Leadership and Diversity: Challenging Theory and Practice in Education
Publication Year: 2007
"The authors challenge the reader to reconsider leadership theory in light of notions of social justice and diversity, and to put into place newly articulated frameworks for action. The text is richly supported by strong empirical research and a sometimes-intricate philosophical approach in making its case for justice and fairness in education and beyond."—CHOICEWhat do we mean by diversity? Why is it an important issue for leaders of schools, colleges and universities? As society becomes increasingly diverse, there is significant international awareness in education about how this impacts on leaders and leadership. For decades the emphasis has been placed on increasing the number of leaders with specific attributes, such as women or those from ethnic minorities, to encourage a true representation of society. This far-reaching ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Diversity, Leadership and Education
- Chapter 2: Equality Approaches: What's in a Name?
- Chapter 3: In-Groups and Out-Groups: The ‘Outsider’ Experience
- Chapter 4: Focusing on Gender
- Chapter 5: Focusing on Ethnicity
- Chapter 6: Leadership Theory and Diversity
- Chapter 7: What to do? Theorising Aims and Practice
- Chapter 8: Taking Action
- Chapter 9: Diversity as a Positive within Leadership
©Jacky Lumby with Marianne Coleman, 2007
First published 2007
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, Post Bag 7
New Delhi 110 044
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4129-2183-1 (pbk)
Library of Congress Control Number: 2006934506
Typeset by Dorwyn, Wells, Somerset
Printed in Great Britain by Athenaeum Press, Gateshead, Tyne & Wear
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
Notes on the Authors[Page vi]
Jacky Lumby is Professor of Education at the University of Southampton. She has taught and led in a range of educational settings, including secondary schools, community and further education. She has researched and published widely on leadership and management in schools and colleges in the UK and internationally.
Marianne Coleman is a Reader in Educational Leadership and Management at the Institute of Education, University of London. Her career has been in education, mainly teaching in schools and universities. Her research is in the area of educational leadership and management, with a particular interest in women in educational leadership.
Series Editor's Foreword[Page vii]
This series of books recognises that leadership in education in the twenty-first century has an increasingly moral dimension. As education is seen more and more as being central to the transformation of society, its leaders have an onerous responsibility in their roles and within their organisations to address issues that affect the development of greater social justice. Whilst education is, fortunately, no longer seen as the panacea for all of a nation's problems, it remains central to the progress of most countries, both developed and developing, in their attempts to ensure their economic and social futures.
For those in education, leadership for social justice involves confronting major issues, such as those of equity, diversity and inclusion, in stimulating the changes needed for the embedding of social justice. What educational leaders need to reflect on, what actions they need to take, how they should be developed and how education should link and work with other disciplines and services are all important components in the social justice agenda.
This book, by Jacky Lumby and Marianne Coleman, both of whom are noted and experienced writers and researchers, focuses on leadership for diversity and offers a major challenge for those researching and practising in this field. The authors confront the complexities inherent in the term ‘diversity’ and, through a detailed consideration of current research and literature, show the inadequacy of how leadership in education has conceptualised it to date.
Drawing on socio-biological and psychological theory, as well as educational, they explore these complexities and show how easy it is for organisations, often unintentionally, to obstruct the ways of grasping the real considerations involved in acknowledging ‘equity in difference’. Believing that diversity is about people's strengths and their differences, they argue that the context is now right for concern about, for example, equal opportunities and feminism, to be encompassed within the wider notion of diversity.
As the concepts and the problems are complex, so the possible solutions are equally so, and the authors readily concede that no simple answers exist. However, the work of this book is grounded in a belief that there is cause for optimism, and the authors offer the reader ideas for action which may help to promote diversity [Page viii]by and for educational leaders. This book breaks new ground and will offer profound challenges for all those involved in any capacity in the field of educational leadership. Leaders who are mindful of the issues raised in this book and who are committed to action for change will find the book an invaluable resource to help them in their quest to embed and institutionalise the way in which difference is valued.DavidMiddlewood Series Editor
This volume is part of a series that aims to contribute to social justice through the transformation of education. It focuses on a key aspect of leadership in education in our increasingly pluralist communities: diversity. Its premise is that the most significant task of educational leadership is to support the development of learners and staff so that all can live lives they value in dignity.
The book originated in a growing perception that though diversity was becoming ever more present in discussion of educational leadership, the concept remains stubbornly peripheral in the main body of literature and in development programmes for leadership. The intention was to undertake a journey to better understand why this was so. We wished to call on our own research and on a wide body of literature, including that from beyond educational leadership. This we hoped would offer a broad range of knowledge and understanding to enrich our engagement with diversity and leadership. The journey has proved intellectually stimulating and emotionally challenging. Our hope is that something of this is communicated to readers as they share the journey. Ultimately our aim was not just to extend our own capacity and that of leaders, but thereby to effect change. There is, of course, a plethora of evidence that change is needed in society, in public services and in education. Whether it is, for example, national reviews following tragic events fuelled by racism, statistics showing the inequality in pay for men and women, or media reflections of tensions between those of different faiths, or sexual orientations, the volatility of relations between individuals and groups is ubiquitously evident. Education is at the heart of hope for change, for it is in our schools, colleges and universities above all that society has the right to expect a model of social justice to be embedded and to be renewed for each generation.
Our focus is on leaders and leadership, not because we do not believe that diversity raises extremely important issues in relation to all staff and to learners. Rather, we hope that by focusing on leadership we can firstly explore issues in some depth and secondly support current and future leaders to undertake their critical role in working for diversity, equality and inclusion in educational organisations.
The journey undertaken is fraught with difficulties, not least that of language. Even the title of the book is problematic, as the term ‘diversity’ instantly signifies [Page x]particular and very different issues to individuals. It is used in multiple ways, but increasingly at the time of writing as synonymous with minority ethnicity. Our intention is to focus on diversity in a much broader sense; that is, the rich plurality of characteristics found in staff within education. This reflects the experience of leaders, who in their work generally relate to individuals, the people who form the staff of their organisation, each of whom may have multiple identities which shift over time. They do not primarily respond to groups such as ethnic minorities or to women or to those with disabilities or of minority sexual orientation.
The structure of the volume reflects the intellectual journey undertaken. We move from exploring the pressures and incentives to consider diversity to the national and organisational action this has evoked and the psychological frameworks for understanding individual response. We focus on the contribution of feminists and those engaged with minority ethnicity to consider whether single or multiple perspectives are helpful. We then move on to formulate aims for educational leaders. Finally, we consider what change might be needed in both the theory and practice of leadership. Chapters 1–3, 6, 7 and 9 were written by Jacky Lumby. Marianne Coleman wrote Chapters 4, 5 and 8. Both of us commented fully on drafts of all chapters.
The book is international in perspective in that it draws on literature from many countries throughout the globe. However, it does not and could not adequately reflect the abundant variation in context, issues and ethical/spiritual stance. For example, we are aware that the premise that equality and inclusion are desirable is not necessarily shared in all societies. We are particularly aware that the degree of discrimination and the detriment which follows is qualitatively different in some parts of the world and we have not been able to encompass such issues as they deserve. The volume largely reflects the orientation of Anglophone countries and we acknowledge this. Very many books are needed to address the full range of relevant issues throughout the world. This one volume makes a contribution but cannot encompass all that it would be desirable to address.
We would like to thank a number of people for their help. Marianne Lagrange at Sage was a supportive commissioning editor. Colleagues at the University of Lincoln and the London Institute of Education have over time taught us much. Alma Harris, Marlene Morrison, Krishan Sood and Daniel Muijs worked on the ‘Leading Learning’ research project, which provides some of the data used in the volume. David Middlewood and Ann Briggs made helpful comments on a draft of Chapter 6. We also pay tribute to each other, for determination to stick to the task and to work through differences in perspective. The journey has been demanding but exhilarating, and we hope that in response readers will be stimulated to reflection and to action in this most crucial endeavour of education.
References[Page 123]1994) Gendered Education. Buckingham, Open University Press.(2005) Gender, ethnicity and school principalship in Israel: comparing two organizational cultures. International Journal of Inclusive Education, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 217–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13603110500075255(2002) Gender inequality in leadership positions of teachers. British Journal of Sociology of Education, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 157–177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01425690220137693and (1993) Managing Women: Feminism and Power in Educational Management. Buckingham, Open University Press., and (1998) Theoretical, empirical and practical approaches to intergroup conflict. Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 54, No. 4, pp. 629–639. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1998.tb01240.xand (2006) Troubling identities: teacher education students’ constructions of class and ethnicity. Cambridge Journal of Education, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 115–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057640500491021and (2005) ‘Leadership’ as knowledge. Educational Management, Leadership and Administration, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 181–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1741143205051052and (2005) Cultural understanding in leadership and management. Leadership Foundation Fellowships Programme, London, 7 November.(1972) Crises of the Republic: Lying in Politics, Civil Disobedience on Violence, Thoughts on Politics and Revolution. New York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.(1991) Teaching smart people how to learn. Harvard Business Review, May-June, pp. 99–109.(1995) The layered perspective of cultural (in)tolerance(s). In R.Wiseman (ed.), International Communication Theory, Volume XIX. London, Sage.and (1987) The Micro-Politics of the School. London, Routledge.(1992) Process and Structure in Higher Education,and (2nd edn.Routledge, London.2003) In pursuit of authentic school leadership practices. In P.Begley and O.Johansson (eds), The Ethical Dimensions of School Leadership. London, Kluwer Academic. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/0-306-48203-7([Page 124]2004) Understanding valuation processes: exploring the linkage between motivation and action. International Studies in Educational Administration, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 4–17.(1994) School Leadership: A Profile Document, accessed online at http://www.oise.utoronto.ca/-vsvede, 3 April 2006.(1995) Racial realism after we're gone: prudent speculations on America in a post-racial epoch. In R.Delgado (ed.), Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge. Philadelphia, PA, Temple University, pp. 2–8.(2002) The Claims of Culture: Equality and Diversity in the Global Era. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press.(2003) Distributed Leadership. Nottingham, NCSL., , and (1994) Black Women in the Labour Market – A Research Review. Manchester, Equal Opportunities Commission, quoted in Davidson, M.J. (1997) The Black and Ethnic Minority Woman Manager: Cracking the Concrete Ceiling. London, Paul Chapman.(1989) Educational leadership: a feminist critique and reconstruction. In B.Limerick and B.Lingard (eds), Critical Perspectives on Educational Leadership. Deakin Studies in Education, Series 2. Lewes, Falmer Press.(1999) Troubling Women: Feminism, Leadership and Educational Change. Buckingham, Open University Press.(2004) Leading as emotional management work in high risk times: the counterintuitive impulses of performativity and passion. School Leadership and Management, Vol. 24, Issue 4, pp. 439–459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632430410001316534(2006) Social justice and the study and practice of leadership in education: a feminist history. Journal of Educational Administration and History, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 185–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220620600554876(2002) Effective school leadership: the multi-ethnic context. British Journal of Sociology of Education, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 179–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01425690220137701(1996) Radical feminism in Canada. Telos, Issue 109, pp. 177–182. http://dx.doi.org/10.3817/0996109177(1996) Constructions of an anti-racist education in Britain and Canada. Comparative Education, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 271–288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03050069628713and (1998) Fair employment and the origins of affirmative action in the 1940s. NWSA Journal, Vol. 10, Issue 3, pp. 142–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.2979/NWS.19220.127.116.11(1996) The inclusive school: integrating diversity and solidarity through community-based management. Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 466–476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09578239710184600and (1994) Parental choice, consumption and social theory: the operation of micro markets in education. British Journal of Educational Studies, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 38–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00071005.1994.9973982, and (2005) The cooking teacher: investigating gender stereotypes in a Korean kindergarten. Early Years, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 17–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09575140500042882and (2000) Landscape stewardship: new directions in conservation of nature and culture. The George Wright Forum, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 70–79, accessed online at http://www.georgewright.org/171brown.pdf, 22 May 2006.and ([Page 125]2000) Principles of Power: Woman Superintendents and the Riddle of the Heart. Albany, NY, State University of New York Press.(2002) Professing educational leadership: conceptions of power. Journal of School Leadership, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 693–720.(1998) Cross cultural understandings of leadership: themes from Native American interviews. Educational Management and Administration, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 7–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X98261002(1995) Theories of Educational Management,(2nd edn.London, Paul Chapman.2003) School Leadership: Concepts and Evidence. Nottingham, NCSL.and (1995) Mentoring and continuing professional development. In D.McIntyre and H.Hagger (eds), Mentors in Schools: Developing the Profession of Teaching. London, David Fulton., , and (2006) Black and minority ethnic leaders in England: a portrait. School Leadership and Management, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 289–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632430600737140, and (2005) Black and Minority Ethnic Leaders, Final Report to the National College for School Leadership, Lincoln, International Institute for Education Leadership., , , , , and (Cabinet Office (2005) Delivering a Diverse Civil Service: A 10-Point Plan. London, accessed online at http://www.diversity-whatworks.gov.uk, 12 June 2005.2001) Promise or problem? A review of the literature on men working in early childhood services. Gender Work and Organization, Vol. 8, No. 4 (Oct.), pp. 430–453. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-0432.00140(2006) Toward a framework for preparing leaders for social justice. Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 209–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09578230610664814, and (2004) Gender, school management and educational reforms: a case study of a primary school in Hong Kong. Gender and Education, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 491–510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540250042000300394(2004) Organizational Culture, group diversity and intra-group conflict. Team Performance Management, Vol. 10, No. 1/2, pp. 26–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13527590410527568, and (2001) Gender and leadership in South African educational administration. Gender and Education, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 387–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540250120081742(1995) Color blindness and basket making are not the answers: confronting the dilemmas of race, culture, and language diversity in teacher education. American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 32, No. 3. pp. 493–522.(1994) Leadership in educational management. In T.Bush and J.West-Burnham (eds), The Principles of Educational Management. Harlow, Longman.(1996a) Management style of female head teachers. Educational Management and Administration, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 163–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X96242005([Page 126]1996b) Barriers to career progress for women in education: the perceptions of female head teachers. Educational Research, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 317–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0013188960380305(2002) Women as Head Teachers: Striking the Balance. Stoke-on-Trent, Trentham Books.(2004) Evaluation of the SHINE Programme. London, London Leadership Centre.(2005a) Gender and Headship in the Twenty-First Century. Nottingham, NCSL, accessed http://www.ncsl.org.uk/mediastore/image2/twlf-gender-full.pdf, 5 July 2006.(2005b) Women and leadership: the views of women who are ‘Leading from the Middle’. Paper presented at the BELMAS conference, Milton Keynes, 23 September.(2005) Leadership, Gender and Culture in Education. Maidenhead, Open University Press.and (2006) Diversity and the marginalisation of black women's issues. Policy Futures in Education, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 172–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2006.4.2.172(2003) A woman's place … employment and family life for men and women. In A.Park, J.Curtice, K.Thomson, L.Jarvis and C.Bromley (eds), British Social Attitudes: The 20th Report. Continuity and Change over Two Decades. London, Sage., and (2003) Altering theories of learning and action: an interview with Chris Argyris. Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 40–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.2003.10025189(2004) Towards diversity in teacher education: teacher preparation of immigrant teachers. International Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 125–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0261976042000223006(2005) It's just not a real bloke's job: male teachers in the primary school. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 321–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13598660500286176(2003) Delivering on diversity leadership: a walk in the other guy's shoes. Executive Speeches, June/July 2003, pp. 20–25.(1999) Strategies for managing human resource diversity: from resistance to learning. Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 68–80.and (1997) The Black and Ethnic Minority Woman Manager: Cracking the Concrete Ceiling. London, Paul Chapman.(1990) Equity and Efficiency? School Management in an International Context. London, Falmer Press.(1998) Democratic practice, gender and school management. In P.Drake and P.Owen (eds), Gender and Management in Education. Stoke-on-Trent, Trentham Books.(2000) Leading Schools in Times of Change. Buckingham, Open University Press., , , and ([Page 127]2004) ‘So when it comes out, they aren't that surprised that it is there’: using critical race theory, a tool of analysis of race and racism in education’, Educational Researcher, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp. 26–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X033005026and (2006) Diversity in the Academy? Staff perceptions of equality policies in six contemporary higher education institutions. Policy Futures in Education, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp.185–202. http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2006.4.2.185and (1991) Affirmative action as a majoritarian device: or, Do you really want to be a role model?Michigan Law Review, Vol. 89, No. 5, pp. 1222–1231. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1289552(2001) Critical Race Theory: An Introduction. New York, New York University.and (DfES (2004, 2005) Statistics of Education: School Workforce in England.http://www.dfes.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/VO:?v000380/index.shtml.2005) Educational Leadership: Culture and Diversity. London, Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446247143and (1996) Diversity and the demands of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 163–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843%2896%2990039-9and (1992) Managing Interpersonal Conflict. Newbury Park, CA, Sage.and (2000) Workforce diversity: implications for the effectiveness of health care delivery teams. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 50, pp. 1403–1414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2899%2900396-2, and (1997) Foreword. In F.Hesselbein (ed.), The Leader of the Future: New Visions, Strategies and Practices for the Next Era (The Drucker Foundation). San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass/Wiley.(1994) Determinants of compromising behaviour in negotiation. Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 507–556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022002794038003007(1997) Contested values in further education. Findings from a case study of the management of change. Educational Management and Administration, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 79–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X97251007and (1994) FE Inc. – business orientation in further education and the introduction of human resource management. School Organisation, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 3–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0260136940140101and (2000) Building a New Structure for School Leadership. Washington, DC, The Albert Shanker Institute.(European Union (2003) Gender Mainstreaming Briefing, accessed online at http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/equ_opp/gms_en.html1994) Becoming a Secondary Headteacher. London, Cassell.(2005) Living leadership in an era of change. International Journal of Leadership in Education, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 145–165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1360312042000270487(2003) Leading and Managing Education: International Dimensions. London, Paul Chapman.and (2003) Individual differences and organizational forms in the leadership process. The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 14, pp. 83–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843%2802%2900182-0and ([Page 128]1980) Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings. Brighton, Harvester.(1994) Rethinking the public sphere: a contribution to the critique of actually existing democracy. In H.A.Giroux and P.McLaren (eds), Between Borders: Pedagogy and the Politics of Cultural Studies. New York, Routledge.(1992) The Moral Imperative of School Leadership. London, Sage.(2000) Re-examining workplace equality: the capabilities approach. Human Resource Management Journal, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 68–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2000.tb00007.xand (2001) Promoting equality and equal opportunities: school policies. In D.Hill and M.Cole (eds), Schooling and Equality. Fact, Concept, and Policy. London, Kogan Page.(1999) Sociobiological and social constructionist accounts of altruism: a Phenomenological Critique. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 1–16, accessed online at http://web19.epnet.com/, 4 March 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156916299X00084and (2003) The Women's Movement in Canadian and Australian education: from liberation and sexism to boys and social justice. Gender and Education, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 151–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540250303855and (2004) Anti-racism: from policy to praxis. In G.Ladson-Billings and D.Gillborn (eds), The RoutledgeFalmer Reader in Multicultural Education. Abingdon, RoutledgeFalmer.(2005) Education policy as an act of white supremacy: whiteness, critical race theory and education reform. Journal of Education Policy, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 485–505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680930500132346(1994) Beyond Left and Right. The Future of Radical Politics. Cambridge, Polity Press.(1982) In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.(2001) Style and substance in education leadership: further education as a case in point. Journal of Education Policy, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 181–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680930110041015(1999) Managing ambiguity: between markets and managerialism – a case study of ‘middle’ managers in further education. The Sociological Review, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 461–490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.00181and (1993) Women friendly management development programmes. In J.Ouston (ed.), Women in Education Management. Harlow, Longman.(2003) Principled Principals? Values-Driven Leadership: Evidence from Ten Case Studies of ‘Outstanding’ School Leaders. Educational Management, Leadership and Administration, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 127–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X030312002, , , and (1994) The feminization of the principalship in Israel: the trade-off between political power and cooperative leadership. In C.Marshall (ed.), The New Politics of Race and Gender. London, Falmer.and (2003) Schools, Markets and Choice Policies. London, Routledge Falmer., and ([Page 129]1995) Reexamining educational leadership: challenging assumptions. In D.M.Dunlap and P.A.Schmuck (eds), Women Leading in Education. Albany, NY, State University of New York.and (2003) Action for Social Justice in Education: Fairly Different. Maidenhead, Open University Press.(1996) Voices of Women Aspiring to the Superintendency. Albany, NY, State University of New York.(1999) Equity/equality issues of gender, race and class. Educational Administration Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 518–536. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00131619921968743(2004) US Women Top Executive Leaders in Education: Building Communities of Learners. Paper presented at the CCEAM Conference, Shanghai, October.(2000) Distributed properties: a new architecture for leadership. Paper presented to BEMAS Research 2000, Leading Educational Management in Learning Societies: Research, Policy and Practice, The 6th International Educational Management and Administration Research Conference, 29-31 March 2000, Robinson College, Cambridge.(2001) Commentary. Crossing the Great Divides: problems of cultural diffusion for leadership in education. International Journal for Leadership in Education, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 401–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13603120110078007(1995) Anxiety/uncertainty management (AUM) theory. In R.Wiseman (ed.), International Communication Theory, Vol. XIX. London, Sage.(2006) Getting to the what, how and why of diversity on campus. Educational Researcher, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 20–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X035001020and (1996) Dancing on the Ceiling: A Study of Women Managers in Education. London, Paul Chapman.(1997a) Dusting off the Phoenix: gender and educational management revisited. Educational Management and Administration, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 309–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X97253007(1997b) Management roles in education. In T.Bush and D.Middlewood (eds), Managing People in Education. London, Paul Chapman.(2003) Understanding the contribution of leadership to school improvement. In M.Wallace and L.Poulson (eds), Learning to Lead Critically in Educational Leadership and Management. London, Sage.and (1995) Contested community. Society, Vol. 32, Issue 5 (July/Aug), pp. 1–7, accessed online at http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9507106193anddb=afh, 13 February 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02693333(1992) Contrived Collegiality: the Micropolitics of Teacher Collaboration. In N.Bennett, M.Crawford and C.R.Riches (eds), Managing Change in Education: Individual and Organizational Perspectives. London, Paul Chapman.(1995) School culture, school effectiveness and school improvement. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 23–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0924345950060102(2000) The impact of conflict issues on fixed-pie perceptions, problem-solving and integrative outcomes in negotiation. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 81, No. 2, pp. 329–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1999.2873, and ([Page 130]2004) Distributed leadership and school improvement: leading or misleading?Educational Management and Administration, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 11–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1741143204039297(2003) Growing Tomorrow's School Leaders – The Challenge. Nottingham, NCSL.and (1976) The Mirage of Social Justice. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul.(HEFCE (2004) Equality and Diversity Monitoring in Higher Education Institutions: A Guide to Good Practice. London, HEFCE.2001) Leading for Diversity: How School Leaders Promote Positive Interethnic Relations. Center for Research on Education. Diversity and Excellence accessed online at http://repositories.cdlib.org/crede/edupractrpts/epr07, 12 September 2005., , , and (1996) Administrative Philosophy: Values and Motivation in Administrative Life. Oxford, Pergamon.(Home Office Communication Directorate (2004) Strength in Diversity. London, Home Office.1994) School improvement in an era of change. In P.Ribbins and E.Burridge (eds), Improving Education: Promoting Quality in School. London, Cassell.(2003) Talking Inequality. London, Future Foundation.and (1986) The Politics of School Management. London, Hodder & Stoughton.(1996) Challenges in cross-gender mentoring relationships: psychological intimacy, myths, rumours, innuendoes and sexual harassment. Leadership and rganization Development Journal, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 42–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437739610116993(Ian Dodds Consulting (2006) Taking an Honest Look at your Business Culture from a Diversity Perspective, accessed online at http://www.iandoddsconsulting.com/ features.html, 31 August 2006.1997) Managing diversity in transnational project teams. A tentative model and case study. Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 95–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683949710164190and (Institute of Personnel Development (1996) Managing Diversity, an IPD Position Paper. London, IPD.2001) The synergistic leadership theory. Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 304–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09578230210433409, and (1993) Realistic group conflict theory: a review and evaluation of the theoretical and empirical literature. Psychological Record, Vol. 43, Issue 3, pp. 1–15, accessed online at http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9312270962anddb=afh, 15 April 2006.(1987) Workforce 2000: Work and Workers for the 21st Century. Indianapolis, Hudson Institute.and (2006) Falling between the cracks: what diversity means for black women in higher education. Policy Futures in Education, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 145–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2006.4.2.145([Page 131]2004) Dysconscious racism: ideology, identity, and the miseducation of teachers. In G.Ladson-Billings and D.Gillborn (eds), The RoutledgeFalmer Reader in Multicultural Education. Abingdon, RoutledgeFalmer.(1997) Best Practice in the Australian Public Service. Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 12, No. 7, pp. 433–491. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683949710181209and (1999) Designing for cultural diversity in an IT and globalizing milieu. Journal of Management Development, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 91–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621719910261193and (1999) Making change happen. In F.Hesslebein and P.Cohen (eds), Leader to Leader. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass.(1983) Phases of the mentor relationship. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 608–625. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255910(1996) Gender issues in school headship: quality versus power?European Journal of Education, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 447–461.(2001) Organizational change, leadership and learning: culture as cognitive process. The International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 68–77.(2004) Responding ethically: complex decision-making by school district superintendents. International Studies in Educational Administration, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 78–93.(1996) Morals of Modernity. New York, Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625091(1998) Mapping the conceptual terrain of leadership: a critical point for departure for cross-cultural studies. In P.Hallinger and K.Leithwood (eds), Leading Schools in a Global Era: A Cultural Perspective. Peabody Journal of Education, Vol. 73, No. 2, pp. 81–105.and (1999) Changing Leadership for Changing Times. Buckingham, Open University Press., and (1998) Gendering change? Management, masculinity and the dynamics of incorporating. Gender and Education, 10 (1), pp. 71–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540259821104(2001) Globalizing the Community College: Strategies for Change in the Twenty First Century. New York, Palgrave. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780312292836(1999) Teachers Transforming their World and their Work. New York, Teachers College.and (1996) ‘Sameness’ and ‘difference’ revisited: which way forward for equal opportunity initiatives?Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 79–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1996.tb00799.xand (1997) The discourse of diversity: from biology to management. Discourse and Organization, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 187–209.(2003) The (racially neutral) politics of education: a critical race theory perspective. Educational Administration Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 68–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013161X02239761(2001) Changing views on diversity management: the rise of the learning perspective and the need to recognize social and political contradictions. Management Learning, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 345–361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350507601323004([Page 132]2000) Critical turns in the evolution of diversity management. British Journal of Management, Vol. 11, Issue 3, pp. 17–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.11.s1.3and (2001) Managing Further Education Colleges: Learning Enterprise. London, Paul Chapman.(2006) Conceptualising diversity and leadership: evidence from ten cases. Educational Management and Administration, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 151–165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1741143206062487(2006) Partnership, conflict and gaming. Journal of Education Policy, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 323–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680930600600564and (2003) Developing 14-19 education: meeting needs and improving choice. Journal of Education Policy, Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 533–550. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0268093032000124884and (2005) Leadership, Development and Diversity in the Learning and Skills Sector. London, LSDA., , , , , , with and (2004) Leadership, Development and Diversity: The Means of Organisational Transformation? Early soundings from the field. Paper presented to the Centre for Excellence Conference, Birmingham, 30 March 2004., , , , , , , and (2003) ‘Colorblind’ leadership and intergroup conflict. Journal of School Leadership, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 130–158.and (2006) Black managers in further education: career hopes and hesitations. In Educational Management, Administration and Leadership, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 9–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1741143206059537and (1995) Feminist Issues: Race, Class and Sexuality. Scarborough, Ontario, Prentice-Hall.(1997) Dismantling and reconstructing policy analysis. In Feminist Critical Policy Analysis: A Perspective from Primary and Secondary Schooling. London, Falmer.(2001) Edging towards managing diversity in practice. Employee Relations, Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 468–482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01425450110405161, and (1994) Understanding our differences: performance in decision-making groups with diverse members. Human Relations, Vol. 47, No. 5, pp. 1–16, accessed online at http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=4anddid, 22 May 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679404700504(2005) Wider management mentoring programme for women and ethnic minority managers in particular – in partnership with the public and private sector. In Leadership Foundation Fellowships Programme. London, 7 November.(2006) The uneven march toward social justice: Diversity, conflict, and complexity in educational administration programs. Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 225–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09578230610664823and (2002) Challenge Plus: The Experience of Black and Minority Ethnic School Leaders. Nottingham, NCSL.and (1996) Searching for common threads: understanding the multiple effects of diversity in organizational groups. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 1–32, accessed online at http://search.epnet.com/dierct.asp?an=9605060217anddb=buh, 6 May 2004.and ([Page 133]2006) Transcendence over diversity: black women in the academy. Policy Futures in Education, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 101–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2006.4.2.101(1999) Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press.(2002) ‘Mistresses of their own destiny’, group rights, gender and realistic rights of exit. Ethics, Vol. 112, pp. 205–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/324645(2001) Internet, multimedia and virtual laboratories in a ‘Third World’ environment. Open Learning, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 279–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680510120084986, and (2000) The inclusive workplace: an ecosystems approach to diversity management. Social Work, Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 339–351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/45.4.339(Logan, G. and Niller, C., trans. Adams, R.A (1994) Utopia. London, Phoenix.(edited2005) The Career Progression of Women Teachers in England: A Study of Barriers to Promotion and Career Development. London, IPSE., and (1986) Images of Organization. London, Sage.(1999) Managing women: secondary school principals in Trinidad and Tobago. Gender and Education, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 343–355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540259920627(2006) Equal Status Review: An Audit of Equal Status at XX School, prepared for XX Education Authority and the Equality Authority of Ireland. Lincoln, University of Lincoln.and (2006) Informing the debate on race-conscious education policy. Educational Researcher, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 3–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X035001003and (1996) The challenge of cultural diversity: harnessing a diversity of views to understand multiculturalism. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 434–462.and (1997) Varieties of altruism – and the common ground between them. Social Research, Vol. 67, No. 2, pp. 199–210.(1988) An ethic of caring and its implications for instructional arrangements. American Journal of Education, Vol. 96, pp. 215–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/443894(1999) ‘Structures beneath the skin’: how school leaders use their power and authority to create institutional opportunities for developing positive interethnic communities. Journal of Negro Education, 68 (4), pp. 466–485. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2668148(North West Change Centre of Manchester Business School (2002) Diversity – The Key to Modernization and the Bedrock of Democracy. Manchester, Manchester Business School.1997) Change Equation: Capitalizing on Diversity for Effective Organizational Change. Washington, DC, American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10224-000and (1999a) Women and equality: the capabilities approach. International Labour Review, Vol. 138, No. 3, pp. 227–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1564-913X.1999.tb00386.x([Page 134]1999b) Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.(2002) Beyond the Social Contract: Toward Global Justice. The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, delivered at Australian National University, Canberra, 12 and 13 November 2002 and at Clare Hall, University of Cambridge, 5 and 6 March 2003.(2002) Gender on Planet Earth. Cambridge, Polity Press.(2003) Three dimensions of conflict issues and their effects on resolution strategies in organizational settings. International Journal of Conflict Management, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 61–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb022891and (OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2004) Gender Co-ordination at the OECD: Second Annual Report, accessed online at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/58/61/32139347.pdf, 7 May 2006.1997) The Education and Careers of Black Teachers. Buckingham, Open University Press.(2004) Changing leadership and schools: diversity, equality and citizenship. Race Equality Teaching, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 22–28.(2006) Changing leadership in contexts of diversity: visibility, invisibility and democratic ideals. Policy Futures in Education, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 128–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2006.4.2.128(Ouston, J. (Ed.) (1993) Women in Education Management. Harlow, Longman.Ozga, J. (Ed.) (1993) Women in Educational Management. Buckingham, Open University Press.2001) Human resource management in Australia: prospects for the twenty-first century. International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 198–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437720110398248and (2003) Cultural values for international schools. International Schools Journal, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 59–65.(1996) The many meanings of equality and positive action in favour of women under European Community law – a conceptual analysis. European Law Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 177–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0386.1996.tb00024.x(1987) A correlation of leadership trait theory with follower traits. Educational Administrator, No. 29, pp. 41–48.(2003) Teachers’ Careers: The Impact of Age, Disability, Ethnicity, Gender and Sexual Orientation, Research Report 488. London, DfES., , , , , , in conjunction with (1997) From Showcase to Shadow: Understanding Dilemmas of Managing Workplace Diversity. In P.Prasad, M.Mills, M.Elmes and A.Prasad, (eds), Managing the Organizational Melting Pot: Dilemmas of Workplace Diversity. London, Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452225807and (1991) Rethinking transformative leadership: toward democratic reform of schools. Journal of Education, Vol. 173, No. 3, pp. 1–16, accessed online at http://web22.epnet.com.uk, 6 December 2005.and ([Page 135]1998) Values-Based Strategic Planning. Singapore, Simon and Schuster., and (1997) Further education and the new managerialism. Journal of Further and Higher Education, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 229–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0309877970210208and (1993) Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.(2001) The paradox of contemporary femininities in education: combining fluidity with fixity. In B.Francis and C.Skelton (eds), Investigating Gender: Contemporary Perspective in Education. Buckingham, Open University Press.(2000) Essentials of female management: women's ways of working in the education market place?Educational Management and Administration, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 145–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X000282004and (2003) Learning from difference?Management Learning, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 163–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350507603034002001and (2004) Values in educational administration: them's fighting words!International Journal of Leadership in Education, Oct-Dec 2004, Vol. 7, Issue 4, pp. 339–356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1360312042000224686(2003) What should international education be? From emergent theory to practice. International Schools Journal, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 69–79.(1999) Moral and ethical dilemmas in Catholic school settings. In P.Begley (ed.), Values and Educational Leadership. Albany, NY, State University of New York Press.(2004) Gendered rationality? A genealogical exploration of the philosophical and sociological conceptions of rationality, masculinity and organization. Gender, Work and Organization, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 280–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2004.00232.xand (1993) Women Managers in Education – A Worldwide Progress Report. Bristol, The Staff College, Coombe Lodge Report.(2004) Gender and race in leadership preparation: a constrained discourse. Educational Administration Quarterly, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 16–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013161X03259110(2003) Leadership and followership as a relational process. Educational Management and Administration, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 145–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X0303102103(2000) Moving On Up? Racial Equality and the Corporate Agenda. London, Runnymede Trust.and (2002) Cheaters and chumps. Natural History, Vol. 111, No. 5, pp. 1–7, accessed online at http://weblinks2.epnet.com/citation.asp?, 23 May 2006.(1996) Sixth Form Options – Post-compulsory Education in Maintained Schools. Slough, NFER., and (1994) Managerial sex typing: a persistent and pervasive barrier to women's opportunities. In M.Davidson and R.Burke (eds), Women in Management: Current Research Issues. London, Paul Chapman.(2005) The effect of leader moral development on ethical climate and employee attitudes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 97, No. 2, pp. 135–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2005.03.006, and ([Page 136]1996) Women's place in educational administration: past, present and future. In K.Leithwood, J.Chapman, D.Corson, P.Hallinger and A.Hart (eds), International Handbook of Educational Leadership and Administration. Boston, MA, Kluwer Academic.(1984) Resources, Values and Development. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.(1993) Organisations or Communities: Changing the Metaphor Changes the Theory. AERA Invited Address, Division A, Atlanta, GA.(2006a) Leading multiethnic schools: a new understanding of Muslim youth identity. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 215–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1741143206062495(2006b) Educational leadership: an Islamic perspective. British Educational Research Journal, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 363–386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920600635403(1999) Managing to Lead: Women Managers in the Further Education Sector. Paper presented at the BERA annual conference, University of Sussex at Brighton, 2–5 September 1999.(1989) Women in Educational Administration. Newbury Park, CA, Sage.(1953) Groups in Harmony and Tension: An Integration of Studies on Intergroup Relations. New York, Harper.and (2004) Race, social cohesion and the changing politics of citizenship. London Review of Education, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 187–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1474846042000302825, , , and (2000) Education reform and managerialism: comparing the experience of schools and colleges. Journal of Education Policy, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 317–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02680930050030455(2002) Cultural transformation in further education? Mapping the debate. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 9–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13596740200200116and (1999) Understanding executive diversity: more than meets the eye. Human Resource Planning, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 49–51.and (2000) Women within diversity: risks and possibilities. Women in Management Review, Vol. 15, No. 5/6, pp. 237–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09649420010372850(2004) Journey around leadership. Discourse, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 7–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0159630042000178455(2002) Managing Diversity for Strategic Advantage. London, Council for Excellence in Management and Leadership.(1997) Are traditional management tools sufficient for diverse teams?Team Performance Management, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 3–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13527599710171228(2005) London schools still struggling three years after Blair initiative. The Guardian, (London), p. 12.(2005) Discourses of work-life balance: negotiating ‘genderblind’ terms in organizations. Gender, Work and Organization, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp.147–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2005.00267.xand (2000) Balancing Acts: Women Principals at Work. Albany, NY, New York State University.([Page 137]2002) Instructional leadership in schools: reflections and empirical evidence. School Leadership and Management, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 73–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632430220143042(2004) Towards a theory of leadership practice: a distributed perspective. Journal of Curriculum Studies, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 3–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0022027032000106726, and (2006) Internationalisation, intercultural communication and intercultural competence. Journal of Intercultural Communication, Issue 11, pp. 1–12. accessed online at http://www.immi.se/intercultural/, 14 July 2006.(1996) A model of factors affecting the treatment of disabled individuals in organizations. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 352–401.and (1997) Women at the Top in Further Education. London, FEDA.and (1999) What it means to succeed: personal conceptions of career success held by male and female managers at different ages. British Journal of Management, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 239–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.00130(1996) Making differences matter: a new paradigm for managing diversity. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 74, No. 5, pp. 79–90.and (1997) Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business,and (2nd edn.London, Nicholas Brealey.2003) Educational Management in Managerialist Times: Beyond the Textual Apologists. Maidenhead, Open University Press.and (2006) Identity based and reputational leadership: an American Indian approach to leadership. Journal of Research in Leader Education, accessed online at http://www.ucea.org/JRLE/pdf/vol1/issue1/Tippeconnic.pdf, 22 May 2006.(1995) Potlatching and political organizations among the Northwest Coast Indians. Ethnology, Vol. 34, Issue No. 1, pp. 53–74, accessed online at http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9505023827anddb=afh, 18 August 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3773863(2006) Needed: leadership for liberation. A global portrait painted in shades of brown. Journal of Leader Education, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1–5, accessed online at http://www.ucea.org/JRLE/pdf/vol1/issue1/Valverde.pdf, 18 May 2006.(1985) Positive action programmes for women. International Labour Review, Vol. 124, No. 3, pp. 253–265.(2006) Leader development across cultures. Journal of Research in Leader Education, accessed online at http://www.ucea.org/JRLE/pdf/vol1/issue1/Walker.pdf, 22 May 2006.(1998) Challenging the boundaries of sameness: leadership through valuing difference. Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 8–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09578239810200060and (1994) Inside the SMT. London, Paul Chapman.and (2005) Shall I train your apprentice: an empirical investigation of outsourcing of apprenticeship training in Switzerland. Education + Training, Vol. 47, No. 4–5, pp. 251–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00400910510601850, and ([Page 138]Henderson, A.M. and Parsons, T.) (1947) The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. New York, Free Press.(trans.1999) The Glass Ceiling: A Look at Women in the Workforce. Brookfield, CT, Twenty-First Century Books.(2000) Current status of diversity initiatives in selected multinational corporations. Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 35–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1532-1096%28200021%2911:1%3C35::AID-HRDQ4%3E3.0.CO;2-#and (Wikipedia (2006) Diversity. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diversity, accessed 17 May 2006.2004) The Soul of Man Under Socialism. Whitefish, MT, Kessinger.(1987) Black and White Families: A Study in Complementarity. New York, General Hall.(1999) Managing diversity – an employment and service delivery challenge. The International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 27–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09513559910262661and (2004) Democratic leadership: drawing distinctions with distributed leadership. International Journal of Leadership in Education, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 3–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1360312032000154522(2005) At the hard edge of change: views from secondary head teachers on a public-private partnership. Journal of Education Policy, Vol. 20, No. 1, p. 23–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0268093042000322810and (1959) The Sociological Imagination. Oxford, Oxford University Press.(1990) Bureaucrats, technocrats, femocrats: essays on the contemporary Australian State. Sydney, Allen and Unwin.(2004) Organizational culture, group diversity and intra-group conflict. Team Performance Management, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 26–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13527590410527568, and (2006) Infusing gender and diversity issues into educational leadership programs. Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 264–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09578230610664850and , (2002) Illusions of difference? Larmore's political liberalism. An Internet Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 6, pp. 151–161, accessed at http://www.ul.ie/~philos/vol6/lar-more.html, 31 August 2006.(
Statutes and Regulations[Page 139]
All UK legislation is published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and is Crown Copyright. Legislation dating from 1987 can be printed out or read online from the website of the Office of Public Sector Information at http://www.opsi.gov.uk
- Children Act 2004
- London, HMSO, ISBN 0 10543104 4
- Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003
- London, HMSO, ISBN 0 11046676 4
- Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003
- London, HMSO, ISBN 0 11046677 2
- Employment Act 2002
- London, HMSO, ISBN 1 10542202 9
- Flexible Working (Eligibility, Complaints, Remedies) Regulations 2002
- London, HMSO, ISBN 0 11044463 9
- Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000
- London, HMSO, ISBN 0 10543400 0
- Sex Discrimination (Gender Reassignment) Regulations 1999
- London, HMSO, ISBN 0 11082501
- Disability Discrimination Act 1995
- London, HSMO, ISBN 0 10545095 2
- Disabled Persons (Services, Consultation and Representation) Act 1986
- London, HMSO, ISBN 0 10543386 1
- Sex Discrimination Act 1986
- London, HMSO
- Race Relations Act 1976
- London, HMSO, ISBN 0 10547476 2
- Sex Discrimination Act 1975
- London, HMSO, ISBN 0 10546575 5
- Equal Pay Act 1970
- London, HMSO.
- Disabled Persons Act 1958
- London, HMSO
- Disabled Persons Act 1944
- London, HMSO
- Children Act 2004