Law and Social Change

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Sharyn L. Roach Anleu

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    Preface to First Edition

    This book grew from a dual interest in the interface between sociology and law and in the apparent increasing reliance on law as a route for social change. Until very recently the sociology of law was not an established subdiscipline; sociology was conscious of the law as a social institution and law was conscious of the social conditions in which it operated, but there was relatively little interaction between the two disciplines. This has changed. There is now a vast sociological literature on legal institutions, especially those in industrialized western nations, greater consideration of the relationships between law and non-legal forms of social control and dispute processing, and increasing discussion of the role of law and legal discourse in everyday life.

    There is an enormous amount of attention being given to law – both as legislation and as judicial decisions – as a source of social change. Litigation and lobbying for legislative change are strategies that social movements adopt across the full political spectrum. Governments also rely on legislation to implement various social welfare programmes and, more recently, international laws are an important aspect of the constitution of the international community and the possibilities of global governance or regulation. In the wake of a reliance on law to further desired social transformations, there is widespread disillusionment regarding the persistence of inequalities and the resistance of social institutions and actors to changed legal environments. Many therefore would suggest that law is an ineffective source of social change and does not readily translate into altered social practices. However, the effects of new legislation or new judicial interpretations of social life are difficult to evaluate precisely, and it is rather naive to expect that legal change will directly and simplistically translate into the expected social changes. The expectation that law will have anticipated results belies positivistic reasoning, that is, that one set of changes in the law directly causes the anticipated change.

    This book provides a sociological examination of law, surveys current theoretical debates and examines socio-legal research. It goes beyond a discussion of contemporary legal institutions to include a consideration of the relationships between law and other aspects of social life. The focus is on broad and general patterns grounded in specific examples. Overwhelmingly, examples are taken from the common-law legal systems, but there is also considerable attention paid to comparing the legal systems of Europe and Asia. There is also some coverage of current discussions of globalization and the role of law in an international context.

    Chapter 1 examines the idea of law and introduces some legal concepts. In discussing the interface between sociology and law, it provides a brief overview of legal theories, including positivism, legal realism and natural law. Chapter 2 investigates the ‘classical’ sociological theorists – Durkheim, Weber and Marx – and their analyses of the interconnections between social and economic transformations and the nature of law, legal thought and legal relations. This theoretical legacy has influenced diverse contemporary theories of law. Chapter 3 examines contemporary debates in theories of law, including systems theory, juridification, law and discipline, critical legal theory, feminist legal theory, and legal pluralism.

    Chapter 4, the first of the substantive chapters, examines the legal profession. It addresses the concept of profession, then examines the nature of legal work and discusses changes to the legal profession that have occurred over the past three decades across a number of different societies. Chapter 5 deals with the social practices involved in the emergence, identification and processing of disputes, which can include adjudication, mediation, conciliation and negotiation. It examines the alternative dispute-resolution movement and assesses its role and functions within the legal/justice system, specifically the relationships between different forums for resolving disputes and the social conditions under which certain kinds of dispute settlement emerge. Social control, a concept that has a long history within sociology, is the topic of Chapter 6, which focuses on the connections between legal and nonlegal control. This chapter looks at the criminal trial, including what happens in the shadow of the courtroom, for example negotiations between lawyers and plea bargaining. The chapter also discusses the role of the judge, sentencing, the aims of punishment and the role of victims in the criminal justice process, and finally explores new developments in crime management and prevention.

    The next two chapters address some specific and very contemporary issues. Chapter 7 looks at feminism and legal reform and investigates the ways in which legal mobilization is one strategy that social movements, here women's movements, pursue as a route for social change in the areas of employment and sex discrimination, rape and domestic violence, pornography and reproductive issues. The central argument is that it is naive to expect that simply reforming statutes will directly transform discriminatory social practices and enduring attitudes towards women. Viewing law as a complex of diverse and often contradictory legislation, judicial decisions and administration, it is not surprising that advances in one area may be thwarted by legal and other impediments in a different area. Chapter 8 examines the significance of law in contemporary discussions of rights and citizenship. In this context, there is debate about the efficacy of the nation state and its capacity (or willingness) to accord rights and social justice to many of its citizens. The chapter examines new discussions of human rights, globalization and the rise of international law. It also addresses the phenomenon of war crimes trials, both regarding the post-World War II cases as well as those being pursued more recently in special tribunals. It also investigates the role of law in the transformation of eastern Europe following the demise of the Soviet political and economic regimes. Finally, Chapter 9 – the conclusion – provides an overview of the central arguments and ties together the underlying themes of the book.

    There are numerous people to thank regarding the emergence and development of this book. They have been very helpful in establishing its direction and form. First, I am extremely grateful to Professor Malcolm Waters for discussions with me about this project in its early stages. Malcolm has been central in encouraging and maintaining my sociological imagination and this l appreciate. Secondly, I wish to record my great appreciation to Kathy Mack for extending my interest in and knowledge about the operation of the criminal justice process. Thirdly, I appreciate the very reliable and competent research assistance provided to me by Elizabeth Birkett, Margaret Cameron and Megan Morgan. A special thanks goes to Megan for her helpful editorial assistance, checking of the bibliography and preparation of the index. I would also like to thank Flinders University for financial assistance and its Faculty of Social Sciences for secretarial support, especially to Anne Kelly for the final typing of the bibliography. I extend great appreciation to Gillian Stern for her encouragement of this project, her extremely professional approach and patience regarding the deadline. I also appreciate the astute and very helpful comments made by the reviewer of the manuscript. My thanks also to Miranda Nunhofer, Seth Edwards and others at Sage for their assistance and input throughout the production process. Ultimately, I am indebted to Oliver, Tristan, Lucinda and Edmer for their help, which assumed various forms.

    Preface to Second Edition

    It is ten years ago now, almost to the very day, that I was putting the finishing touches to Law and Social Change. One decade on I am now completing the second edition. Much has changed in that time span. There have been significant and momentous events in terms of politics, financial markets, labour markets, migration, wars, and terrorism, all with international and local reverberations. Perhaps, the biggest set of changes for discussions of social change and law has been the vast scholarship – theoretical development and empirical investigation – on the topic of globalization. The second edition accordingly spends more time discussing social change through the conceptual lens of globalization. Moreover, information about some of these changes has become more accessible (i.e. for those with access to computers and the internet) on web pages; so URLs have been a much more important resource in writing the second edition. The format of the book parallels the first edition and retains the same chapters with various degrees of change, revision and updating.

    Any book is the product of many more contributors than the author. This edition has benefited from the suggestions, insights and fresh perspectives of the four anonymous reviewers who I am unable to thank by name.

    I would like to thank Rose Williams for her expertise with the bibliography, final formatting and index, and Carolyn Corkindale for her expert research assistance and capacity to track down articles not readily available to me. I also thank Edmer Anleu and Patricia Roach for carefully reading the final draft and detecting those errors I could no longer see. Countless sociology of law students in the Department of Sociology at Flinders University helped me hone ideas and think about interesting and useful issues in the teaching and learning context. During a period at the International Institute for the Sociology of Law (Oñati, Spain), in 2008, I was able to see the final version of the second edition emerging, and I thank Carlos Lista, Susana Arrese Murguzur and the other staff for their assistance during that period. I acknowledge the Faculty of Social Sciences (Flinders University) for a grant to complete the research, writing and manuscript preparation. I appreciate the patience and advice of Jai Seaman, Chris Rojek and Mila Steele at SAGE and the efforts of Imogen Roome in the production phase. I wish to thank Kathy Mack for helping me create the space to effectively complete this project and appreciate the efforts of Oliver, Tristan and Lucinda, whose assistance, as before, assumed various forms.

    Bridport, Tasmania

    January 2009

    List of Figures

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    Cases Cited

    ACTV v Commonwealth (1992) 108 ALR 577.

    Al-Kateb v Godwin (2004) 219 CLR 562.

    American Booksellers Association v Hudnut (1985) 771 F 2d 323.

    Brown v Board of Education (1954) 347 US 483.

    Cameron v R (2002) 209 CLR 339.

    Mabo & Others v Queensland (no.2) (1992) 175 CLR 1.

    Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson (1986) 91 L Ed 49.

    Miller v California (1973) 37 L Ed 419.

    Nationwide News v Wills (1992) 108 ALR 681.

    Nicaragua v United States of America (1986) ICJR 14.

    Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v Casey (1992) 120 L Ed 674.

    Polyukhovich v Commonwealth of Australia (1991) 101 ALR 545.

    R v Ahluwalia [1992] 4 All ER 889.

    R v Butler (1992) 1 SCR 452.

    R v R (1981) 28 SASR 321.

    R v Thomson; R v Houlton (2000) 49 NSWLR 383.

    R v Thornton (No2) [1996] 2 All ER 1023.

    R v Turner (1970) 2 QB 321.

    R v Williscroft (1975) VR 292.

    Roe v Wade (1973) 410 US 113.

    Tasmania v Commonwealth of Australia (1983) 57 ALJR 450.

    Theophanous v Herald & Weekly Times (1994) 124 ALR 1.

    Webster v Reproductive Health Services (1989) 109 S Ct 3040.


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