Knowledge, Communication and Creativity
Publication Year: 2007
Knowledge, communication, and creativity are obsessions of contemporary modern societies. The rhetoric of information, imagination, improvisation and play have invaded our daily lives and work spaces. However, little attention has been paid to the sociological relationships among these elements, let alone their impacts as processes driving social change. This book offers penetrating explorations into the creative processes that are tied to knowledge production, shedding new light on: the impact of a general increase in knowledge on individuals, lifestyles, institutions and technologies; how new communication and information technologies are transforming social relationships, communities and the international public sphere; and understanding the ties between creativity, communication and the production of knowledge.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Section One: Introduction
- Chapter 1: Knowledge, Communication, Reflexive Creativity and Social Change
- Section Two: Knowledge and Social Change in Contemporary Societies
- Chapter 2: Modern Societies as Knowledge Societies
- Chapter 3: Knowledge and Societal Change: Institutional Coordination and the Evolution of Organizational Populations
- Section Three: New Information Technologies and Communication, Communities and Public Sphere
- Chapter 4: Mobilities, Networks and Communities
- Chapter 5: Information Technology and the International Public Sphere
- Chapter 6: Creativity in an Orwellian Key: A Sceptic's Guide to the Post-Sociological Imaginary
- Section Four: Creativity and Communication in the Production of Knowledge
- Chapter 7: Between Science and Rhetoric: A Recurrent Debate on the Role of Communication and Creativity in the Definition of Knowledge
- Chapter 8: High Cognitive Complexity and the Making of Major Scientific Discoveries
- Chapter 9: The Creativity of Intellectual Networks and the Struggle over Attention Space
- Chapter 10: Evaluating Creative Minds: The Assessment of Originality in Peer Review
SAGE Studies in International Sociology[Page ii]
Julia Evetts, University of Nottingham, UK
© Introduction and Editorial Arrangement by Arnaud Sales & Marcel Fournier, 2007.
© SAGE Publications Ltd., 2007.
First published 2007
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
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Biographical Notes[Page vii]The Editors
Arnaud Sales holds a Doctorat d'État ès Lettres et Sciences Humaines, from Université de Paris 7-Denis Diderot. He is Full Professor and Head of the Department of Sociology, Université de Montréal. He is author, co-author or editor of several books and issues of academic journals, among them La Bourgeoisie industrielle au Québec (PUM, 1979); Développement national et économie mondialisée (Editor, Sociologie et Sociétés, 1979); Décideurs et gestionnaires (Éditeur officiel du Québec, 1985); La recomposition du politique (Co-editor, PUM/L'Harmattan, 1991); Québec, fin de siècle (Co-editor, Sociologie et Sociétés, 1994); The International Handbook of Sociology (Co-editor, Sage, 2000); New Directions in the Study of Knowledge, Economy and Society (Co-editor, Sage, 2001). He is a specialist in economic sociology focusing on administrative and economic elites, knowledge workers and the relation between the public and private spheres. He was Vice-Dean of the Université de Montréal's Faculty of Graduate Studies (1987–1992); and Vice-President, International, of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics (1995–1998) where he founded the Knowledge, Economy and Society Network. He was elected Vice-President for Research (1998–2002) of the International Sociological Association and chaired ISA Research Council.
Marcel Fournier received his doctorate in sociology from the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Études-Sorbonne in Paris, France, in 1974 (with Pierre Bourdieu). He is a Full Professor in the Department of Sociology at the Université de Montréal, Canada, and in 2006–2007, professor at the Univerité de Metz, France. He received various distinctions: Member of the Canadian Royal Society; in 2001–2003, Killam Fellowship and Visiting Professor (Sociology Department) and Pathy Chair, Princeton University, NJ; 2004, Prize Pouliot (ACFAS). He is editor of the international French journal Sociologie et Sociétés. His fields of interest are the History of Sociology, Sociological Theory, Sociology of Culture, and Sociology of Science. His books include Marcel Mauss (Paris, Fayard, 1994); (with Michèle Lamont) Cultivating Differences (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1992); (with D. White) Quebec Society (Scarborough, Prentice Hall, 1996); Marcel Mauss: Ecrits politiques (Paris, Fayard, 1996); (with Philippe Besnard) Émile Durkheim: Lettres à Marcel Mauss (Paris, PUF, 1998); L'Entrée dans la Modernité: Science, culture et société au Québec (Montréal, Saint-Martin, 1986); (with Yves Gingras) Sciences et médecine au Québec (Montréal, IQRC, 1986); and Durkheim, Mauss & Cie (Paris, Fayard, forthcoming). He is a member of [Page viii]various scientific associations, as the Executive Committee and Program Commitee of the International Sociological Association (ISA), the American Sociological Association (ASA), the Association canadienne des sociologues et anthropologues de langue française (ACSALF) and the Association internationale des sociologues de langue française (AISLF).The Contributors
Roxane Bernier is a Researcher in the Department of Sociology at Université de Montréal. She was affiliated with the Centre d'étude et de recherche sur les expositions et les musées at the Université Jean-Monnet (France) for three years in the mid-1990s, and since 2003 has been a fellow member at the Centre interuniversitaire de recherche sur les sciences et la technologie (Québec). Bernier investigates the users' perception relating to interactive content presentations within a museum setting. In general, her research involves the sociology of knowledge on information technologies, multimedia professions, visitor studies, online museums, and cultural institutions. Her expertise led to the coordination of a special issue on IT for the European museology journal Publics et Musées in 1998. She has published articles, among others, in the Journal of Educational Computing Research and Behavior and Information Technology Journal; more recently a book chapter in E-Learning and Virtual Science Centers and several entries for the Encyclopaedia of Portal Technology and Applications. She also served as a peer reviewer for the International Formal Methods Europe Symposium, the Journal of Educational Computing Research as well as for the Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication Conference.
Philippe Breton is Docteur d'État en sciences de l'information et de la communication, researcher at the CNRS (Laboratoire cultures et sociétés et Europe, Université Marc Bloch, Strasbourg) and chargé de cours at Université Paris 1, Sorbonne. His publications include L'incompétence démocratique (La Découverte, 2006); Éloge de la parole (La Découverte, 2003); L'argumentation dans la communication (La Découverte, 2003); La parole manipulée (La Découverte/Boréal, 1997; 2nd edn, 2004; this book won the ‘Le dissez de Penanrun’ Award of the Académie française des sciences morales et politiques in 1998); Histoire des théories de l'argumentation (with G. Gauthier, La Découverte, 1999). Translation in Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Arabic, Vietnamese, Hungarian, Greek, Italian, Serbian, Korean, Rumanian and Brazilian.
Craig Calhoun is President of the Social Science Research Council and University Professor of Social Sciences at New York University, where he was previously Chair of the Sociology Department. He received his doctorate from Oxford University and taught at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill from 1977 to 1996, where he was also Dean of the Graduate School and founding Director of the University Center for International Studies. His publications [Page ix]include Nationalism (Minnesota, 1997); Critical Social Theory: Culture, History and the Challenge of Difference (Blackwell, 1995); The Roots of Radicalism (Chicago, forthcoming); and the co-edited anthologies Understanding September 11th (New Press, 2002) and Lessons of Empire? (New Press, 2004). He was the editor of Sociological Theory from 1994 to 1999 and is currently editing a history of sociology in America for the American Sociological Association's Centennial.
Randall Collins is Professor of Sociology at University of Pennsylvania, where he also holds positions in the departments of Comparative Literature, Religious Studies, and History and Sociology of Science. He has formerly taught at University of California Riverside, UCLA, Virginia, Harvard, and Chicago. His 15 books include The Credential Society (1979); The Sociology of Philosophies (1998); Macro-History (1999); and Interaction Ritual Chains (2004).
Steve Fuller is Professor of Sociology at the University of Warwick, England. He was awarded a Ph.D. in History & Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh (1985). Fuller has been a Visiting Professor at UCLA, Gothenburg University, Lund University, Copenhagen Business School, Tel Aviv University, and Tokyo International Christian University. He is the founding editor of the quarterly journal, Social Epistemology, and the founding president of the Knowledge Management Consortium International. Fuller is the author of about 200 articles, which have appeared in fifteen languages, and the author of over a dozen books: Social Epistemology (Indiana, 1988; 2nd edn, 2002); Philosophy of Science and Its Discontents (Westview, 1989; 2nd edn, Guilford, 1993); Philosophy, Rhetoric and the End of Knowledge (Wisconsin, 1993; 2nd edn, Lawrence Erlbaum, 2004); Science (Open University and Minnesota, 1997); The Governance of Science (Open University, 2000); Thomas Kuhn: A Philosophical History for Our Times (Chicago, 2000); Knowledge Management Foundations (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002); Kuhn vs Popper: The Struggle for the Soul of Science (Icon and Columbia, 2003); The Intellectual (Icon, 2005); The Philosophy of Science and Technology Studies (Routledge, 2006); The New Sociological Imagination (Sage, 2006); New Frontiers in Science and Technology Studies (Polity, 2007); Science vs Religion? (Polity, 2007); The Knowledge Book: Key Concepts in Philosophy, Science, and Culture (Acumen, 2007).
Joshua Guetzkow is Assistant professor of Sociology at the University of Arizona. After completing his dissertation examining the connections between welfare and criminal justice policy in the US over the last 40 years, he was a Robert Wood Johnson Post-Doctoral Scholar in Health Policy at Harvard University, where he studied the interpenetration of the criminal justice and mental health systems. His collaborative research on categories of worth in the social sciences and humanities has appeared in the American Sociological Review, Poetics and Research Evaluation. His research interests include the sociology of culture and knowledge, the governance of social marginality, the law and psychiatry, and the role of ideas in policymaking.
[Page x]Jerald Hage received his Ph.D. in sociology from Columbia University. He is presently director of the Center for Innovation at the University of Maryland—College Park. His present research objective is to write an evolutionary theory of societal change that combines three levels of analysis—micro (role theory), meso (organizations and networks), and macro (institutions and society)—around the role of knowledge and technology as a causal force. The theory is comparative with concerns about alternative pathways and distinct historical periods. The primary focus is on the interface between organizations and institutions. To develop the expertise to write such a theory, Hage has worked in the following specialties: economic sociology, institutional theory, organizational and network theory, and theory construction. His most recent book is Innovation, Science, and Institutional Change (co-edited, Oxford, 2006) and before this two other books with the same theme were: Post-Industrial Lives (co-authored, Sage, 1992) and Organizations Working Together (co-authored, Sage, 1993). He has published 16 books and over 100 articles or chapters in books. Hage's co-authored book State Intervention in Medical Care won the prize for the best book in Comparative Public Policy from the International Political Science Association in 1991. He was elected President of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics (1998–1999). He has been a visiting professor at various European Universities (Bocconi, 1995; Ecole des Mines, 1975–1976; Eindhoven Technological, 2001; Tilburg, 2004) including holding the BP Centennial Research Chair, London School of Economics 1994 as well as having several fellowships including the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Studies (1998–1999); the Japan Society for the Advancement of Science (1997); Rockefeller for Bellagio, Italy, 1996.
J. Rogers Hollingsworth is Professor of Sociology and History and former chairperson of the Program in Comparative History at the University of Wisconsin. Awarded honorary degrees by the University of Uppsala (Sweden) and by Emory University, he is the author or editor of numerous books and articles on comparative political economy. One of his major research interests is the study of how organizational and institutional factors influence different types of innovations. His recent publications include Contemporary Capitalism: The Embeddedness of Institutions (with Robert Boyer, 1997); Governing Capitalist Economies (with Philippe Schmitter and Wolfgang Streeck, 1994); Advancing Socio-Economics: An Institutionalist Perspective (with Karl H. Müller and Ellen Jane Hollingsworth, 2002); and Fostering Scientific Excellence: Organizations, Institutions, and Major Discoveries in Biomedical Science (with Ellen Jane Hollingsworth and Jerald Hage, 2008). He is past president and also honorary fellow of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics.
Michèle Lamont is Robert I. Goldman Professor of European Studies and Professor of Sociology and African and African American Studies at Harvard University. She taught at Princeton University for fifteen years before joining the Harvard faculty in 2003. During the 2006–2007 academic year, she is holding the Matina Horner Distinguished Professorship at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, where she is completing her book Cream Rising: Finding[Page xi]Excellence in the Social Sciences and the Humanities (to be published by Harvard University Press). This book concerns institutionalization of excellence in American higher education, studied through the prism of peer review process. She has also written on the role of culture in generating social inequality; the cultural strategies of stigmatized groups for coping with racism; culture and poverty; how culture mediate the impact of discrimination on health, and many other topics. Her most recent book The Dignity of Working Men: Morality and the Boundaries of Race, Class, and Immigration (Harvard University Press, 2000) won one of the top awards in sociology, the C. Wright Mills Award from the Society for the Study of Social problems. Her articles have appeared in the American Sociological Review, the American Journal of Sociology, Sociological Theory, Annual Review of Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies, and numerous other journals. Professor Lamont has been a fellow of the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and the German Marshall Funds as well as a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation, the Institute for Advanced Study, and the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture. She is serving as Chair (2006–2009) of the Council for European Studies, the learned society of social scientists and humanists studying Europe. She is also co-director of the Successful Societies Program of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Studies and the director of the European Network on Inequality of the Multidisciplinary Program on Inequality and Social Policy at the Kennedy School of Government (Harvard University).
Grégoire Mallard is a Ph.D. candidate in sociology at Princeton University and Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (LATTS). His dissertation explores how American experts in foreign policy have addressed questions of sovereignty when designing nuclear non-proliferation policies in Europe and the Middle East. He is editor of Sciences et Souverainetés (Co-editor, Sociologie du Travail, 2006); and Global Science and National Sovereignty (Co-editor, Routledge, forthcoming). He has published articles in the American Sociological Review, Sociologie du Travail and Critique Internationale. He has served on the editorial board of Contexts Magazine since June 2004.
Yan Sénéchal is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Sociology at the Université de Montréal. At the intersection of social problems theory and political theory, his thesis explores the sociological analysis of public problematizations in democratic societies. His research interests evolves around the relationship between questioning, knowledge and society. Among his various editorial activities are Le savoir à l'usage du changement social? (with Charles Gaucher, CELAT, 2003) and Impertinence et questionnement (with Jonathan Roberge, Botakap, 2001). He also contributed to the ‘Débat’ section in the international French journal Sociologie et Sociétés (with Jonathan Roberge). He is co-founder of the Groupe de Recherches et d'Etudes sur la Gouvernance Urbaine et Métropolitaine (GREGUM, with Pierre Hamel) and of the Groupe de Recherches et d'Etudes sur la Philosophic en Sciences Sociales (GREPSS, with Jonathan Roberge and Stéphane Vibert). Since 2006, he is fellow [Page xii]at the Chaire Approches Communautaires et Inégalités de Santé (CACIS, Faculté de médecine, Université de Montréal).
Nico Stehr is Karl Mannheim Professor of Cultural Studies at the Zeppelin University, Friedrichshafen, Germany. During the academic year 2002/2003 he was Paul-F.-Lazarsfeld Professor at the University of Vienna, Austria. Among his recent book publications are Governing Modern Societies (with Richard Ericson, University of Toronto Press, 2000); Werner Sombart: Economic Life in the Modern Age (with Reiner Grundmann, Transaction Books, 2001); The Fragility of Modern Societies: Knowledge and Risk in the Information Age (Sage, 2001); Knowledge and Economic Conduct: The Social Foundations of the Modern Economy (University of Toronto Press, 2002); Wissenspolitik (Suhrkamp Verlag, 2003); The Governance of Knowledge (Transaction Books, 2004); Biotechnology: Between Commerce and Civil Society and Knowledge Politics: Governing the Consequences of Science and Technology (Paradigm Publishers, 2005, edited with Christoph Henning and Bernd Weiler), The Moralization of the Markets (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Books, 2006); (ed. with Bernd Weiler), Who owns Knowledge? (Transaction Books, 2007) and Moral Markets. How Knowledge and Affluence Change Consumers and Producers. (Paradigm Publishers, 2007).
John Urry is Professor of Sociology and Director of the Centre for Mobilities Research, Lancaster University. Recent books published include Sociology Beyond Societies (Routledge, 2000); Bodies of Nature (Sage, 2001); The Tourist Gaze (2nd edn, Sage, 2002); Global Complexity (Polity, 2003); Performing Tourist Places (Ashgate, 2004) with J-O Baerenholdt, M. Haldrup, J. Larsen); Tourism Mobilities (Routledge, 2004, with M. Sheller); Mobilities, Networks, Geographies (Ashgate 2006, with J. Larsen, K. Axhausen); Mobilities (Polity, 2007).