Feild, “Using Assessment Centers”; George C. Thornton and Alyssa M. Gibbons, “Validity of Assessment Centers for Personnel Selection,” Human Resource Management Review, Employee Selection at the Beginning of the 21st Century, 19, no. 3 (2009): 169–87.

    144. Thornton and Gibbons, “Validity of Assessment Centers.”

    145. Metchik, “An Analysis of the ‘Screening Out’ Model of Police Officer Selection,” 88.

    146. Coulton and Feild, “Using Assessment Centers,” 231.

    147. Richard Klimoski and Mary Brickner, “Why Do Assessment Centers Work? The Puzzle of Assessment Center Validity,” Personnel Psychology 40, no. 2 (1987): 243–60; Thornton and Gibbons, “Validity of Assessment Centers.”

    148. Coulton and Feild, “Using Assessment Centers”; Pynes and Bernardin, “Predictive Validity.”

    149. Pynes and Bernardin, “Predictive Validity.”

    150. Ibid.

    151. Thornton and Gibbons, “Validity of Assessment Centers,” 170.

    152. Sue Ashford and Samir Nurmohamed, “From Past to Present and Into the Future: A Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Socialization Literature,” in The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Socialization, ed. Connie R. Wanberg (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), 8–24; Georgia T. Chao et al., “Organizational Socialization: Its Content and Consequences,” Journal of Applied Psychology 79, no. 5 (1994): 730–43.

    153. Robin E. Lester, “Organizational Culture, Uncertainty Reduction, and the Socialization of New Organizational Members,” in Culture and Communication: Methodology, Behavior, Artifacts, and Institutions, ed. Sari Thomas (Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1987), 105–13; Alan M. Saks and Blake E. Ashforth, “Organizational Socialization: Making Sense of the Past and Present as a Prologue for the Future,” Journal of Vocational Behavior 51, no. 2 (1997): 234–79.

    154. Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations, 168.

    155. Chao et al., “Organizational Socialization.”

    156. Ibid.; Jill A. Haueter, Therese Hoff Macan, and Joel Winter, “Measurement of Newcomer Socialization: Construct Validation of a Multidimensional Scale,” Journal of Vocational Behavior 63 (2003): 20–39.

    157. Van Maanen and Schein, “Toward a Theory of Organizational Socialization.”

    158. Ibid., 233–35.

    159. John Van Maanen, “Making Rank: Becoming an American Police Sergeant,” Urban Life 13, no. 2–3 (1984): 164.

    160. Van Maanen and Schein, “Toward a Theory of Organizational Socialization,” 236–37.

    161. Norman Conti, “A Visigoth System: Shame, Honor, and Police Socialization,” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 38, no. 3 (2009): 409–32.

    162. John Van Maanen, “People Processing: Strategies of Organizational Socialization,” Organizational Dynamics 7, no. 1 (1978): 18–36.

    163. Van Maanen, “Making Rank.”

    164. Van Maanen, “People Processing”; Van Maanen and Schein, “Toward a Theory of Organizational Socialization.”

    165. Van Maanen and Schein, “Toward a Theory of Organizational Socialization,” 247–48.

    166. Brian A. Reaves, State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2006 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2009).

    167. Van Maanen and Schein, “Toward a Theory of Organizational Socialization,” 247.

    168. Ibid., 250–51.

    169. Conti, “A Visigoth System: Shame, Honor, and Police Socialization,” 421.

    170. John Van Maanen, “Observations on the Making of Policemen,” Human Organization 32, no. 4 (1973): 407–18.

    171. Gareth R. Jones, “Socialization Tactics, Self-Efficacy, and Newcomers’ Adjustments to Organizations,” Academy of Management Journal 29, no. 2 (1986): 262–79; Van Maanen, “People Processing”; Van Maanen and Schein, “Toward a Theory of Organizational Socialization.” There is some disagreement as to whether fixed or random and investiture or divestiture socialization strategies reproduce the status quo. The arguments of Van Maanen and Schein and Jones are joined here.

    172. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2007; Reaves, State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2006. Training hours are as of 2007. Academy counts are as of 2006.

    173. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2007.

    174. Reaves, State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2006.

    175. Christopher S. Koper and Gretchen E. Moore, “Hiring, Training, and Retention of Police Officers: A National Examination of Patterns and Emerging Trends,” in Hiring and Retention Issues in Police Agencies: Readings on the Determinants of Police Strength, Hiring, and Retention of Officers, and the Federal COPS Program, ed. Christopher S. Koper et al. (Washington, DC: Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center, 2001), 41–54.

    176. Reaves, State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2006; Wright, Dai, and Greenbeck, “Correlates of Police Academy Success.” See also Allison T. Chappell, “Police Academy Training: Comparing Across Curricula,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 31, no. 1 (2008): 36–56.

    177. Nancy Marion, “Police Academy Training: Are We Teaching Recruits What They Need to Know?,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 21, no. 1 (1998): 54–79.

    178. Ibid.

    179. Reaves, State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2006.

    180. David Bradford and Joan E. Pynes, “Police Academy Training: Why Hasn’t It Kept Up With Practice?,” Police Quarterly 2, no. 3 (1999): 283–301.

    181. Marion, “Police Academy Training.”

    182. Allison T. Chappell and Lonn Lanza-Kaduce, “Police Academy Socialization: Understanding the Lessons Learned in a Paramilitary-Bureaucratic Organization,” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 39, no. 2 (2010): 199.

    183. Marion, “Police Academy Training.”

    184. Chappell and Lanza-Kaduce, “Police Academy Socialization.”

    185. Anastasia Prokos and Irene Padavic, “‘There Oughtta Be a Law Against Bitches’: Masculinity Lessons in Police Academy Training,” Gender, Work and Organization 9, no. 4 (2002): 439–59.

    186. Richard N. Harris, “The Police Academy and the Professional Self-Image,” in Policing: A View From the Street, ed. Peter K. Manning and John Van Maanen (Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear, 1978), 289.

    187. Harris, “The Police Academy and the Professional Self-Image”; Marion, “Police Academy Training.”

    188. Robert E. Ford, “Saying One Thing, Meaning Another: The Role of Parables in Police Training,” Police Quarterly 6, no. 1 (2003): 84–110.

    189. Ibid., 94.

    190. Ibid., 100.

    191. Ford, “Saying One Thing, Meaning Another”; White and Escobar, “Making Good Cops in the Twenty-First Century.”

    192. Van Maanen and Schein, “Toward a Theory of Organizational Socialization.”

    193. Cary A. Caro, “Predicting State Police Officer Performance in the Field Training Officer Program: What Can We Learn From the Cadet’s Performance in the Training Academy?,” American Journal of Criminal Justice 36, no. 4 (2011): 357–70.

    194. Timothy T. Baldwin and J. Kevin Ford, “Transfer of Training: A Review and Directions for Future Research,” Personnel Psychology 41, no. 1 (1988): 63.

    195. Caro, “Predicting State Police Officer Performance in the Field Training Officer Program”; Michael S. McCampbell, Field Training for Police Officers: The State of the Art (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1987).

    196. Caro, “Predicting State Police Officer Performance in the Field Training Officer Program.”

    197. McCampbell, Field Training for Police Officers, 2.

    198. Ibid.

    199. Jan Zahrly and Henry Tosi, “The Differential Effect of Organizational Induction Process on Early Work Role Adjustment,” Journal of Organizational Behavior 10, no. 1 (1989): 59–74.

    200. Van Maanen and Schein, “Toward a Theory of Organizational Socialization.”

    201. Ibid., 236–37.

    202. Reaves, State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2006.

    203. Burch, Sheriffs’ Offices, 2007—Statistical Tables; Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2007.

    204. William G. Doerner and E. Britt Patterson, “The Influence of Race and Gender Upon Rookie Evaluations of Their Field Training Officers,” American Journal of Police 11 (1992): 25.

    205. McCampbell, Field Training for Police Officers; Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, PTO: An Overview and Introduction (Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2001).

    206. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, PTO: An Overview and Introduction.

    207. Ibid., 12–13.

    208. Caro, “Predicting State Police Officer Performance in the Field Training Officer Program.”

    209. Ibid., 367.

    210. Ivan Y. Sun, “Police Officer Attitudes Toward Peers, Supervisors, and Citizens: A Comparison Between Field Training Officers and Regular Officers,” American Journal of Criminal Justice 27, no. 1 (2002): 69–83.

    211. McCampbell, Field Training for Police Officers.

    212. Doerner and Patterson, “The Influence of Race and Gender Upon Rookie Evaluations,” 30.

    213. Jessica E. Lynch and Michelle Tuckey, “The Police Turnover Problem: Fact or Fiction?,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 31, no. 1 (2008): 6–18; Wilson et al., Police Recruitment and Retention for the New Millennium.

    214. Reaves, Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement.

    215. Lynch and Tuckey, “The Police Turnover Problem”; Wilson et al., Police Recruitment and Retention for the New Millennium.

    216. Reaves, Hiring and Retention of State and Local Law Enforcement. Lynch and Tuckey, “The Police Turnover Problem,” noted the blurred line separating voluntary and involuntary turnover for medical- and disability-related matters. Does a medical issue result in a forced separation, or is the decision still left with the officer? Medical and disability retirements are grouped under the involuntary turnover heading here since individual choices are likely constrained.

    217. Koper and Moore, “Hiring, Training, and Retention of Police Officers.”

    218. Orrick, Recruitment, Retention, and Turnover.

    219. Ibid., 149–51.

    220. Orrick, Recruitment, Retention, and Turnover; Wilson et al., Police Recruitment and Retention for the New Millennium.

    221. Robin N. Haarr, “Factors Affecting the Decision of Police Recruits to ‘Drop Out’ of Police Work,” Police Quarterly 8, no. 4 (2005): 431–53; Koper and Moore, “Hiring, Training, and Retention of Police Officers.”

    222. Wilson et al., Police Recruitment and Retention for the New Millennium.

    223. Koper and Moore, “Hiring, Training, and Retention of Police Officers.”

    224. Haarr, “Factors Affecting the Decision of Police Recruits to ‘Drop Out’ of Police Work,” 441.

    225. Jerry R. Sparger and David J. Giacopassi, “Copping Out: Why Police Leave the Force,” in Police at Work: Policy Issues and Analysis, ed. Richard R. Bennett (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1983), 115.

    226. Robert McClendon, “Civil Service Commission Eases Drug Rules for NOPD Recruits,” NOLA.com, June 16, 2014, http://www.nola.com/politics/index.ssf/2014/06/civil_service_commission_eases.html; Robert McClendon, “NOPD Recruitment Push Attracts Thousands of Applicants, but Many Are Unqualified,” NOLA.com, August 23, 2014, http://www.nola.com/politics/index.ssf/2014/08/nopd_recruitment_push_attracts.html.

    227. Rynes and Barber, “Applicant Attraction Strategies,” 295.

    228. Richard Rainey, “New Orleans City Council Relaxes Contentious Domicile Rule for NOPD, NOFD, EMS,” NOLA.com, April 10, 2014, http://www.nola.com/politics/index.ssf/2014/04/new_orleans_city_council_relax.html.

    229. McClendon, “Civil Service Commission Eases Drug Rules for NOPD Recruits.”

    230. Leigh Isaacson, “History of Illegal Drug Use No Longer a Disqualifier for NOPD Job,” WVUE, accessed February 17, 2015, http://www.fox8live.com/story/25803781/history-of-illegal-drug-use-no-longer-a-disqualifier-for-nopd; McClendon, “Civil Service Commission Eases Drug Rules for NOPD Recruits.”

    231. Robert McClendon, “College Requirement for NOPD Recruits Nixed; High School Grads Can Now Apply,” NOLA.com, February 9, 2015, http://www.nola.com/politics/index.ssf/2015/02/college_requirement_for_nopd_r.html.

    232. Ibid.

    233. McClendon, “Civil Service Commission Eases Drug Rules for NOPD Recruits,” para. 8.

    234. Doerner and Patterson, “The Influence of Race and Gender Upon Rookie Evaluations.”

    Chapter 5

    1. James Q. Wilson, Varieties of Police Behavior: The Management of Law and Order in Eight Communities (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968).

    2. See, for example, Gary W. Cordner, “Police Patrol Work Load Studies: A Review and Critique,” Police Studies: The International Review of Police Development 2 (1979): 50–60; Herman Goldstein, “Confronting the Complexity of the Policing Function,” in Discretion in Criminal Justice: The Tension between Individualization and Uniformity, ed. Lloyd E. Ohlin and Frank J. Remington (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1993), 23–71; Stephen Mastrofski, “The Police and Noncrime Services,” in Evaluating the Performance of Criminal Justice Agencies, ed. Gordon P. Whitaker and Charles David Phillips (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1983), 33–62; John A. Webster, “Police Task and Time Study,” Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science 61 (1970): 94–100.

    3. Christine N. Famega, James Frank, and Lorraine Mazerolle, “Managing Police Patrol Time: The Role of Supervisor Directives,” Justice Quarterly 22, no. 4 (2005): 540–59.

    4. Gary Cordner, “While on Routine Patrol: What the Police Do When They’re Not Doing Anything,” American Journal of Police 1 (1982): 94–112.

    5. Famega, Frank, and Mazerolle, “Managing Police Patrol Time.”

    6. See, for example, Christina Dejong, Stephen Mastrofski, and Roger Parks, “Patrol Officers and Problem Solving: An Application of Expectancy Theory,” Justice Quarterly 18 (2001): 31–61; Robert J. Kane, “Permanent Beat Assignments in Association with Community Policing: Assessing the Impact on Police Officers’ Field Activity,” Justice Quarterly 17, no. 2 (2000): 259–80; Richard Rosenfeld, Michael J. Deckard, and Emily Blackburn, “The Effects of Directed Patrol and Self-Initiated Enforcement on Firearm Violence: A Randomized Controlled Study of Hot Spot Policing,” Criminology 52, no. 3 (2014): 428–49.

    7. Ivan Y. Sun, “Officer Proactivity: A Comparison Between Police Field Training Officers and Non-Field Training Officers,” Journal of Criminal Justice 31, no. 3 (2003): 265–77.

    8. Famega, Frank, and Mazerolle, “Managing Police Patrol Time”; Stephen D. Mastrofski et al., Systematic Observation of Public Police: Applying Field Research Methods to Policy Issues (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice National Institute of Justice, 1998).

    9. Famega, Frank, and Mazerolle, “Managing Police Patrol Time.”

    10. Victor H. Vroom, Work and Motivation (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1964), 8.

    11. David A. Nadler and Edward E. Lawler, “Motivation: A Diagnostic Approach,” in Perspectives on Behavior in Organizations, ed. J. Richard Hackman, Edward E. Lawler, and Lyman W. Porter (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977), 26–38; Craig C. Pinder, “Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory,” in Motivation and Work Behavior, ed. Richard M. Steers and Lyman W. Porter, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill Series in Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991), 144–64; Lyman W. Porter and Edward E. Lawler III, Managerial Attitudes and Performance (Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1968); Victor H. Vroom, “On the Origins of Expectancy Theory,” in Great Minds in Management: The Process of Theory Development, ed. Ken G. Smith and Michael A. Hitt (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2005), 239–58; Vroom, Work and Motivation.

    12. Richard M. Steers and Lyman W. Porter, eds., Motivation and Work Behavior, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill Series in Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991), 3. See also Daniel Katz and Robert L. Kahn, The Social Psychology of Organizations (New York: Wiley, 1966).

    13. Robert T. Golembiewski, Handbook of Organizational Behavior, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2001); Richard M. Steers, Richard T. Mowday, and Debra L. Shapiro, “The Future of Work Motivation Theory,” Academy of Management Review 29, no. 3 (2004): 379–87; Henry L. Tosi, John R. Rizzo, and Stephen J. Carroll, Managing Organizational Behavior (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1986).

    14. David J. Cherrington, “Work Design,” in Motivation and Work Behavior, ed. Richard M. Steers and Lyman W. Porter, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill Series in Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991), 31–44.

    15. Raymond A. Katzell and Donna E. Thompson, “Work Motivation: Theory and Practice,” American Psychologist, Organizational Psychology, 45, no. 2 (1990): 144–53. The authors introduced a categorization based on exogenous causes of motivation or endogenous processes that roughly corresponds with the content/process theory dichotomy.

    16. Steers, Mowday, and Shapiro, “The Future of Work Motivation Theory.”

    17. Katzell and Thompson, “Work Motivation.”

    18. Edward E. Lawler, “Job Design and Employee Motivation,” Personnel Psychology 22, no. 4 (1969): 426–35.

    19. Edward E. Lawler and Lyman W. Porter, “The Effect of Performance on Job Satisfaction,” Industrial Relations 7, no. 1 (1967): 20–28.

    20. Teresa M. Amabile, “Motivational Synergy: Toward New Conceptualizations of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in the Workplace,” Human Resource Management Review 3, no. 3 (1993), 189.

    21. Lawler, “Job Design and Employee Motivation,” 428.

    22. A. H. Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation,” Psychological Review 50, no. 4 (1943): 370–96; Tony J. Watson, “Motivation: That’s Maslow, Isn’t It?,” Management Learning 27, no. 4 (1996): 447–64.

    23. Edward Hoffman, The Right to Be Human: A Biography of Abraham Maslow, rev. and updated (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999).

    24. Ibid., 133.

    25. Ibid.

    26. Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation”; Abraham H. Maslow, Motivation and Personality (New York: Harper, 1954).

    27. Steers, Mowday, and Shapiro, “The Future of Work Motivation Theory”; Mahmoud A. Wahba and Lawrence G. Bridwell, “Maslow Reconsidered: A Review of Research on the Need Hierarchy Theory,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 15 (1976): 212–40. There is some debate as to whether esteem needs represent a deficiency or a growth need. Generally speaking, if self-esteem is considered, the need is believed to represent individual growth. If, however, the esteem is fulfilled by recognition by others, the need is considered a deficiency need. See, for example, Andrew Neher, “Maslow’s Theory of Motivation: A Critique,” Journal of Humanistic Psychology 31 (1991): 89–112.

    28. Neher, “Maslow’s Theory of Motivation: A Critique,” 91.

    29. Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation,” 373.

    30. Ibid., 377.

    31. Ibid., 381.

    32. Ibid., 382.

    33. Hoffman, The Right to Be Human, 142.

    34. Wahba and Bridwell, “Maslow Reconsidered,” 214.

    35. Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation.”

    36. Nikhil Jaiprakash Gupta, “Analysing the Motivational Needs Amongst Policemen: Maslow’s Theory Revitalised,” Police Journal 75 (2002): 193–203.

    37. Self-actualization was rated slightly more important than esteem needs among higher-ranking officers only.

    38. Gupta, “Analysing the Motivational Needs Amongst Policemen.”

    39. James A. Conser, “Motivational Theory Applied to Law Enforcement Agencies,” Journal of Police Science and Administration 7, no. 3 (1979): 285–91.

    40. Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation.”

    41. Neher, “Maslow’s Theory of Motivation: A Critique.”

    42. Barbara Bennett, “Motivational Hang-Ups of the Police Mystique,” in Police Human Relations, ed. George Henderson (Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1981), 136.

    43. Ibid., 137.

    44. Steve Herbert, “Police Subculture Reconsidered,” Criminology 36 (1998): 343–69.

    45. Ibid., 356.

    46. Bennett, “Motivational Hang-Ups of the Police Mystique.”

    47. Steers and Porter, Motivation and Work Behavior.

    48. Frederick Herzberg, Bernard Mausner, and Barbara Bloch Snyderman, The Motivation to Work (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1959).

    49. Ibid., 35.

    50. Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman, The Motivation to Work; Derek S. Pugh and David J. Hickson, Writers on Organizations, 6th ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2007).

    51. Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman, The Motivation to Work.

    52. Ibid., 71–74.

    53. Ibid., 80.

    54. Ibid., 113.

    55. Nigel Bassett Jones and Geoffrey C. Lloyd, “Does Herzberg’s Motivation Theory Have Staying Power?,” Journal of Management Development 24, no. 10 (2005): 929–43; Steers and Porter, Motivation and Work Behavior; Vroom, Work and Motivation.

    56. Bassett Jones and Lloyd, “Does Herzberg’s Motivation Theory Have Staying Power?”; Vroom, Work and Motivation.

    57. Vroom, Work and Motivation, 129.

    58. Steers and Porter, Motivation and Work Behavior; Pugh and Hickson, Writers on Organizations.

    59. Elizabeth Monk-Turner, Daniel O’Leary, and Melvina Sumter, “Factors Shaping Police Retention: Does Herzberg’s Theory of Satisfaction Hold?,” The Police Journal 83, no. 2 (2010): 164–80.

    60. Ibid., 169.

    61. Ibid., 177.

    62. David C. McClelland, “Achievement Motivation Can Be Developed,” Harvard Business Review 43, no. 6 (1965): 6–178; David C. McClelland, “Business Drive and National Achievement,” Harvard Business Review 40, no. 4 (1962): 99–112; David C. McClelland, Human Motivation (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1985); David C. McClelland and David H. Burnham, “Power Is the Great Motivator,” Harvard Business Review 54, no. 2 (1976): 100–110; David C. McClelland, The Achieving Society (Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1961); David C. McClelland, “Toward a Theory of Motive Acquisition,” American Psychologist 20, no. 5 (1965): 321–33.

    63. McClelland, Human Motivation, 228.

    64. McClelland, The Achieving Society, 39.

    65. Ibid., 40; McClelland, “Business Drive and National Achievement.”

    66. McClelland, “Business Drive and National Achievement.”

    67. Ibid.; McClelland, Human Motivation.

    68. McClelland, Human Motivation, 231.

    69. Ibid., 346.

    70. Cherrington, “Work Design,” 41.

    71. Eugene A. Paoline, “Taking Stock: Toward a Richer Understanding of Police Culture,” Journal of Criminal Justice 31, no. 3 (2003): 199–214.

    72. McClelland and Burnham, “Power Is the Great Motivator,” 103.

    73. McClelland, Human Motivation, 280. McClelland argues that some people define motives by behavior.

    74. Shelley A. Kirkpatrick and Edwin A. Locke, “Leadership: Do Traits Matter?,” The Executive 5, no. 2 (1991): 48–60; McClelland and Burnham, “Power Is the Great Motivator.”

    75. Kirkpatrick and Locke, “Leadership.”

    76. Greg Ridgeway et al., Strategies for Improving Officer Recruitment in the San Diego Police Department (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2008); William A. Westley, Violence and the Police: A Sociological Study of Law, Custom, and Morality (Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1970); Michael D. White et al., “Motivations for Becoming a Police Officer: Re-Assessing Officer Attitudes and Job Satisfaction After Six Years on the Street,” Journal of Criminal Justice 38, no. 4 (2010): 520–30.

    77. Kirkpatrick and Locke, “Leadership,” 53.

    78. McClelland, The Achieving Society; McClelland, “Business Drive and National Achievement.”

    79. McClelland, “Toward a Theory of Motive Acquisition.”

    80. Cherrington, “Work Design”; McClelland, “Achievement Motivation Can Be Developed.”

    81. J. Stacy Adams, “Towards an Understanding of Inequity,” The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67, no. 5 (1963): 422–36.

    82. Jason A. Colquitt, Jerald Greenberg, and Cindy P. Zapata-Phelan, “What Is Organizational Justice? A Historical Overview,” in Handbook of Organizational Justice, ed. Jerald Greenberg and Jason A. Colquitt (New York: Psychology Press, 2005), 12.

    83. Adams, “Towards an Understanding of Inequity,” 422.

    84. Elaine Walster, G. William Walster, and Ellen Berscheid, Equity: Theory and Research (Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1978).

    85. Robert D. Pritchard, “Equity Theory: A Review and Critique,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 4, no. 2 (1969): 176–211. Pritchard argued that dissatisfaction may occur whenever inputs exceed outcomes, even without reference to others or past experiences. As he noted, “This dissatisfaction will be directed at the way the person or thing (e.g., company) treats him.”

    86. Adams, “Towards an Understanding of Inequity”; Colquitt, Greenberg, and Zapata-Phelan, “What Is Organizational Justice?”; Morton Deutsch, “Equity, Equality, and Need: What Determines Which Value Will Be Used as the Basis of Distributive Justice?,” Journal of Social Issues 31, no. 3 (1975): 137–49.

    87. George C. Homans, “Social Behavior as Exchange,” American Journal of Sociology 63 (1958): 597–606.

    88. Irving M. Lane and Lawrence A. Messe, “Distribution of Insufficient, Sufficient, and Oversufficient Rewards: A Clarification of Equity Theory,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 21, no. 2 (1972): 228.

    89. Colquitt, Greenberg, and Zapata-Phelan, “What Is Organizational Justice?,” 16.

    90. Adams, “Towards an Understanding of Inequity.”

    91. Leslie B. Buckley, James J. McGinnis, and Michael G. Petrunik, “Police Perceptions of Education as an Entitlement to Promotion: An Equity Theory Perspective,” American Journal of Police 12, no. 2 (1992): 77–100.

    92. Ibid., 88.

    93. Adams, “Towards an Understanding of Inequity.”

    94. Gerald S. Leventhal, “What Should Be Done With Equity Theory?,” in Social Exchange: Advances in Theory and Research, ed. Kenneth J. Gergen, Martin S. Greenberg, and Richard H. Willis (New York: Plenum, 1980), 27–55.

    95. Deutsch, “Equity, Equality, and Need”; Graham F. Wagstaff, “Equity, Equality, and Need: Three Principles of Justice or One? An Analysis of ‘Equity as Desert’,” Current Psychology 13, no. 2 (1994): 138–52.

    96. Deutsch, “Equity, Equality, and Need.”

    97. Ibid., 143.

    98. Jihong Zhao and Nicholas Lovrich, “Collective Bargaining and the Police: The Consequences for Supplemental Compensation Policies in Large Agencies,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management 20 (1997): 508–18.

    99. Leventhal, “What Should Be Done With Equity Theory?”

    100. Yochi Cohen-Charash and Paul E. Spector, “The Role of Justice in Organizations: A Meta-Analysis,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 86, no. 2 (2001): 278–321.

    101. Walster, Walster, and Berscheid, Equity: Theory and Research, 202.

    102. Alexandre Mas, “Pay, Reference Points, and Police Performance,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 121, no. 3 (2006): 783–821.

    103. Ibid., 786.

    104. Adams, “Towards an Understanding of Inequity,” 428. An overpaid individual could also boost inputs in an attempt to justify the extra rewards earned by the referent. In this case, the inequity actually serves to increase productivity to the extent that the inputs reflect performance.

    105. Jerald Greenberg, “Employee Theft as a Reaction to Underpayment Inequity: The Hidden Cost of Pay Cuts,” Journal of Applied Psychology 75, no. 5 (1990): 561–68.

    106. Lane and Messe, “Distribution of Insufficient, Sufficient, and Oversufficient Rewards,” 228.

    107. Greenberg, “Employee Theft as a Reaction to Underpayment Inequity,” 561.

    108. Russell Cropanzano and Robert Folger, “Referent Cognitions and Task Decision Autonomy: Beyond Equity Theory,” Journal of Applied Psychology 74, no. 2 (1989): 293–99; Leventhal, “What Should Be Done With Equity Theory?”; John Thibaut and Laurens Walker, Procedural Justice: A Psychological Analysis (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1975).

    109. Colquitt, Greenberg, and Zapata-Phelan, “What Is Organizational Justice?”

    110. Cropanzano and Folger, “Referent Cognitions and Task Decision Autonomy,” 293.

    111. Thibaut and Walker, Procedural Justice.

    112. Ibid., 69.

    113. Ibid., 70.

    114. Ibid., 73–74.

    115. Colquitt, Greenberg, and Zapata-Phelan, “What Is Organizational Justice?”; E. Allan Lind and Tom R. Tyler, The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice (New York: Plenum, 1988).

    116. Thibaut and Walker, Procedural Justice.

    117. Colquitt, Greenberg, and Zapata-Phelan, “What Is Organizational Justice?,” 22.

    118. John Thibaut and Laurens Walker, “A Theory of Procedure,” California Law Review 66, no. 3 (1978): 541–66.

    119. Ibid., 546.

    120. Jerald Greenberg and Robert Folger, “Procedural Justice, Participation, and the Fair Process Effect in Groups and Organizations,” in Basic Group Processes, ed. Paul B. Paulus (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1983), 235–56.

    121. Ibid., 241; Thibaut and Walker, “A Theory of Procedure.”

    122. Jason A. Colquitt et al., “Justice at the Millennium: A Meta-Analytic Review of 25 Years of Organizational Justice Research,” Journal of Applied Psychology 86, no. 3 (2001): 425–45.

    123. Tom R. Tyler, “Psychological Models of the Justice Motive: Antecedents of Distributive and Procedural Justice,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67, no. 5 (1994): 854.

    124. Leventhal, “What Should Be Done With Equity Theory?,” 40–45.

    125. Geoffrey P. Alpert, Roger G. Dunham, and Meghan S. Stroshine, Policing: Continuity and Change (Long Grove, IL: Waveland, 2006).

    126. Robert J. Bies and Joseph S. Moag, “Interactional Justice: Communication Criteria of Fairness,” in Research on Negotiations in Organizations, ed. Roy J. Lewicki, Blair H. Sheppard, and Max H. Bazerman, vol. 1 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1986), 43–55.

    127. Cohen-Charash and Spector, “The Role of Justice in Organizations.”

    128. Bies and Moag, “Interactional Justice: Communication Criteria of Fairness”; Jason A. Colquitt, “On the Dimensionality of Organizational Justice: A Construct Validation of a Measure,” Journal of Applied Psychology 86, no. 3 (2001): 386–400.

    129. Greenberg, “Employee Theft as a Reaction to Underpayment Inequity.”

    130. Bies and Moag, “Interactional Justice: Communication Criteria of Fairness”; Colquitt, “On the Dimensionality of Organizational Justice.”

    131. Cohen-Charash and Spector, “The Role of Justice in Organizations.”

    132. Donald M. Truxillo et al., “Selection Fairness Information and Applicant Reactions: A Longitudinal Field Study,” Journal of Applied Psychology 87, no. 6 (2002): 1020–31.

    133. Ibid., 1023.

    134. David Chan et al., “Applicant Perceptions of Test Fairness: Integrating Justice and Self-Serving Bias Perspectives,” International Journal of Selection & Assessment 6, no. 4 (1998): 232–39.

    135. Sally A. Carless, “Applicant Reactions to Multiple Selection Procedures for the Police Force,” Applied Psychology: An International Review 55, no. 2 (2006): 145–67.

    136. Mark J. Schmit and Ann Marie Ryan, “Applicant Withdrawal: The Role of Test-Taking Attitudes and Racial Differences,” Personnel Psychology 50, no. 4 (1997): 855–76.

    137. Ibid., 868. The authors also note that roughly 3 percent of African Americans cited perceived hiring practices/minority preferences as a reason for ending the process.

    138. Gabriele Jacobs, Frank D. Belschak, and Deanne N. Den Hartog, “(Un)ethical Behavior and Performance Appraisal: The Role of Affect, Support, and Organizational Justice,” Journal of Business Ethics 121 (2014): 63–76.

    139. Ibid., 71.

    140. Suzanne J. Farmer, Terry A. Beehr, and Kevin G. Love, “Becoming an Undercover Police Officer: A Note on Fairness Perceptions, Behavior, and Attitudes,” Journal of Organizational Behavior 24, no. 4 (2003): 373–87.

    141. Andy Myhill and Ben Bradford, “Overcoming Cop Culture? Organizational Justice and Police Officers’ Attitudes toward the Public,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 36, no. 2 (2013): 338–56.

    142. Tom R. Tyler, Patrick E. Callahan, and Jeffrey Frost, “Armed, and Dangerous (?): Motivating Rule Adherence among Agents of Social Control,” Law and Society Review 41, no. 2 (2007): 457–92.

    143. Scott E. Wolfe and Alex R. Piquero, “Organizational Justice and Police Misconduct,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 38, no. 4 (2011): 332–53. See also Karl Aquino, Margaret U. Lewis, and Murray Bradfield, “Justice Constructs, Negative Affectivity, and Employee Deviance: A Proposed Model and Empirical Test,” Journal of Organizational Behavior 20, no. 7 (1999): 1073–91.

    144. Nace Magner and Gary G. Johnson, “Municipal Officials’ Reactions to Justice in Budgetary Resource Allocation,” Public Administration Quarterly 18, no. 4 (1995): 439–56.

    145. Jason Sunshine and Tom R. Tyler, “The Role of Procedural Justice and Legitimacy in Shaping Public Support for Policing,” Law & Society Review 37, no. 3 (2003): 514. See also Ben Bradford, Kristina Murphy, and Jonathan Jackson, “Officers as Mirrors: Policing, Procedural Justice and the (re)production of Social Identity,” British Journal of Criminology 54, no. 4 (2014): 527–50; Jacinta M. Gau, “Consent Searches as a Threat to Procedural Justice and Police Legitimacy: An Analysis of Consent Requests during Traffic Stops,” Criminal Justice Policy Review 24, no. 6 (2013): 759–77; Jacinta M. Gau and Rod K. Brunson, “Procedural Justice and Order Maintenance Policing: A Study of Inner-City Young Men’s Perceptions of Police Legitimacy,” Justice Quarterly 27, no. 2 (2010): 255–79; Lorraine Green Mazerolle et al., Procedural Justice and Legitimacy in Policing (New York: Springer, 2014); Raymond Paternoster et al., “Do Fair Procedures Matter? The Effect of Procedural Justice on Spouse Assault,” Law & Society Review 31, no. 1 (1997): 163–204; Wesley Skogan and Kathleen Frydl, eds., Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004); William Wells, “Type of Contact and Evaluations of Police Officers: The Effects of Procedural Justice across Three Types of Police-Citizen Contacts,” Journal of Criminal Justice 35, no. 6 (2007): 612–21.

    146. Paternoster et al., “Do Fair Procedures Matter?”

    147. Russell Cropanzano et al., “Moral Virtues, Fairness Heuristics, Social Entities, and Other Denizens of Organizational Justice,” Journal of Vocational Behavior 58, no. 2 (2001): 164–209.

    148. Paternoster et al., “Do Fair Procedures Matter?,” 169.

    149. Joel Brockner and Batia M. Wiesenfeld, “An Integrative Framework for Explaining Reactions to Decisions: Interactive Effects of Outcomes and Procedures,” Psychological Bulletin 120, no. 2 (1996): 189–208.

    150. Edward E. Lawler, Motivation in Work Organizations (Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1973).

    151. Nadler and Lawler, “Motivation: A Diagnostic Approach”; Pinder, “Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory”; Porter and Lawler, Managerial Attitudes and Performance; Vroom, “On the Origins of Expectancy Theory”; Vroom, Work and Motivation.

    152. Vroom, “On the Origins of Expectancy Theory,” 253.

    153. Herbert G. Heneman and Donald P. Schwab, “Evaluation of Research on Expectancy Theory Predictions of Employee Performance,” Psychological Bulletin 78, no. 1 (1972): 1–9; Nadler and Lawler, “Motivation: A Diagnostic Approach”; Pinder, “Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory”; Porter and Lawler, Managerial Attitudes and Performance.

    154. Gary P. Latham, Work Motivation: History, Theory, Research, and Practice (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2007); Pinder, “Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory”; Vroom, “On the Origins of Expectancy Theory.”

    155. Peter Moskos, Cop in the Hood: My Year Policing Baltimore’s Eastern District (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008), 124.

    156. Nadler and Lawler, “Motivation: A Diagnostic Approach”; Pinder, “Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory”; Porter and Lawler, Managerial Attitudes and Performance; Vroom, Work and Motivation.

    157. Edward E. Lawler, “Equity Theory as a Predictor of Productivity and Work Quality,” Psychological Bulletin 70 (1968): 596–610; Porter and Lawler, Managerial Attitudes and Performance.

    158. Vroom, “On the Origins of Expectancy Theory,” 249.

    159. Pinder, “Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory,” 154.

    160. Nadler and Lawler, “Motivation: A Diagnostic Approach”; Pinder, “Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory”; Vroom, “On the Origins of Expectancy Theory”; Vroom, Work and Motivation.

    161. Pinder, “Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory,” 147.

    162. Stephen D. Mastrofski, R. Richard Ritti, and Jeffrey B. Snipes, “Expectancy Theory and Police Productivity in DUI Enforcement,” Law & Society Review 28, no. 1 (1994): 119.

    163. Richard R. Johnson, “Explaining Police Officer Drug Activity through Expectancy Theory,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 32, no. 1 (2009): 6–20; Richard R. Johnson, “Using Expectancy Theory to Explain Officer Security Check Activity,” International Journal of Police Science & Management 11, no. 3 (2009): 274–84; Mastrofski, Ritti, and Snipes, “Expectancy Theory and Police Productivity in DUI Enforcement.”

    164. Nadler and Lawler, “Motivation: A Diagnostic Approach”; Vroom, Work and Motivation.

    165. Heneman and Schwab, “Evaluation of Research on Expectancy Theory Predictions of Employee Performance.” The authors argued that instrumentality is Vroom’s term for what Porter and Lawler later called the performance reward probability. Nadler and Lawler distinguished between the performance outcome and instrumentalities using the distinction made here. They stated, “Some outcomes are valent because they have direct value or attractiveness. Some outcomes, however, have valence because they are seen as leading to (or being “instrumental” for) the attainment of other ‘second level’ outcomes which have direct value or attractiveness.” See Nadler and Lawler, “Motivation: A Diagnostic Approach,” 35.

    166. Pinder, “Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Theory.”

    167. Nadler and Lawler, “Motivation: A Diagnostic Approach.”

    168. Lawler, Motivation in Work Organizations.

    169. Ibid.; Nadler and Lawler, “Motivation: A Diagnostic Approach”; Vroom, Work and Motivation.

    170. Nadler and Lawler, “Motivation: A Diagnostic Approach,” 28.

    171. A valence is stronger as it reaches the extremes, either +1.0 or −1.0. The negative simply suggests a motivation to avoid this outcome, but the motivation is strong nevertheless. Zero represents indifferences.

    172. Ming Singer, “Some Determinants of Police Officers’ Aspirations to Leadership Positions,” Police Studies: The International Review of Police Development 12 (1989): 32–36.

    173. Jacinta M. Gau, William Terrill, and Eugene A. Paoline, “Looking Up: Explaining Police Promotional Aspirations,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 40, no. 3 (2013): 247–69; Kathryn E. Scarborough et al., “An Examination of Police Officers’ Motivation to Participate in the Promotional Process,” Police Quarterly 2, no. 3 (1999): 302–20; Thomas S. Whetstone, “Copping Out: Why Police Officers Decline to Participate in the Sergeant’s Promotional Process,” American Journal of Criminal Justice 25, no. 2 (2001): 147–59. For whatever reason (e.g., contentment), roughly 2.5 percent of the NYPD’s sworn employees hold the rank of police officer after 20 years. Joseph Berger, “Most Police Officers Retire after 20 Years, or Move up the Ranks,” The New York Times, December 13, 2011, sec. N.Y. / Region, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/14/nyregion/most-police-officers-retire-after-20-years-or-move-up-the-ranks.html.

    174. Whetstone, “Copping Out,” 147.

    175. Singer, “Some Determinants of Police Officers’ Aspirations”; Whetstone, “Copping Out.”

    176. Scarborough et al., “An Examination of Police Officers’ Motivation”; Whetstone, “Copping Out.”

    177. Larry K. Gaines, Norman Van Tubergen, and Michael A. Paiva, “Police Officer Perceptions of Promotion as a Source of Motivation,” Journal of Criminal Justice 12 (1984): 265–75.

    178. Singer, “Some Determinants of Police Officers’ Aspirations,” 33.

    179. Gau, Terrill, and Paoline, “Looking Up: Explaining Police Promotional Aspirations.”

    180. Dejong, Mastrofski, and Parks, “Patrol Officers and Problem Solving”; Johnson, “Explaining Police Officer Drug Activity through Expectancy Theory”; Richard R. Johnson, “Making Domestic Violence Arrests: A Test of Expectancy Theory,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 33, no. 3 (2010): 531–47; Richard R. Johnson, “Management Influences on Officer Traffic Enforcement Productivity,” International Journal of Police Science & Management 8, no. 3 (2006): 205–17; Johnson, “Using Expectancy Theory to Explain Officer Security Check Activity”; Mastrofski, Ritti, and Snipes, “Expectancy Theory and Police Productivity in DUI Enforcement.”

    181. Mastrofski, Ritti, and Snipes, “Expectancy Theory and Police Productivity in DUI Enforcement.”

    182. Gregory M. Vecchi and Robert T. Sigler, “Economic Factors in Drug Law Enforcement Decisions,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 24, no. 3 (2001): 310–30.

    183. Johnson, “Explaining Police Officer Drug Activity through Expectancy Theory.”

    184. Johnson, “Making Domestic Violence Arrests”; Johnson, “Management Influences on Officer Traffic Enforcement Productivity”; Johnson, “Using Expectancy Theory to Explain Officer Security Check Activity.”

    185. Fred C. Lunenburg, “Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Motivating by Altering Expectations,” International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration 15, no. 1 (2011): 1–6.

    186. J. Richard Hackman, “Work Design,” in Motivation and Work Behavior, ed. Richard M. Steers and Lyman W. Porter, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill Series in Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991), 419–20.

    187. J. Richard Hackman and Greg R. Oldham, Work Redesign (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980).

    188. Ibid., 72–73; J. Richard Hackman et al., “A New Strategy for Job Enrichment,” California Management Review 17, no. 4 (1975): 58.

    189. Jay A. Conger and Rabindra N. Kanungo, “The Empowerment Process: Integrating Theory and Practice,” Academy of Management Review 13, no. 3 (1988): 471–82; Hackman and Oldham, Work Redesign; Paul E. Spector, “Behavior in Organizations as a Function of Employee’s Locus of Control.,” Psychological Bulletin 91, no. 3 (1982): 482–97.

    190. Hackman and Oldham, Work Redesign.

    191. Charles W. Sherwood, “Job Design, Community Policing, and Higher Education: A Tale of Two Cities,” Police Quarterly 3, no. 2 (2000): 191–212.

    192. Ibid., 207.

    193. M. Bjork, “Fighting Cynicism: Some Reflections on Self-Motivation in Police Work,” Police Quarterly 11, no. 1 (2008): 92.

    194. Hackman and Oldham, Work Redesign.

    195. Sherwood, “Job Design, Community Policing, and Higher Education.” Note that the difference between officers and detectives was greater in one department than in another, perhaps due to department policies, procedures, and operations.

    196. Holly A. Miller, Scott Mire, and Bitna Kim, “Predictors of Job Satisfaction among Police Officers: Does Personality Matter?,” Journal of Criminal Justice 37, no. 5 (2009): 419–26; Michael D. Reiner and Jihong Zhao, “The Determinants of Job Satisfaction among United States Air Force Security Police: A Test of Rival Theoretical Predictive Models,” Review of Public Personnel Administration 19, no. 3 (1999): 5–18; Jihong Zhao, Quint Thurman, and Ni He, “Sources of Job Satisfaction among Police Officers: A Test of Demographic and Work Environment Models,” Justice Quarterly 16, no. 1 (1999): 153–73.

    197. Reiner and Zhao, “The Determinants of Job Satisfaction.”

    198. Jihong Zhao, Ni He, and Nicholas Lovrich, “Predicting Five Dimensions of Police Officer Stress: Looking More Deeply into Organizational Settings for Sources of Police Stress,” Police Quarterly 5, no. 1 (2002): 43–62.

    199. Kane, “Permanent Beat Assignments,” 273.

    200. James Queally and David Giambusso, “More Than 200 Newark Police Officers May Face Layoffs Due to $16.7M Budget Shortfall,” NJ.com, July 15, 2010, http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2010/07/more_than_200_newark_police_of.html.

    201. James Queally, “Newark Police Union Rejects Deal Proposed by City to Avoid Layoffs,” NJ.com, November 23, 2010, http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2010/11/newark_police_union_rejects_de.html; Queally and Giambusso, “More Than 200 Newark Police Officers May Face Layoffs.”

    202. Police Executive Research Forum, Is the Economic Downturn Fundamentally Changing How We Police? (Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum, 2010).

    203. Alexi Friedman, “Newark Police Officers Facing Layoffs Express Displeasure with Union Leaders,” NJ.com, November 17, 2010, http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2010/11/newark_officers_facing_layoff.html.

    204. Alexi Friedman and James Queally, “Facing Layoffs, Newer Newark Police Officers Protest Union’s Favorable Treatment of Senior Officers,” NJ.com, November 18, 2010, para. 2, http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2010/11/facing_layoffs_young_newark_po.html.

    205. James Queally and Alexi Friedman, “Newark Finalizes 167 Police Layoffs after Union Refuses Booker’s Plea to Return to Negotiating Table,” NJ.com, November 30, 2010, http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2010/11/union_head_expects_167_newark.html.

    206. James Queally, “After Heavy Police Layoffs in 2010, Arrests Plunged in Newark and Camden in 2011,” NJ.com, May 1, 2012, http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2012/05/after_heavy_police_layoffs_in.html.

    207. James Queally and Chris Megerian, “Gov. Christie Signs Bill Easing Transition Into New Jobs for Laid-off Rookie Police Officers,” NJ.com, December 10, 2010, para. 2, http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2010/12/gov_christie_signs_bill_easing.html.

    208. Tom Haydon, “Southern Cities Hope to Recruit Officers From Pool of Recently Axed N.J. Police,” NJ.com, December 10, 2010, http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2010/12/southern_cities_hope_to_recrui.html.

    209. James Queally, “Newark Police Department Welcome 51 Recruits to First Academy Class Since 2010 Layoffs,” NJ.com, April 1, 2014, http://www.nj.com/essex/index.ssf/2014/04/newark_police_welcome_51_cops_to_citys_first_academy_class_after_layoffs.html.

    210. Joel Brockner et al., “Layoffs, Equity Theory, and Work Performance: Further Evidence of the Impact of Survivor Guilt,” Academy of Management Journal 29, no. 2 (1986): 373–84.

    Chapter 6

    1. Jena McGregor, “FBI Director James Comey’s Unprecedented Speech on Race,” The Washington Post, February 13, 2015, http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/on-leadership/wp/2015/02/13/fbi-director-james-comeys-unprecedented-speech-on-race/.

    2. James B. Comey, “Hard Truths: Law Enforcement and Race,” FBI, February 12, 2015, https://www.fbi.gov/news/speeches/hard-truths-law-enforcement-and-race.

    3. Ibid.

    4. David A. Graham, “What the FBI Chief Got Right—and Wrong—About Race and Police,” The Atlantic, February 13, 2015, http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2015/02/FBI-Director-James-Comey-georgetown-speech-race-police/385458/; Alice Speri, “FBI Director Talks ‘Hard Truths’ in Bureau’s First-Ever Speech on Race and Policing,” VICE News, February 12, 2015, https://news.vice.com/article/fbi-director-talks-hard-truths-in-bureaus-first-ever-speech-on-race-and-policing.

    5. Michael S. Schmidt, “F.B.I. Director to Give Speech Addressing Relations Between Police and Blacks,” The New York Times, February 11, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/12/us/fbi-director-to-give-speech-addressing-relations-between-police-and-blacks.html.

    6. Bernard M. Bass, Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Application, 3rd ed. (New York: Free Press, 1990).

    7. Ibid., 11–18.

    8. Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, 4th ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2007), 3.

    9. Gary Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 3rd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994).

    10. Bass, Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership, 15.

    11. Lyman W. Porter, Edward E. Lawler, and J. Richard Hackman, Behavior in Organizations (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975).

    12. Ibid., 430.

    13. Porter, Lawler, and Hackman, Behavior in Organizations; Yukl, Leadership in Organizations.

    14. Northouse, Leadership.

    15. Janet Vinzant and Lane Crothers, “Street-Level Leadership: The Role of Patrol Officers in Community Policing,” Criminal Justice Review 19, no. 2 (1994): 189–211; Janet Coble Vinzant and Lane Crothers, Street-Level Leadership: Discretion and Legitimacy in Front-Line Public Service (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1998).

    16. Mitchell Pearson-Goff and Victoria Herrington, “Police Leadership: A Systematic Review of the Literature,” Policing 8, no. 1 (2014): 18–19.

    17. Elliott Jaques, “The Development of Intellectual Capability: A Discussion of Stratified Systems Theory,” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 22, no. 4 (1986): 361–83; Elliott Jaques, “In Praise of Hierarchy,” Harvard Business Review 61, no. 1 (1990): 127–33.

    18. Jaques, “In Praise of Hierarchy,” 130.

    19. Elliott Jaques, Time-Span Handbook (London: Heinemann, 1964).

    20. T. Owen Jacobs and Philip Lewis, “Leadership Requirements in Stratified Systems,” in Strategic Leadership: A Multiorganizational-Level Perspective, ed. Robert L. Phillips and James G. Hunt (Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1992), 20.

    21. Patricia Buhler, “Leaders vs. Managers,” Supervision 56, no. 5 (1995): 24–26; David Fagiano, “Managers vs. Leaders: A Corporate Fable,” Management Review 86, no. 10 (1997): 5; John P. Kotter, A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs From Management (New York: Free Press, 1990); John P. Kotter, “What Leaders Really Do,” Harvard Business Review 68, no. 3 (1990): 103–11.

    22. Kotter, A Force for Change; Kotter, “What Leaders Really Do.”

    23. Buhler, “Leaders vs. Managers”; John W. Gardner, “The Tasks of Leadership,” NASSP Bulletin 72, no. 510 (October 1, 1988): 77.

    24. Kotter, A Force for Change.

    25. Luther Gulick, “Notes on the Theory of Organization,” in Papers on the Science of Administration, ed. Luther Gulick et al. (New York: Institute of Public Administration, 1937), 3.

    26. Fagiano, “Managers vs. Leaders,” 5.

    27. Buhler, “Leaders vs. Managers”; Kotter, A Force for Change; Gary Yukl, “Managerial Leadership: A Review of Theory and Research,” Journal of Management 15, no. 2 (June 1, 1989): 251–89.

    28. James J. Willis et al., Compstat and Organizational Change in the Lowell Police Department: Challenges and Opportunities (Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 2003), 9.

    29. Ibid., 10.

    30. Eli Lehrer, “The Police Behind America’s Biggest Crime Drop,” The Heritage Foundation, 2001, http://www.heritage.org/research/commentary/2001/03/the-police-behind-americas-biggest-crime-drop.

    31. Willis et al., Compstat and Organizational Change, 54.

    32. John W. Gardner, “The Nature of Leadership,” in Jossey-Bass Reader on Educational Leadership, ed. Michael Fullan (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000), 6.

    33. Willis et al., Compstat and Organizational Change, 54.

    34. Alan Bryman, “Leadership in Organizations,” in Managing Organizations: Current Issues, ed. Stewart R. Clegg, Cynthia Hardy, and Walter R. Nord (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999), 26.

    35. Bryman, “Leadership in Organizations.”

    36. Arthur G. Jago, “Leadership: Perspectives in Theory and Research.” Management Science 28, no. 3 (1982): 315–36.

    37. Bryman, “Leadership in Organizations”; Jago, “Leadership.”

    38. Bryman, “Leadership in Organizations.”

    39. Ibid.; Jago, “Leadership.”

    40. Jago, “Leadership,” 317.

    41. Bass, Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership; Edgar F. Borgatta, Robert F. Bales, and Arthur S. Couch, “Some Findings Relevant to the Great Man Theory of Leadership,” American Sociological Review 19, no. 6 (1954): 755–59; M. R. Haberfeld, Police Leadership: Organizational and Managerial Decision Making Process, 2nd ed. (Boston: Pearson, 2013); Northouse, Leadership.

    42. W. H. Cowley, “Three Distinctions in the Study of Leaders,” The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 23, no. 2 (1928): 144–57; W. H. Cowley, “The Traits of Face-to-Face Leaders,” The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 26, no. 3 (1931): 304–13.

    43. Cowley, “The Traits of Face-to-Face Leaders,” 310.

    44. Cowley, “The Traits of Face-to-Face Leaders.”

    45. Michael Josiah Arnatt and Michael M. Beyerlein, “An Empirical Examination of Special Operations Team Leaders’ and Members’ Leadership Characteristics,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 37, no. 2 (2014): 438–53.

    46. Stephen J. Zaccaro, “Trait-Based Perspectives of Leadership,” American Psychologist 62, no. 1 (2007): 6.

    47. Bryman, “Leadership in Organizations”; Haberfeld, Police Leadership.

    48. Shelley A. Kirkpatrick and Edwin A. Locke, “Leadership: Do Traits Matter?,” The Executive 5, no. 2 (May 1, 1991): 59.

    49. Kirkpatrick and Locke, “Leadership”; Zaccaro, “Trait-Based Perspectives on Leadership.”

    50. Northouse, Leadership.

    51. Ralph M. Stogdill, “Personal Factors Associated With Leadership: A Survey of the Literature,” Journal of Psychology 25 (1948): 66.

    52. William O. Jenkins, “A Review of Leadership Studies With Particular Reference to Military Problems,” Psychological Bulletin 44, no. 1 (1947): 54–79.

    53. Bass, Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership, 78.

    54. Jago, “Leadership”; Robert G. Lord, Christy L. De Vader, and George M. Alliger, “A Meta-Analysis of the Relation Between Personality Traits and Leadership Perceptions: An Application of Validity Generalization Procedures,” Journal of Applied Psychology 71, no. 3 (1986): 402–10.

    55. Bass, Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership, 50.

    56. John Dobby, Jane Anscombe, and Rachel Tuffin, Police Leadership: Expectations and Impact (United Kingdom: Home Office, 2004).

    57. Ibid., 16.

    58. Joseph A. Schafer, “The Ineffective Police Leader: Acts of Commission and Omission,” Journal of Criminal Justice 38, no. 4 (2010): 737–46.

    59. Bobby J. Calder, “An Attribution Theory of Leadership,” in New Directions in Organizational Behavior, ed. Barry M. Staw and Gerald R. Salancik (Chicago: St. Clair Press, 1977), 179–204.

    60. John K. Hemphill and Alvin E. Coons, “Development of the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire,” in Leader Behavior: Its Description and Measurement, ed. Ralph M. Stogdill and Alvin E. Coons (Columbus: The Ohio State University, Bureau of Business Research, 1957), 6–38; Carroll L. Shartle, “Introduction,” in Leader Behavior: Its Description and Measurement, ed. Ralph M. Stogdill and Alvin E. Coons (Columbus: The Ohio State University, Bureau of Business Research, 1957), 1–5.

    61. Hemphill and Coons, “Development of the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire.”

    62. Ralph M. Stogdill and Coons, eds., Leader Behavior: Its Description and Measurement (Columbus: The Ohio State University, Bureau of Business Research, 1957), 153–62.

    63. Hemphill and Coons, “Development of the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire.”

    64. Andrew W. Halpin and B. James Winer, “A Factorial Study of the Leader Behavior Descriptions,” in Leader Behavior: Its Description and Measurement, ed. Ralph M. Stogdill and Alvin E. Coons (Columbus: The Ohio State University, Bureau of Business Research, 1957), 39–51.

    65. Ibid., 42–43.

    66. Northouse, Leadership, 71.

    67. Jago, “Leadership.”

    68. Halpin and Winer, “A Factorial Study of the Leader Behavior Descriptions,” 42.

    69. Bryman, “Leadership in Organizations”; Jago, “Leadership.”

    70. Rensis Likert, New Patterns of Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961); Robert L. Kahn and Daniel Katz, “Leadership Practices in Relation to Productivity and Morale,” in Group Dynamics: Research and Theory, ed. Dorwin Cartwright and Alvin Zander, 2nd ed. (Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson, and Company, 1960), 554–70.

    71. Sergio Fernandez, “Examining the Effects of Leadership Behavior on Employee Perceptions of Performance and Job Satisfaction,” Public Performance & Management Review 32, no. 2 (2008): 178–79.

    72. Likert, New Patterns of Management; Kahn and Katz, “Leadership Practices in Relation to Productivity and Morale.”

    73. Kahn and Katz, “Leadership Practices in Relation to Productivity and Morale.”

    74. Likert, New Patterns of Management, 8; see also David G. Bowers and Stanley E. Seashore, “Predicting Organizational Effectiveness With a Four-Factor Theory of Leadership,” Administrative Science Quarterly 11, no. 2 (1966): 238–63.

    75. Dorwin Cartwright and Alvin Zander, “Leadership and Performance of Group Functions: Introduction,” in Group Dynamics: Research and Theory, ed. Doris Cartwright and Alvin Zander, 3rd ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 1968); Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt, “How to Choose a Leadership Pattern,” Harvard Business Review 36, no. 2 (1958): 95–101.

    76. Robert R. Blake and Jane Srygley Mouton, The Managerial Grid: Key Orientations for Achieving Production Through People (Houston: Gulf, 1964); Robert R. Blake and Jane Srygley Mouton, The New Managerial Grid (Houston: Gulf, 1978). Hersey and Blanchard argued that managerial grid dimensions represent attitudes rather than actual behaviors (concern rather than actual activities). That said, they acknowledge that many people assume that behaviors flow from these attitudes. See Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard, “Life Cycle Theory of Leadership,” Training and Development Journal 23 (1969): 28.

    77. Blake and Mouton, The Managerial Grid.

    78. Robert R. Blake et al., “Breakthrough in Organization Development,” Harvard Business Review 42 (1964): 133–55.

    79. Blake and Mouton, The Managerial Grid, 10.

    80. Ibid., 11.

    81. Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 63.

    82. Blake and Mouton, The New Managerial Grid, 12.

    83. Northouse, Leadership.

    84. Jack L. Kuykendall, “Police Leadership: An Analysis of Executive Styles,” Criminal Justice Review 2 (1977): 89–101.

    85. Arthur P. Brief, Ramon J. Aldag, and Richard A. Wallden, “Correlates of Supervisory Style Among Policemen,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 3, no. 3 (1976): 263–71.

    86. Ibid.; Arthur P. Brief et al., “Leader Behavior in a Police Organization Revisited,” Human Relations 34, no. 12 (1981): 1037–51.

    87. Robin Shepard Engel, “The Effects of Supervisory Styles on Patrol Officer Behavior,” Police Quarterly 3, no. 3 (2000): 262–93; Robin Shepard Engel, How Police Supervisor Styles Influence Patrol Officer Behavior (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2003).

    88. Engel, “The Effects of Supervisory Styles on Patrol Officer Behavior.”

    89. Engel, How Police Supervisor Styles Influence Patrol Officer Behavior, 3.

    90. Robin Shepard Engel, “Patrol Officer Supervision in the Community Policing Era,” Journal of Criminal Justice 30, no. 1 (2002): 51–64.

    91. Ibid., 55.

    92. Engel, How Police Supervisor Styles Influence Patrol Officer Behavior, 6.

    93. Engel, “The Effects of Supervisory Styles on Patrol Officer Behavior,” 284.

    94. Bryman, “Leadership in Organizations.”

    95. Chester Schriesheim and Steven Kerr, “Psychometric Properties of the Ohio State Leadership Scales,” Psychological Bulletin 81, no. 11 (1974): 756–65.

    96. Michael C. Rush, Jay C. Thomas, and Robert G. Lord, “Implicit Leadership Theory: A Potential Threat to the Internal Validity of Leader Behavior Questionnaires,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 20, no. 1 (1977): 93–110.

    97. L. L. Larson, J. G. Hunt, and R. N. Osborn, “The Great Hi-Hi Leader Behavior Myth: A Lesson From Occam’s Razor,” The Academy of Management Journal 19, no. 4 (1976): 628; see also Northouse, Leadership.

    98. Northouse, Leadership, 79.

    99. Jago, “Leadership.”

    100. Fred E. Fiedler, “Engineer the Job to Fit the Manager,” Harvard Business Review 43, no. 5 (1965): 115–22.

    101. Fred E. Fiedler, “Predicting the Effects of Leadership Training and Experience From the Contingency Model,” Journal of Applied Psychology 56, no. 2 (1972): 114–19.

    102. Jago, “Leadership.”

    103. Fiedler, “Engineer the Job to Fit the Manager,” 116.

    104. Fred E. Fiedler, A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967), 41.

    105. Ibid., 44.

    106. Jago, “Leadership,” 322.

    107. Bass, Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership; Robert W. Rice, “Construct Validity of the Least Preferred Co-Worker Score,” Psychological Bulletin 85, no. 6 (1978): 1199–1237.

    108. Fiedler, “Engineer the Job to Fit the Manager”; Fiedler, A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.

    109. Fiedler, A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness, 25.

    110. Fiedler, A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.

    111. Ibid., 29.

    112. Fiedler, “Engineer the Job to Fit the Manager,” 119.

    113. Fiedler, A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness; Northouse, Leadership.

    114. Bryman, “Leadership in Organizations”; Fiedler, “Engineer the Job to Fit the Manager”; Jago, “Leadership.”

    115. Fiedler, “Predicting the Effects of Leadership Training.”

    116. Ibid.

    117. Ibid.

    118. Fiedler, “Engineer the Job to Fit the Manager.”

    119. Ibid., 122.

    120. Northouse, Leadership.

    121. Bass, Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership, 507.

    122. For meta-analyses, see Lawrence H. Peters, Darrell D. Hartke, and John T. Pohlmann, “Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership: An Application of the Meta-Analysis Procedures of Schmidt and Hunter,” Psychological Bulletin 97, no. 2 (1985): 274–85; Michael J. Strube and Joseph E. Garcia, “A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness,” Psychological Bulletin 90, no. 2 (1981): 307–21.

    123. Bass, Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership, 494.

    124. Hersey and Blanchard, “Life Cycle Theory of Leadership.”

    125. Ibid.; Paul Hersey, Kenneth H. Blanchard, and Dewey E. Johnson, Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996).

    126. Bass, Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership; Hersey, Blanchard, and Johnson, Management of Organizational Behavior.

    127. Hersey and Blanchard, “Life Cycle Theory of Leadership”; Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard, “So You Want to Know Your Leadership Style?,” Training and Development Journal 28, no. 2 (1974): 22–37.

    128. Kenneth H. Blanchard and Paul Hersey, “Great Ideas Revisited,” Training & Development 50, no. 1 (1996): 45.

    129. Hersey, Blanchard, and Johnson, Management of Organizational Behavior, 191.

    130. Hersey, Blanchard, and Johnson, Management of Organizational Behavior; Northouse, Leadership.

    131. Hersey, Blanchard, and Johnson, Management of Organizational Behavior.

    132. Ibid., 204.

    133. Hersey, Blanchard, and Johnson, Management of Organizational Behavior.

    134. Hersey and Blanchard, “So You Want to Know Your Leadership Style?”

    135. Jack Kuykendall and Peter C. Unsinger, “The Leadership Styles of Police Managers,” Journal of Criminal Justice 10, no. 4 (1982): 311–21.

    136. Ibid., 318.

    137. Hersey and Blanchard, “Life Cycle Theory of Leadership,” 30.

    138. Kuykendall and Unsinger, “The Leadership Styles of Police Managers.”

    139. Jack Kuykendall and Roy R. Roberg, “Police Manager’s Perceptions of Employee Types: A Conceptual Model,” Journal of Criminal Justice 16, no. 2 (1988): 131–37.

    140. Claude L. Graeff, “The Situational Leadership Theory: A Critical View,” The Academy of Management Review 8, no. 2 (1983): 287.

    141. Ibid., 288.

    142. Northouse, Leadership.

    143. Graeff, “The Situational Leadership Theory,” 290.

    144. James MacGregor Burns, Leadership (New York: Harper & Row, 1978).

    145. Karl W. Kuhnert and Philip Lewis, “Transactional and Transformational Leadership: A Constructive/Developmental Analysis,” The Academy of Management Review 12, no. 4 (1987): 648–57.

    146. Bernard M. Bass, “Leadership: Good, Better, Best,” Organizational Dynamics 13, no. 3 (1985): 26–40.

    147. Bruce J. Avolio, Full Range Leadership Development, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2011); Bernard M. Bass, “From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision,” Organizational Dynamics 18, no. 3 (1990): 19–31.

    148. Bass, “From Transactional to Transformational Leadership.”

    149. Avolio, Full Range Leadership Development.

    150. Bass, “From Transactional to Transformational Leadership.”

    151. Burns, Leadership, 20.

    152. Bernard M. Bass, Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations (New York: Free Press, 1985).

    153. Ibid., 47.

    154. Bass, “Leadership: Good, Better, Best.”

    155. Northouse, Leadership.

    156. Bass, Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations.

    157. Ibid., 99.

    158. Bass, “Leadership: Good, Better, Best.”

    159. Steven A. Murphy and Edward N. Drodge, “The Four I’s of Police Leadership: A Case Study Heuristic,” International Journal of Police Science & Management 6, no. 1 (2004): 12.

    160. Burns, Leadership.

    161. Avolio, Full Range Leadership Development; Timothy A. Judge and Ronald F. Piccolo, “Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analytic Test of Their Relative Validity.,” Journal of Applied Psychology 89, no. 5 (2004): 755–68.

    162. Bruce J. Avolio and Bernard M. Bass, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire: Manual and Sample Set, 3rd ed. (Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden, 2004).

    163. Northouse, Leadership, 203.

    164. Ming S. Singer and Alan E. Singer, “Situational Constraints on Transformational Versus Transactional Leadership Behavior, Subordinates’ Leadership Preference, and Satisfaction,” Journal of Social Psychology 130, no. 3 (1990): 385–96.

    165. Ibid., 390.

    166. Iain L. Densten, “Senior Australian Law Enforcement Leadership Under Examination,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 22, no. 1 (1999): 45–57.

    167. Ibid., 52.

    168. Mary B. Sarver and Holly Miller, “Police Chief Leadership: Styles and Effectiveness,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 37, no. 1 (2014): 126–43.

    169. Viviana Andreescu and Gennaro F. Vito, “An Exploratory Study on Ideal Leadership Behaviour: The Opinions of American Police Managers,” International Journal of Police Science & Management 12, no. 4 (2010): 567–83; Sarver and Miller, “Police Chief Leadership.”

    170. Isla Campbell and Jenny Kodz, What Makes Great Police Leadership? Rapid Evidence Assessment (London: National Policing Improvement Agency, 2011). See also Dobby, Anscombe, and Tuffin, Police Leadership; Joseph Schwarzwald, Meni Koslowsky, and Vardit Agassi, “Captain’s Leadership Type and Police Officers’ Compliance to Power Bases,” European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 10, no. 3 (2001): 273–90.

    171. Bass, “From Transactional to Transformational Leadership.”

    172. Northouse, Leadership.

    173. John Van Maanen, “Making Rank: Becoming an American Police Sergeant,” Urban Life 13, no. 2–3 (1984): 159.

    174. James Hogan, Craig Bennell, and Alyssa Taylor, “The Challenges of Moving Into Middle Management: Responses From Police Officers,” Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology 26, no. 2 (2011): 100–111.

    175. Stephen E. Ruegger, “National Academy, Federal Bureau of Investigation,” ed. Dorothy Moses Schulz, Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005).

    176. “The National Academy,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, n.d., https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/training/national-academy.

    177. “About NUCPS,” Northwestern University Center for Public Safety, n.d., http://sps.northwestern.edu/program-areas/public-safety/about-nucps.asp.

    178. David A. McCandless, “Southern Police Institute at the University of Louisville,” Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science 42 (1951): 108.

    179. Sean E. Moriarty, “The Leadership in Police Organizations Program in the Delaware State Police: Recommendations for Law Enforcement Leadership Development,” Police Chief 76, no. 5 (2009): 20–21, 23–27, 29.

    180. John T. Krimmel and Paul Lindenmuth, “Police Chief Performance and Leadership Styles,” Police Quarterly 4, no. 4 (2001): 469–83.

    181. Michael Rowe, “Following the Leader: Front Line Narratives on Police Leadership,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 29, no. 4 (2006): 765.

    182. An archived copy of the announcement is available on the site for the Wisconsin Chiefs of Police Association, http://www.wichiefs.org/uploads/content/news/PoliceChief2015_Kenosha.pdf.

    Chapter 7

    1. University of California Police Department, Berkeley, “Crowd Management Policy” (Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley, 2012).

    2. Seattle Police Department, “Seattle Police Department After Action Report” (Seattle, WA: Seattle Police Department, 2000).

    3. California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training, POST Guidelines: Crowd Management, Intervention, and Control (West Sacramento: California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training, 2012); International Association of Chiefs of Police, Model Policy on Crowd Management and Control (Alexandria, VA: International Association of Chiefs of Police, 2014); University of California Police Department, Berkeley, “Crowd Management Policy.”

    4. Seattle Police Department, “Seattle Police Department After Action Report,” 18.

    5. International Association of Chiefs of Police, Model Policy on Crowd Management and Control.

    6. California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training, POST Guidelines; International Association of Chiefs of Police, Model Policy on Crowd Management and Control.

    7. Haley Draznin, “New York Settles With 2004 Republican Convention Protesters,” CNN, January 16, 2014, http://www.cnn.com/2014/01/15/politics/new-york-republican-convention-settlement/index.html; Jim Dwyer, “Four Years Later, Still Sorting Fallout of Republican Convention,” The New York Times, September 6, 2008, sec. New York Region, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/06/nyregion/06about.html.

    8. Samuel Walker, A Critical History of Police Reform: The Emergence of Professionalism (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1977), 7.

    9. Joseph Goldstein, “Police Discretion Not to Invoke the Criminal Process: Low-Visibility Decisions in the Administration of Justice,” The Yale Law Journal 69, no. 4 (1960): 543–94.

    10. Bertram H. Raven, “Political Applications of the Psychology of Interpersonal Influence and Social Power,” Political Psychology 11, no. 3 (1990): 493–520.

    11. Ibid., 511.

    12. Richard J. Lundman, “Organizational Norms and Police Discretion,” Criminology 17, no. 2 (August 1, 1979): 159–71.

    13. James MacGregor Burns, Leadership (New York: Harper & Row, 1978), 18.

    14. Robert A. Dahl, “The Concept of Power,” Behavioral Science 2, no. 3 (1957): 202–3.

    15. Gilbert W. Fairholm, Organizational Power Politics: Tactics in Organizational Leadership (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993), 7.

    16. Richard M. Emerson, “Power-Dependence Relations,” American Sociological Review 27, no. 1 (1962): 31–41; Fairholm, Organizational Power Politics; W. Richard Scott and Gerald F. Davis, Organizations and Organizing: Rational, Natural, and Open System Perspectives (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2007).

    17. Fairholm, Organizational Power Politics.

    18. Ibid., 9.

    19. Fairholm, Organizational Power Politics.

    20. Fairholm, Organizational Power Politics; Max Weber, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, trans. H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946).

    21. Tom R. Tyler, “Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and the Effective Rule of Law,” Crime and Justice 30 (2003): 283–357.

    22. Ibid., 290.

    23. Fairholm, Organizational Power Politics; Scott and Davis, Organizations and Organizing.

    24. Peter Moskos, Cop in the Hood: My Year Policing Baltimore’s Eastern District (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008).

    25. Jon K. Maner and Nicole L. Mead, “The Essential Tension Between Leadership and Power: When Leaders Sacrifice Group Goals for the Sake of Self-Interest,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 99, no. 3 (2010): 482–97; David C. McClelland, Power: The Inner Experience (New York: Irvington, 1975).

    26. Greg Ridgeway et al., Strategies for Improving Officer Recruitment in the San Diego Police Department (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2008).

    27. McClelland, Power, 258.

    28. Mary Parker Follett, “Power,” in Dynamic Administration: The Collected Papers of Mary Parker Follett, ed. Henry C. Metcalf and L. Urwick (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1941).

    29. Chester Barnard, The Functions of the Executive, 30th Anniversary Ed. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968); Peter M. Blau and W. Richard Scott, Formal Organizations: A Comparative Approach (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1962); John R. P. French and Bertram Raven, “The Bases of Social Power,” in Studies in Social Power, ed. Doris Cartwright (Ann Arbor: Research Center for Group Dynamics, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1959), 150–67.

    30. Max Weber, From Max Weber.

    31. Barnard, The Functions of the Executive, 169.

    32. Barnard, The Functions of the Executive.

    33. Jason Sunshine and Tom R. Tyler, “The Role of Procedural Justice and Legitimacy in Shaping Public Support for Policing,” Law & Society Review 37, no. 3 (2003): 513–48; Tyler, “Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and the Effective Rule of Law.”

    34. Bernard M. Bass, Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Application, 3rd ed. (New York: Free Press, 1990); Fairholm, Organizational Power Politics; Meni Koslowsky and Joseph Schwarzwald, “The Power Interaction Model: Theory, Methodology, and Empirical Applications,” in The Use and Abuse of Power, ed. Annette Y. Lee-Chai and John A. Bargh (Philadelphia: Psychology Press, 2001), 195–214; Henry Mintzberg, Power In and Around Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1983); Bertram H. Raven, “The Bases of Power: Origins and Recent Developments,” Journal of Social Issues 49, no. 4 (1993): 227–51.

    35. Bass, Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership, 227; Mintzberg, Power In and Around Organizations, 25.

    36. Gary Yukl, Patricia J. Guinan, and Debra Soitolano, “Influence Tactics Used for Different Objectives With Subordinates, Peers, and Superiors,” Group & Organization Management 20, no. 3 (1995): 272–96.

    37. Ibid.

    38. Ben J. M. Emans et al., “Constructive Consequences of Leaders’ Forcing Influence Styles” 52, no. 1 (2003): 37.

    39. Fred E. Fiedler, “Engineer the Job to Fit the Manager,” Harvard Business Review 43, no. 5 (1965): 115–22; Fred E. Fiedler, A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967).

    40. Kenneth F. Janda, “Towards an Explication of the Concept of Leadership in Terms of the Concept of Power,” in Political Leadership: Readings for an Emerging Field, ed. Glenn D. Paige (New York: Free Press, 1972), 45–68.

    41. Edwin P. Hollander and Lynn R. Offermann, “Power and Leadership in Organizations: Relationships in Transition,” American Psychologist, Organizational Psychology, 45, no. 2 (1990): 179–89; Janda, “Towards an Explication of the Concept.”

    42. Arthur G. Jago, “Leadership: Perspectives in Theory and Research,” Management Science 28, no. 3 (1982): 316.

    43. Janda, “Towards an Explication of the Concept.”

    44. Burns, Leadership; Janda, “Towards an Explication of the Concept”; Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge, Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2008).

    45. “Ousted Miami Police Chief Exposito Loses Termination Appeal,” CBS Miami, accessed November 4, 2015, http://miami.cbslocal.com/2012/06/27/ousted-miami-police-chief-exposito-loses-termination-appeal/.

    46. Bertram H. Raven, Joseph Schwarzwald, and Meni Koslowsky, “Conceptualizing and Measuring a Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 28, no. 4 (1998): 307.

    47. French and Raven, “The Bases of Social Power,” 40.

    48. See, for example, Bernard M. Bass, Leadership, Psychology, and Organizational Behavior (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1960); Gary Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 3rd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994); Gary Yukl and Cecilia M. Falbe, “Importance of Different Power Sources in Downward and Lateral Relations,” Journal of Applied Psychology 76, no. 3 (1991): 416–23.

    49. Bass, Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership.

    50. French and Raven, “The Bases of Social Power.”

    51. Jeffrey M. Prottas, “The Power of the Street-Level Bureaucrat in Public Service Bureaucracies,” Urban Affairs Review 13 (1978): 285–312.

    52. Larry L. Tifft, “Control Systems, Social Bases of Power and Power Exercise in Police Organizations,” in Policing: A View From the Street, ed. Peter K. Manning and John Van Maanen (Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear, 1978), 98.

    53. Cara Rabe-Hemp, “Survival in an ‘All Boys Club’: Policewomen and Their Fight for Acceptance,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 31, no. 2 (2008): 261.

    54. French and Raven, “The Bases of Social Power.”

    55. Egon Bittner, “The Functions of Police in Modern Society: A Review of Background Factors, Current Practices, and Possible Role Models,” in Aspects of Police Work, ed. Egon Bittner (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1990), 256.

    56. Raven, “The Bases of Power,” 234.

    57. Judith P. Andersen and Konstantinos Papazoglou, “Friends Under Fire: Cross-Cultural Relationships and Trauma Exposure Among Police Officers.,” Traumatology 20, no. 3 (2014): 182–90; Kerry M. Karaffa and Karin Tochkov, “Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Treatment Among Law Enforcement Officers,” Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice 9, no. 2 (2013): 75–99.

    58. Karaffa and Tochkov, “Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Treatment,” 85.

    59. Jennifer Hunt, “Police Accounts of Normal Force,” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 13, no. 4 (1985): 315–41.

    60. Ibid., 322.

    61. French and Raven, “The Bases of Social Power.”

    62. Tifft, “Control Systems.”

    63. Raven, Schwarzwald, and Koslowsky, “Conceptualizing and Measuring a Power/Interaction Model.”

    64. Michael K. Brown, Working the Street: Police Discretion and the Dilemmas of Reform (New York: Russell Sage, 1988), 110.

    65. Bass, Bass & Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership, 235.

    66. Tifft, “Control Systems,” 98.

    67. French and Raven, “The Bases of Social Power.”

    68. Raven, “The Bases of Power.”

    69. Stephen D. Mastrofski et al., “The Helping Hand of the Law: Police Control of Citizens on Request,” Criminology 38, no. 2 (2000): 307–42.

    70. Ibid., 333.

    71. David Mechanic, “Sources of Power of Lower Participants in Complex Organizations,” Administrative Science Quarterly 7, no. 3 (1962): 349–64.

    72. Ibid.

    73. Steven Greer, “Towards a Sociological Model of the Police Informant,” The British Journal of Sociology 46, no. 3 (1995): 512.

    74. Raven, “The Bases of Power”; Yukl and Falbe, “Importance of Different Power Sources.”

    75. Raven, “The Bases of Power.”

    76. See, for example, Yukl, Leadership in Organizations.

    77. Yukl and Falbe, “Importance of Different Power Sources.”

    78. Mastrofski et al., “The Helping Hand of the Law.”

    79. Michael Lipsky, Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services (New York: Russell Sage, 1980).

    80. James J. Fyfe, “Administrative Interventions on Police Shooting Discretion: An Empirical Examination,” Journal of Criminal Justice 7, no. 4 (1979): 309–23; Steve Herbert, Policing Space: Territoriality and the Los Angeles Police Department (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997); Samuel Walker, Taming the System: The Control of Discretion in Criminal Justice, 1950–1990 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).

    81. Raven, “The Bases of Power.”

    82. Prottas, “The Power of the Street-Level Bureaucrat in Public Service Bureaucracies,” 298.

    83. Cincinnati Police Department, “Cincinnati Police Department Procedure Manual,” City of Cincinnati Police, September 24, 2015, http://www.cincinnati-oh.gov/police/department-references/police-department-procedure-manual/.

    84. Raven, “The Bases of Power.”

    85. Prottas, “The Power of the Street-Level Bureaucrat in Public Service Bureaucracies.”

    86. John P. Shields, “An Evaluation of Police Compliance With Domestic Violence Documentation Policy Reform: Improving the Identification of Exposed Children,” Best Practice in Mental Health 4, no. 1 (2008): 67.

    87. Brown, Working the Street: Police Discretion and the Dilemmas of Reform, 101.

    88. Jonathan Rubinstein, City Police (New York: Noonday Press, 1973).

    89. Ibid.

    90. Willem De Lint, “Autonomy, Regulation and the Police Beat,” Social & Legal Studies 9, no. 1 (2000): 55–83.

    91. Michael R. Chatterton, “The Supervision of Patrol Work Under the Fixed Points System,” in The British Police, ed. Simon Holdaway (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1980), 83–101; Neil Wain and Barak Ariel, “Tracking of Police Patrol,” Policing 8, no. 3 (2014): 274–83.

    92. Chatterton, “The Supervision of Patrol Work Under the Fixed Points System.”

    93. Wain and Ariel, “Tracking of Police Patrol.”

    94. Ibid.

    95. Rubinstein, City Police, 15.

    96. Walker, Critical History of Police Reform, 10.

    97. Wilbur R. Miller, Cops and Bobbies: Police Authority in New York and London, 1830–1870 (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1999).

    98. Walker, Critical History of Police Reform.

    99. Lint, “Autonomy, Regulation and the Police Beat”; Rubinstein, City Police.

    100. David J. Bordua and Albert J. Reiss Jr., “Command, Control, and Charisma: Reflections on Police Bureaucracy,” American Journal of Sociology 72, no. 1 (1966): 68–76; Lint, “Autonomy, Regulation and the Police Beat”; Rubinstein, City Police.

    101. Rubinstein, City Police.

    102. Lint, “Autonomy, Regulation and the Police Beat”; Rubinstein, City Police; Craig D. Uchida, “The Development of the American Police: An Historical Overview,” in Critical Issues in Policing: Contemporary Readings, ed. Roger G. Dunham and Geoffrey P. Alpert (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1997), 18–35; Walker, Critical History of Police Reform.

    103. Bordua and Reiss, “Command, Control, and Charisma,” 70.

    104. R. L. Fey, Automatic Vehicle Location Techniques for Law Enforcement Use (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, 1974); G. R. Hansen and W. G. Leflang, Application of Automatic Vehicle Location in Law Enforcement: An Introductory Planning Guide (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Criminal Justice Information and Statistics Service, 1976).

    105. Fey, Automatic Vehicle Location Techniques.

    106. Christine Byers, “St. Louis Police to Track Patrol Cars With GPS,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, October 18, 2012, http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/crime-and-courts/st-louis-police-to-track-patrol-cars-with-gps/article_d7dd93f4-d0cb-52e1-97f7-2524992e49bb.html.

    107. Police Executive Research Forum, How Are Innovations in Technology Transforming Policing? (Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum, 2012).

    108. Hansen and Leflang, Application of Automatic Vehicle Location, 4.

    109. Police Executive Research Forum, How Are Innovations in Technology Transforming Policing?

    110. Brad Brewer, “AVL/GPS for Front Line Policing,” Law and Order 55, no. 11 (2007): 46–54; Maria Cramer, “Boston Police Officers Wary of GPS for Cruisers,” Boston Globe, November 18, 2013, https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2013/11/18/gps-now-monitor-bpd/Vc6qOHTlvehT2YzYWIQkiP/story.html.

    111. Cramer, “Boston Police Officers Wary of GPS for Cruisers,” para. 10.

    112. Brewer, “AVL/GPS for Front Line Policing”; Cramer, “Boston Police Officers Wary of GPS for Cruisers.”

    113. Byers, “St. Louis Police to Track Patrol Cars,” para. 25.

    114. Matthew J. Hickman and Brian A. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2000 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2003); Brian A. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2007 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2010); Brian A. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2013: Equipment and Technology (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2015).

    115. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2013: Equipment and Technology.

    116. David A. Harris, “Picture This: Body-Worn Video Devices (Head Cams) as Tools for Ensuring Fourth Amendment Compliance by Police,” Texas Tech Law Review 43 (2010): 357–71.

    117. Paul Drover and B. Ariel, “Leading an Experiment in Police Body-Worn Video Cameras,” International Criminal Justice Review 25, no. 1 (2015): 80–97; Wesley G. Jennings, Lorie A. Fridell, and Mathew D. Lynch, “Cops and Cameras: Officer Perceptions of the Use of Body-Worn Cameras in Law Enforcement,” Journal of Criminal Justice 42, no. 6 (2014): 549–56.

    118. Wain and Ariel, “Tracking of Police Patrol.”

    119. Philip M. Podsakoff and Chester A. Schriesheim, “Field Studies of French and Raven’s Bases of Power: Critique, Reanalysis, and Suggestions for Future Research,” Psychological Bulletin 97, no. 3 (1985): 387–411.

    120. Hakan V. Erkutla and Jamel Chafra, “Relationship Between Leadership Power Bases and Job Stress of Subordinates: Example From Boutique Hotels,” Management Research News 29, no. 5 (2006): 285–97.

    121. M. Afzalur Rahim and Gabriel F. Buntzman, “Supervisory Power Bases, Styles of Handling Conflict With Subordinates, and Subordinate Compliance and Satisfaction,” Journal of Psychology 123, no. 2 (1989): 195–210.

    122. Yukl and Falbe, “Importance of Different Power Sources.”

    123. Rahim and Buntzman, “Supervisory Power Bases.”

    124. David Kipnis et al., “Metamorphic Effects of Power,” Journal of Applied Psychology 61, no. 2 (1976): 127–35; Joseph Schwarzwald, Meni Koslowsky, and Vardit Agassi, “Captain’s Leadership Type and Police Officers’ Compliance to Power Bases,” European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 10, no. 3 (2001): 273–90.

    125. Rahim and Buntzman, “Supervisory Power Bases,” 206.

    126. Henry L. Tosi, John R. Rizzo, and Stephen J. Carroll, Managing Organizational Behavior (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1986), 542.

    127. William Terrill, “Police Use of Force and Suspect Resistance: The Micro Process of the Police-Suspect Encounter,” Police Quarterly 6, no. 1 (2003): 51–83.

    128. Ibid., 79.

    129. Alon Harish, “New Haven Police Officers Call In Sick,” Yale Daily News, February 18, 2011, http://yaledailynews.com/blog/2011/02/18/new-haven-police-officers-call-in-sick/.

    130. J. C. Wofford, “The Motivational Bases of Job Satisfaction and Job Performance,” Personnel Psychology 24, no. 3 (1971): 501–18.

    131. Nadim Jahangir, Muzahid Akbar, and Noorjahan Begum Begum, “The Role of Social Power, Procedural Justice, Organizational Commitment, and Job Satisfaction to Engender Organizational Citizenship Behavior,” ABAC Journal 26, no. 3 (2006): 21–36; Linda D. Molm, “Affect and Social Exchange: Satisfaction in Power-Dependence Relations,” American Sociological Review 56, no. 4 (1991): 475–93; Kevin W. Mossholder et al., “Relationships Between Bases of Power and Work Reactions: The Mediational Role of Procedural Justice,” Journal of Management 24, no. 4 (1998): 533–52.

    132. Mossholder et al., “Relationships Between Bases of Power and Work Reactions,” 537.

    133. Jahangir, Akbar, and Begum, “The Role of Social Power.”

    134. Ibid.; Mossholder et al., “Relationships Between Bases of Power and Work Reactions.”

    135. Nicole E. Haas et al., “Explaining Officer Compliance: The Importance of Procedural Justice and Trust Inside a Police Organization,” Criminology and Criminal Justice 15, no. 4 (2015): 442–63.

    136. Ibid., 451.

    137. Mengyan Dai, James Frank, and Ivan Sun, “Procedural Justice During Police-Citizen Encounters: The Effects of Process-Based Policing on Citizen Compliance and Demeanor,” Journal of Criminal Justice 39, no. 2 (2011): 159–68.

    138. Gerald S. Leventhal, “What Should Be Done With Equity Theory?,” in Social Exchange: Advances in Theory and Research, ed. Kenneth J. Gergen, Martin S. Greenberg, and Richard H. Willis (New York: Plenum, 1980), 27–55.

    139. Dai, Frank, and Sun, “Procedural Justice During Police-Citizen Encounters,” 165.

    140. Bruce K. Berger, “Power Over, Power With, and Power to Relations: Critical Reflections on Public Relations, the Dominant Coalition, and Activism,” Journal of Public Relations Research 17, no. 1 (2005): 5–28; Follett, “Power.”

    141. David M. Boje and Grace Ann Rosile, “Where’s the Power in Empowerment: Answers From Follett and Clegg,” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 37, no. 1 (2001): 90–117; Follett, “Power.”

    142. Follett, “Power.”

    143. Jay A. Conger and Rabindra N. Kanungo, “The Empowerment Process: Integrating Theory and Practice,” Academy of Management Review 13, no. 3 (1988): 471–82.

    144. Mary Ann Wycoff and Wesley G. Skogan, “The Effect of a Community Policing Management Style on Officers’ Attitudes,” Crime & Delinquency 40, no. 3 (1994): 373.

    145. Mary Ann Wycoff and Wesley G. Skogan, “Community Policing in Madison: An Analysis of Implementation and Impact,” in The Challenge of Community Policing: Testing the Promises, ed. Dennis P. Rosenbaum (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994), 75–91.

    146. Brigitte Steinheider and Todd Wuestewald, “From the Bottom-Up: Sharing Leadership in a Police Agency,” Police Practice and Research 9, no. 2 (2008): 149; Todd Wuestewald and Brigitte Steinheider, “Shared Leadership: Can Empowerment Work in Police Organizations?,” Police Chief 73, no. 1 (2006): 48–55.

    147. Wuestewald and Steinheider, “Shared Leadership,” para. 21.

    148. Steinheider and Wuestewald, “From the Bottom-Up.”

    149. Ibid.

    150. Ibid., para. 28.

    151. Steinheider and Wuestewald, “From the Bottom-Up.”

    152. Christine Eith and Matthew Durose, Contacts Between Police and the Public, 2008 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2011).

    Chapter 8

    1. James D. Sewell, “The Stress of Homicide Investigations,” Death Studies 18, no. 6 (1994): 567.

    2. Michael L. Bourke and Sarah W. Craun, “Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Internet Crimes Against Children Task Force Personnel: Impact, Risk Factors, and Coping Strategies,” Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment 26, no. 6 (2014): 586–609; Martine Powell et al., “Police Officers’ Strategies for Coping With the Stress of Investigating Internet Child Exploitation,” Traumatology: An International Journal 20, no. 1 (2014): 32–42.

    3. Powell et al., “Police Officers’ Strategies for Coping.”

    4. James D. Sewell, “Traumatic Stress of Multiple Murder Investigations,” Journal of Traumatic Stress 6, no. 1 (1993): 103–18.

    5. Dean A. Dabney et al., “A Qualitative Assessment of Stress Perceptions Among Members of a Homicide Unit,” Justice Quarterly 30, no. 5 (2013): 811–36.

    6. Sewell, “Traumatic Stress of Multiple Murder Investigations.”

    7. Michael R. Mantell, “San Ysidro: When the Badge Turns Blue,” in Psychological Services for Law Enforcement, ed. James T. Reese and Harvey A. Goldstein (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1986), 357–60.

    8. Bourke and Craun, “Secondary Traumatic Stress”; Isaac T. Van Patten and Tod W. Burke, “Critical Incident Stress and the Child Homicide Investigator,” Homicide Studies 5, no. 2 (2001): 131–52.

    9. Van Patten and Burke, “Critical Incident Stress and the Child Homicide Investigator,” 145.

    10. Vincent E. Parr, “The Anatomy of Stress,” in Psychological Services for Law Enforcement, ed. James T. Reese and Harvey A. Goldstein (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1986), 483.

    11. Mark L. Dantzer, “Police-Related Stress: A Critique for Future Research,” Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology 3, no. 2 (1987): 43–48; Charles D. Spielberger et al., “The Police Stress Survey: Sources of Stress in Law Enforcement” (Tampa: University of South Florida, Human Resources Institute, 1981).

    12. Robyn R. M. Gershon et al., “Mental, Physical, and Behavioral Outcomes Associated With Perceived Work Stress in Police Officers,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 36, no. 3 (2009): 275–89.

    13. Steven Sauter et al., Stress . . . at Work (Cincinnati: US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1999).

    14. Dabney et al., “A Qualitative Assessment of Stress Perceptions.”

    15. Ibid., 821–22.

    16. Cary L. Cooper, Philip J. Dewe, and Michael P O’Driscoll, Organizational Stress: A Review and Critique of Theory, Research, and Applications (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001).

    17. Richards S. Lazarus and Susan Folkman, Stress, Appraisal, and Coping (New York: Springer, 1984), 19.

    18. Katherine W. Ellison and John L. Genz, “Police Officer as Burned-Out Samaritan,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 47, no. 3 (1978): 2–7; Akiva M. Liberman et al., “Routine Occupational Stress and Psychological Distress in Police,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 25, no. 2 (2002): 421–41.

    19. Mark H. Anshel, “A Conceptual Model and Implications for Coping With Stressful Events in Police Work,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 27, no. 3 (2000): 375–400; Ellison and Genz, “Police Officer as Burned-Out Samaritan”; Liberman et al., “Routine Occupational Stress.”

    20. Anshel, “A Conceptual Model and Implications for Coping.”

    21. James J. Fyfe, “The Split-Second Syndrome and Other Determinants of Police Violence,” in Violent Transactions: The Limits of Personality, ed. Anne Campbell and John J. Gibbs (New York: Basil Blackwell, 1986), 207–23.

    22. Philip Dewe, “Primary Appraisal, Secondary Appraisal and Coping: Their Role in Stressful Work Encounters,” Journal of Occupational Psychology 64, no. 4 (1991): 331–51.

    23. Lazarus and Folkman, Stress, Appraisal, and Coping.

    24. John P. Crank and Robert Langworthy, “An Institutional Perspective of Policing,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 83, no. 2 (1992): 343.

    25. Jennifer Hunt, “Police Accounts of Normal Force,” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 13, no. 4 (1985): 322.

    26. Lazarus and Folkman, Stress, Appraisal, and Coping.

    27. Cooper, Dewe, and O’Driscoll, Organizational Stress; Thomas G. Cummings and Cary L. Cooper, “A Cybernetic Framework for Studying Occupational Stress,” Human Relations 32, no. 5 (1979): 395–418.

    28. Terry A. Beehr, Psychological Stress in the Workplace (New York: Routledge, 1995).

    29. James S. House, Work Stress and Social Support, Addison-Wesley Series on Occupational Stress 4 (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1981), 24–25.

    30. Vivian B. Lord, “An Impact of Community Policing: Reported Stressors, Social Support, and Strain among Police Officers in a Changing Police Department,” Journal of Criminal Justice 24, no. 6 (1996): 508.

    31. William P. McCarty and Wesley G. Skogan, “Job-Related Burnout among Civilian and Sworn Police Personnel,” Police Quarterly 16, no. 1 (2013): 66–84.

    32. Martin Gächter, David A. Savage, and Benno Torgler, “The Role of Social Capital in Reducing Negative Health Outcomes among Police Officers,” International Journal of Social Inquiry 3, no. 1 (2010): 141–61.

    33. McCarty and Skogan, “Job-Related Burnout Among Civilian and Sworn Police Personnel.”

    34. Lord, “An Impact of Community Policing.”

    35. Gary M. Kaufmann and Terry A. Beehr, “Occupational Stressors, Individual Strains, and Social Supports Among Police Officers,” Human Relations 42, no. 2 (1989): 185–97.

    36. R. S. Lazarus, “From Psychological Stress to the Emotions: A History of Changing Outlooks,” Annual Review of Psychology 44 (1993): 1–21.

    37. H. B. Bradley, “Community-Based Treatment for Young Adult Offenders,” Crime & Delinquency 15, no. 3 (1969): 366. Variations in spelling appeared in the early literature (burnout, burn out, burn-out). The term is generally spelled as a single word in contemporary writing.

    38. Herbert J. Freudenberger, “Staff Burn-Out,” Journal of Social Issues 30, no. 1 (1974): 159–65; Herbert J. Freudenberger, “The Staff Burn-out Syndrome in Alternative Institutions,” Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice 12, no. 1 (1975): 73–82.

    39. Wilmar B. Schaufeli and Bram P. Buunk, “Burnout: An Overview of 25 Years of Research and Theorizing,” in The Handbook of Work and Health Psychology, ed. Marc J. Schabracq, Jacques A. M. Winnubst, and Cary L. Cooper (Chichester, U.K.: John Wiley & Sons, 2004), 383–425.

    40. Susan E. Jackson, Richard L. Schwab, and Randall S. Schuler, “Toward an Understanding of the Burnout Phenomenon,” Journal of Applied Psychology 71, no. 4 (1986): 630–40; Christina Maslach and Susan E. Jackson, “The Measurement of Experienced Burnout,” Journal of Organizational Behavior 2, no. 2 (1981): 99–113; Schaufeli and Buunk, “Burnout.”

    41. Arnold B. Bakker et al., “Using Equity Theory to Examine the Difference between Burnout and Depression,” Anxiety, Stress & Coping 13 (2000): 247–68.

    42. J. Stacy Adams, “Towards an Understanding of Inequity,” The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67, no. 5 (1963): 422.

    43. Schaufeli and Buunk, “Burnout,” 386.

    44. Freudenberger, “Staff Burn-Out.”

    45. Maslach and Jackson, “The Measurement of Experienced Burnout,” 99.

    46. Dabney et al., “A Qualitative Assessment of Stress Perceptions.”

    47. Christina Maslach, Wilmar B. Schaufeli, and Michael P. Leiter, “Job Burnout,” Annual Review of Psychology 52, no. 1 (2001): 397–422.

    48. Jackson, Schwab, and Schuler, “Toward an Understanding of the Burnout Phenomenon.”

    49. Robert T. Golembiewski, Robert Munzenrider, and Diane Carter, “Phases of Progressive Burnout and Their Work Site Covariants: Critical Issues in OD Research and Praxis,” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 19, no. 4 (1983): 461–81.

    50. Cooper, Dewe, and O’Driscoll, Organizational Stress; Christina Maslach, “A Multidimensional Theory of Burnout,” in Theories of Organizational Stress, ed. Cary L. Cooper (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1998), 68–85.

    51. Maslach and Jackson, “The Measurement of Experienced Burnout,” 102–3.

    52. Ronald J. Burke and Eugene Deszca, “Correlates of Psychological Burnout Phases among Police Officers,” Human Relations 39, no. 6 (June 1, 1986): 487–501.

    53. Homer C. Hawkins, “Police Officer Burnout: A Partial Replication of Maslach’s Burnout Inventory,” Police Quarterly 4, no. 3 (September 1, 2001): 343–60.

    54. William P. McCarty, Jihong Zhao, and Brett E. Garland, “Occupational Stress and Burnout Between Male and Female Police Officers: Are There Any Gender Differences?,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 30, no. 4 (2007): 672–91. Burnout was measured with four items (e.g., I feel like I am on autopilot most of the time) rather than the MBI.

    55. Christina Maslach and Wilmar B. Schaufeli, “Historical and Conceptual Development of Burnout,” in Professional Burnout: Recent Developments in Theory and Research, ed. Wilmar B. Schaufeli, Christina Maslach, and Tadeusz Marek (Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis, 1993), 9.

    56. Ayala M. Pines, “Burnout,” in Handbook of Stress: Theoretical and Clinical Aspects, ed. Leo Goldberger and Shlomo Breznitz, 2nd. ed. (New York: Free Press, 1993), 386–402.

    57. Ayala Malach Pines and Giora Keinan, “Stress and Burnout: The Significant Difference,” Personality and Individual Differences 39, no. 3 (2005): 625–35.

    58. Maslach and Schaufeli, “Historical and Conceptual Development of Burnout,” 9.

    59. Schaufeli and Buunk, “Burnout.”

    60. Spielberger et al., “The Police Stress Survey.”

    61. Todd Lucas, Nathan Weidner, and James Janisse, “Where Does Work Stress Come From? A Generalizability Analysis of Stress in Police Officers,” Psychology & Health 27, no. 12 (2012): 1426–47; Spielberger et al., “The Police Stress Survey”; John M. Violanti and Fred Aron, “Police Stressors: Variations in Perception Among Police Personnel,” Journal of Criminal Justice 23, no. 3 (1995): 287–94. For Spielberger and colleagues and Violanti and Aron, the rankings are based on officer experiences but are not necessarily felt stressors. For example, the original survey instructs officers to also consider “what you have learned to be the case for other officers” when gauging the stressfulness of certain events. In contrast, Lucas, Weidner, and Janisse asked whether a stressor was personally stressful or challenging to the respondent. The differences in the framing of the question may explain the emergence of organization-related stressors in the more recent study. It is capturing felt stressors, not just theoretically stressful events.

    62. Susan Cartwright and Cary L. Cooper, Managing Workplace Stress (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997).

    63. The review is not exhaustive, presenting only a list of some of the major and most commonly discussed stressors within the policing literature.

    64. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries in 2012 (Preliminary Results)” (Washington, DC: US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013).

    65. Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2012,” 2012, http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/leoka/2012.

    66. Ibid.

    67. Irina Komarovskaya et al., “The Impact of Killing and Injuring Others on Mental Health Symptoms Among Police Officers,” Journal of Psychiatric Research 45, no. 10 (2011): 1332–36.

    68. Yitzhak Fried, Kendrith M. Rowland, and Gerald R. Ferris, “The Physiological Measurement of Work Stress: A Critique,” Personnel Psychology 37, no. 4 (1984): 583–615.

    69. Gregory S. Anderson, Robin Litzenberger, and Darryl Plecas, “Physical Evidence of Police Officer Stress,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 25, no. 2 (2002): 399–420.

    70. Ibid., 415.

    71. Matthew J. Hickman et al., “Mapping Police Stress,” Police Quarterly 14, no. 3 (2011): 227–50.

    72. John P. Crank and Michael Caldero, “The Production of Occupational Stress in Medium-Sized Police Agencies: A Survey of Line Officers in Eight Municipal Departments,” Journal of Criminal Justice 19, no. 4 (1991): 339–49.

    73. Komarovskaya et al., “The Impact of Killing and Injuring Others.”

    74. Ibid.

    75. Steve Herbert, Policing Space: Territoriality and the Los Angeles Police Department (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997).

    76. Deborah Wilkins Newman and M. LeeAnne Rucker-Reed, “Police Stress, State-Trait Anxiety, and Stressors Among US Marshals,” Journal of Criminal Justice 32, no. 6 (2004): 631–41.

    77. Cooper, Dewe, and O’Driscoll, Organizational Stress.

    78. Bryan Vila, Gregory B. Morrison, and Dennis J. Kenney, “Improving Shift Schedule and Work-Hour Policies and Practices to Increase Police Officer Performance, Health, and Safety,” Police Quarterly 5, no. 1 (2002): 6.

    79. Luenda E. Charles et al., “Shift Work and Sleep: The Buffalo Police Health Study,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 30, no. 2 (2007): 215–27.

    80. Markus Gerber et al., “The Relationship Between Shift Work, Perceived Stress, Sleep and Health in Swiss Police Officers,” Journal of Criminal Justice 38, no. 6 (2010): 1167–75.

    81. John M. Violanti et al., “Shift-Work and Suicide Ideation Among Police Officers,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 51, no. 10 (2008): 758–68.

    82. Bryan Vila, “Impact of Long Work Hours on Police Officers and the Communities They Serve,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine 49, no. 11 (2006): 975.

    83. Karen L. Amendola et al., The Shift Length Experiment: What We Know about 8-, 10-, and 12-Hour Shifts in Policing (Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 2011).

    84. Arturo Vega and Michael J. Gilbert, “Longer Days, Shorter Weeks: Compressed Work Weeks in Policing,” Public Personnel Management 26, no. 3 (1997): 391–402.

    85. Amendola et al., The Shift Length Experiment.

    86. Stephen D. Mastrofski et al., “The Helping Hand of the Law: Police Control of Citizens on Request,” Criminology 38, no. 2 (2000): 307–42.

    87. Laura Huey, “‘I’ve Seen This on CSI’: Criminal Investigators’ Perceptions About the Management of Public Expectations in the Field,” Crime, Media, Culture 6, no. 1 (2010): 60.

    88. Crank and Caldero, “The Production of Occupational Stress.”

    89. Richard M. Ayres, Preventing Law Enforcement Stress: The Organization’s Role (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance, 1990).

    90. Ibid.; Jihong Zhao, Ni He, and Nicholas Lovrich, “Predicting Five Dimensions of Police Officer Stress: Looking More Deeply into Organizational Settings for Sources of Police Stress,” Police Quarterly 5, no. 1 (2002): 43–62.

    91. Crank and Caldero, “The Production of Occupational Stress,” 345.

    92. Crank and Caldero, “The Production of Occupational Stress”; Bruce Kirkcaldy, Cary L. Cooper, and Paul Ruffalo, “Work Stress and Health in a Sample of US Police,” Psychological Reports 76 (1995): 700–702.

    93. Crank and Caldero, “The Production of Occupational Stress,” 344.

    94. Elizabeth Reuss-Ianni, Two Cultures of Policing: Street Cops and Management Cops (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1983).

    95. J. Richard Hackman and Greg R. Oldham, Work Redesign (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980); Zhao, He, and Lovrich, “Predicting Five Dimensions of Police Officer Stress.”

    96. Zhao, He, and Lovrich, “Predicting Five Dimensions of Police Officer Stress.”

    97. Helen Cowie et al., “Measuring Workplace Bullying,” Aggression and Violent Behavior 7, no. 1 (2002): 33–51.

    98. Charlotte Rayner and Helge Hoel, “A Summary Review of Literature Relating to Workplace Bullying,” Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 7, no. 3 (1997): 181–91.

    99. Cowie et al., “Measuring Workplace Bullying.”

    100. Helge Hoel and Cary Cooper, “Destructive Conflict and Bullying at Work” (Manchester, UK: University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, 2000).

    101. S. Hakan Can, Helen M. Hendy, and Meaghan Imbody, “Models for Aggression by Police Officers Towards Romantic Partners and Police Partners,” International Journal of Police Science & Management 15, no. 4 (2013): 273–80.

    102. Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation (New York: Basic Books, 1977).

    103. Brian A. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2007 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2010).

    104. Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation.

    105. Ibid., 210. Emphasis in original.

    106. Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), 2007,” 2007, http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NACJD/studies/31161.

    107. Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation, 210–11.

    108. Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation.

    109. Susan Erlich Martin, Breaking and Entering: Policewomen on Patrol (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), 93–94.

    110. Robin N. Haarr, “Patterns of Interaction in a Police Patrol Bureau: Race and Gender Barriers to Integration,” Justice Quarterly 14, no. 1 (1997): 53–85; Wesley Skogan and Kathleen Frydl, eds., Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004).

    111. Carol A. Archbold and Dorothy Moses Schulz, “Making Rank: The Lingering Effects of Tokenism on Female Police Officers’ Promotion Aspirations,” Police Quarterly 11, no. 1 (2008): 50–73; Joseph L. Gustafson, “Tokenism in Policing: An Empirical Test of Kanter’s Hypothesis,” Journal of Criminal Justice 36, no. 1 (2008): 1–10; Meghan S. Stroshine and Steven G. Brandl, “Race, Gender, and Tokenism in Policing: An Empirical Elaboration,” Police Quarterly 14, no. 4 (2011): 344–65.

    112. Gustafson, “Tokenism in Policing”; Stroshine and Brandl, “Race, Gender, and Tokenism.”

    113. Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation, 212.

    114. Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation.

    115. Archbold and Schulz, “Making Rank,” 62.

    116. Kimberly A. Lonsway and Susan Welch, “Witnessing an Accidental Shooting at the Police Training Academy,” Women & Criminal Justice 15, no. 3–4 (2004): 59–79.

    117. Haarr, “Patterns of Interaction.”

    118. James E. Gruber, “The Impact of Male Work Environments and Organizational Policies on Women’s Experiences of Sexual Harassment,” Gender & Society 12, no. 3 (1998): 301–20.

    119. Louise F. Fitzgerald, Michele J. Gelfand, and Fritz Drasgow, “Measuring Sexual Harassment: Theoretical and Psychometric Advances,” Basic and Applied Social Psychology 17, no. 4 (1995): 425–45.

    120. Kimberly A. Lonsway, Rebecca Paynich, and Jennifer N. Hall, “Sexual Harassment in Law Enforcement: Incidence, Impact, and Perception,” Police Quarterly 16, no. 2 (2013): 177–210.

    121. Ibid.

    122. Ibid.; Richard Seklecki and Rebecca Paynich, “A National Survey of Female Police Officers: An Overview of Findings,” Police Practice and Research 8, no. 1 (2007): 17–30.

    123. Haarr, “Patterns of Interaction,” 78.

    124. Lonsway, Paynich, and Hall, “Sexual Harassment in Law Enforcement.”

    125. Sue Carter Collins, “Sexual Harassment and Police Discipline: Who’s Policing the Police?,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 27, no. 4 (2004): 514.

    126. Collins, “Sexual Harassment and Police Discipline.”

    127. Lonsway, Paynich, and Hall, “Sexual Harassment in Law Enforcement.”

    128. Cartwright and Cooper, Managing Workplace Stress; Cooper, Dewe, and O’Driscoll, Organizational Stress.

    129. Police Executive Research Forum, Is the Economic Downturn Fundamentally Changing How We Police? (Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum, 2010).

    130. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, The Impact of the Economic Downturn on American Police Agencies (Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2011).

    131. Ibid.; Matthew J. Parlow, “The Great Recession and Its Implications for Community Policing,” Georgia State University Law Review 28 (2012): 1193–1238.

    132. Joseph Berger, “Most Police Officers Retire After 20 Years, or Move Up the Ranks,” The New York Times, December 13, 2011, sec. N.Y. / Region, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/14/nyregion/most-police-officers-retire-after-20-years-or-move-up-the-ranks.html.

    133. Ibid., para. 5.

    134. Ronald J. Burke, “Examining the Career Plateau: Some Preliminary Findings,” Psychological Reports 65 (1989): 295–306.

    135. John M. Violanti, “Police Retirement: The Impact of Change,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 59, no. 3 (1990): 13.

    136. Newman and Rucker-Reed, “Police Stress, State-Trait Anxiety, and Stressors Among US Marshals.”

    137. Ronald J. Burke and G. Deszca, “Career Orientations, Satisfaction, and Health Among Police Officers: Some Consequences of Person-Job Misfit,” Psychological Reports 62 (1988): 639–49; Cary Cherniss, Professional Burnout in Human Service Organizations (New York: Praeger, 1980).

    138. Jeffrey H. Greenhaus and Nicholas J. Beutell, “Sources of Conflict Between Work and Family Roles,” The Academy of Management Review 10, no. 1 (1985): 76–88.

    139. Dabney et al., “A Qualitative Assessment of Stress Perceptions.”

    140. Ni He, Jihong Zhao, and Carol A. Archbold, “Gender and Police Stress: The Convergent and Divergent Impact of Work Environment, Work-Family Conflict, and Stress Coping Mechanisms of Female and Male Police Officers,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 25, no. 4 (2002): 707.

    141. Greenhaus and Beutell, “Sources of Conflict Between Work and Family Roles.”

    142. Don L. Kurtz, “Roll Call and the Second Shift: The Influences of Gender and Family on Police Stress,” Police Practice and Research 13, no. 1 (2012): 71–86.

    143. Cooper, Dewe, and O’Driscoll, Organizational Stress, 51.

    144. Nicole A. Roberts and Robert W. Levenson, “The Remains of the Workday: Impact of Job Stress and Exhaustion on Marital Interaction in Police Couples,” Journal of Marriage and Family 63, no. 4 (2001): 1052–67.

    145. Ibid., 1064.

    146. Nicole A. Roberts et al., “Job Stress and Dyadic Synchrony in Police Marriages: A Preliminary Investigation,” Family Process 52, no. 2 (2013): 271–83.

    147. Greenhaus and Beutell, “Sources of Conflict Between Work and Family Roles.”

    148. He, Zhao, and Archbold, “Gender and Police Stress.”

    149. Cooper, Dewe, and O’Driscoll, Organizational Stress, 51.

    150. Shawn P. McCoy and Michael G. Aamodt, “A Comparison of Law Enforcement Divorce Rates With Those of Other Occupations,” Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology 25, no. 1 (2010): 1–16.

    151. Robert L. Kahn and Philippe Byosiere, “Stress in Organizations,” in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, ed. Marvin D. Dunnette and Leaetta M. Hough, 2nd ed., vol. 3 (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992), 571–650.

    152. Ibid.

    153. Gershon et al., “Mental, Physical, and Behavioral Outcomes.”

    154. P. A. Collins and A. C. C. Gibbs, “Stress in Police Officers: A Study of the Origins, Prevalence and Severity of Stress-Related Symptoms Within a County Police Force,” Occupational Medicine 53, no. 4 (2003): 256–64.

    155. Craig Jackson, “The General Health Questionnaire,” Occupational Medicine 57, no. 1 (2007): 79.

    156. Gershon et al., “Mental, Physical, and Behavioral Outcomes”; Jackson, “The General Health Questionnaire.”

    157. Cooper, Dewe, and O’Driscoll, Organizational Stress; Kahn and Byosiere, “Stress in Organizations.”

    158. Anderson, Litzenberger, and Plecas, “Physical Evidence of Police Officer Stress”; Hickman et al., “Mapping Police Stress.”

    159. Gershon et al., “Mental, Physical, and Behavioral Outcomes.”

    160. Kahn and Byosiere, “Stress in Organizations.”

    161. Gershon et al., “Mental, Physical, and Behavioral Outcomes.”

    162. Leanor Boulin Johnson, Michael Todd, and Ganga Subramanian, “Violence in Police Families: Work-Family Spillover,” Journal of Family Violence 20, no. 1 (2005): 3.

    163. Kahn and Byosiere, “Stress in Organizations.”

    164. Lazarus and Folkman, Stress, Appraisal, and Coping.

    165. Cooper, Dewe, and O’Driscoll, Organizational Stress.

    166. Lazarus and Folkman, Stress, Appraisal, and Coping; Rudolf H. Moos and Andrew G. Billings, “Conceptualizing and Measuring Coping Resources and Processes,” in Handbook of Stress: Theoretical and Clinical Aspects, ed. Leo Goldberger and Shlomo Breznitz (New York: Free Press, 1982), 212–30.

    167. Andrew G. Billings and Rudolf H. Moos, “Coping, Stress, and Social Resources Among Adults With Unipolar Depression,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46, no. 4 (1984): 877–91.

    168. Lazarus and Folkman, Stress, Appraisal, and Coping.

    169. Terry A. Beehr, Leanor B. Johnson, and Ronie Nieva, “Occupational Stress: Coping of Police and Their Spouses,” Journal of Organizational Behavior 16, no. 1 (1995): 3–25.

    170. Gershon et al., “Mental, Physical, and Behavioral Outcomes.”

    171. Beehr, Johnson, and Nieva, “Occupational Stress.”

    172. Gershon et al., “Mental, Physical, and Behavioral Outcomes.”

    173. Anshel, “A Conceptual Model and Implications for Coping,” 376.

    174. Marc L. Swatt, Chris L. Gibson, and Nicole Leeper Piquero, “Exploring the Utility of General Strain Theory in Explaining Problematic Alcohol Consumption by Police Officers,” Journal of Criminal Justice 35, no. 6 (2007): 596–611.

    175. Cummings and Cooper, “A Cybernetic Framework for Studying Occupational Stress.”

    176. Swatt, Gibson, and Piquero, “Exploring the Utility of General Strain Theory.”

    177. Peter M. Marzuk et al., “Suicide Among New York City Police Officers, 1977–1996,” American Journal of Psychiatry 159, no. 12 (2002): 2069–71.

    178. Steven Stack and Thomas Kelley, “Police Suicide: An Analysis,” American Journal of Police 13 (1994): 73–90.

    179. Erlend Hem, Anne Marie Berg, and Øivind Ekeberg, “Suicide in Police: A Critical Review,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 31, no. 2 (2001): 224–33.

    180. Mark H. Chae and Douglas J. Boyle, “Police Suicide: Prevalence, Risk, and Protective Factors,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 36, no. 1 (2013): 108.

    181. Jeanne B. Stinchcomb, “Searching for Stress in All the Wrong Places: Combating Chronic Organizational Stressors in Policing,” Police Practice and Research: An International Journal 5, no. 3 (2004): 267–68. Emphasis in original.

    182. Cary L. Cooper, “Stress Prevention in the Police,” Occupational Medicine 53 (2003): 244–45; Stinchcomb, “Searching for Stress in All the Wrong Places.”

    183. Stephen D. Webb and David L. Smith, “Stress Prevention and Alleviation Strategies for the Police,” Criminal Justice Review 5, no. 1 (1980): 1–15.

    184. Cooper, “Stress Prevention in the Police,” 245.

    185. Robert P. Delprino and Charles Bahn, “National Survey of the Extent and Nature of Psychological Services in Police Departments,” Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 19, no. 4 (1988): 421–25.

    186. Webb and Smith, “Stress Prevention and Alleviation Strategies for the Police,” 7.

    187. Rosanna L. Church and Naomi Robertson, “How State Police Agencies Are Addressing the Issue of Wellness,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 22, no. 3 (1999): 304–12.

    188. Ibid.

    189. Judith A. Waters and William Ussery, “Police Stress: History, Contributing Factors, Symptoms, and Interventions,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 30, no. 2 (2007): 169–88.

    190. Stella Stevens, Juanita Muller, and Elizabeth Kendall, “Addressing Organisationally Induced Stress in a Police Jurisdiction: An Australian Case Study,” International Journal of Police Science & Management 8, no. 3 (2006): 198–204.

    191. Eugene R. D. Deisinger, Final Grant Report of the Law Enforcement Assistance & Development (LEAD) Program: Reduction of Familial and Organizational Stress in Law Enforcement (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2002).

    192. Ibid.

    193. Stevens, Muller, and Kendall, “Addressing Organisationally Induced Stress in a Police Jurisdiction,” 203.

    194. Kerry M. Karaffa and Karin Tochkov, “Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Treatment Among Law Enforcement Officers,” Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice 9, no. 2 (2013): 85.

    195. Heather M. Colvin and Rachel M. Taylor, Building a Resilient Workforce: Opportunities for the Department of Homeland Security: Workshop Summary (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2012), 11.

    196. Y. Neria, A. Nandi, and S. Galea, “Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Following Disasters: A Systematic Review,” Psychological Medicine 38, no. 04 (2008): 467–80.

    197. D. A. Alexander and A. Wells, “Reactions of Police Officers to Body-Handling After a Major Disaster. A Before-and-After Comparison,” The British Journal of Psychiatry 159, no. 4 (1991): 547–55.

    198. Ibid., 457.

    199. Neria, Nandi, and Galea, “Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Following Disasters.”

    200. Douglas Brinkley, The Great Deluge: Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, and the Mississippi Gulf Coast (New York: Morrow, 2006).

    201. Terri Adams et al., “Coping Through a Disaster: Lessons From Hurricane Katrina,” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 8, no. 1 (2011): 1–15; Brinkley, The Great Deluge.

    202. Benjamin Sims, “‘The Day After the Hurricane’: Infrastructure, Order, and the New Orleans Police Department’s Response to Hurricane Katrina,” Social Studies of Science 37, no. 1 (2007): 111–18.

    203. Brinkley, The Great Deluge.

    204. Ibid., 510.

    205. Brinkley, The Great Deluge; Kevin Johnson, “Katrina Made Police Choose Between Duty and Loved Ones,” USA Today, February 20, 2006, http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-02-20-neworleanspolice_x.htm; Sims, “‘The Day after the Hurricane.’”

    206. Brinkley, The Great Deluge, 509.

    207. Sims, “‘The Day After the Hurricane.’”

    208. Adams et al., “Coping Through a Disaster.”

    209. Christine West et al., “Mental Health Outcomes in Police Personnel After Hurricane Katrina,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 50, no. 6 (2008): 689–95.

    210. Waters and Ussery, “Police Stress,” 183.

    211. Hearings for the officers who abandoned their posts took place in the months after the storm. This example represents one of the cases.

    Chapter 9

    1. Herman Goldstein, “Improving Policing: A Problem-Oriented Approach,” Crime & Delinquency 25, no. 2 (1979): 236–58; Herman Goldstein, Problem-Oriented Policing (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990).

    2. Goldstein, “Improving Policing”; Michael S. Scott, Problem-Oriented Policing: Reflections on the First 20 Years (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2000).

    3. Scott, Problem-Oriented Policing.

    4. John E. Eck and William Spelman, Problem-Solving: Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1987).

    5. Scott, Problem-Oriented Policing.

    6. Eck and Spelman, Problem-Solving.

    7. Ibid.

    8. Ibid., xxv.

    9. David Weisburd and Anthony A. Braga, eds., Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

    10. William V. Pelfrey, “Precipitating Factors of Paradigmatic Shift in Policing: The Origin of the Community Policing Era,” in Community Policing: Contemporary Readings, ed. Geoffrey P. Alpert and Alex R. Piquero, 2nd ed. (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 2000), 79–92; Weisburd and Braga, Police Innovation.

    11. Eck and Spelman, Problem-Solving.

    12. David H. Bayley, Police for the Future (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 3.

    13. Goldstein, Problem-Oriented Policing; Wesley Skogan and Kathleen Frydl, eds., Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004).

    14. Brian A. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2013: Personnel, Policies, and Practices (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2015).

    15. George L. Kelling, “Police Field Services and Crime: The Presumed Effects of a Capacity,” Crime & Delinquency 24, no. 2 (1978): 175.

    16. George L. Kelling et al., The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment: A Summary Report (Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 1974).

    17. Ibid., 9.

    18. Ibid., 10.

    19. Bayley, Police for the Future; Kelling et al., The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment; Skogan and Frydl, Fairness and Effectiveness.

    20. Kelling et al., The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment, 16–39.

    21. See, for example, Richard C. Larson and Michael F. Cahn, Synthesizing and Extending the Results of Police Patrol Studies (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1985); Lawrence W. Sherman and David Weisburd, “General Deterrent Effects of Police Patrol in Crime ‘Hot Spots’: A Randomized, Controlled Trial,” Justice Quarterly 12, no. 4 (1995): 625–48.

    22. Bayley, Police for the Future, 5.

    23. Dennis Gallagher, Police Response Time: Performance Audit (Denver: City and County of Denver, Office of the Auditor, 2014).

    24. Jeff Adelson, Matt Sledge, and David Hammer, “Special Report: New Orleans Police Response Time Average Is 79 Minutes,” Biloxi Sun Herald, October 29, 2015, http://www.sunherald.com/news/local/crime/article41882376.html.

    25. Tony Pate et al., Police Response Time: Its Determinants and Effects (Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 1976).

    26. Ibid.; Stephen L. Percy, “Response Time and Citizen Evaluation of Police,” Journal of Police Science and Administration 8, no. 1 (1980): 75–86.

    27. Marvin L. Van Kirk, Response Time Analysis: Executive Summary (Kansas City, MO: Board of Commissioners, 1977).

    28. William Spelman and Dale K. Brown, Calling the Police: Citizen Reporting of Serious Crime (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1984), xxi.

    29. Spelman and Brown, Calling the Police.

    30. Peter W. Greenwood, The RAND Criminal Investigation Study: Its Findings and Impacts to Date (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1979).

    31. Peter W. Greenwood and Joan Petersilia, The Criminal Investigation Process, Volume I: Summary and Policy Implications (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1975), vii.

    32. Greenwood and Petersilia, The Criminal Investigation Process, vii.

    33. Greenwood, The RAND Criminal Investigation Study; Greenwood and Petersilia, The Criminal Investigation Process.

    34. Greenwood, The RAND Criminal Investigation Study.

    35. John E. Eck, Solving Crimes: The Investigation of Burglary and Robbery (Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum, 1983), viii.

    36. Steven G. Brandl and James Frank, “The Relationship Between Evidence, Detective Effort, and the Disposition of Burglary and Robbery Investigations,” American Journal of Police 13, no. 3 (1994): 149–68; Eck, Solving Crimes.

    37. Nancy Ritter, “DNA Solves Property Crimes (But Are We Ready for That?),” NIJ Journal, no. 261 (2008): 2–12.

    38. Pelfrey, “Precipitating Factors of Paradigmatic Shift in Policing,” 84.

    39. David M. Kennedy, “Pulling Levers: Chronic Offenders, High-Crime Settings, and a Theory of Prevention,” Valparaiso University Law Review 31 (1996): 449–84.

    40. David M. Kennedy, “Old Wine in New Bottles: Policing and the Lessons of Pulling Levers,” in Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives, ed. David Weisburd and Anthony A. Braga (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 165.

    41. Anthony A. Braga et al., “The Boston Gun Project: Impact Evaluation Findings” (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2000), 2.

    42. Braga et al., “The Boston Gun Project.”

    43. Kennedy, “Old Wine in New Bottles.”

    44. Steven Chermak and Edmund McGarrell, “Problem-Solving Approaches to Homicide: An Evaluation of the Indianapolis Violence Reduction Partnership,” Criminal Justice Policy Review 15, no. 2 (2004): 161–92; Nicholas Corsaro and Edmund F. McGarrell, “Testing a Promising Homicide Reduction Strategy: Re-Assessing the Impact of the Indianapolis ‘Pulling Levers’ Intervention,” Journal of Experimental Criminology 5, no. 1 (2009): 63–82; David M. Kennedy and Anthony A. Braga, “Homicide in Minneapolis,” Homicide Studies 2, no. 3 (1998): 263–90.

    45. Nicholas Corsaro et al., “The Peoria Pulling Levers Drug Market Intervention: A Review of Program Process, Changes in Perception, and Crime Impact” (Chicago: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, 2011); Nicholas Corsaro, Rod K. Brunson, and Edmund F. McGarrell, “Evaluating a Policing Strategy Intended to Disrupt an Illicit Street-Level Drug Market,” Evaluation Review 34, no. 6 (2010): 513–48; Nicholas Corsaro, Rod K. Brunson, and Edmund F. McGarrell, “Problem-Oriented Policing and Open-Air Drug Markets: Examining the Rockford Pulling Levers Deterrence Strategy,” Crime & Delinquency 59, no. 7 (2013): 1085–107.

    46. Robin S. Engel, Marie Skubak Tillyer, and Nicholas Corsaro, “Reducing Gang Violence Using Focused Deterrence: Evaluating the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV),” Justice Quarterly 30, no. 3 (2013): 403–39.

    47. Andrew V. Papachristos, Tracey L. Meares, and Jeffrey Fagan, “Attention Felons: Evaluating Project Safe Neighborhoods in Chicago,” Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 4, no. 2 (2007): 223–72.

    48. Chris Huxham, “Pursuing Collaborative Advantage,” The Journal of the Operational Research Society 44, no. 6 (1993): 599–611.

    49. Braga et al., “The Boston Gun Project.”

    50. Chermak and McGarrell, “Problem-Solving Approaches to Homicide.”

    51. Kennedy, “Old Wine in New Bottles.”

    52. Corsaro, Brunson, and McGarrell, “Evaluating a Policing Strategy.”

    53. Chermak and McGarrell, “Problem-Solving Approaches to Homicide,” 168.

    54. Braga et al., “The Boston Gun Project.”

    55. Kennedy, “Old Wine in New Bottles,” 167.

    56. Kennedy, “Old Wine in New Bottles”; Papachristos, Meares, and Fagan, “Attention Felons.”

    57. Chermak and McGarrell, “Problem-Solving Approaches to Homicide.”

    58. Papachristos, Meares, and Fagan, “Attention Felons,” 232.

    59. Corsaro, Brunson, and McGarrell, “Evaluating a Policing Strategy.”

    60. Kennedy, “Pulling Levers.”

    61. Kennedy and Braga, “Homicide in Minneapolis.”

    62. Kennedy, “Old Wine in New Bottles,” 156–57.

    63. Braga et al., “The Boston Gun Project”; Chermak and McGarrell, “Problem-Solving Approaches to Homicide.”

    64. Kennedy, “Old Wine in New Bottles,” 163.

    65. Huxham, “Pursuing Collaborative Advantage.”

    66. Anthony A. Braga and David L. Weisburd, “The Effects of Focused Deterrence Strategies on Crime: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Evidence,” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 49, no. 3 (2012): 347.

    67. Cynthia Lum, Christopher S. Koper, and Cody W. Telep, “The Evidence-Based Policing Matrix,” Journal of Experimental Criminology (2011): 17.

    68. Braga et al., “The Boston Gun Project.”

    69. Kennedy, “Old Wine in New Bottles,” 158.

    70. A. A. Braga, D. Hureau, and C. Winship, “Losing Faith? Police, Black Churches, and the Resurgence of Youth Violence in Boston,” Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 6 (2008): 141–72.

    71. Anthony A. Braga and Christopher Winship, “Partnership, Accountability, and Innovation: Clarifying Boston’s Experience With Pulling Levers,” in Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives, ed. David Weisburd and Anthony A. Braga (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 181.

    72. Braga, Hureau, and Winship, “Losing Faith?”

    73. Braga and Winship, “Partnership, Accountability, and Innovation,” 178.

    74. Marie Skubak Tillyer, Robin S. Engel, and Brian Lovins, “Beyond Boston: Applying Theory to Understand and Address Sustainability Issues in Focused Deterrence Initiatives for Violence Reduction,” Crime & Delinquency 58, no. 6 (2012): 973–97.

    75. Braga, Hureau, and Winship, “Losing Faith?”

    76. Chermak and McGarrell, “Problem-Solving Approaches to Homicide,” 184.

    77. Mark H. Moore, Recognizing Public Value (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013), 19–20.

    78. Vincent E. Henry, The COMPSTAT Paradigm: Management Accountability in Policing, Business, and the Public Sector (Flushing, NY: Looseleaf Law, 2002); Eli B. Silverman, NYPD Battles Crime: Innovative Strategies in Policing (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1999).

    79. Henry, The COMPSTAT Paradigm; Moore, Recognizing Public Value.

    80. Silverman, NYPD Battles Crime: Innovative Strategies in Policing, 84.

    81. Moore, Recognizing Public Value.

    82. Ibid., 23.

    83. Phyllis P. McDonald, Managing Police Operations: Implementing the New York Crime Control Model CompStat (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2002).

    84. Moore, Recognizing Public Value, 25.

    85. Mark H. Moore, “Sizing Up Compstat: An Important Administrative Innovation in Policing,” Criminology & Public Policy 2, no. 3 (2003): 469–94.

    86. James J. Willis, Stephen D. Mastrofski, and David Weisburd, “Compstat and Bureaucracy: A Case Study of Challenges and Opportunities for Change,” Justice Quarterly 21 (2004): 463–96.

    87. James J. Willis et al., Compstat and Organizational Change in the Lowell Police Department: Challenges and Opportunities (Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 2003), 9.

    88. David Weisburd et al., “Reforming to Preserve: Compstat and Strategic Problem Solving in American Policing,” Criminology & Public Policy 2, no. 3 (2003): 421–56.

    89. Henry, The COMPSTAT Paradigm, 18.

    90. Moore, Recognizing Public Value.

    91. William F. Walsh, “Compstat: An Analysis of an Emerging Managerial Paradigm,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management 24, no. 3 (2001): 347–62.

    92. Weisburd et al., “Reforming to Preserve.”

    93. James J. Willis, Stephen D. Mastrofski, and David Weisburd, Compstat in Practice: An In-Depth Analysis of Three Cities (Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 2003), 25.

    94. Willis, Mastrofski, and Weisburd, Compstat in Practice.

    95. Henry, The COMPSTAT Paradigm.

    96. Willis et al., Compstat and Organizational Change.

    97. Weisburd et al., “Reforming to Preserve.”

    98. Willis, Mastrofski, and Weisburd, “Compstat and Bureaucracy.”

    99. Weisburd et al., “Reforming to Preserve.”

    100. McDonald, Managing Police Operations.

    101. Weisburd et al., “Reforming to Preserve.”

    102. Willis, Mastrofski, and Weisburd, “Compstat and Bureaucracy,” 466.

    103. McDonald, Managing Police Operations, 13.

    104. Walsh, “Compstat”; James J. Willis, Stephen D. Mastrofski, and David Weisburd, “Making Sense of COMPSTAT: A Theory-Based Analysis of Organizational Change in Three Police Departments,” Law & Society Review 41, no. 1 (2007): 147–88.

    105. Moore, Recognizing Public Value.

    106. Lorraine Mazerolle, Sacha Rombouts, and James McBroom, “The Impact of COMPSTAT on Reported Crime in Queensland,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 30, no. 2 (2007): 237–56; Richard Rosenfeld, Robert Fornango, and Eric Baumer, “Did Ceasefire, Compstat, and Exile Reduce Homicide?,” Criminology & Public Policy 4, no. 3 (2005): 419–49; Willis, Mastrofski, and Weisburd, “Making Sense of COMPSTAT.”

    107. Willis et al., 2007

    108. Edmund F. McGarrell, Steven Chermak, and Alexander Weiss, Targeting Firearms Violence Through Directed Police Patrol (Indianapolis: Crime Control Policy Center, Hudson Institute, 1999); Weisburd et al., “Reforming to Preserve.”

    109. Police Executive Research Forum, Future Trends in Policing (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2014).

    110. Robert D. Behn, “Designing Performancestat: Or What Are the Key Strategic Choices That a Jurisdiction or Agency Must Make When Adapting the Compstat/Citistat Class of Performance Strategies?,” Public Performance & Management Review 32, no. 2 (December 2008): 206–35.

    111. George L. Kelling and William H. Sousa, Do Police Matter? An Analysis of the Impact of New York City’s Police Reforms (New York: Center for Civic Innovation at the Manhattan Institute, 2001).

    112. Moore, Recognizing Public Value.

    113. Dean Dabney, “Observations Regarding Key Operational Realities in a Compstat Model of Policing,” Justice Quarterly 27, no. 1 (2010): 28–51.

    114. Ibid., 37.

    115. Skogan and Frydl, Fairness and Effectiveness.

    116. Dabney, “Observations Regarding Key Operational Realities in a Compstat Model of Policing.”

    117. John A. Eterno, Arvind Verma, and Eli B. Silverman, “Police Manipulations of Crime Reporting: Insiders’ Revelations,” Justice Quarterly (in press): doi:10.1080/07418825.2014.980838.

    118. Ibid., 18–19.

    119. Wendy Ruderman, “Crime Report Manipulation Is Common Among New York Police, Study Finds,” The New York Times, June 28, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/29/nyregion/new-york-police-department-manipulates-crime-reports-study-finds.html.

    120. Skogan and Frydl, Fairness and Effectiveness.

    121. Weisburd et al., “Reforming to Preserve.”

    122. Ibid., 448.

    123. David Osborne and Ted Gaebler, Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1992).

    124. Cynthia Lum and Christopher S. Koper, “Evidence-Based Policing,” in Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice, ed. Gerben Bruinsma and David Weisburd (Springer, 2014), 1426–37; Lawrence W. Sherman, Evidence-Based Policing (Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 1998); David Weisburd and Peter Neyroud, Police Science: Toward a New Paradigm, New Perspectives in Policing (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School, Program in Criminal Justice Policy in Management, 2011); Brandon C. Welsh, “Evidence-Based Policing for Crime Prevention,” in Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives, ed. David Weisburd and Anthony A. Braga (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 305–21.

    125. Sherman, Evidence-Based Policing, 4.

    126. Sherman, Evidence-Based Policing; Welsh, “Evidence-Based Policing for Crime Prevention.”

    127. Lawrence W. Sherman, “The Rise of Evidence-Based Policing: Targeting, Testing, and Tracking,” Crime and Justice 42, no. 1 (2013): 383.

    128. Sherman, Evidence-Based Policing.

    129. Lum and Koper, “Evidence-Based Policing”; Anthony Petrosino et al., “Meeting the Challenges of Evidence-Based Policy: The Campbell Collaboration,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 578, no. 1 (2001): 14–34; Denise M. Rousseau, “Is There Such a Thing as ‘Evidence-Based Management’?,” Academy of Management Review 31, no. 2 (2006): 256–69; Sherman, Evidence-Based Policing.

    130. Lum and Koper, “Evidence-Based Policing,” 1427.

    131. Sherman, Evidence-Based Policing.

    132. Sherman, “The Rise of Evidence-Based Policing”; Welsh, “Evidence-Based Policing for Crime Prevention.”

    133. Welsh, “Evidence-Based Policing for Crime Prevention,” 308.

    134. Lum, Koper, and Telep, “The Evidence-Based Policing Matrix”; Welsh, “Evidence-Based Policing for Crime Prevention.”

    135. Lawrence W. Sherman, “Policing for Crime Prevention,” in Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising, ed. Lawrence W. Sherman et al. (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1997).

    136. Petrosino et al., “Meeting the Challenges of Evidence-Based Policy.”

    137. Lorraine Mazerolle, David W. Soole, and Sacha Rombouts, “Street-Level Drug Law Enforcement: A Meta-Analytical Review,” Campbell Systematic Reviews 2 (2007): 1–47.

    138. Skogan and Frydl, Fairness and Effectiveness.

    139. Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy, “Evidence-Based Policing Matrix,” 2015, http://cebcp.org/evidence-based-policing/the-matrix/; Lum, Koper, and Telep, “The Evidence-Based Policing Matrix.”

    140. Lum, Koper, and Telep, “The Evidence-Based Policing Matrix.”

    141. Welsh, “Evidence-Based Policing for Crime Prevention,” 315.

    142. Lum and Koper, “Evidence-Based Policing.”

    143. Brian A. Reaves, State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2006 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2009), 7.

    144. Carol H. Weiss, “The Many Meanings of Research Utilization,” Public Administration Review 39, no. 5 (1979): 426–31; Carol Hirschon Weiss, Erin Murphy-Graham, and Sarah Birkeland, “An Alternate Route to Policy Influence: How Evaluations Affect D.A.R.E.,” American Journal of Evaluation 26, no. 1 (2005): 12–30.

    145. Weiss, Murphy-Graham, and Birkeland, “An Alternate Route,” 13.

    146. Stephen D. Mastrofski and James J. Willis, “Police Organization Continuity and Change: Into the Twenty first Century,” Crime and Justice 39, no. 1 (2010): 84.

    147. Weiss, “The Many Meanings of Research Utilization”; Weiss, Murphy-Graham, and Birkeland, “An Alternate Route.”

    148. Rousseau, “Is There Such a Thing as ‘Evidence-Based Management’?”; Malcolm K. Sparrow, Governing Science (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School, Program in Criminal Justice Policy in Management, 2011).

    149. Rousseau, “Is There Such a Thing as ‘Evidence-Based Management’?”

    150. Sparrow, Governing Science, 4.

    151. Weisburd and Neyroud, Police Science: Toward a New Paradigm.

    152. Andrew McAfee and Erik Brynjolfsson, “Big Data: The Management Revolution,” Harvard Business Review 90, no. 10 (2012): 60–68.

    153. Ibid., 62.

    154. David Carr, “Giving Viewers What They Want,” The New York Times, February 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/25/business/media/for-house-of-cards-using-big-data-to-guarantee-its-popularity.html.

    155. Ibid., para. 7.

    156. Barbara Thau, “How Big Data Helps Stores Like Macy’s and Kohl’s Track You Like Never Before,” Forbes, January 24, 2014, http://www.forbes.com/sites/barbarathau/2014/01/24/why-the-smart-use-of-big-data-will-transform-the-retail-industry/.

    157. Beth Pearsall, “Predictive Policing: The Future of Law Enforcement?,” National Institute of Justice Journal, no. 266 (2010): 16.

    158. Walter L. Perry et al., Predictive Policing: The Role of Crime Forecasting in Law Enforcement Operations (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2013).

    159. Samuel Greengard, “Policing the Future,” Communications of the ACM 55, no. 3 (2012): 19.

    160. Perry et al., Predictive Policing.

    161. Erica Goode, “Sending the Police Before There’s a Crime,” The New York Times, August 15, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/16/us/16police.html.

    162. Police Executive Research Forum, Future Trends in Policing.

    163. Jessica M. Pasko, “Time Magazine Names Santa Cruz Predictive Policing Program One of the Year’s Top Inventions,” San Jose Mercury News, November 23, 2011, http://www.mercurynews.com/breaking-news/ci_19400300.

    164. Goode, “Sending the Police Before There’s a Crime.”

    165. Greengard, “Policing the Future.”

    166. Pearsall, “Predictive Policing,” 17.

    167. William J. Bratton, “Reducing Crime Through Prevention Not Incarceration,” Criminology & Public Policy 10, no. 1 (2011): 63–68.

    168. Ibid., 65.

    169. Perry et al., Predictive Policing.

    170. Greg Ridgeway, “The Pitfalls of Prediction,” National Institute of Justice Journal, no. 271 (2013): 34–40.

    171. Ellen Huet, “Serve and Protect: Predictive Policing Firm PredPol Promises to Map Crime Before It Happens,” Forbes, February 11, 2015, http://www.forbes.com/sites/ellenhuet/2015/02/11/predpol-predictive-policing/.

    172. Pearsall, “Predictive Policing.”

    173. Elizabeth E. Joh, “Policing by Numbers: Big Data and the Fourth Amendment,” Washington Law Review 89 (2014): 57.

    174. Eric B. Dent and Susan Galloway Goldberg, “Challenging ‘Resistance to Change,’” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 35, no. 1 (1999): 25.

    175. Patrick E. Connor and Linda K. Lake, Managing Organizational Change, 2nd ed. (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1994).

    176. Susan Sadd and Randolph M. Grinc, Implementation Challenges in Community Policing: Innovative Neighborhood-Oriented Policing in Eight Cities (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1996), 51.

    177. Deborah Ramirez, Jack McDevitt, and Amy Farrell, A Resource Guide on Racial Profiling Data Collection Systems: Promising Practices and Lessons Learned (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2000).

    178. Samuel Walker, “Does Anyone Remember Team Policing? Lessons of the Team Policing Experience for Community Policing,” American Journal of Police 12, no. 1 (1993): 41.

    179. Greengard, “Policing the Future”; H. V. Jagadish, “The Promise—and Perils—of Predictive Policing Based on Big Data,” Gizmodo, November 17, 2015, http://gizmodo.com/the-promise-and-perils-of-predictive-policing-based-on-1742958281; Joel Rubin, “Stopping Crime Before It Starts,” Los Angeles Times, August 21, 2010, http://articles.latimes.com/2010/aug/21/local/la-me-predictcrime-20100427-1.

    180. Jagadish, “The Promise—and Perils—of Predictive Policing Based on Big Data”; Perry et al., Predictive Policing.

    181. Perry et al., Predictive Policing, 8.

    182. John Eligon and Timothy Williams, “Police Program Aims to Pinpoint Those Most Likely to Commit Crimes,” The New York Times, September 24, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/25/us/police-program-aims-to-pinpoint-those-most-likely-to-commit-crimes.html.

    183. Jeremy Gorner, “Chicago Police Use ‘Heat List’ as Strategy to Prevent Violence,” Chicago Tribune, August 21, 2013, http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2013-08-21/news/ct-met-heat-list-20130821_1_chicago-police-commander-andrew-papachristos-heat-list.

    184. Eligon and Williams, “Police Program Aims”; Gorner, “Chicago Police Use ‘Heat List.’”

    185. Jagadish, “The Promise—and Perils—of Predictive Policing Based on Big Data,” para. 13.

    Chapter 10

    1. Coral Gables Police Department Employee Performance Evaluation—Patrol Officer,” 2008, 2–5, http://www.coralgables.com/modules/showdocument.aspx?documentid=1957.

    2. Mitchell L. Tyre, “Development of a Values Based Performance Appraisal and Evaluation System,” Senior Leadership Program Research Papers (Tallahassee, FL: Florida Criminal Justice Executive Institute, 1993), 1.

    3. Ibid., 3.

    4. Michael Lipsky, Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services (New York: Russell Sage, 1980), 3.

    5. Velmer S. Burton et al., “The Prescribed Roles of Police in a Free Society: Analyzing State Legal Codes,” Justice Quarterly 10, no. 4 (1993): 683–95.

    6. Robert H. Langworthy, ed., Measuring What Matters: Proceedings From the Policing Research Institute Meetings (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1999).

    7. Jeanette N. Cleveland, Kevin R. Murphy, and Richard E. Williams, “Multiple Uses of Performance Appraisal: Prevalence and Correlates,” Journal of Applied Psychology 74, no. 1 (1989): 130–35; Gerasimos A. Gianakis, “Appraising the Performance of Police Patrol Officers: The Florida Experience,” Journal of Criminal Justice 20, no. 5 (1992): 413–28; Vandra L. Huber, “An Analysis of Performance Appraisal Practices in the Public Sector: A Review and Recommendations,” Public Personnel Management 12, no. 3 (1983): 258; Kevin R. Murphy and Jeanette Cleveland, Understanding Performance Appraisal: Social, Organizational, and Goal-Based Perspectives (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995).

    8. Gianakis, “Appraising the Performance of Police Patrol.”

    9. Cleveland, Murphy, and Williams, “Multiple Uses of Performance Appraisal.”

    10. Huber, “An Analysis of Performance Appraisal Practices.”

    11. Ibid., 262.

    12. J. Richard Hackman and Greg R. Oldham, Work Redesign (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980).

    13. David Lilley and Sameer Hinduja, “Organizational Values and Police Officer Evaluation: A Content Comparison Between Traditional and Community Policing Agencies,” Police Quarterly 9, no. 4 (2006): 486–513; Stephen D. Mastrofski, “Personnel and Agency Performance Measurement,” in Local Government Police Management, ed. William A. Geller and Darrel W. Stephens, 4th ed. (Washington, DC: International City/County Management Association, 2003), 447–86.

    14. Diana Winstanley and Kate Stuart-Smith, “Policing Performance: The Ethics of Performance Management,” Personnel Review 25, no. 6 (1996): 69.

    15. David Osborne and Ted Gaebler, Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1992), 146.

    16. Jack R. Greene, “Community Policing in America: Changing the Nature, Structure, and Function of the Police,” in Policies, Processes, and Decisions of the Criminal Justice System, ed. Julie Horney, Criminal Justice 2000 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2000), 299–370.

    17. Cleveland, Murphy, and Williams, “Multiple Uses of Performance Appraisal”; Gianakis, “Appraising the Performance of Police Patrol”; Mastrofski, “Personnel and Agency Performance Measurement.”

    18. William Wells, “Performance Appraisal Systems,” in Implementing Community Policing: Lessons from 12 Agencies, ed. Edward Maguire and William Wells (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2009), 71–78.

    19. Cleveland, Murphy, and Williams, “Multiple Uses of Performance Appraisal,” 130–31.

    20. Jeffrey S. Kane, H. John Bernardin, and Michael Wiatrowski, “Performance Appraisal,” in Psychology and Policing, ed. Neil Brewer and Carlene Wilson (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995), 257–90; Mastrofski, “Personnel and Agency Performance Measurement.”

    21. Mastrofski, “Personnel and Agency Performance Measurement”; Murphy and Cleveland, Understanding Performance Appraisal.

    22. Labor. Code of Federal Regulations. Title 29, n.d. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title29-vol4/xml/CFR-2011-title29-vol4-part1607.xml.

    23. Gary W. Cordner, Jack R. Greene, and Tim S. Bynum, “Police Human Resource Planning,” in Managing Police Work: Issues and Analysis, ed. Jack R. Greene (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1982), 53–74; Gianakis, “Appraising the Performance of Police Patrol.”

    24. Stephen E. Bemis, Ann Holt Belenky, and Dee Ann Soder, Job Analysis: An Effective Management Tool (Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs, 1983).

    25. Michigan Commission on Law Enforcement Standards, Statewide Job Analysis of the Patrol Officer Position: Report for the Detroit Police Department (Lansing: Michigan Commission on Law Enforcement Standards, 2006), 19.

    26. Ibid., 3.

    27. Bemis, Belenky, and Soder, Job Analysis.

    28. Blake v. City of Los Angeles, 595 F.2d 1367 (US Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit 1979).

    29. Gregory S. Anderson, Darryl Plecas, and Tim Segger, “Police Officer Physical Ability Testing: Re Validating a Selection Criterion,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 24, no. 1 (2001): 8–31.

    30. Ibid., 24.

    31. Jon M. Werner and Mark C. Bolino, “Explaining US Courts of Appeals Decisions Involving Performance Appraisal: Accuracy, Fairness, and Validation,” Personnel Psychology 50, no. 1 (1997): 1–24.

    32. Robert Trojanowicz and Bonnie Bucqueroux, Toward Development of Meaningful and Effective Performance Evaluations (East Lansing: Michigan State University, National Center for Community Policing, 1992), 12.

    33. XiaoHu Wang, James J. Vardalis, and Ellen G. Cohn, “Testing a Typology of Police Performance Measures: An Empirical Study of Police Services,” Criminal Justice Policy Review 11, no. 1 (2000): 63–83.

    34. Serdar Kenan Gul and Paul E. O’Connell, Police Performance Appraisals: A Comparative Perspective (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2013), 30.

    35. Gianakis, “Appraising the Performance of Police Patrol.”

    36. Lilley and Hinduja, “Organizational Values and Police Officer Evaluation.”

    37. Ibid., 502.

    38. Kane, Bernardin, and Wiatrowski, “Performance Appraisal,” 261.

    39. Hubert S. Feild and William H. Holley, “The Relationship of Performance Appraisal System Characteristics to Verdicts in Selected Employment Discrimination Cases,” The Academy of Management Journal 25, no. 2 (1982): 400. Another study reviewing more recent federal court cases found no significant relationship between the type of measures and case outcome. Both studies also highlight the importance of job analysis. See Werner and Bolino, “Explaining US Courts of Appeals Decisions.”

    40. Gul and O’Connell, Police Performance Appraisals; Kane, Bernardin, and Wiatrowski, “Performance Appraisal.”

    41. Timothy N. Oettmeier and Mary Ann Wycoff, “Personnel Performance Evaluations in the Community Policing Context,” in Community Policing: Contemporary Readings, ed. Geoffrey P. Alpert and Alex R. Piquero, 2nd ed. (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 2000), 373–404.

    42. Gianakis, “Appraising the Performance of Police Patrol.”

    43. Providence Police Department, Field Training & Evaluation Program Manual (Providence, RI: Providence Police Department, 2014), http://www.providenceri.com/sites/default/files/ppd-directives/2014%20Field%20Training%20and%20Evaluation%20Program.pdf.

    44. Harry P. Hatry, Performance Measurement: Getting Results (Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2006), 16.

    45. Gianakis, “Appraising the Performance of Police Patrol.”

    46. “City of Chicago Performance Evaluation Supervisory Employee Rating Form,” n.d., 2, http://directives.chicagopolice.org/forms/PER-96.pdf.

    47. John P. McIver and Roger B. Parks, “Evaluating Police Performance: Identification of Effective and Ineffective Police Actions,” in Police at Work: Policy Issues and Analysis, ed. Richard R. Bennett, Perspectives in Criminal Justice 5 (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1983), 21–44; Darrel W. Stephens, “Community Problem-Oriented Policing: Measuring Impacts,” in Quantifying Quality in Policing, ed. Larry T. Hoover (Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum, 1996), 95–129; XiaoHu Wang, “Perception and Reality in Developing an Outcome Performance Measurement System,” International Journal of Public Administration 25, no. 6 (2002): 805–29.

    48. Mastrofski, “Personnel and Agency Performance Measurement,” 453.

    49. Luke Bonkiewicz, “Bobbies and Baseball Players: Evaluating Patrol Officer Productivity Using Sabermetrics,” Police Quarterly 18, no. 1 (2015): 55–78; Mastrofski, “Personnel and Agency Performance Measurement.”

    50. Hatry, Performance Measurement, 17.

    51. David C. Couper, How to Rate Your Local Police (Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 1983); Harry P. Hatry et al., How Effective Are Your Community Services? Procedures for Performance Measurement, 2nd ed. (Washington, DC: Urban Institute and International City/County Management Association, 1992).

    52. Malcolm K. Sparrow, Measuring Performance in a Modern Police Organization, New Perspectives in Policing (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2015), 16.

    53. Stephen L. Percy, “In Defense of Citizen Evaluations as Performance Measures,” Urban Affairs Review 22, no. 1 (1986): 66–83.

    54. Gregg G. Van Ryzin, Stephen Immerwahr, and Stan Altman, “Measuring Street Cleanliness: A Comparison of New York City’s Scorecard and Results From a Citizen Survey,” Public Administration Review 68, no. 2 (2008): 295–303.

    55. Geoffrey P. Alpert and Mark H. Moore, “Measuring Police Performance in the New Paradigm of Policing,” in Performance Measures for the Criminal Justice System, ed. John J. DiIulio et al. (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1993), 108–41.

    56. Wells, “Performance Appraisal Systems.”

    57. Sparrow, Measuring Performance in a Modern Police Organization.

    58. Ibid., 17.

    59. Murphy and Cleveland, Understanding Performance Appraisal, 120.

    60. Ibid., 134.

    61. Gul and O’Connell, Police Performance Appraisals; Kane, Bernardin, and Wiatrowski, “Performance Appraisal”; Walter W. Tornow, “Perceptions or Reality: Is Multi-Perspective Measurement a Means or an End?,” Human Resource Management 32, no. 2/3 (1993): 221–29.

    62. Oettmeier and Wycoff, “Personnel Performance Evaluations in the Community Policing Context,” 396.

    63. David Lilley and Sameer Hinduja, “Officer Evaluation in the Community Policing Context,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 29, no. 1 (2006): 19–37.

    64. Commission for Florida Law Enforcement Accreditation, Standards Manual, Edition 4.0.33 (Tallahassee: Commission for Florida Law Enforcement Accreditation, 2015), 16.2–16.3, http://www.flaccreditation.org/docs/standards/CFA%20Standards%20Manual%20Fourth%20Edition%204.0.33.pdf.

    65. L. L. Cummings and Donald P. Schwab, Performance in Organizations: Determinants & Appraisal (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1973).

    66. John C. Georgesen and Monica J. Harris, “Why’s My Boss Always Holding Me Down? A Meta-Analysis of Power Effects on Performance Evaluations,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 2, no. 3 (1998): 184–95.

    67. Michael K. Brown, Working the Street: Police Discretion and the Dilemmas of Reform (New York: Russell Sage, 1988), 121.

    68. Brown, Working the Street; Cummings and Schwab, Performance in Organizations.

    69. Murphy and Cleveland, Understanding Performance Appraisal.

    70. Gul and O’Connell, Police Performance Appraisals.

    71. Ibid.

    72. Rockford Police Department, General Order Number–30.02, 2011, 6, http://www.rockfordil.gov/media/7156/GO%2030.02%20-%20PERFORMANCE%20EVALUATION%20SYSTEM%20(06-13-11).pdf.

    73. Mastrofski, “Personnel and Agency Performance Measurement.”

    74. Larry M. Coutts and Frank W. Schneider, “Police Officer Performance Appraisal Systems: How Good Are They?,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 27, no. 1 (2004): 67–81; Gul and O’Connell, Police Performance Appraisals; Mastrofski, “Personnel and Agency Performance Measurement”; John Thibaut and Laurens Walker, “A Theory of Procedure,” California Law Review 66, no. 3 (1978): 541–66.

    75. Agreement Between the Village of Willowbrook and Illinois Fraternal Order of Police Labor Council, 2006, http://www.willowbrookil.org/DocumentCenter/Home/View/283.

    76. Coutts and Schneider, “Police Officer Performance Appraisal Systems.”

    77. Gul and O’Connell, Police Performance Appraisals.

    78. Coutts and Schneider, “Police Officer Performance Appraisal Systems.”

    79. Paul A. Mabe and Stephen G. West, “Validity of Self-Evaluation of Ability: A Review and Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Applied Psychology 67, no. 3 (June 1982): 280–96.

    80. Leanne E. Atwater et al., “An Upward Feedback Field Experiment: Supervisors’ Cynicism, Reactions, and Commitment to Subordinates,” Personnel Psychology 53, no. 2 (2000): 275–97.

    81. Ibid., 291.

    82. Gul and O’Connell, Police Performance Appraisals; Murphy and Cleveland, Understanding Performance Appraisal.

    83. Kevin G. Love, “Empirical Recommendations for the Use of Peer Rankings in the Evaluation of Police Officer Performance,” Public Personnel Management 12, no. 1 (1983), 25.

    84. Robert J. Wherry and C. J. Bartlett, “The Control of Bias in Ratings: A Theory of Rating,” Personnel Psychology 35, no. 3 (1982): 521–51.

    85. Murphy and Cleveland, Understanding Performance Appraisal.

    86. Oxnard Police Department, “Field Services: SWAT/Special Enforcement Unit,” Oxnard Police Department, 2015, https://www.oxnardpd.org/bureaus/specialenforcement.asp?OpdSpecialOpdID=5.

    87. Agreement Between the Village of Willowbrook and Illinois Fraternal Order of Police Labor Council. Incidentally, the peer and self-evaluation language was removed from the two contracts through 2016. Officer performance was assessed via a performance interview with a supervisor.

    88. Gul and O’Connell, Police Performance Appraisals, 37.

    89. Murphy and Cleveland, Understanding Performance Appraisal, 140.

    90. Cummings and Schwab, Performance in Organizations; Gul and O’Connell, Police Performance Appraisals; Murphy and Cleveland, Understanding Performance Appraisal.

    91. Cummings and Schwab, Performance in Organizations.

    92. Love, “Empirical Recommendations for the Use of Peer Rankings.”

    93. J. E. Schumacher et al., “The Relation of Peer Assessment to Future Law Enforcement Performance,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 19, no. 3 (1992): 286–93.

    94. Ibid., 292.

    95. Oettmeier and Wycoff, “Personnel Performance Evaluations in the Community Policing Context.”

    96. Murphy and Cleveland, Understanding Performance Appraisal, 141.

    97. Oettmeier and Wycoff, “Personnel Performance Evaluations in the Community Policing Context,” 396.

    98. Mastrofski, “Personnel and Agency Performance Measurement.”

    99. Lilley and Hinduja, “Officer Evaluation in the Community Policing Context.”

    100. Thomas S. Whetstone, “Subordinates Evaluate Supervisory and Administrative Performance,” Police Chief 61 (1994): 57–66.

    101. Cummings and Schwab, Performance in Organizations; Whetstone, “Subordinates Evaluate.”

    102. Atwater et al., “An Upward Feedback Field Experiment.”

    103. Cummings and Schwab, Performance in Organizations; Murphy and Cleveland, Understanding Performance Appraisal.

    104. Cummings and Schwab, Performance in Organizations.

    105. Stephen Mastrofski, “Surveying Clients to Assess Police Performance Focusing on the Police-Citizen Encounter,” Evaluation Review 5, no. 3 (1981): 399.

    106. Mastrofski, “Personnel and Agency Performance Measurement,” 458.

    107. Lilley and Hinduja, “Officer Evaluation in the Community Policing Context.”

    108. Dennis P. Rosenbaum et al., “Measuring Police and Community Performance Using Web-Based Surveys: Findings From the Chicago Internet Project” (Chicago: University of Illinois at Chicago, Center for Research in Law and Justice, 2007).

    109. Murphy and Cleveland, Understanding Performance Appraisal, 275.

    110. Jeremy P. Meyer, “Denver Police Chief Rejects Generous Performance Evaluations,” Denver Post, March 5, 2013, http://www.denverpost.com/ci_22725232/denver-police-chief-rejects-generous-performance-evaluations.

    111. Ibid.

    112. Murphy and Cleveland, Understanding Performance Appraisal.

    113. William K. Balzer and Lorne M. Sulsky, “Halo and Performance Appraisal Research: A Critical Examination,” Journal of Applied Psychology 77, no. 6 (1992): 975–85; Gul and O’Connell, Police Performance Appraisals; Murphy and Cleveland, Understanding Performance Appraisal.

    114. Gul and O’Connell, Police Performance Appraisals; Murphy and Cleveland, Understanding Performance Appraisal.

    115. Steven G. Brandl et al., “Global and Specific Attitudes Toward the Police: Disentangling the Relationship,” Justice Quarterly 11, no. 1 (1994): 119–34.

    116. Gul and O’Connell, Police Performance Appraisals; Kane, Bernardin, and Wiatrowski, “Performance Appraisal”; Mastrofski, “Personnel and Agency Performance Measurement.”

    117. Coutts and Schneider, “Police Officer Performance Appraisal Systems.”

    118. Mastrofski, “Personnel and Agency Performance Measurement,” 459.

    119. Gary E. Roberts, “A Case Study in Performance Appraisal System Development: Lessons From a Municipal Police Department,” The American Review of Public Administration 26, no. 3 (1996): 361–85.

    120. Ibid., 367–368.

    121. Lilley and Hinduja, “Officer Evaluation in the Community Policing Context.”

    122. Coutts and Schneider, “Police Officer Performance Appraisal Systems.”

    123. Gul and O’Connell, Police Performance Appraisals.

    124. Murphy and Cleveland, Understanding Performance Appraisal.

    125. Roberts, “A Case Study in Performance Appraisal System Development,” 371.

    126. David Lilley and Sameer Hinduja, “Police Officer Performance Appraisal and Overall Satisfaction,” Journal of Criminal Justice 35, no. 2 (2007): 137–50.

    127. William F. Walsh, “Performance Evaluation in Small and Medium Police Departments: A Supervisory Perspective,” American Journal of Police 9 (1990): 93–109.

    128. Ibid., 101.

    129. Coutts and Schneider, “Police Officer Performance Appraisal Systems.”

    130. Lilley and Hinduja, “Police Officer Performance Appraisal and Overall Satisfaction.”

    131. Philip Beneventano, Paul D. Berger, and Bruce D. Weinberg, “Predicting Run Production and Run Prevention in Baseball: The Impact of Sabermetrics,” International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology 2, no. 4 (2012): 67–75; Michael Lewis, Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game (New York: W. W. Norton, 2003).

    132. Beneventano, Berger, and Weinberg, “Predicting Run Production,” 67.

    133. Lewis, Moneyball.

    134. Bonkiewicz, “Bobbies and Baseball Players”; Anthony G. Vito and Gennaro F. Vito, “Lessons for Policing From Moneyball: The Views of Police Managers—A Research Note,” American Journal of Criminal Justice 38, no. 2 (2012): 236–44.

    135. Bonkiewicz, “Bobbies and Baseball Players.”

    136. Ibid., 60.

    137. Ibid., 71.

    138. Nan Hu, Paul A. Pavlou, and Jennifer Zhang, “Can Online Reviews Reveal a Product’s True Quality?: Empirical Findings and Analytical Modeling of Online Word-of-Mouth Communication,” in Proceedings of the 7th ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce, EC ’06 (New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2006), 327.

    139. “FBI Releases 2013 Crime Statistics,” FBI, 2014, https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2013/crime-in-the-u.s.-2013/summary-2013/2013-cius-summary-_final.

    Chapter 11

    1. Delores Jones-Brown, Jaspreet Gill, and Jennifer Trone, Stop, Question & Frisk Policing Practices in New York City: A Primer (New York: John Jay College Center on Race, Crime and Justice, 2010).

    2. Joseph B. Treaster, “Bratton Policing Experiment Gets Results,” The New York Times, July 25, 1994, sec. The Metro Setion, B4.

    3. William K. Rashbaum and Al Baker, “Police Commissioner Closing Controversial Street Crime Unit,” The New York Times, April 10, 2002, sec. N.Y. / Region, http://www.nytimes.com/2002/04/10/nyregion/police-commissioner-closing-controversial-street-crime-unit.html.

    4. Timothy Lynch, “‘We Own the Night’: Amadou Diallo’s Deadly Encounter With New York City’s Street Crimes Unit,” Cato Institute Briefing Papers (Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2000); Peter K. Manning, “Theorizing Policing: The Drama and Myth of Crime Control in the NYPD,” Theoretical Criminology 5, no. 3 (2001): 315–44; Kit R. Roane, “Elite Force Quells Crime, but at a Cost, Critics Say,” The New York Times, February 6, 1999, sec. N.Y. / Region, http://www.nytimes.com/1999/02/06/nyregion/elite-force-quells-crime-but-at-a-cost-critics-say.html.

    5. Rashbaum and Baker, “Police Commissioner Closing Controversial Street Crime Unit,” para. 4.

    6. J. Fagan and G. Davies, “Street Stops and Broken Windows: Terry, Race and Disorder in New York City,” Fordham Urban Law Journal 28 (2000): 457–504; Manning, “Theorizing Policing.”

    7. Juan Forero, “Serial Rapist Gets 155 Years; Judge Suggests His Crimes Contributed to Diallo Shooting,” The New York Times, August 2, 2000, sec. N.Y. / Region, http://www.nytimes.com/2000/08/02/nyregion/serial-rapist-gets-155-years-judge-suggests-his-crimes-contributed-diallo.html.

    8. David Klinger, Social Theory and the Street Cop: The Case of Deadly Force (Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 2005); Lynch, “We Own the Night.”

    9. Klinger, Social Theory and the Street Cop.

    10. David M. Herszenhorn, “Capital Demonstration Widens Support for Diallo Rallies,” The New York Times, April 4, 1999, sec. The Metro Section; Robert D. McFadden, “Four Officers Indicted for Murder in Killing of Diallo, Lawyer Says,” The New York Times, Late Edition (East Coast), March 26, 1999, sec. A.

    11. Klinger, Social Theory and the Street Cop.

    12. Ibid., 11.

    13. Alan Feuer, “$3 Million Deal in Police Killing of Diallo in ’99,” The New York Times, Late Edition (East Coast), January 7, 2004, sec. A.

    14. James T. Reason, Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 1997).

    15. Diane Vaughan, “The Dark Side of Organizations: Mistake, Misconduct, and Disaster,” Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 271–305.

    16. Reason, Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents, 1.

    17. Velmer S. Burton et al., “The Prescribed Roles of Police in a Free Society: Analyzing State Legal Codes,” Justice Quarterly 10, no. 4 (1993): 683–95.

    18. Elizabeth A. Henneman and Anna Gawlinski, “A ‘Near-Miss’ Model for Describing the Nurse’s Role in the Recovery of Medical Errors,” Journal of Professional Nursing 20, no. 3 (2004): 196–201; James Reason, “Human Error: Models and Management,” BMJ: British Medical Journal 320, no. 7237 (2000): 768–70.

    19. Reason, “Human Error: Models and Management,” 2000, 768.

    20. Sanja Kutnjak Ivković, “Rotten Apples, Rotten Branches, and Rotten Orchards,” Criminology & Public Policy 8, no. 4 (2009): 777–85; William R. King, “Police Officer Misconduct as Normal Accidents,” Criminology & Public Policy 8, no. 4 (2009): 771–76; Amy B. Zegart, Spying Blind: The CIA, FBI, and the Origins of 9/11 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007).

    21. Zegart, Spying Blind, 7.

    22. Lynch, “We Own the Night.”

    23. Reason, Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents.

    24. John Babb and Reginald Ammons, “BOP Inmate Transport: A High Reliability Organization,” Corrections Today 58, no. 4 (1996): 108–10; Clarissa Freitas Dias and Michael S. Vaughn, “Bureaucracy, Managerial Disorganization, and Administrative Breakdown in Criminal Justice Agencies,” Journal of Criminal Justice 34 (2006): 543–55; Reason, Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents.

    25. Helmut K. Anheier, When Things Go Wrong: Organizational Failures and Breakdowns (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999); Dias and Vaughn, “Bureaucracy, Managerial Disorganization”; King, “Police Officer Misconduct as Normal Accidents”; Patrick O’Hara, Why Law Enforcement Organizations Fail: Mapping the Organizational Fault Lines in Policing, 2nd ed. (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2012); Rangaraj Ramanujam and Paul S. Goodman, “Latent Errors and Adverse Organizational Consequences: A Conceptualization,” Journal of Organizational Behavior 24, no. 7 (2003): 815–36; William H. Starbuck and Moshe Farjoun, eds., Organization at the Limit: Lessons from the Columbia Disaster (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005); Diane Vaughan, The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky, Technology, Culture, and Deviance at NASA (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996); Vaughan, “The Dark Side of Organizations.”

    26. Ramanujam and Goodman, “Latent Errors and Adverse Organizational Consequences.”

    27. Reason, “Human Error: Models and Management,” 2000; Reason, Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents.

    28. James T. Reason, Human Error (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

    29. Reason, “Human Error: Models and Management,” 2000, 768.

    30. Ibid.

    31. Reason, Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents.

    32. Mark R. Chassin and Elise C. Becher, “The Wrong Patient,” Annals of Internal Medicine 136, no. 11 (2002): 826–33.

    33. Karl E. Weick, “The Vulnerable System: An Analysis of the Tenefire Air Disaster,” Journal of Management 16 (1990): 571–93.

    34. Ibid.

    35. Ibid., 574.

    36. Weick, “The Vulnerable System.”

    37. Reason, Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents.

    38. Ibid.; Vaughan, “The Dark Side of Organizations.” Reason refers to intentional acts with intended harmful outcomes as sabotage.

    39. Reason, Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents, 72. The author addresses “skill-based skips and lapses.”

    40. Federal Aviation Administration, “Runway Incursion Totals by Quarter FY2014 vs. FY2013,” 2013, http://www.faa.gov/airports/runway_safety/statistics/year/?fy1=2014&fy2=2013.

    41. Philip Aspden et al., eds., Patient Safety: Achieving a New Standard for Care (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004), 227.

    42. H. W. Heinrich, Dan Petersen, and Nestor R. Roos, Industrial Accident Prevention: A Safety Management Approach, 5th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980).

    43. Klinger, Social Theory and the Street Cop, 7.

    44. Katharine Browning et al., Paving the Way: Lessons Learned in Sentinel Event Reviews (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2015), 1.

    45. Tjerk W. van der Schaaf, “Near Miss Reporting in the Chemical Process Industry: An Overview,” Microelectronics Reliability, Reliability: A Competitive Edge, 35, no. 9–10 (1995): 1233–43.

    46. Aspden et al., Patient Safety; van der Schaaf, “Near Miss Reporting in the Chemical Process Industry”; Z. Zhou, Q. Li, and W. Wu, “Developing a Versatile Subway Construction Incident Database for Safety Management,” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 138, no. 10 (2012): 1169–80.

    47. David Chanen and Warren Wolfe, “2 Killed at Holidazzle,” Star Tribune, December 5, 1998.

    48. O’Hara, Why Law Enforcement Organizations Fail, 30.

    49. O’Hara, Why Law Enforcement Organizations Fail; Margaret Zack, “Ford Attorney Blames the City for Parade Crash,” Star Tribune, October 5, 2001.

    50. O’Hara, Why Law Enforcement Organizations Fail.

    51. Joy Powell, “Officer Won’t Face Charges for Driving Into Parade Crowd,” Star Tribune, April 21, 1999, sec. NEWS.

    52. O’Hara, Why Law Enforcement Organizations Fail, 32.

    53. Cynthia Lum and George Fachner, Police Pursuits in an Age of Innovation and Reform: The IACP Police Pursuit Database (Alexandria, VA: International Association of Chiefs of Police, 2008), 4.

    54. Geoffrey P. Alpert, “A Factorial Analysis of Police Pursuit Driving Decisions: A Research Note,” Justice Quarterly 15, no. 2 (1998): 347–59; John M. MacDonald and Geoffrey P. Alpert, “Public Attitudes Toward Police Pursuit Driving,” Journal of Criminal Justice 26, no. 3 (1998): 185–94.

    55. Geoffrey P. Alpert, Police Pursuit: Policies and Training (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 1997); Geoffrey P. Alpert and Roger G. Dunham, “Research on Police Pursuits: Applications for Law Enforcement,” American Journal of Police 7 (1988): 123–31; Lum and Fachner, Police Pursuits in an Age of Innovation. Research shows that, in roughly 40 percent of cases, pursuits are initiated for suspected traffic violations. Depending upon the study, felonies represent anywhere from 16 percent to more than 40 percent of pursuits. The remainder includes reasons such as drunk driving, misdemeanors, or other. According to research, police may be more cautious in their pursuit of felons (e.g., using backup, stopping in an open area), but these situations are more likely to involve accidents. See Geoffrey P. Alpert and Patrick R. Anderson, “The Most Deadly Force: Police Pursuits,” Justice Quarterly 3, no. 1 (1986): 1–14.

    56. Alpert, Police Pursuit: Policies and Training; Alpert and Dunham, “Research on Police Pursuits.”

    57. Alpert, Police Pursuit: Policies and Training.

    58. Alpert and Dunham, “Research on Police Pursuits”; Dennis M. Payne and John C. Fenske, “An Analysis of the Rates of Accidents, Injuries and Fatalities Under Different Light Conditions: A Michigan Emergency Response Study of State Police Pursuits,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 20, no. 2 (1997): 357–73.

    59. Alpert, Police Pursuit: Policies and Training.

    60. Lum and Fachner, Police Pursuits in an Age of Innovation.

    61. Ibid.

    62. F. P. Rivara and C. D. Mack, “Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths Related to Police Pursuits in the United States,” Injury Prevention 10, no. 2 (2004): 93–95.

    63. Nonmotorists include pedestrians and bicyclists.

    64. Lum and Fachner, Police Pursuits in an Age of Innovation, 58.

    65. Hugo Adam Bedau and Michael L. Radelet, “Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases,” Stanford Law Review 40, no. 1 (1987): 21–179; Talia Roitberg Harmon, “Predictors of Miscarriages of Justice in Capital Cases,” Justice Quarterly 18, no. 4 (2001): 949–68; Arye Rattner, “Convicted but Innocent: Wrongful Conviction and the Criminal Justice System,” Law and Human Behavior 12, no. 3 (1988): 283–93.

    66. Bedau and Radelet, “Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases.”

    67. C. Ronald Huff et al., “Guilty Until Proved Innocent: Wrongful Conviction and Public Policy,” Crime & Delinquency 32, no. 4 (1986): 518–44.

    68. Bedau and Radelet, “Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases”; Harmon, “Predictors of Miscarriages of Justice in Capital Cases”; Richard A. Leo, “Rethinking the Study of Miscarriages of Justice: Developing a Criminology of Wrongful Conviction,” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 21, no. 3 (2005): 201–23.

    69. Roger Koppl, “How to Improve Forensic Science,” European Journal of Law and Economics 20, no. 3 (2005): 255–86.

    70. William C. Thompson, “Beyond Bad Apples: Analyzing the Role of Forensic Science in Wrongful Convictions,” Southwestern University Law Review 37 (2008): 1035.

    71. Thompson, “Beyond Bad Apples.”

    72. Mary Ann Fergus, “Josiah Sutton: One Year Later,” Houston Chronicle, March 7, 2004, http://www.chron.com/life/article/Josiah-Sutton-One-Year-Later-1976295.php; Koppl, “How to Improve Forensic Science”; Thompson, “Beyond Bad Apples.”

    73. James M. Doyle, “Learning From Error in American Criminal Justice,” Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 100 (2010): 129.

    74. Jon Shane, Learning From Error in Policing: A Case Study in Organizational Accident Theory (New York: Springer, 2013).

    75. Ibid., 67.

    76. Egon Bittner, “Florence Nightingale in Pursuit of Willie Sutton: A Theory of the Police,” in Aspects of Police Work, ed. Egon Bittner (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1990), 233–68; Carl B. Klockars, The Idea of Police (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1985).

    77. Michael T. Charles, “Accidental Shooting: An Analysis.,” Journal of Contingencies & Crisis Management 8, no. 3 (2000): 151; Brian A. Reaves, State and Local Law Enforcement Training Academies, 2006 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2009).

    78. Charles, “Accidental Shooting.”

    79. Ibid., 155.

    80. Kimberly A. Lonsway and Susan Welch, “Witnessing an Accidental Shooting at the Police Training Academy,” Women & Criminal Justice 15, no. 3–4 (2004): 59–79.

    81. Ibid., 65.

    82. Ibid., 73.

    83. Jessica Anderson, “Officer to Serve 60 Days in Police Training Shooting: Kern Was Found Guilty of Reckless Endangerment in Rosewood Case,” The Baltimore Sun, December 18, 2013, sec. LOCAL, http://search.proquest.com/docview/1469264083/82976C4AC6924D6APQ/8?accountid=13864.

    84. Justin Fenton, “Officer Sues over Training Shooting: Rodney Gray Seeks $470 Million for Injuries He Suffered in Unsanctioned City Exercise at Rosewood Center in February,” The Baltimore Sun, June 15, 2013, sec. LOCAL, http://search.proquest.com/docview/1367796750/18F9CB4E6200426EPQ/3?accountid=13864.

    85. Anderson, “Officer to Serve 60 Days in Police Training Shooting”; Fenton, “Officer Sues over Training Shooting.”

    86. Henri Fayol, General and Industrial Management, trans. Constance Storrs (London: Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, 1949); Max Weber, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, trans. H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946).

    87. Hoon Lee and Michael S. Vaughn, “Organizational Factors That Contribute to Police Deadly Force Liability,” Journal of Criminal Justice 38, no. 2 (2010): 194.

    88. Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department, “Report of the Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department” (Los Angeles: Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department, 1991), iii.

    89. Ibid., 34–35.

    90. Ibid., 49.

    91. Specifically, three of the officers were acquitted altogether. The jury could not reach a unanimous verdict (hung jury) on charges against the fourth officer. He was never retried in state court. Two of the four officers were later convicted on federal civil rights charges. Laurie L. Levenson, “The Future of State and Federal Civil Rights Prosecutions: The Lessons of the Rodney King Trial,” UCLA Law Review 41 (1994): 509–608.

    92. Bert Useem, “The State and Collective Disorders: The Los Angeles Riot/Protest of April, 1992,” Social Forces 76, no. 2 (1997): 362.

    93. Dias and Vaughn, “Bureaucracy, Managerial Disorganization,” 549.

    94. Abraham H. Miller, “The Los Angeles Riots: A Study in Crisis Paralysis,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 9, no. 4 (2001): 189–99.

    95. Useem, “The State and Collective Disorders.”

    96. Ibid., 364.

    97. Useem, “The State and Collective Disorders.”

    98. Lee and Vaughn, “Organizational Factors That Contribute to Police Deadly Force Liability.”

    99. Ibid., 200.

    100. Michael D. White, “Assessing the Impact of Administrative Policy on Use of Deadly Force by On- and Off-Duty Police,” Evaluation Review 24, no. 3 (2000): 295–318.

    101. Charles Perrow, Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999).

    102. Ibid., 65.

    103. Perrow, Normal Accidents.

    104. Ibid., 90.

    105. Thomas A. Hontz, “Justifying the Deadly Force Response,” Police Quarterly 2, no. 4 (1999): 462–76.

    106. Ibid., 471.

    107. Thompson, “Beyond Bad Apples.”

    108. Ibid.

    109. Klinger, Social Theory and the Street Cop, 11.

    110. Lee Clarke and James F. Short, “Social Organization and Risk: Some Current Controversies,” Annual Review of Sociology 19 (1993): 375–99; Jos A. Rijpma, “Complexity, Tight–Coupling and Reliability: Connecting Normal Accidents Theory and High Reliability Theory,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 5, no. 1 (1997): 15–23.

    111. Klinger, Social Theory and the Street Cop.

    112. Gerald J. S. Wilde, “Risk Homeostasis Theory: An Overview,” Injury Prevention 4, no. 2 (1998): 89–91.

    113. Klinger, Social Theory and the Street Cop.

    114. Ibid., 12–13.

    115. Vaughan, The Challenger Launch Decision, 250.

    116. Michael R. Gottfredson and Don M. Gottfredson, Decision Making in Criminal Justice: Toward the Rational Exercise of Discretion, 2nd ed. (New York: Plenum, 1988).

    117. Illinois Campus Security Task Force, “State of Illinois Campus Security Task Force Report to the Governor,” 2008, http://ready.illinois.gov/pdf/CSTF_Report_PartI.pdf; Virginia Tech Review Panel, “Mass Shootings at Virginia Tech, April 16, 2007: Report of the Review Panel,” 2007, http://www.governor.virginia.gov/tempcontent/techPanelReport-docs/FullReport.pdf.

    118. For a discussion of structural secrecy as it relates to primary and secondary schools, see Cybelle Fox and David J. Harding, “School Shootings as Organizational Deviance,” Sociology of Education 78, no. 1 (2005): 69–97.

    119. James Alan Fox and Jenna Savage, “Mass Murder Goes to College: An Examination of Changes on College Campuses Following Virginia Tech,” American Behavioral Scientist 52, no. 10 (2009): 1465–85.

    120. Nancy Tribbensee, “Privacy and Confidentiality: Balancing Student Rights and Campus Safety,” Journal of College and University Law 34 (2008): 393–417.

    121. Virginia Tech Review Panel, “Mass Shootings at Virginia Tech.”

    122. Gordon K. Davies, “Connecting the Dots: Lessons From the Virginia Tech Shootings,” Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning 40, no. 1 (2008): 11.

    123. US Department of Education, “Model Notification of Rights under FERPA for Postsecondary Institutions,” Models, (2011), http://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/fpco/ferpa/ps-officials.html.

    124. Zegart, Spying Blind, 123.

    125. Ibid., 160.

    126. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, “The 9/11 Commission Report,” 2004, http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/.

    127. Ibid.

    128. Ibid., 273.

    129. Zegart, Spying Blind.

    130. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, “The 9/11 Commission Report.”

    131. Zegart, Spying Blind.

    132. Ibid., 1.

    133. Terence M. Garrett, “The Waco, Texas, ATF Raid and Challenger Launch Decision: Management, Judgment, and the Knowledge Analytic,” The American Review of Public Administration 31 (2001): 66–86; Terence M. Garrett, “Whither Challenger, Wither Columbia,” The American Review of Public Administration 34, no. 4 (2004): 389–402. Garrett refers to the different knowledge within an organization as the knowledge analytic. For ease of explanation, the term knowledge conflict is borrowed from Ralph P. Hummel, “The Triumph of Numbers,” Administration & Society 38, no. 1 (2006): 58–78.

    134. Terence Michael Garrett, “Katrina, Rita, Challenger and Columbia: Operationalizing a Knowledge Analytic in NASA and DHS Crises,” Public Voices 10, no. 1 (2007): 23.

    135. Garrett, “Katrina, Rita, Challenger and Columbia”; Garrett, “The Waco, Texas, ATF Raid”; Garrett, “Whither Challenger.”

    136. Garrett, “The Waco, Texas, ATF Raid.”

    137. Garrett, “Katrina, Rita, Challenger and Columbia.”

    138. Ibid., 24.

    139. Garrett, “The Waco, Texas, ATF Raid.”

    140. David Willman and Glenn F. Bunting, “Agent Disputes Boss on Waco Raid Warning,” Los Angeles Times, July 25, 1995, http://articles.latimes.com/1995-07-25/news/mn-27572_1_atf-agent.

    141. Ibid., para. 4.

    142. Garrett, “The Waco, Texas, ATF Raid,” 75.

    143. Scott Douglas Sagan, The Limits of Safety: Organizations, Accidents, and Nuclear Weapons (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993).

    144. Perrow, Normal Accidents; Sagan, The Limits of Safety.

    145. Aaron B. Wildavsky, Searching for Safety (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1988), 77.

    146. Karlene H. Roberts, Robert Bea, and Dean L. Bartles, “Must Accidents Happen? Lessons From High-Reliability Organizations,” The Academy of Management Executive 15, no. 3 (2001): 70–79.

    147. Ran Bhamra, Samir Dani, and Kevin Burnard, “Resilience: The Concept, a Literature Review and Future Directions,” International Journal of Production Research 49, no. 18 (2011): 5375–93; Jody Hoffer Gittell et al., “Relationships, Layoffs, and Organizational Resilience Airline Industry Responses to September 11,” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 42, no. 3 (2006): 300–329.

    148. A. Lee, J. Vargo, and E. Seville, “Developing a Tool to Measure and Compare Organizations’ Resilience,” Natural Hazards Review 14, no. 1 (2013): 29–41.

    149. S. McManus et al., “Facilitated Process for Improving Organizational Resilience,” Natural Hazards Review 9, no. 2 (2008): 81–90.

    150. Erica Seville et al., “Organisational Resilience: Researching the Reality of New Zealand Organisations,” Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 2, no. 3 (March 2008): 260.

    151. Steve Herbert, “The ‘Battle of Seattle’ Revisited: Or, Seven Views of a Protest-Zoning State,” Political Geography 26, no. 5 (2007): 601–19.

    152. Aaron Perrine, “The First Amendment Versus the World Trade Organization: Emergency Powers and the Battle in Seattle,” Washington Law Review 76 (2001): 635–68.

    153. Seattle Police Department, “Seattle Police Department After Action Report” (Seattle: Seattle Police Department, 2000).

    154. Ibid., 19.

    155. Ibid., 5.

    156. Kelly Frailing and Dee Wood Harper, “Crime and Hurricanes in New Orleans,” in The Sociology of Katrina: Perspectives on a Modern Catastrophe, ed. David L. Brunsma, David Overfelt, and J. Steven Picou (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007).

    157. Benjamin Sims, “‘The Day After the Hurricane’: Infrastructure, Order, and the New Orleans Police Department’s Response to Hurricane Katrina,” Social Studies of Science 37, no. 1 (2007): 114.

    158. Sims, “‘The Day After the Hurricane.’”

    159. Jeff Rojek and Michael R. Smith, “Law Enforcement Lessons Learned From Hurricane Katrina,” Review of Policy Research 24, no. 6 (2007): 589–608.

    160. Karl E. Weick, Kathleen M. Sutcliffe, and David Obstfeld, “Organizing for High Reliability: Processes of Collective Mindfulness,” in Crisis Management, ed. Arjen Boin, vol. III (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008), 31–66.

    161. Karl E. Weick and Kathleen M. Sutcliffe, Managing the Unexpected: Resilient Performance in the Age of Uncertainty, 2nd ed. (San Francisco: Wiley, 2007).

    162. Weick, Sutcliffe, and Obstfeld, “Organizing for High Reliability,” 39.

    163. Paul J. Kaplan, “Looking Through the Gaps: A Critical Approach to the LAPD’s Rampart Scandal,” Social Justice 36, no. 1 (2009): 61–81.

    164. King, “Police Officer Misconduct as Normal Accidents,” 774.

    165. Weick and Sutcliffe, Managing the Unexpected, 59.

    166. Weick and Sutcliffe, Managing the Unexpected.

    167. Ibid.

    168. Herbert Kaufman, Are Government Organizations Immortal? (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1976).

    169. H. Kenneth Bechtel, State Police in the United States: A Socio-Historical Analysis (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995).

    170. Roger Lane, Policing the City: Boston 1822–1885 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967); David Taylor, The New Police in Nineteenth-Century England: Crime, Conflict, and Control (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997).

    171. Christian Adam et al., “The Termination of Public Organizations: Theoretical Perspectives to Revitalize a Promising Research Area,” Public Organization Review 7 (2007): 221–36; Kaufman, Are Government Organizations Immortal?

    172. Kaufman, Are Government Organizations Immortal?

    173. Indiana State Police, Laws Creating Indiana State Police Department and State Police Pension Fund (Indianapolis, IN, 1941), 2.

    174. Kaufman, Are Government Organizations Immortal?

    175. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, The Impact of the Economic Downturn on American Police Agencies (Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2011).

    176. David E. Lewis, “The Politics of Agency Termination: Confronting the Myth of Agency Immortality,” The Journal of Politics 64, no. 1 (2002): 89–107.

    177. Ibid.

    178. William R. King, “Organizational Failure and the Disbanding of Local Police Agencies,” Crime and Delinquency 60, no. 5 (2014): 667–92.

    179. Stephanie Clifford and Joseph Goldstein, “Brooklyn Prosecutor Limits When He’ll Target Marijuana,” The New York Times, July 8, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/09/nyregion/brooklyn-district-attorney-to-stop-prosecuting-low-level-marijuana-cases.html.

    180. Ibid., para. 6.

    181. King, “Organizational Failure and the Disbanding of Local Police Agencies.”

    182. Ibid.

    183. Josh Sides, “Straight Into Compton: American Dreams, Urban Nightmares, and the Metamorphosis of a Black Suburb,” American Quarterly 56, no. 3 (2004): 593.

    184. Jessica Garrison, “Compton to Disband Police Force,” Los Angeles Times, July 12, 2000, http://articles.latimes.com/2000/jul/12/local/me-51589; King, “Organizational Failure and the Disbanding of Local Police Agencies”; Edward R. Maguire and William R. King, “Trends in the Policing Industry,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 593, no. 1 (2004): 15–41.

    185. Garrison, “Compton to Disband Police Force,” 2.

    186. Kathleen O’Leary Morgan, Scott Morgan, and Rachel Boba Santos, City Crime Rankings 2014 (Los Angeles: Sage/CQ Press, 2014).

    187. Joseph Goldstein, “Police Force Nearly Halved, Camden Feels Impact,” The New York Times, March 6, 2011, sec. N.Y. / Region, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/07/nyregion/07camden.html.

    188. Kate Zernike, “Overrun by Crime, Camden Trades in Its Police Force,” The New York Times, September 28, 2012, sec. N.Y. / Region, para. 5, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/29/nyregion/overrun-by-crime-camden-trades-in-its-police-force.html.

    189. “St. George, Known as a Speed Trap, Opts for Patrols by County Police,” St. Louis PostDispatch, January 17, 2009, sec. News.

    190. Kim Bell, “Ex-St. George Chief Charged,” St. Louis Post–Dispatch, December 22, 2009, sec. News.

    191. Leah Thorsen, “Vote Dissolves St. George,” St. Louis Post–Dispatch, November 9, 2011, sec. News.

    192. King, “Organizational Failure and the Disbanding of Local Police Agencies.”

    193. Tony J. Carrizales, James Melitski, and Richard W. Schwester, “Targeting Opportunities for Shared Police Services,” Public Performance & Management Review 34, no. 2 (2010): 251–67.

    194. Albert J. Reiss, “Police Organization in the Twentieth Century,” in Modern Policing, ed. Michael Tonry and Norval Morris (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), 51–97.

    195. Jeremy M. Wilson, Alexander Weiss, and Steven Chermak, “Contracting for Law-Enforcement Services: Perspectives From Past Research and Current Practice” (East Lansing: Michigan State University, Program on Police Consolidation and Shared Services, 2014).

    196. Jeremy M. Wilson and Clifford Grammich, “Police Consolidation, Regionalization, and Shared Services: Options, Considerations, and Lessons From Research and Practice,” BOLO (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, February 2012).

    197. John T. Krimmel, “The Northern York County Police Consolidation Experience: An Analysis of the Consolidation of Police Services in Eight Pennsylvania Rural Communities,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 20, no. 3 (1997): 497–507.

    198. Wilson and Grammich, “Police Consolidation.”

    199. Miles Finney, “Scale Economies and Police Department Consolidation: Evidence From Los Angeles,” Contemporary Economic Policy 15, no. 1 (1997): 121–27; Stephen L. Mehay, “Intergovernmental Contracting for Municipal Police Services: An Empirical Analysis,” Land Economics 55, no. 1 (1979): 59–72.

    200. Elinor Ostrom and Gordon Whitaker, “Does Local Community Control of Police Make a Difference? Some Preliminary Findings,” American Journal of Political Science 17, no. 1 (1973): 48–76.

    201. Wilson, Weiss, and Chermak, “Contracting for Law-Enforcement Services,” 10.

    202. Harry P. Pachon and Nicholas P. Lovrich, “The Consolidation of Urban Public Services: A Focus on the Police,” Public Administration Review 37, no. 1 (1977): 38–47.

    203. King, “Organizational Failure and the Disbanding of Local Police Agencies”; Mehay, “Intergovernmental Contracting.”

    204. New York City Police Department, “New York City Police Department Annual Firearms Discharge Report, 2012” (New York: New York City Police Department, 2013). A firearms discharge includes any nontraining discharge of an NYPD officer’s firearm, either by the officer or by any other person.

    205. Wendy Ruderman, “After Empire State Building Shooting, Jeffrey Johnson’s Mother Asks Why,” The New York Times, August 27, 2012, sec. N.Y. / Region, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/28/nyregion/after-empire-state-building-shooting-jeffrey-johnsons-mother-asks-why.html.

    206. James Barron, “Eleven People Shot, Two Fatally, Outside Empire State Building,” The New York Times, August 24, 2012, sec. N.Y. / Region, para. 5, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/25/nyregion/empire-state-building-shooting.html.

    207. Barron, “Eleven People Shot”; Michael Wilson, “After Bystanders Take Bullets in Midtown, Questions on Police Protocol,” The New York Times, August 25, 2012, sec. N.Y. / Region, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/26/nyregion/bystanders-shooting-wounds-caused-by-the-police.html.

    208. Wilson, “After Bystanders Take Bullets,” para. 6.

    209. J. David Goodman, “Bystander Shot by Police Near Empire State Building Sues,” The New York Times, January 22, 2013, sec. N.Y. / Region, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/23/nyregion/bystander-shot-by-police-near-empire-state-building-sues.html.

    210. Duclos v. City of New York et al. (Supreme Court of the State of New York, County of New York 2013).

    211. Wilson, “After Bystanders Take Bullets,” para. 8.

    Chapter 12

    1. US Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, “Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department” (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, 2015).

    2. Police Executive Research Forum, “Overcoming the Challenges and Creating a Regional Approach to Policing in St. Louis City and County” (Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum, 2015); Chris Regnier, “80 Municipal Courts in St. Louis County Agree to Uniform Fines,” FOX2now.com, April 9, 2015, http://fox2now.com/2015/04/09/80-municipal-courts-in-st-louis-county-agree-to-uniform-fine-schedule/.

    3. US Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, “Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department,” 1.

    4. Police Executive Research Forum, “Overcoming the Challenges.”

    5. Radley Balko, “How Municipalities in St. Louis County, Mo., Profit From Poverty,” The Washington Post, September 3, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-watch/wp/2014/09/03/how-st-louis-county-missouri-profits-from-poverty/.

    6. Max Ehrenfreund, “How Segregation Led to Speed Traps, Traffic Tickets and Distrust Outside St. Louis,” The Washington Post, November 26, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2014/11/26/how-segregation-led-to-speed-traps-traffic-tickets-and-distrust-outside-st-louis/.

    7. Paul LaCommare, “Generating New Revenue Streams,” Police Chief 77 (2010): 22–30.

    8. Jennifer S. Mann, “Municipalities Ticket for Trees and Toys, as Traffic Revenue Declines,” St. Louis Post–Dispatch, May 24, 2015, http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/crime-and-courts/municipalities-ticket-for-trees-and-toys-as-traffic-revenue-declines/article_42739be7-afd1-5f66-b325-e1f654ba9625.html.; US Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, “Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department.”

    9. US Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, “Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department,” 10.

    10. Ibid., 7.

    11. Ibid., 55.

    12. Thomas A. Garrett and Gary A. Wagner, “Are Traffic Tickets Countercyclical?” (St. Louis: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, Research Division, 2006).

    13. Jeremy Jojala, “Citation Nation: Towns ‘Taxing’ Through Tickets?,” KUSA, 2015, http://www.9news.com/story/news/local/investigations/2015/05/01/citation-nation-tickets/26590321/.

    14. Michael Tomasino, “Police, Equity and Municipal Finance: A Comparison of St. Louis County, MO, and New Jersey Traffic Enforcement” (Newark, NJ: Rutgers University, Center on Law in Metropolitan Equity, 2015), http://www.clime.newark.rutgers.edu/publications/report/police-equity-and-municipal-finance-comparison-st-louis-county-mo-and-new-jersey.

    15. Karen Langley, “Police Across Pennsylvania Make Case for Using Radar Guns at the Local Level,” Pittsburgh Post–Gazette, June 22, 2014, http://www.post-gazette.com/frontpage/2014/06/23/Local-cops-make-case-for-using-Pa-radar-guns/stories/201406230084.

    16. US Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, “Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department.”

    17. President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, “Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing” (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2015), 26.

    18. Police Executive Research Forum, “Overcoming the Challenges”; President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, “Final Report of the President’s Task Force.”

    19. Mitch Smith, “Missouri Lawmakers Limit Revenue From Traffic Fines in St. Louis Area,” The New York Times, May 8, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/09/us/missouri-lawmakers-agree-to-limit-revenue-from-traffic-fines.html.

    20. Police Executive Research Forum, Defining Moments for Police Chiefs, Critical Issues in Policing (Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum, 2015), 1.

    21. Joseph Eric Massey, “Managing Organizational Legitimacy: Communication Strategies for Organizations in Crisis,” Journal of Business Communication 38, no. 2 (2001): 153–82; Mark C. Suchman, “Managing Legitimacy: Strategic and Institutional Approaches,” Academy of Management Review 20, no. 3 (1995): 571–610.

    22. Jason Sunshine and Tom R. Tyler, “The Role of Procedural Justice and Legitimacy in Shaping Public Support for Policing,” Law & Society Review 37, no. 3 (2003): 514.

    23. Jeffrey Fagan, “Legitimacy and Criminal Justice,” Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 6 (2008): 123–40.

    24. Suchman, “Managing Legitimacy,” 574.

    25. Christine Eith and Matthew Durose, Contacts Between Police and the Public, 2008 (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2011).

    26. Amy Brittain, “On Duty, under Fire,” The Washington Post, October 24, 2015, para. 10, http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/2015/10/24/on-duty-under-fire/.

    27. Eliot C. McLaughlin, “There Aren’t More Police Shootings, Just More Coverage,” CNN, April 21, 2015, http://www.cnn.com/2015/04/20/us/police-brutality-video-social-media-attitudes/index.html.

    28. Joseph Goldstein and Nate Schweber, “Man’s Death After Chokehold Raises Old Issue for the Police,” The New York Times, July 18, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/19/nyregion/staten-island-man-dies-after-he-is-put-in-chokehold-during-arrest.html; J. David Goodman and Al Baker, “Wave of Protests After Grand Jury Doesn’t Indict Officer in Eric Garner Chokehold Case,” The New York Times, December 3, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/04/nyregion/grand-jury-said-to-bring-no-charges-in-staten-island-chokehold-death-of-eric-garner.html.

    29. “Tracking the Events in the Wake of Michael Brown’s Shooting,” The New York Times, November 10, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/11/09/us/10ferguson-michael-brown-shooting-grand-jury-darren-wilson.html#/#time354_10512; US Department of Justice, “Department of Justice Report Regarding the Criminal Investigation Into the Shooting Death of Michael Brown by Ferguson, Missouri Police Officer Darren Wilson” (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, 2015).

    30. Alan Blinder and Tanzina Vega, “Violence Flares in Ferguson After Appeals for Harmony,” The New York Times, August 17, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/18/us/ferguson-missouri-protests.html.

    31. Tammy R. Kochel, “Assessing the Initial Impact of the Michael Brown Shooting and Police and Public Responses to It on St. Louis County Residents’ Views About Police,” 2015, http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=ccj_reports.

    32. Ibid., 5.

    33. Michael Finnegan, “Voters Mostly Approve of Police, but Views Split Along Racial Lines,” Los Angeles Times, September 13, 2014, http://www.latimes.com/local/politics/la-me-pol-poll-police-20140914-story.html.

    34. Jeffrey M. Jones, “Drop Among Nonwhites Drives US Police Honesty Ratings Down,” Gallup, December 18, 2014, http://www.gallup.com/poll/180230/drop-among-nonwhites-drives-police-honesty-ratings-down.aspx.

    35. David O. Friedrichs, “The Legitimacy Crisis in the United States: A Conceptual Analysis,” Social Problems 27, no. 5 (1980): 540–55.

    36. Blinder and Vega, “Violence Flares in Ferguson.”

    37. Monica Davey and Julie Bosman, “Protests Flare After Ferguson Police Officer Is Not Indicted,” The New York Times, November 24, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/25/us/ferguson-darren-wilson-shooting-michael-brown-grand-jury.html.

    38. Mara Gay, Mark Morales, and Andrew Tangel, “Thousands Protest in Staten Island Over Eric Garner’s Death,” The Wall Street Journal, August 24, 2014, sec. New York, http://www.wsj.com/articles/protesters-head-to-staten-island-for-al-sharptons-eric-garner-rally-1408807227.

    39. Ashley Southall, “Protesters Fill Streets Across US Over Decision in Garner Case,” The New York Times, December 4, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/05/nyregion/protests-continue-after-grand-jury-decision-in-eric-garner-case.html.

    40. Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “After Thousands Rally in Baltimore, Police Make Some Arrests as Curfew Takes Hold,” The New York Times, May 2, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/03/us/baltimore-braces-for-more-protests.html.

    41. President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, “Final Report of the President’s Task Force.”

    42. Wesley Skogan and Kathleen Frydl, eds., Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004).

    43. Alfred Blumstein and Joel Wallman, eds., The Crime Drop in America (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000); Andrew Karmen, New York Murder Mystery: The True Story Behind the Crime Crash of the 1990s (New York: New York University Press, 2000).

    44. Gallup, “Confidence in Institutions,” Gallup, n.d., http://www.gallup.com/poll/1597/Confidence-Institutions.aspx; Sue Rahr and Stephen K. Rice, From Warriors to Guardians: Recommitting American Police Culture to Democratic Ideals, New Perspectives in Policing (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2015).

    45. Mark Berman and Wesley Lowery, “Justice Dept. Report Criticizes Police Response to Ferguson Protests,” The Washington Post, June 30, 2015, http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2015/06/30/justice-dept-report-criticizes-police-response-to-ferguson-protests/.

    46. Wesley G. Skogan, Maarten Van Craen, and Cari Hennessy, “Training Police for Procedural Justice,” Journal of Experimental Criminology, in press, 4–5, doi:10.1007/s11292-014-9223-6.

    47. President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, “Final Report of the President’s Task Force”; Rahr and Rice, From Warriors to Guardians.

    48. Rahr and Rice, From Warriors to Guardians, 5.

    49. Leila Atassi, “Cleveland Police Chief: Officers Should See Themselves as ‘Guardians,’ Not ‘Warriors,’” Cleveland.com, June 10, 2015, http://www.cleveland.com/cityhall/index.ssf/2015/06/cleveland_police_chief_officer_1.html.

    50. President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, “Final Report of the President’s Task Force.”

    51. Jane Goodman-Delahunty, “Four Ingredients: New Recipes for Procedural Justice in Australian Policing,” Policing 4, no. 4 (2010): 403–10; L Green Mazerolle et al., Procedural Justice and Legitimacy in Policing (New York: Springer, 2014); Lorraine Mazerolle et al., “Procedural Justice and Police Legitimacy: A Systematic Review of the Research Evidence,” Journal of Experimental Criminology 9 (2013): 245–74; Tracey L. Meares and Peter Neyroud, Rightful Policing, New Perspectives in Policing (Laurel, MD: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2015).

    52. Meares and Neyroud, Rightful Policing, 5.

    53. Meares and Neyroud, Rightful Policing; Jason Sunshine and Tom R. Tyler, “The Role of Procedural Justice.”

    54. Tom R. Tyler and Cheryl J. Wakslak, “Profiling and Police Legitimacy: Procedural Justice, Attributions of Motive, and Acceptance of Police Authority,” Criminology 42, no. 2 (2004): 253–82.

    55. Sunshine and Tyler, “The Role of Procedural Justice”; Tom R. Tyler, “Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and the Effective Rule of Law,” Crime and Justice 30 (2003): 283–357.

    56. Lorraine Mazerolle, Peter Martin, and Sarah Bennett, “Implementing Procedurally Just Approaches to Policing . . . One Breath at a Time,” Translational Criminology, Fall 2012: 6–7.

    57. Ibid., 6–7.

    58. Levin Wheller et al., The Greater Manchester Police Procedural Justice Training Experiment: The Impact of Communication Skills Training on Officers and Victims of Crime (London: College of Policing, 2013).

    59. Ibid., 17–18.

    60. Daniela Gilbert, Stewart Wakeling, and Vaughn Crandall, Procedural Justice and Police Legitimacy: Using Training as a Foundation for Strengthening Community-Police Relationships (Oakland: California Partnership for Safe Communities, 2015).

    61. Ibid.; Skogan, Craen, and Hennessy, “Training Police.”

    62. Skogan, Craen, and Hennessy, “Training Police.”

    63. Gilbert, Wakeling, and Crandall, Procedural Justice.

    64. Rahr and Rice, From Warriors to Guardians, 10.

    65. Duren Banks et al., “Arrest-Related Deaths Program Assessment: Technical Report” (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2015).

    66. James J. Fyfe, “Geographic Correlates of Police Shooting: A Microanalysis,” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 17, no. 1 (1980): 101–13; David Jacobs and Robert M. O’Brien, “The Determinants of Deadly Force: A Structural Analysis of Police Violence,” American Journal of Sociology 103, no. 4 (1998): 837–62.

    67. William A. Geller and Michael S. Scott, Deadly Force: What We Know—A Practitioner’s Desk Reference on Police-Involved Shootings (Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum, 1992); James J. Fyfe, “Police Use of Deadly Force: Research and Reform,” Justice Quarterly 5, no. 2 (1988): 165–205.

    68. Fyfe, “Police Use of Deadly Force”; Skogan and Frydl, Fairness and Effectiveness.

    69. Patricia G. Devine, “Implicit Prejudice and Stereotyping: How Automatic Are They? Introduction to the Special Section,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81, no. 5 (2001): 757–59; Melody S. Sadler et al., “The World Is Not Black and White: Racial Bias in the Decision to Shoot in a Multiethnic Context,” Journal of Social Issues 68, no. 2 (2012): 286–313.

    70. Anthony G. Greenwald and Linda Hamilton Krieger, “Implicit Bias: Scientific Foundations,” California Law Review 94, no. 4 (2006): 945–67.

    71. President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, “Final Report of the President’s Task Force.”

    72. James B. Comey, “Hard Truths: Law Enforcement and Race,” FBI, 2015, http://www.fbi.gov/news/speeches/hard-truths-law-enforcement-and-race.

    73. Joshua Correll et al., “The Influence of Stereotypes on Decisions to Shoot,” European Journal of Social Psychology 37, no. 6 (2007): 1102–17; Anthony G. Greenwald, Mark A. Oakes, and Hunter G. Hoffman, “Targets of Discrimination: Effects of Race on Responses to Weapons Holders,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 39, no. 4 (2003): 399–405; B. Keith Payne, Yujiro Shimizu, and Larry L. Jacoby, “Mental Control and Visual Illusions: Toward Explaining Race-Biased Weapon Misidentifications,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 41, no. 1 (2005): 36–47; E. Ashby Plant and B. Michelle Peruche, “The Consequences of Race for Police Officers’ Responses to Criminal Suspects,” Psychological Science 16, no. 3 (2005): 180–83; Sadler et al., “The World Is Not Black and White.”

    74. Plant and Peruche, “The Consequences of Race for Police.”

    75. Joshua Correll et al., “Across the Thin Blue Line: Police Officers and Racial Bias in the Decision to Shoot.,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92, no. 6 (2007): 1006–23.

    76. Kimberly Kindy and Kimbriell Kelly, “Thousands Dead, Few Prosecuted,” The Washington Post, April 11, 2015, http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/2015/04/11/thousands-dead-few-prosecuted/.

    77. International Association of Chiefs of Police, Officer-Involved Shootings Investigative Protocols: A Guide for Law Enforcement Leaders (Washington, DC: International Association of Chiefs of Police and Office of Community-Oriented Policing Services, 2013).

    78. William H. Freivogel, “From Ferguson to Baltimore, McCulloch to Mosby, How Do Prosecutors Work?,” St. Louis Public Radio, May 6, 2015, http://news.stlpublicradio.org/post/analysis-ferguson-baltimore-mcculloch-mosby-how-do-prosecutors-work.

    79. Blinder and Pérez-Peña, “6 Baltimore Police Officers Charged.”

    80. David A. Graham, “What’s Missing in the Indictments Over Freddie Gray’s Death,” The Atlantic, May 21, 2015, http://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2015/05/a-grand-jury-backs-marilyn-mosby/393914/.

    81. Thomas J. Bernard, Eugene A. Paoline, and Paul-Philippe Pare, “General Systems Theory and Criminal Justice,” Journal of Criminal Justice 33, no. 3 (2005): 203–11.

    82. Donald M. McIntyre, “Impediments to Effective Police-Prosecutor Relationships,” American Criminal Law Review 13 (1975): 201–31.

    83. President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, “Final Report of the President’s Task Force,” 21.

    84. Colin Campbell, “Montgomery, Howard Prosecutors to Trade Cases of Police-Involved Deaths,” The Baltimore Sun, June 1, 2015, http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/bs-md-howard-montgomery-prosecutor-switch-20150601-story.html.

    85. Debra Livingston, “Police Reform and the Department of Justice: An Essay on Accountability,” Buffalo Law Review 2 (1999): 817–59.

    86. Robert C. Davis et al., Federal Intervention in Local Policing: Pittsburgh’s Experience With a Consent Decree (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2005), 6.

    87. Christopher Stone, Todd Foglesong, and Christine M. Cole, Policing Los Angeles: Under a Consent Decree: The Dynamics of Change at the LAPD (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government, 2009).

    88. Stephen Rushin, “Federal Enforcement of Police Reform,” Fordham Law Review 82 (2014): 3224.

    89. Ibid., 3225.

    90. Joshua Chanin, “On the Implementation of Pattern or Practice Police Reform,” Criminology, Criminal Justice, Law & Society 15, no. 3 (2014): 38–56; Rushin, “Federal Enforcement.”

    91. Patrick George, “Justice Department Closes Investigation of Austin Police Department,” Austin American–Statesman, May 29, 2011, http://www.statesman.com/news/news/local/justice-department-closes-investigation-of-austi-1/nRbSH/.

    92. Maimon Schwarzschild, “Public Law by Private Bargain: Title VII Consent Decrees and the Fairness of Negotiated Institutional Reform,” Duke Law Journal 1984, no. 5 (November 1, 1984): 894–95.

    93. Livingston, “Police Reform”; Samuel Walker, “The New Paradigm of Police Accountability: The US Justice Department Pattern or Practice Suits in Context,” Saint Louis University Public Law Review 22 (2003): 3–52.

    94. Stone, Foglesong, and Cole, Policing Los Angeles, 5.

    95. Chanin, “On the Implementation”; Walker, “New Paradigm of Police Accountability.”

    96. Robert C. Davis et al., Turning Necessity Into Virtue: Pittsburgh’s Experience With a Federal Consent Decree (New York: Vera Institute of Justice, 2002); Walker, “New Paradigm of Police Accountability”; Samuel Walker, Geoffrey P. Alpert, and Dennis J. Kenney, Early Warning Systems: Responding to the Problem Police Officer (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, 2001).

    97. Davis et al., Federal Intervention.

    98. Davis et al., Turning Necessity Into Virtue.

    99. Walker, “New Paradigm of Police Accountability.”

    100. Davis et al., Federal Intervention, 13.

    101. Stone, Foglesong, and Cole, Policing Los Angeles.

    102. Davis et al., Federal Intervention; Walker, “New Paradigm of Police Accountability.”

    103. Chanin, “On the Implementation”; US v. City of Cleveland (settlement agreement) (US District Court, Northern District of Ohio 2015).

    104. Davis et al., Turning Necessity Into Virtue; Walker, “New Paradigm of Police Accountability.”

    105. Davis et al., Turning Necessity Into Virtue.

    106. Stone, Foglesong, and Cole, Policing Los Angeles.

    107. Noah Kupferberg, “Transparency: A New Role for Police Consent Decrees,” Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems 42 (2008): 129–63.

    108. Livingston, “Police Reform,” 819–20.

    109. Davis et al., Federal Intervention, 28.

    110. Stephen Deere, “Ferguson Says Lack of Public Input on Cost, Reforms Are Obstacles to Agreement With DOJ,” Stltoday.com, December 14, 2015, http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/crime-and-courts/ferguson-says-lack-of-public-input-on-cost-reforms-are/article_9bcb842c-4b2f-571b-a7b8-a18c293102ed.html.

    111. Samuel Walker and Morgan MacDonald, “An Alternative Remedy for Police Misconduct: A Model State Pattern for Practice Statute,” George Mason University Civil Rights Law Journal 19 (2009): 479–552.

    112. Joseph Goldstein, “Police Discretion Not to Invoke the Criminal Process: Low-Visibility Decisions in the Administration of Justice,” The Yale Law Journal 69, no. 4 (1960): 543–94; Jon B. Gould and Stephen D. Mastrofski, “Suspect Searches: Assessing Police Behavior Under the US Constitution,” Criminology & Public Policy 3, no. 3 (2004): 315–62.

    113. Laura Santhanam and Vanessa Dennis, “What Do the Newly Released Witness Statements Tell Us About the Michael Brown Shooting?,” PBS NewsHour, November 25, 2014, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/newly-released-witness-testimony-tell-us-michael-brown-shooting/.

    114. David A. Harris, “Picture This: Body-Worn Video Devices (Head Cams) as Tools for Ensuring Fourth Amendment Compliance by Police,” Texas Tech Law Review 43 (2010): 357–71; Home Office, Police and Crime Standards Directorate, Guidance for the Police Use of Body-Worn Video Devices (London: Home Office, Police and Crime Standards Directorate, 2007).

    115. Brian A. Reaves, Local Police Departments, 2013: Equipment and Technology (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2015).

    116. Floyd v. City of New York, 959 F.Supp.2d 540 (2013).

    117. Jay Stanley, Police Body-Mounted Cameras: With Right Policies in Place, a Win for All (version 2.0), 2015, 2, https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/assets/police_body-mounted_cameras-v2.pdf.

    118. Letitia James, The Cost of Improper Procedures; Using Police Body Cameras to Reduce Economic and Social Ills, Policy Report (New York: Public Advocate of the City of New York, 2014), 17, http://pubadvocate.nyc.gov/sites/advocate.nyc.gov/files/brief-nypd_body-worn_cameras-final.pdf.

    119. President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, “Final Report of the President’s Task Force.”

    120. Lindsay Miller and Jessica Toliver, Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program: Recommendations and Lessons Learned (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services and Police Executive Research Forum, 2014).

    121. Police Foundation, “Self-Awareness to Being Watched and Socially Desirable Behavior: A Field Experiment on the Effect of Body-Worn Cameras on Police Use-of-Force” (Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 2013), 3; Michael D. White, Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras: Assessing the Evidence (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, 2014), 6.

    122. Barak Ariel, William A. Farrar, and Alex Sutherland, “The Effect of Police Body-Worn Cameras on Use of Force and Citizens’ Complaints Against the Police: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 2014, 1–27.

    123. Home Office, Police and Crime Standards Directorate, Guidance for the Police; Miller and Toliver, Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program; White, Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras.

    124. White, Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras.

    125. Home Office, Police and Crime Standards Directorate, Guidance for the Police; Miller and Toliver, Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program.

    126. ManTech International, A Primer on Body-Worn Cameras for Law Enforcement (Gaithersburg, MD: National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center, 2012); Miller and Toliver, Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program; White, Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras.

    127. Lundy, “What’s Included in Illinois Police Body Camera Proposal,” Daily Herald, June 2, 2015, http://www.dailyherald.com/article/20150602/news/150609769/.

    128. Miller and Toliver, Implementing a Body-Worn Camera Program, 15.

    129. Matt Stroud, “Taser Is Charging Stunning Fees to Handle Police Video,” Bloomberg.com, June 16, 2015, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-06-16/taser-is-charging-stunning-fees-to-handle-police-video; White, Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras.

    130. Stroud, “Taser Is Charging.”

    131. Julia Edwards, “Obama Administration Says to Provide $20 Million for Police Body Cameras,” Reuters, May 1, 2015, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/05/01/us-usa-police-cameras-idUSKBN0NM3PL20150501.

    132. Paul Drover and B. Ariel, “Leading an Experiment in Police Body-Worn Video Cameras,” International Criminal Justice Review 25, no. 1 (2015): 87.

    133. Robert Salonga, “San Jose, Police Union Agreement Clears Way for Body Cameras on Officers Within Next Year,” San Jose Mercury News, May 14, 2015, http://www.mercurynews.com/crime-courts/ci_28119503/san-jose-police-union-agreement-clears-way-body; White, Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras.

    134. Wesley G. Jennings, Lorie A. Fridell, and Mathew D. Lynch, “Cops and Cameras: Officer Perceptions of the Use of Body-Worn Cameras in Law Enforcement,” Journal of Criminal Justice 42, no. 6 (2014): 549–56.

    135. Drover and Ariel, “Leading an Experiment,” 92.

    136. White, Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras.

    137. Stone, Foglesong, and Cole, Policing Los Angeles, 19.

    138. Ibid., 22.

    139. Heather MacDonald, “The New Nationwide Crime Wave,” The Wall Street Journal, May 29, 2015, sec. Opinion, http://www.wsj.com/articles/the-new-nationwide-crime-wave-1432938425.

    140. Emily Miller, “DC Police Union Chairman: ‘Ferguson Effect’ Partly to Blame for Violent Weekend,” MyFOXdc, June 8, 2015, http://www.myfoxdc.com/story/29269070/police-union-chairman-ferguson-effect-violent-weekend.

    141. David C. Pyrooz et al., “Was There a Ferguson Effect on Crime Rates in Large US Cities?,” Journal of Criminal Justice 46 (2016): 5.

    142. Franklin E. Zimring, “What National Crime Wave? The ‘Ferguson Effect’ Is Fiction,” NY Daily News, June 7, 2015, http://www.nydailynews.com/opinion/franklin-zimring-national-crime-wave-article-1.2248373.

    143. Richard Rosenfeld, “Was There a ‘Ferguson Effect’ on Crime in St. Louis?,” Policy Brief (Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project, 2015).

    144. Robin S. Engel and James L. Whalen, “Police–Academic Partnerships: Ending the Dialogue of the Deaf, the Cincinnati Experience,” Police Practice and Research 11, no. 2 (2010): 105–16.

    145. IL Public Act 099-0352.

    146. Peggy Gallek, “Cleveland Police Supervisors Disciplined for Hiring of Officer Who Shot Tamir Rice,” Fox 8 Cleveland, June 15, 2015, http://fox8.com/2015/07/15/cleveland-police-supervisors-disciplined-for-hiring-of-officer-who-shot-tamir-rice/.

    147. Anthony G. Greenwald, Debbie E. McGhee, and Jordan L. K. Schwartz, “Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74, no. 6 (1998): 1464–80.

    148. Mahzarin R. Banaji and Anthony G. G. Greenwald, Blindspot: Hidden Biases of Good People (New York: Delacorte Press, 2013).

    149. Ibid.

    About the Author

    Matthew J. Giblin is an associate professor and undergraduate program director in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. He earned his doctorate in Criminal Justice from Indiana University in 2004. His primary research interest involves applying organizational theories to the study of criminal justice agencies. Specifically, he and his colleagues have tested contingency, resource dependence, and institutional theory explanations of police homeland security preparedness, community policing implementation, and crime analysis unit adoption.


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