Publication Year: 2005
`This is an ambitious, original, and complex treatment of key aspects of contemporary capitalism. It makes a major contribution because it profoundly destabilizes the scholarship on globalization, the so-called new economy, information technology, distinct contemporary business cultures and practices' - Saskia Sassen, author of Globalization and its Discontents `Nigel Thrift offers us the sort of cultural analysis of global capitalism that has long been needed - one that emphasizes the innovative energy of global capitalism. The book avoids stale denouncements and offers instead a view of capitalism as a form of practice' - Karin Knorr Cetina, Professor of Sociology, University of Konstanz, GermanyCapitalism is well known for producing a form of existence where `everything solid melts into air'. But what happens when capitalism develops theories ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: The Cultural Circuit of Capitalism
- Chapter 2: The Rise of Soft Capitalism
- Chapter 3: The Place of Complexity
- Chapter 4: Virtual Capitalism: The Globalization of Reflexive Business Knowledge
- Chapter 5: Cultures on the Brink: Re-Engineering the Soul of Capitalism on a Global Scale (Co-author: Kris Oldsxs)
Part II: The New Economy
- Chapter 6: It's the Romance, not the Finance, that Makes the Business Worth Pursuing: Disclosing a New Market Culture
- Chapter 7: Performing Cultures in the New Economy
- Chapter 8: The Automatic Production of Space (Co-author: Shaun French)
- Chapter 9: Closer to the Machine? Intelligent Environments, New Forms of Possession and the Rise of the Supertoy
- Chapter 10: Electric Animals: New Models of Everyday Life?
- Chapter 11: Remembering the Technological Unconscious by Foregrounding Knowledges of Position
Theory, Culture & Society[Page ii]
Theory, Culture & Society caters for the resurgence of interest in culture within contemporary social science and the humanities. Building on the heritage of classical social theory, the book series examines ways in which this tradition has been reshaped by a new generation of theorists. It also publishes theoretically informed analyses of everyday life, popular culture, and new intellectual movements.
EDITOR: Mike Featherstone, Nottingham Trent University
SERIES EDITORIAL BOARD
Roy Boyne, University of Durham
Mike Hepworth, University of Aberdeen
Scott Lash, Goldsmiths College, University of London
Roland Robertson, University of Aberdeen
Bryan S. Turner, University of Cambridge
THE TCS CENTRE
The Theory, Culture & Society book series, the journals Theory, Culture & Society and Body & Society, and related conference, seminar and postgraduate programmes operate from the TCS Centre at Nottingham Trent University. For further details of the TCS Centre's activities please contact:
The TCS Centre, Room 175
Faculty of Humanities
Nottingham Trent University
Clifton Lane, Nottingham, NG11 8NS, UK
Recent volumes include:
Critique of Information
Liberal Democracy 3.0
Stephen P. Turner
French Social Theory
The Body and Social Theory, 2nd Edition
© Nigel Thrift 2005
First published 2005
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licenses issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B-42 Panchsheel Enclave
Post Box 4109
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 1 4129 0058 1
ISBN 1 4129 0059 X
Library of Congress Control Number 2004111069
Printed in India at Gopsons Paper Ltd, Noida
Preface and Acknowledgements[Page vi]
This book has gathered itself only slowly. I have tried to say something new about contemporary capitalism but this takes time, and in that time many elements of capitalism have changed: some of the key players in what I call the cultural circuit of capitalism have gone to the wall, business publishing is in crisis, the new economy has come and gone, financial boom has been followed by financial bust, and so on. This collection of writings spans nearly a decade and thus some references, some phenomena may already seem outdated: but this is also one of my main points. To analyse contemporary capitalism requires an ability to follow only a little way behind change: too far behind and what is written becomes merely academic; too close and the academic starts to take on the hyperbolic view of the future which is a part of how contemporary capitalism reproduces itself. I am sure that I have not always succeeded in this task of nearly analysis but, on the other hand, I am also sure that the task is a necessary one.
This book is therefore, on the one hand, a history and geography of the nearly present, battered this way and that by the power of events. But it is also, on the other hand, an attempt to show how that very uncertainty is increasingly being taken up and worked with by capitalism in ways which are productive of new kinds of aggregation and ordering which have most decidedly not been present before and which need pointing to, since on them are being built new means of reproducing an order which many would argue has life-denying characteristics.
However, I should also make clear that the criticisms that I have of capitalism are not those of many critics. I do not believe that capitalism is part of a neoliberal imperium or even a new kind of sovereignty. For all its undoubted powers, its strivings are far too tentative and incomplete for that. Neither do I believe that it is possible to have a grand programme for ridding the world of the beast. I think such programmes are born, as Hans Blumenberg (1985) would put it, out of a misguided desire to answer questions put by the great systems of Christian theology using the tools of modern reason – tools which were not made for that job and are badly bent out of shape when they are used to attempt it. In other words I accept as valid much more limited forms of critique: forms of critique which accept that the relations and practices on which capitalism rests are not all bad; forms of critique which are able to honour the ‘local’ as not just an instance of ‘global’ struggles; forms of critique that do not believe that the vanguard is always the place to be; forms of critique that understand their own situatedness and so live up to Foucault's dictum, ‘a critique is not a matter of saying that things are not right as they are. It is a matter of pointing out on what kinds of assumptions, what kinds of familiar, unchallenged, unconsidered modes of thought the practices that we accept rest’ (1998, p. 155). That is why this book has so many references to the power of creativity and intuition. For – as I will [Page vii]attempt to show – while these may be watchwords of contemporary capitalism, they are also the qualities that must be fostered in order to overcome many of contemporary capitalism's depredations.
I hope it is also clear that I do not therefore believe that it is necessary to be mealy-mouthed about some of capitalism's iniquities and cruelties, whether petty or great. But I will not, in the manner of some more declarative commentators, make too easy points which have as a consequence only the salving of the liberal conscience.
This book is the product of joint action in the spirit of generosity that I would dearly love to amplify. Many people have made an input to it, through either co-authorship, general wise counsel, or making comments on the individual chapters. In particular, I want to mention the help of Ash Amin, Andrew Barry, Mick Billig, Steve Brown, Michel Callon, Howard Caygill, Stephen Collier, Bob Cooper, Shaun French, Steve Fuller, Michael Gardiner, Paul Glennie, James Griesemer, Paul Heelas, Kevin Hetherington, John Hughes, Patrick Keiller, Scott Lash, Bruno Latour, John Law, Andrew Leyshon, Orvar Löfgren, Celia Lury, Gregor McLennan, Doreen Massey, Danny Miller, Rolland Munro, Kris Olds, Aihwa Ong, Tom Osborne, Alan Radley, Annelise Riles, Nikolas Rose, Saskia Sassen, Gregory Seigworth, Judith Squires, David Stark, Marilyn Strathern, Lucy Suchman, John Urry, Sarah Whatmore, and Steve Woolgar.
The author and publishers would like to thank the following for permission to use copyright material:
Taylor & Francis Journals for paragraphs in Chapter 1 from: ‘Chasing capitalism’ by Nigel Thrift, New Political Economy, vol. 6 no. 2: 375-380 (2001).
Routledge, Chapter 2: Thrift, N. J. (1997a) ‘The rise of soft capitalism’, Cultural Values, vol. 1 (1997): 29-57 and Thrift, N.J. (1997b) ‘The rise of soft capitalism’, in A. Herod, G. O. Tuathail, and S. Roberts (eds), Unruly World: Globalisation, Governance and Geography.
SAGE Publications, Chapter 3: Thrift, N. (1999) ‘The place of complexity’, in Theory, Culture and Society, vol. 16, no. 3. 31-70.
Berg Publishers, Chapter 4: Thrift, N. (1999) ‘Virtual capitalism: some proposals’, in J. Carrier and D. Miller (eds), Virtualism: The New Political Economy. pp.161-186.
Blackwell Publishing, Chapter 5: Thrift, N.J. and Olds, K. (2004) ‘Cultures on the brink: re-engineering the soul of capitalism – on a global scale’, in Ong, A. and Collins, S. (eds), Global Anthropology: Technology, Governmentalities, Ethics.
Taylor & Francis Journals, Chapter 6: ‘It's the finance, not the romance’ by Nigel J. Thrift, Economy and Society, vol. 30: 412-432 (2001).
[Page viii]Blackwell Publishing, Chapter 7: Thrift, N. (2000) ‘Performing cultures in the new economy’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 87: 674-692.
Blackwell Publishing, Chapter 8: Thrift, N. and French, S. (2002) ‘The automatic production of space’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS27, 309-335.
Arnold Journals, Chapter 9: Thrift, N. (2003b) ‘Closer to the machine? Intelligent environments, new forms of possession and the rise of the supertoy’, Cultural Geographies, 10 (4): 389-407.
Taylor & Francis Journals, Chapter 10: ‘Electric animals’ by Nigel J. Thrift, Cultural Studies, vol. 18: 461-482 (2004).
Pion Ltd, Chapter 11: ‘Remembering the technological unconscious before grounding knowledge of position’ scheduled for publication in Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 2004, vol. 22, issue 1: 175-190.
Bibliography[Page 227]1998) Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(2004) Change Without Pain: How Managers Can Overcome Initiative Overload, Organizational Chaos and Employee Burnout. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.(Wulf, V. (eds) (2003) Sharing Expertise: Beyond Knowledge Management. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press., , and1990) Time and Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity.(1995) Timewatch: The Social Analysis of Time. Cambridge: Polity.(1996) The Dillbert Principle: A Cubicle's Eye View of Bosses, Meetings, Management Fads and Other Workplace Afflictions. New York: Harper Collins.(2001) Supertoys Last All Summer Long. London: Orbit.(1995) Fin-de-Siècle Social Theory: Relativism, Reduction and the Problem of Reason. London: Verso.(1999) On line. Special Issue ofPerformance Research, 4 (2).and (1997) The world market unbound. Review of International Political Economy, 4: 448–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/096922997347706and (1996) The international popularisation of entreprenerial ideas. In S.Clegg and G.Palmer (eds) The Politics of Management Knowledge. London: Sage.(2003) Architecture of Knowledge: Firms, Capabilities and Commodities. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (1995) Institutional issues for the European regions: from markets and plans to socioeconomics and powers of association. Economy and Society, 24: 41–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149500000002and (2002) Cities: Re-Imagining Urban Theory. Cambridge: Polity.and (2001) Marc Andreessen, Act II. Fast Company, no. 43: 110–22.(Anderson, J.A. and Rosenfeld, E. (eds) (1999) Talking Nets: An Oral History of Neural Networks. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.2000) Seizing the Opportunities of a New Economy: Challenges for the European Union. Paris: OECD.(Ansell-Pearson, K. (ed.) (1997) Deleuze and Philosophy: The Difference Engineer. London: Routledge.2000) Grassroots globalisation and the research imagination. Public Culture, 12: 1–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363-12-1-1(1998) How to kill creativity. Harvard Business Review, September-October: 83–101.(1991) Teaching smart people how to learn. Harvard Business Review, May-June: 68–93.(2000) Flawed Advice and the Management Trap. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195132861.001.0001(1974) Theory in Practice. New York: Wiley.and (1978) Organizational Learning. New York: Wiley.and (1991) A Blessed Rage for Order: Deconstruction, Evolution and Chaos. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.(1998) Behavior-Based Robotics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1997) Arnolfini June/July 1997. Bristol: Arnolfini Gallery.(1994) Increasing Returns and Path Dependence in the Economy. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.([Page 228]2000) Wild Things: The Material Culture of Everyday Life. Oxford: Berg.(1998) A Stitch in Time: Facing the Challenge of the Year 2000 Date Change. London: Audit Commission.(1966) The Poetics of Space. Boston: Beacon.(1991) The Knowledge Link. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.(1996) Virtual skin: articulating race in cyberspace. In M.A.Moser and D.McLeod (eds) Immersed in Technology: Art in Virtual Environments. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 29–50.(2002) Linked: The New Science of Networks. Cambridge, MA: Perseus.(1999) ‘I'm the guy.’Fast Company, February-March: 84.(1995) Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations and the New Order. New York: Simon and Schuster.and (Salmon, M. (eds) (1996) Nonlinear Dynamics and Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., , and2001) Political Machines. London: Athlone.(1997) The Predictors. New York: Harpers.(1995) Fractal Cities. London: Academic.and (1987) Legislators and Interpreters. Cambridge: Polity.(1995) Searching for a centre that holds. In M.Featherstone, S.Lash and R.Robertson (eds) Global Modernities. London: Sage, 140–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250563(1998) Globalization: The Human Consequences. Cambridge: Polity.(1992) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage.(1996) Open Fields: Science in Cultural Encounter. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1972) Brain of the Firm: The Managerial Cybernetics of Organization. London: Allen Lane.(1975) Platform for Change. New York: Wiley.(1997) Strategy at the edge of chaos. McKinsey Quarterly, no. 1.(1997) Foundations of Genetic Algorithms 4. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.and (1992) The Repeating Island: The Caribbean and the Postmodern Perspective. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(Benjamin, A. (ed.) (1995) Complexity: architecture/art/philosophy. Journal of Philosophy and the Visual Arts, no. 6.2001) The Enchantment of Modern Life: Attachments, Crossings and Ethics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(2001) Digital Life: A New Kind of Nature. London: Headline.(1997) Biomimicry: Imitation Inspired by Nature. New York: Morrow.(Bergman, E. (ed.) (2000) Information Appliances and Beyond. San Diego, CA: Academic.2001) Trauma and ineloquence. Cultural Values, 5: 41–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14797580109367220(1994) Foregone Conclusions: Against Apocalyptic History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.(Head to toe’. http://CNET.com at http://coverage.cnet.com/Content/Gadgets/FunToWear/ss03.html, accessed 29 December 2000.(n.d.) Quoted in ‘1998) Gung Ho!New York: Morrow.and (1986) The Principle of Hope. Three volumes. Oxford: Blackwell.(1985) The Legitimacy of the Modern Age. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1994) The Business of Talk. Cambridge: Polity.(1995) Information Space: A Framework of Learning in Organisations, Institutions and Culture. London: Routledge.(1999) Le Nouvel Espirit du Capitalisme. Paris: Gallimard.and (1999) Remediation: Understanding the New Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.and ([Page 229]1999) Swarm Intelligence: From Natural to Artificial Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press., , and (1998) Soft computing and hybrid systems. In E.Ruspini, P.P.Bonissone and W.Pedrycz (eds) The Handbook of Fuzzy Computation. London: Institute of Physics Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1887/0750304278(2000) Semi-artificial life. In M.Wrathall and J.Malpas (eds) Heidegger, Coping and Cognitive Science: Essays in Honor of Herbert L. Dreyfus, vol. 2. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 197–205.(1999) Chicago Business School picks Singapore: university to open permanent campus for executive MBA students. AsianWall Street Journal, 25 January: 6.(1996) Participation and Tacit Knowledge in Plato, Machiavelli and Hobbes. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.(1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1984) Distinction. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(2000) Pascalian Meditations. Cambridge: Polity.(1994) Knowledge and infrastructure in international information management. In L.Bud-Frierman (ed.) Information Acumen: The Understanding and Use of Knowledge in Modern Business. London: Routledge, 187–215.and (1999) Sorting Things Out: Classification and its Consequences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.and (1997) Geopoetics: The Politics of Mimesis in Poststructuralist French Poetry and Theory. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(1998) Knowledge, nationhood and governance: the speed of the royal post in early modern England. Journal of Historical Geography, 42: 263–88., , and (2003) Towards the precipice. London Review of Books, 6 February.(1999) The Nudist on the Late Shift and Other Silicon Valley Stories. London: Secker and Warburg.(2000) Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There. New York: Simon and Schuster.(1991) Intelligence without representation. Artificial Intelligence Journal, 47: 139–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0004-3702%2891%2990053-M(1999) Cambrian Intelligence: The Early History of the New AI. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2002a) Robot: The Future of Flesh and Machines. London: Allen Lane.(2002b) Lord of the robots. Technology Review, April: 78–82.(Harper, R. (eds) (2002) Wireless World: Social and Interactional Aspects of the Mobile Age. London: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-0665-4, , and1997) The Channelling Zone: American Spirituality in an Anxious Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2001) Performing the past in electronic archives: interdependence in the discursive and non-discursive ordering of remembering. Culture and Psychology, 7 (2): 123–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354067X0172001, , and (2002) Atlas of Emotion: Journeys in Art, Architecture and Film. London: Verso.(1997) Managers’ Lives. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.(2002) Nexus: Small Worlds and the Groundbreaking Science of Networks. New York: Norton.(1995) Envisioning capital: political economy on display. In L.Cooke and P.Wollen (eds) Visual Display: Culture Beyond Appearances. Seattle: Bay, 110–41.(Bud-Frierman, L. (ed.) (1994) Information Acumen: The Understanding and Use of Knowledge in Modern Business. London: Routledge.1998) If a Lion Could Talk: Animal Intelligence and the Evolution of Consciousness. New York: Free.(Bull, M. (ed.) (1995) Apocalyse Theory and the Ends of the World. Oxford: Blackwell.[Page 230]2002) (Repositioning Malaysia: high-tech networks and the multicultural rescripting of national identity. Political Geography, 21: 105–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-6298%2801%2900071-3(2002) The parable of the languages. At http://weblog.burningbird.net/archives/000581.php, accessed 30 December 2002.(2000) Knowledge Capitalism: Business, Work and Learning in the New Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1990) Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge.(1991) Imitation and gender insubordination. In D.Fuss (ed.) Lesbian Theories. New York: Routledge, 23–38.(1993) Bodies That Matter. New York: Routledge.(2003) Mobile robots as gateways into wireless sensor networks. At http://www.linuxdevices.com/articles/AT2705574735.html.(1996) Chaotic cities or complex cities. In S.Westwood and J.Williams (eds) Imagining Cities. London: Routledge, 50–70.(1962) Man, Play and Games. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.(1987) Society in the making: the study of technology as a tool for sociological analysis. In W.E.Bijker, T.P.Hughes and T.J.Pinch (eds) The Social Construction of Technical Systems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 83–103.(Callon, M. (ed.) (1998) The Laws of the Market. Oxford: Blackwell.1990) Scientific discovery and rhetorical invention: the path to Darwin's Origin. In H.W.Simon (ed.) The Rhetorical Turn: Invention and Permission in the Conduct of Inquiry. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(2003) From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1996) Web of Life. London: Harper Collins.(Carrier, J.G. (ed.) (1995) Occidentalism: Images of the West. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Carrier, J.G. (ed.) (1996) Meanings of the Market. Oxford: Berg.Carrier, J.G. and Miller, D. (eds) (1998) Virtualism: The New Political Economy. Oxford: Berg.Cassell, J. and Jenkins, H. (eds) (1999) From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and Computer Games. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Cassell,J., Sullivan,J., Prevost,S. and Churchill,E. (eds) (2000) Embodied Conversational Agents. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.2002) Dot. Con: The Greatest Story Ever Sold. London: Allen Lane.(1991) Searching for Certainty: What Scientists Can Know About the Future. London: Scribners.(1996) Would-Be Worlds: How Simulation Is Changing the Frontiers of Science. New York: Wiley.(Chan, C.B. (ed.) (2002) Heart Work: Stories of How EDB Steered the Singapore Economy from 1961 into the 21st Century. Singapore: EDB.1962) Strategy and Structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1977) The Visible Hand. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.(2000) A Nation Transformed by Information. New York: Oxford University Press.and (1996) From cultural imperialism to independence. In S.Clegg and J.Palmer (eds) The Politics of Management Knowledge. London: Sage, 121–40.(1996) White Face, Black Heart: The Asian Path to Winning and Succeeding. London: Brealey.(2002) The Labyrinths of Information: Challenging the Wisdom of Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2000) Pension Fund Capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1995) Managing Consultants: Consultancy as the Management of Impressions. Buckingham: Open University Press.([Page 231]2001) Critical Consulting. Oxford: Blackwell.(1993) The right to manage: a second managerial revolution?Cultural Studies, 7: 427–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502389300490291and (1999) Imagination Engineering. London: Financial Times.and (Clegg, S. and Palmer, G. (eds) (1996) The Politics of Management Knowledge. London: Sage.Clippinger, J. (ed.) (1999) The Biology of Business. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.2000) Auto Affection: Unconscious Thought in the Age of Tele-Technology. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(2000) Distance and discourse in the local labour market: the case of Singapore. Area, 32 (4): 413–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4762.2000.tb00157.xand (2002) Languages of labour: representational strategies in Singapore's labour control regime. Political Geography, 21: 341–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-6298%2801%2900049-Xand (2000) Management Fads and Buzzwords: Critical-Practical Perspectives. London: Routledge.(1990) Artificial Experts: Social Knowledge and Intelligent Machines. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1998) The Shape of Actions: What Humans and Machines Can Do. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.and (1995) Architectures of Excess: Cultural Life in the Information Age. London: Routledge.(2000) Managing in the Info Era. Fortune, 14 (5): F2-F5.(1996) The wit of the letter: Holbein's Lacan. In T.Brennan and M.Jay (eds) Vision in Context: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Sight. London: Routledge, 45–62.(1999) Why I Am Not A Secularist. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(2002) Neuropolitics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(1997) Executive EQ: Emotional Intelligence in Business. London: Orion Business.and (2001) Dogs: A New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behaviour and Evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.and (Coulson-Thomas, J. (ed.) 1997Business Process Re-Engineering. London: Brealey.1995) Frontiers of Complexity: The Search for Order in a Chaotic World. London: Faber and Faber.and (1989) Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. New York: Simon and Schuster.(Crainer, S. (ed.) (1995) The Financial Times Handbook of Management. London: Pitman.1997a) Corporate Man to Corporate Skunk: The Tom Peters Phenomenon. London: Capstone.(1997b) Get me a writer!Silver Kris, December: 36–8.(1998) Gravy Training: Inside the Shadowy World of Business Schools. London: Capstone.and (1999) Organisational geographies: surveillance, display and the spaces of power in business organisations. In J.Sharp, P.Routledge, C.Philo and R.Paddison (eds) Entanglements of Power: Geographies of Domination/Resistance. London: Routledge, 204–18.(1999) Suspensions of Perception: Attention, Spectacle and Modern Culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1996) The Measure of Reality: Quantification and Western Society, 1250–1600. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1997) Kid's Stuff: Toys and the Changing World of American Childhood. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2001) Language and the Internet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139164771(1998) Digital Aesthetics. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250341(Cypher, A. (ed.) (1993) Watch What I Do: Programming by Demonstration. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.2000) Mind games. Fast Company, no. 31: 168–80.([Page 232]1993) The discursive construction of economic space. Economy and Society, 20: 79–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149100000003(Dautenhahn, K. and Nehaniv, C. (eds) (2002) Imitation in Animals and Artifacts. Cambridge: MIT Press.Edmonds, B. (eds) (2002) Socially Intelligent Agents: Creating Relationships with Computers and Robots. Dordrecht: Kluwer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/b116424, , , and1990) Genetic algorithms and simulated annealing: an overview. In L.Davis (ed.) Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing. London: Pitman.and (1980) Managers in action: a new look at their behavior and operating modes. Organizational Dynamics, Summer: 64–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616%2880%2990014-5and (1999) Governmentality: Power and Rule in Modern Society. London: Sage.(1997) The Living Company. London: Brealey.(1997) A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History. New York: Zone.(2002) Intensive Science and Virtual Philosophy. London: Continuum.(1986) Foucault. Paris: Éditions de Minuit.(1990a) Postscript to Societies of Control. October, 31: 27–36.(1990b) The Logic of Sense. New York: Columbia University Press.(1994) Difference and Repetition. New York: Columbia University Press.(1987) A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. B.Massumi. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.and (1987) Dialogues, trans. H.Tomlinson and B.Habberjam. New York: Columbia University Press.and (1990) White Noise. New York: Picador.(1997) Kinds of Minds: Towards an Understanding of Consciousness. London: Phoenix.(2000) Music in Everyday Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489433(1998) Archive Fever. Chicago: Chicago University Press.(2001) The Unfinished Revolution: Human-Centred Computers and What They Can Do For Us. New York: Harper Collins.(2002a) The Internationalization of Palace Wars: Lawyers, Economists, and the Contest to Transform Latin American States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.and (2002b) Global Prescriptions: The Production, Exportation and Importation of a New Legal Orthodoxy. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.and (1991) The Realistic Spirit: Wittgenstein, Philosophy and the Mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1998) Global Shift: Transforming the World Economy,(3rd edn.London: Chapman.1998) A city metaphor for supporting navigation in complex information spaces. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 9: 597–622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvlc.1998.0100and (DiMaggio, P. (ed.) (2001) The Twenty-First-Century Firm: Changing Economic Organization in International Perspective. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.2002) The Emergence of Cinematic Time. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2000) Business class. Far Eastern Economic Review, 10 February: 48–9.(2001) Where the Action Is: The Foundations of Embodied Interaction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1998) The Machine in Me: The Anthropologist Sitting Among Computer Engineers. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(Downey, J. and McGuigan, J. (eds) (1999) Technocities. London: Sage.1997) On Beyond Living: Rhetorical Transformations of the Life Sciences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.([Page 233]1999) Anonymity versus commitment: the dangers of education on the internet. Ethics and Information Technology, 1: 15–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010010325208(2001) On the Internet. New York: Routledge.(1988) The coming of the new organization. Harvard Business Review, 88: 45–53.(1999) At what cost pervasive? A social computing view of mobile computing systems. IBM Systems Journal, 38 (4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1147/sj.384.0652, , and (1996) Consumption and Identity at Work. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221945(1997) The New Office. London: Conran Octopus.(1997) Asia's wealth creators confront a new reality. Fortune, 8 December: 42–55.(1995) Review of Derrida's Spectres of Marx. Radical Philosophy, 73: 35–7.(1990) The Post-Structuralist Organization. Harvard Business School Working Paper92–003.and (2000) Electronic Revolution in the Motor Industry. London: The Economist.(1997) Intellectual Capital: The Proven Way to Establish Your Company's True Value by Measuring its Hidden Brain Power. London: Paitkus.and (1996) Distress. London: Gollancz.(2003) Wired to the brain of a rat, a robot takes on the world. New York Times, 15 May: 13–26.(1997) If You Love Me, Don't Love Me. Northvale, NJ: Aronson.(Elliott, E. and Kiel, L.D. (eds) (1996) Chaos Theory in the Social Sciences: Foundation and Application. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.1969) Systems Theory. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1992) Mercury meets Minerva. Oxford: Pergamon.(2002a) Report of the ERC Subcommittee on Services Industries: Part I. Singapore: ERC. At http://www.erc.gov.sg7frm_ERC_ErcReports.htm.(2002b) Developing Singapore's Education Industry. Singapore: ERC. At http://www.erc.gov.sg/frm_ERC_ErcReports.htm.(1997) The Globalising Learning Economy: Implications for Innovation Policy. DG XII, EUR 18307 EN. Brussels: EU.(Lee, M.E. (eds) (1997) Chaos, Complexity and Sociology: Myths, Models and Theories. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., , and2001) A simulacrum of workplace community: individualism and engineered culture. Sociology, 35: 631–50.(2003) Feral robotics: dog report. At http://xdesign.eng.yale.edu/feralrobots.(2002) Have your objects call my objects. Harvard Business Review, 80 (6): 138–44.(Ferguson, N. (ed.) (1997) Virtual History: Alternatives and Counterfactuals. London: Picador.2003) A Computer Called LEO: Lyons Tea Shops and the World's First Office Computer. London: Fourth Estate.(1998) Clockspeed. London: Orion.(2001) Artifacts: An Archaeologist's Year in Silicon Valley. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2001) A History of Writing. London: Reaktion.(1996) Powerplay: Toys as Popular Culture. Manchester: Manchester University Press.(1998) Information technology and the institution of identity: reflections since Understanding Computers and Cognition. Information Technology and People, 7.(2000) Heideggerian thinking and the transformation of business practice. In M.Wrathall and J.Malpas (eds) Heidegger, Coping and Cognitive Science: Essays in Honour of Herbert L. Dreyfus, vol. 2. Cambridge: MA: MIT Press, 271–91.(2000) Entrepreneurship and the Wired Life: Work in the Wake of Careers. London: Demos.and (1997) Holbein's Ambassadors. London: National Gallery., , and ([Page 234]1970) The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. London: Tavistock.(1991) Governmentality. In G.Burchell, C.Gordon and P.Miller (eds) The Foucault Effect. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.(1998) Interview with Didier Eribon, 1981. In L.Kritzman (ed.) Foucault: Politics, Philosophy, Culture. New York: Routledge.(1997) The Conquest of Cool: Business Culture, Counter-Culture and the Rise of Hip Consumerism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(2000) One Market Under God: Extreme Capitalism, Market Populism and the End of Economic Democracy. London: Secker and Warburg.(French, R. and Grey, C. (eds) (1996) Rethinking Management Education. London: Sage.2000) Shareholder value and financialization: consultancy promises, management moves. Economy and Society, 29: 80–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/030851400360578, , , and (1997) Time and Commodity Culture: Essays in Cultural Theory and Postmodernity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1992) The End of History and the Last Man. London: Hamish Hamilton.(1999) Popular Management Books: How They Are Made and What They Mean for Organisations. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203983706(2003) New Economy, New Myth. London: Routledge.(2003) The Philosopher's Dog. London: Routledge.(1996) The new politics of ownership. New Left Review, no. 220: 62–97.and (1996) Passionate Sociology. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250389and (1996) Dog Love. New York: Simon and Schuster.(2002) The Body Electric: An Anatomy of the New Bionic Senses. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.(1993) The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. London: Fontana.(1990) Man in the Age of Technology. New York: Columbia University Press.(1992) The Anthropology of Time. Oxford: Berg.(1994) The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex. London: Little Brown.(1999) Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1999) When Things Start to Think. London: Coronet.(1995) Changing the role of top management: beyond structure to process. Harvard Business Review, 73: 86–96.and (1994) The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221853, , , , , and (1996) Towards a Postmodern Theory of Narrative. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.(1991) Modernity and Self-Identity. Cambridge: Polity.(1998) Mechanization Takes Command: A Contribution to Anonymous History. New York: Norton.(1986) Maceration and purification. In M.Feher and S.Kwinter (eds) Zone 1/2: The Contemporary City. New York: Zone, 227–81.(2002) Out of the Garden: Toys and Children's Culture in the Age of TV Marketing. London: Verso.and (2000) The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York: Little Brown.(1999) Faster: The Acceleration of Just About Everything. London: Little Brown.(1991) Nature's Chaos. London: Abacus.and (1996) Consumers, identities and consumption spaces in early modern England. Environment and Planning A, 28: 25–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a280025and (2005) The Measured Heart: Episodes from the History of Clock Time. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and ([Page 235]1996) The end of management? Classroom versus boardroom. Financial Times, 22 March: 3–4.and (2002) Naturalizing phenomenology: cognitive science and the bestowal of sense. RadicalPhilosophy, 114: 20–8.(1989) Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning. London: Addison-Wesley.(1994) How the Leopard Changed Its Spots. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.(1997) Community, creativity and society. Soundings, no. 5: 111–23.(1971) The Domestication of the Savage Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1987) The Interface between the Written and the Oral. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1996) The East in the West. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139171052(1997) Ghostly Matters: Haunting and the Sociological Imagination. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(2000) Ecologies of creativity: the village, the group, and the heterarchic organisation of the British advertising industry. Environment and Planning A, 33: 351–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a3314(1998) Spaces of surveillant simulation: new technologies, digital representations, and material geographies. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 16: 483–504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d160483(2002) Straw Dogs: Thoughts on Humans and Other Animals. London: Granta.(1990) Hotel and Motel Manager Operations,and (2nd edn.Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.1997) Savage Money. Oxford: Berg.(2002) The Difficulty of Being a Dog. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(2000) It's a man's new economy. Financial Times, 25 August: 12.(1996) Creating virtuality. Financial Times, 22 November: 14.(1997) The Machine at Work: Technology, Work and Organisation. Cambridge: Polity.and (1996) The Rhetoric of Science,(2nd edn.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.1996) Chaosmosis: An Ethico-Aesthetic Paradigm. Sydney: Power.(Gumbrecht, H.U. and Pfeiffer, K.L (eds) (1994) Materialities of Communication. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.1998) Children as Consumers. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203272947and (1994) The Knowledge-Based Economy. Oxford: Templeton College.(1994) Competing for the Future. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.and (Remaking Singapore. Institutional Investor, May.(2GG2)1993) Re-Engineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for a Business Revolution. London: Brealey.and (1997) Mastering the Infinite Game: How East Asian Values Are Transforming Business Practices. London: Capstone.and (1989) The Age of Unreason. London: Arrow.(1996) Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places. London: Routledge.(2000) Embodying Technesis: Technology beyond Writing. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.(Harris, C. (ed.) (1999) Art and Innovation: The Xerox PARC Artist-in-Residence Program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Light. London: Gollancz. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/321394a0(2GG2)1989) The Condition of Postmodernity. Oxford: Blackwell.(2000) Spaces of Hope. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.(2003) The MIT Media Lab: techno dream factory or alienation as a way of life. Media, Culture and Society, 25: 87–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344370302500106([Page 236]1993) Spontaneous humour as an indicator of paradox and ambiguity in organisations. Organisational Studies, 14: 505–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069301400403and (1991) Plausible Worlds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1990) Chaos Unbound: Orderly Disorder in Contemporary Literature and Science. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(Hayles, K. (ed.) (1991) Chaos and Order. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.1996) Narratives of artificial life. In G.Robertson, M.Mash, L.Tickner, J.Bird, B.Curtis and T.Putman (eds) Future Natural: Nature, Science, Culture. London: Routledge, 146–64.(1999) How We Became Posthuman. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(2002) Writing Machines. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(Heckscher, C. and Donnellon, A. (eds) (1994) The Post-Bureaucratic Organization: New Perspectives on Organisational Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.1991a) Cuts for capitalism; self-religions, magic and the enpowerment of business. In P.Gee and J.Fulton (eds) Religion and Power: Decline and Growth. London: British Sociological Association, 27–41.(1991b) Reforming the self: enterprise and the character of Thatcherism. In R.Keat and N.Abercombie (eds) Enterprise Culture. London: Routledge, 72–90.(1992) The sacralisation of the self and New Age capitalism. In N.Abercombie and A.Warde (eds) Social Change in Contemporary Britain. Cambridge: Polity, 139–66.(1996) The New Age Movement: The Celebration of the Self and the Sacralisation of Modernity. Oxford: Blackwell.(1999) The Hitch-Hiker's Guide to Evolutionary Computation. At http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/Mirrors/ftp.de.uu.net/EC/clife/www/top.htm.and (1998) Silicon Second Nature: Culturing Artificial Life in a Digital World. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.(1965) Work and the Nature of Man. Cleveland, OH: World.(1996) Identity formation, space and social centrality. Theory Culture and Society, 13: 33–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276496013004002(1996) Social Learning in Animals: The Roots of Culture. San Diego, CA: Academic.and (1995) Cultures in collision: the emergence of a new localism in academic research. In M.Strathern (ed.) Shifting Contexts: Transformations of Anthropological Knowledge. London: Routledge, 131–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203450901_chapter_7and (1997a) Asia's next wealth club. World Executive's Digest, December: 19–22.(1997b) Asia's Wealth Clubs: Who's Really Who in Business: The Top 100 Billionaires in Asia. London: Brealey.(1998) Information Ages: Literacy, Numeracy and the Computer Revolution. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.and (1991) Cultures and Organisations. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1975) Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2001) Artificial Ethology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (Holloway, S. and Valentine, G. (eds) (2000) Children's Geographies. London: Routledge.Strannegard, L. (eds) (2002) Stuck in the Future? Tracing the ‘New Economy’. Stockholm: Bookhouse., , and2001) Redcoat: The British Soldier in the Age of Horse and Musket. London: Harper Collins.(1974) Machine space. The Geographical Review, LXIV (2): 166–87.(2001) Bit structures. In C.J.Chung, J.Inaba, R.Koolhaas and S.T.Leong (eds) Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping. Cologne: Taschen, 156–62.and (1981) Fit for Service. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1993) Management Gurus: What Makes Them and How to Become One. London: Routledge.([Page 237]2000) We're 70!Fortune, 13 March: 7–9.(1966) The Sinews of War: Army Logistics 1775–1953. Washington, DC: United States Army.(D'Aveni, R. (eds) (1998) Managing in Times of Disorder: Hypercompetitive Organizational Responses. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., , and1990) An anthropologist looks at biology. Man, NS25: 208–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2804561(1995a) Building, dwelling, living: how animals and people make themselves at home in the world. In M.Strathern (ed.) Shifting Contexts: Transformations in Anthropological Knowledge. London: Routledge, 57–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203450901_chapter_3(1995b) Man: the story so far. Times Higher Education Supplement, 2 June: 16–17.(2001) From complementarity to obviation: on dissolving the boundaries between sociology and biological anthropology, archaeology, and psychology. In S.Oyama, P.E.Griffiths and R.D.Gray (eds) Cycles of Contingency: Developmental Systems and Evolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 255–79.(1996) Commonalities in Art, Science and Religion. London: Avebury.(1999) Invisible Forms: A Guide to Literary Curiosities. New York: St Martin's.(1997) Not all rubbish. Financial Times, 24 December: 14.(1994) Caste down. Sunday Times, Culture Supplement, 12 June: 8–10.(1996) The Architecture of the Jumping Universe. A Polemic: How Complexity Science is Changing Architecture and Culture,(rev. edn.London: Academy.Nord, W. (eds) (1994) Resistance and Power in Organisations. London: Routledge., , and1999) Consumer socialization of children: a retrospective look at twenty-five years of research. Journal of Consumer Research, 26: 183–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/209559(1993) System and Writing in the Philosophy of Jacques Derrida. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511553950(1999) Ambient technologies, meaning signs. Oxford Literary Review21: 117–34.(1997) Interface Culture. New York: Basic.(2001) Emergence. London: Allen Lane.(1994) Demonology: some thoughts towards a science of chaos in recent British theatre. Contemporary Theatre Review, 11: 49–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10486809408568298(Journal of Management Inquiry (1994) Special Issue on Chaos and Complexity, 3 (4).1992) New World Disorder: The Leninist Extinction. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.(1992) When Giants Learn to Dance: Mastering the Challenges of Strategy Management and Careers in the 1990s. London: Business Press.(1997) Jamming. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.(1996) The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy into Action. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.and (Katz, J. and Aakhus, M. (eds) (2002) Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO97805114894711995) At Home in the Universe: The Search for Laws of Complexity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1993) Foundations of Corporate Success. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1995) The foundations of national competitive advantage. Fifth ESRC Annual Lecture. London.(2000) Who Wrote the Book of Life? A History of the Genetic Code. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(1994) Pathfinders of Enterprise. Milton Keynes: School of Management, Open University., , and (2000) Sense and Nonsense in the Office. London: Financial Times Books.(2000) Trade in education services and the impacts of barriers to trade. In C.Findlay[Page 238]and T.Warren (eds) Impediments to Trade in Services: Measurement and Policy Implications. London: Routledge, 231–44.(Kenney, M. (ed.) (2000) Understanding Silicon Valley: The Anatomy of an Entrepreneurial Region. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.1996) ‘The best is yet to come?’ The quest for embodiment in managerial work. In D.Collinson and J.Hearn (eds) Men as Managers, Managers as Men: Critical Perspectives on Men, Masculinity and Management. London: Sage, 78–98.and (1996) Toolboxes are out; thinking is in. Financial Times, 22 March: 7–8.(Khalil, E.L. and Boulding, K.E. (eds) (1996) Evolution, Complexity and Order. London: Routledge.1996) Intelligent traffic lights control by fuzzy logic. Malaysian Journal of Computer Science, 9 (2–3)., , and (1997) Literature, Media, Information Systems. Amsterdam: OPA.(1999) No Logo. London, Flamingo.(1996) The Age of Heretics: Heroes, Outlaws and the Forerunners of Corporate Change. New York: Doubleday.(1993) Out of the Garden: Toys and Children's Culture in the Age of TV Marketing. London: Verso.(1997) The Art of Computer Programming, two vols. San Francisco: Addison-Wesley.(1994) Managers Divided: Organisation, Politics and Information Technology Management. Chichester: Wiley.and (1999) Management Lives: Power and Identity in Work Organisations. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446222072and (1997) Sociality with objects: social relations in postsocial knowledge societies. Theory, Culture and Society, 14: 1–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327697014004001(2001) How are global markets global? The architecture of a flow world. Paper presented at the Conference on Economics at Large, New York.(2003) Handbook of Social Theory. London: Sage.(1996) Redesigning for the 21st century. Financial Times, 22 March: 13–14.and (1998) The Philosophical Programmer: Reflections on the Moth in the Machine. New York: St Martins.(2000) The Monk and the Riddle: The Education of a Silicon Valley Entrepreneur. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.(2000) The Fortune Tellers. New York: Free.(1987) Women, Fire and Dangerous Things. Chicago: Chicago University Press.(1992) Money, Morals and Manners: The Culture of the French and American Upper Middle Class. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(2001) Technology and the courtroom: an inquiry into knowledge making in organisations. Journal of Management Studies, 38 (7): 943–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00267and (1999) The Agony of Mammon. London: Verso.(1994) Economies of Signs and Spaces. London: Sage.and (2002) Retheorizing the scale of globalization: topologies, actor networks and cosmopolitanism. In A.Herod and M.W.Wright (eds) Geographies of Power: Placing Scale. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 115–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470773406.ch4(1996) Globalisation, market boundaries and the return of the sovereign repressed. Paper presented to the SSRC Conference on Sovereignty, Modernity and Security, Notre Dame, April.([Page 239]1986) Visualisation and cognition. In H.Kuclick (ed.) Sociology of Knowledge: Studies in the Sociology of Culture Past and Present, 6: 1–40.(1987a) The enlightenment without the critique: a word on Michel Serres’ philosophy. In A.P.Griffiths (ed.) Contemporary French Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 83–97.(1987b) Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1988a) Opening one eye while closing the other: a note on some religious paintings. In G.Fyfe and T.Law (eds) Picturing Power: Visual Depiction and Social Relations. London: Routledge, 15–38.(1988b) The politics of explanation: an alternative. In S.Woolgar (ed.) Knowledge and Reflexivity. London: Sage, 155–77.(1991) Technology is society made durable. In J.Law (ed.) A Sociology of Monsters. London: Routledge, 103–32.(1993) We Have Never Been Modern. Brighton: Harvester Wheatsheaf.(1995) The manager as network. Organizational Studies, 6: 13–24.(1997) Trains of thought: Piaget, Formalism and the Fifth Dimension. Common Knowledge, 6: 170–91.(2002) Gabriel Tarde and the end of the social. In P.Joyce (ed.) The Social in Question: New Bearings in History and the Social Sciences. London: Routledge, 117–32.(1997) Paris: Ville Invisible. Paris: Institut Synthelabo.and (1993) Computers as Theatre. Boston: Addison-Wesley.(2001) Accomplishing the company region with a car, mobile phone, cardboard cut-out, some carbon paper and a few boxes. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, February-March.and (1999) Creative Company: How St Luke's Became the Ad Agency to End all Ad Agencies. New York: Wiley.(1994) Organising Modernity. Oxford: Blackwell.(1997) Traduction/trahison. Sociology, 56: 1–2G.(1995) Notes on materiality and sociality. Sociological Review, 28: 274–94.and (1996) Decisions. Paper presented to the Centre for Social Theory and Technology Seminar, November.and (2000) Maximising shareholder value: a new ideology for corporate governance. Economy and Society, 1: 13–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/030851400360541and (1999) The who and what of writing in the electronic age. Oxford Literary Review, 21: 135–60.(2003) Humain, Posthumain: La Technique et la Vie. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.(2002) An entrepreneurial culture for Singapore. Address by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew at the Ho Rih Hwa Leadership in Asia Public Lecture, 5 February, Singapore.(1994) On knowledge, business consultants, and the selling of TQM. Unpublished paper.(1997) Spark innovation through emphatic design. Harvard Business Review, November-December: 163–75.and (1997) Putting your company's whole brain to work. Harvard Business Review, July-August.and (1999) When Sparks Fly: Igniting Creativity in Groups. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.and (1995) Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation. New Canaan, CT: Harvard Business School Press.(1993) Gesture and Speech. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1999) Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace. New York: Basic.(1998) Interpretative management: what general managers can learn from design. Harvard Business Review, March-April., , and (1998) Becoming Virtual: Reality in the Digital Age. New York: Plenum.([Page 240]1951) Field Theory in Social Science. New York: Harper.(1993) Complexity: Life on the Edge of Chaos. London: Dent.(1999) The Soul at Work: Unleashing the Power of Complexity for Business Success. London: Orion.and (1973) Causation. Journal of Philosophy, 70: 556–67. Reprinted in Philosophical Papers, vol. II. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.(1999) The New, New Thing: A Silicon Valley Story. London: Hodder and Stoughton.(2001) His so-called life of stock fraud. New York Times Magazine, 25 February: 26–33, 46, 59, 66–7, 73.(1997) Money/Space: Geographies of Monetary Transformation. London: Routledge.and (2000) Out of context: computer systems that adapt to, and learn from, context. IBM Systems Journal, 39 (3/4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1147/sj.393.0617and (1996) Small differences, large issues: the making and remaking of a national border. South Atlantic Quarterly, 19: 1123–43.(2002) Nobody sits at home and waits for the telephone to ring: micro-and hyper-coordination through the use of the mobile telephone. In J.Katz and M.Aakhus (eds) Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.and (2000) Electric Animal: Toward a Rhetoric of Wildlife. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(1997) Arrow of Chaos: Romanticism and Postmodernity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(1992) The Geographical Tradition. Oxford: Blackwell.(1968/1693) Some Thoughts Concerning Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2001) Go To: Software Superheros from Fortran to the Internet Age. New World: Basic.(2003a) When is a magazine not a magazine? When it's HBR. Financial Times, 9 June.(2003b) Why are the fads fading away?Financial Times, 12 June.(1989) The rise and fall of business fads. Financial Times, 24 June: 24.(1964) Man Meets Dog. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(Low, L. (ed.) (1999) Singapore: Towards a Developed Status. Singapore: Oxford University Press.Lowe, A. and Schaffer, S. (eds) (2000) N0lse. Cambridge: Kettle's Yard.Lundvall, B.A. (ed.) (1992) National Systems of Innovation: Towards a Theory of Innovation and Interactive Learning. London: Pinter.Lunenfeld, P. (ed.) (1999) The Digital Dialectic: New Essays on New Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.2002) Skin: Surface, Substance, Design. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Architectural Press.(1999) Marking time with Nike: the illusion of the durable. Public Culture, 11: 499–526. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363-11-3-499(1966) The Image of the City. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1996) Quantum mechanics, consistency and the art of rhetoric: a response to Krips. Cultural Studies, 10: 115–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502389600490481(2000) Metaphors and the Dynamics of Knowledge. London: Routledge.and (2000) Future art: by and for whom, and for what?IBM Systems Journal, 39 (3/4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1147/sj.393.0678(2002) Transductions: Bodies and Machines at Speed. London: Continuum.(1996) Knowing Machines: Essays on Technical Change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1989) For Want of a Nail: The Impact on War of Logistics and Communications. London: Brusseg.(1996) Accelerating Organization. New York: McGraw-Hill.and (2000) The Coming Internet Depression. New York: Perseus.(1997) Has globalisation ended the rise and rise of the nation-state?Review of International Political Economy, 4: 472–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/096922997347715([Page 241]1998) Wearable computing as means of personal empowerment. At http://wearcam.org/icwc-keynote.htm.(2001) The Language of New Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(Marcus, G. (ed.) (1998) Corporate Futures: The Diffusion of the Culturally Sensitive Corporate Form. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.1987) The Empire Builders: Power, Money and Ethics inside the Harvard Business School. New York: Morrow.(2000) The Skin of the Film: Intercultural Cinema, Embodiment and the Senses. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(1994) Flexible Bodies: The Role of Immunity in American Culture from the Days of Polio to the Age of Aids. Boston: Beacon.(2000) Demutualizations and the remapping of financial landscapes. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS 25: 221–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-2754.2000.00221.xand (1954) Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper.(1995) Masculinity, dualisms and high technology. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS20: 487–99.(1997) Spatial disruptions. In S.Golding (ed.) Eight Technologies of Otherness. London: Routledge.(2002) Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(1992) The Tree of Knowledge. New York: Shambhala.and (1995) Small ideas which are changing our way of banking. New Economics, December: 6–8.(2001) Ambient Television: Visual Culture and Public Space. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(1998) A Digital Craft: The Practised Digital Hand. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1960) The Human Side of Enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1999) Dramatic challenge to art of team building. The Times, 6 February: 26–7.(2000) The economic dynamics of software: comparing Microsoft, Netscape and Linux. Industrial and Corporate Change, 11: 23–42.(1997) Real Time: Preparing for the Age of the Never Satisfied Customer. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.(2001) Perform – Or Else: From Discipline to Performance. New York: Routledge.(1999) Subject, psyche and agency: the work of Judith Butler. Theory, Culture and Society, 16: 175–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02632769922050467(1995) Keeping Order in Time. New York: Norton.(2001) Robo Sapiens: Evolution of a New Species. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.and (1996) The Witch Doctors: Making Sense of the Management Gurus. London: Times Books.and (1998) Barbara Waugh. Fast Company, December: 146–54.(1996) Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. Oxford: Berg.(1998) Shopping, Place, and Identity. London: Routledge.(1998) Shopping, Place and Identity. London: Routledge., , , , and (1997) Mobilising the consumer: assembling the subject of consumption. Theory, Culture and Society, 14: 1–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327697014001001and (1973) The Nature of Managerial Work. New York: Harper and Row.([Page 242]1994) Natural Images in Economic Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511572128(2002) Machine Dreams: Economics Becomes a Cyborg Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1996) An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2002) Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-Politics, Modernity. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.(1999) E-Topia. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2003) The temporalities of the market. American Anthropologist, 105 (2): 255–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.2003.105.2.255(2004) Failure as an endpoint. In A.Ong and S.Collins (eds) Global Assemblages: Technology, Politics, and Ethics as Anthropological Problems. Oxford: Blackwell.and (2001) The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(2003) Where Stuff Comes From. New York: Routledge.(2001) Rebel Code. London: Allen Lane.(1986) Images of Organisation. London: Sage.(1993) Imaginisation: The Art of Creative Management. London: Sage.(1988) Banality in cultural studies. Discourse X, 10: 2–29.(1998) Too Soon Too Late: History in Popular Culture. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.(1994) Narrative and Freedom: The Shadows of Time. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(2000) Idea summit. Fast Company, 31: 150–94.(Nadel, J. and Butterworth, G. (eds) (1999) Imitation in Infancy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.2002) Engineering the entrepreneurial infant: brain science, infant development toys and governmentality. Cultural Studies, 16: 401–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502380210128315(1990) Megatrends 2000. London: Pan.and (1995) A Small Matter of Programming: Perspectives on End User Computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1999) Information Ecologies: Using Technology with Heart. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.and (1998) Here, there and nowhere at all: distribution, negotiation and virtuality in postmodern ethnography and engineering. Knowledge and Society, 11: 235–67.(1994) The virtual organisation: bureaucracy, technology and the implosion of control. In C.Hecksher and A.Donnellon (eds) The Post-Bureaucratic Organization: New Perspectives on Organizational Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 108–28.and (1998) The Therapeutic State. New York: New York University Press.(2002) Evolutionary Robotics: The Biology, Intelligence and Technology of Self-Organizing Machines. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.and (1995) The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (1998) The Invisible Computer. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2000) Making technology visible: a conversation with Don Norman. In D.Bergman (ed.) Information Appliances and Beyond: Interaction Design for Consumer Products. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman, 9–26.(1995) Versions of apocalypse: Kant, Derrida, Foucault. In M.Bull (ed.) Apocalypse Theory and the Ends of the World. Oxford: Blackwell, 227–49.(2002) Democratic Phoenix: Reinventing Political Activism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511610073(1994) Time: The Modern and Postmodern Experience. Cambridge: Polity.(1997) Dangerous Company: The Consulting Powerhouses and the Businesses they Save and Ruin. London: Brealey.and ([Page 243]2001) Globalization and Urban Change: Capital, Culture and Pacific Rim Mega-Projects. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2000) An installation of interactive furniture. IBM Systems Journal, 39 (3/4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1147/sj.393.0861, , , , , , , , and (2000) Net-working for a living: Irish software developers in the global workplace. In M.Burawoy et al. (eds) Global Ethnography: Forces, Connections and Imaginations in a Postmodern World. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 175–202.(1996) Talking About Machines: An Ethnography of a Modern Job. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(1995) The Politics of Time. London: Verso.(2003) Creativity: a philistine rant. Economy and Society, 32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0308514032000141684(1997) In the name of society, or three theses on the history of social thought. History of the Human Sciences, 10: 87–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095269519701000307and (1996) Chaos theory, Marxism and literature. New Formations, 29: 84–112.(2001) The Ontogeny of Information,(2nd edn.Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.1995) After Success: Fin-de-Siècle Identity and Anxiety. Cambridge: Polity.(2000) What's the big idea? Toward a pedagogy of idea power. IBM Systems Journal, 39 (3/4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1147/sj.393.0720(2000) Design and implementation of expressive footwear. IBM Systems Journal, 30 (3/4)., , , and (1995) The Trophies of Time. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1991) Managing on the Edge. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1994) Blackfoot Physics. London: Fourth Estate.(1997) The message in paper. In D.Miller (ed.) Material Cultures: Why Some Things Matter. London: UCL Press, 103–20.(2000) It's alive. IBM Systems Journal, 39 (3/4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1147/sj.393.0821(1985) Microelectronics, long waves, and world structural change. World Development, 13: 441–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2885%2990140-8(1997) Finding Time. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(1995) Enigmas: The Egyptian Movement in Society and Art. London: Verso.(2001) Dealing with mobility: understanding access anytime, anywhere. ACM Transactions in Human-Computer Interaction, 8 (4): 323–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/504704.504707, , , and (2000) The Playful World: How Technology is Transforming our Imagination. New York: Ballatine.(2001) True confessions. Fast Company, no. 53: 78.(1982) In Search of Excellence. New York: Warner.and (Roy, J. (ed.) (1999) Naturalizing Phenomenology: Issues in Contemporary Phenomenology and Cognitive Science. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press., , , and1992) The Pencil. New York: Knopf.(Pettigrew, A. and Fenton, E.M. (eds) (2000) The Innovating Organization. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462193791992) After Power. New Canaan, CT: Harvard Business School Press.(1978) The External Control of Organizations. New York: Harper and Row.and (1993) Unmarked. New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203359433(1997) Reality Hacking. London: Heinemann.(1997) Affective Computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2000) Towards computers that recognise and respond to user emotion. IBM Systems Journal, 39 (3/4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1147/sj.393.0705(1999) The Experience Economy: Work Is Theatre and Every Business a Stage. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.and ([Page 244]2000) Physically interactive story environments. IBM Systems Journal, 39 (3/4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1147/sj.393.0438, , , , , and (1999) What's your story?Fast Company, January: 32–4.(1996) The virtual complexity of culture. In G.Robertson, M.Mash, L.Tickner, J.Bird, B.Curtis and T.Putman (eds) Future Natural: Nature/Science/Culture. London: Routledge, 203–17.(2002) Environmental Culture: The Ecological Crisis of Reason. London: Routledge.(2000) Emotional computing. At http://www.emotivate.com/Book/intro.html, accessed 1 February 2001.(1958) Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post Critical Philosophy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1967) The Tacit Dimension. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1995) Trust in Numbers: The Pursuit of Objectivity in Science and Public Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(2000) E-broidery: design and fabrication of textile-based computing. IBM Systems Journal, 39 (3/4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1147/sj.393.0840, , , and (1997) The Audit Society: Rituals of Verification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2000) New media, the new economy and new spaces. Geoforum, 31: 425–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7185%2800%2900011-7(2000) The coming crisis in real-time environments: a dromological analysis. At http://online.sfsu.edu/~rpurser/revised/pages/DROMOLOGY.htm.(1981) Reason, Truth, and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625398(1997) The weightless economy. Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin, 37 (1): 49–56.(1995) Making PCR: A Story of Biotechnology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1996) Essays on the Anthropology of Reason. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(1996) Managing sceptically: a critique of organizational fashion. In S.Clegg and G.Palmer (eds) The Politics of Management Knowledge. London: Sage, 155–72.(1999) The Power of Now. New York: McGraw-Hill.(2000) The Nike story? Just tell it. Fast Company, no. 31: 44–52.(Rasch, W. and Wolfe, C. (eds) (2000) Observing Complexity: Systems Theory and Postmodernity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.1999) The McKinsey Way. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1991) An approach to the synthesis of life. In C.Langton, C.Taylor, J. D.Farmer and S.Rasmussen (eds) Artificial Life II: Santa Fe Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, vol. XI. Redwood City, CA: Addison-Wesley, 371–408.(1996) The University of Ruins. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1994) The Celestine Prophecy. London: Bantam.(2000) It's the year 2000 economy, stupid. The American Prospect Online, 29 November.(Remnick, D. (ed.) (2000) The New Gilded Age. New York: Random House.2000) It's not just information. IBM Systems Journal, 39 (3/4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1147/sj.393.0816(2002) Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Perseus.(1992) Postcode Geography. London: Methuen.(1999) Global Sourcebook of Address Data Management. London: Gower.(Richardson, M. and Wildman, W.J. (eds) (1997) Religion and Science: History, Method and Dialogue. London: Routledge.1996) Finding meaning at work. Strategy and Business, 5.(2000) The Age of Access. London: Tarcher/Putnam.(1987) The Animal Estate: The English and Other Creatures in the Victorian Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1994) Power and empowerment: New Age managers and the dialectics of modernity/postmodernity. Religion Today, 9: 3–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13537909408580715(2002) Global strategic vision: managing the world. In R.Perry and B.Maurer (eds) Globalization and Governmentalities. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.([Page 245]1995) Make it So. Leadership Lessons from Star Trek: The Next Generation. New York: Simon and Schuster.and (1990) Endogenous technological change. Journal of Political Economy, 98: S71-S102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/261725(1995) Organisational Epistemology. London: Macmillan.and (1996) Managing Knowledge: Perspectives on Cooperation and Competition. London: Sage.and (1996) Inventing Our Selves: Psychology, Power and Personhood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511752179(1999) Powers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511488856(Rothfels, N. (ed.) (2002) Representing Animals. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.2003) M&S faces righteous wrath over spy in a suit. The Times, 23 August: 5.(1999) Beyond the gap: an introduction to naturalising phenomenology. In J.Petitot et al. (eds) Naturalising Phenomenology: Issues in Contemporary Phenomenology and Cognitive Science. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1–82., , , and (1999) The power of words. Fast Company, January: 142–51.(1992) Employing the New Age: training seminars. In J.Lewis and J.J.G.Melton (eds) Perspectives on the New Age. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 127–35.(Pedrycz, W. (1998) (eds) Handbook of Fuzzy Computation. Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1887/0750304278, , and2002) Thank heaven for little girls: Girl Heaven and the commercial context of feminine childhood. Sociology, 36: 619–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038502036003007and (2000) One Good Turn: A Natural History of the Screwdriver and the Screw. New York: Simon and Schuster.(1995) Company Man: The Rise and Fall of Corporate Life. London: Harper Collins.(1997) Seminar announcement. At http://www.santa-strategy.com.(2001) The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo,(2nd edn.Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.1999) Towards the Virtual Corporation and Beyond: Trends and Changes in Mobile Working. Reading: Oracle.(1989) Reluctant Managers. London: Unwin Hyman.and (1996) Babbage's dancer and the impressions of mechanism. In F.Spufford and J.Uglow (eds) Cultural Babbage: Technology, Time and Invention. London: Faber and Faber, 53–80.(1996) Strategic Pragmatism: The Culture of Singapore's Economic Development Board. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1993) The Overworked American. New York: Basic.(2000) Serious Play: How the World's Best Companies Stimulate to Innovate. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.(Larsen, M.H. (eds) (2000) The Expressive Organization. Oxford: Oxford University Press., , and1997) The Culture of the Copy. New York: Zone.(2003) Touching Feeling: Affect, Pedagogy, Performativity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(Seely Brown, J. (ed.) (1997) Seeing Differently: Insights on Innovation. New York: Harvard Business School Press.2002) The Myth of the Paperless Office. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.and ([Page 246]1990) The Fifth Discipline. New York: Domesday.(1999) The Dance of Change: The Challenges of Sustaining Momentum in Learning Organizations. London: Brealey., , , , and (1998) The Corrosion of Character: The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism. New York: Norton.(1982) Hermes: Literature, Science, Philosophy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1995a) Genesis. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.(1995b) Angels: A Modern Myth. Paris: Flammarion.(1998) Science Incarnate. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1995) Fad Surfing in the Boardroom, San Francisco: Addison-Wesley.(2000) Irrational Exuberance. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(2002) Leonardo's Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Technologies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1999) Relays: Literature as an Epoch of the Postal System. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(1981) The Sciences of the Artificial,(rev. edn.Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.1958/1989) Du Mode d'Existence des Objets Techniques. Paris: Aubier.(1992) The genesis of the individual. In J.Crary and S.Kwinter (eds) Incorporations 6. New York: Zone, 296–319.(2000) A Brief Introduction to Genetic Algorithms. At http://lslwww.epfl.ch/~moshes/ga_main.html.(2002) Machine Nature: The Coming Age of Bio-Inspired Computing. New York: McGraw-Hill.(2000) Meet the new boss. Financial Times, 20 November: 23.(2000) Media in performance: interactive spaces for dance, theatre, circus, and museum exhibits. IBM Systems Journal, 39 (3/4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1147/sj.393.0479, , and (1997) Disclosing New Worlds: Entrepreneurship, Democratic Action, and the Cultivation of Solidarity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press., , and (1993) Outside in the Teaching Machine. New York: Routledge.(1996) The difference engine and the difference engine. In F.Spufford and J.Uglow (eds) Cultural Babbage: Technology, Time and Invention. London: Faber and Faber, 266–90.(Spufford, F. and Uglow, J. (eds) (1996) Cultural Babbage: Technology, Time and Invention. London: Faber and Faber.1992) Body Criticism: Imagining the Unseen in Enlightenment Art and Medicine. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1994) Artful Science: Enlightenment Entertainment and the Eclipse of Visual Education. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1996) Good Looking: Essays on the Virtue of Images. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2001) Devices of Wonder: From the World in a Box to Images on a Screen. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute.and (1989) The structure of ill-structured solutions: boundary objects and heterogeneous distributed problem solving. In L.Gasser and N.Huhn (eds) Distributed Artificial Intelligence. New York: Morgan Kauffman, 37–54.(2000) Training the ASDA way. Sunday Times, 16 March: B1-B2.and (1997) Power and Invention: Situating Science. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(1997) Thinking Styles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511584152(1976) Contrasts in Management: A Study of Different Types of Manager. London: McGraw-Hill.(1997) Intellectual Capital: The New Wealth of Organisations. London: Brealey.([Page 247]1998) Technics and Time 1: The Fault of Epimetheus. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(1994) Whither Socialism?Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1996) Managing in turbulent times. Financial Times, 22 March: 5–6.(1995a) Foreword. In M.Strathern (ed.) Shifting Contexts: Transformations in Anthropological Knowledge. London: Routledge, 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203450901(1995b) Afterword. In M.Strathern (ed.) Shifting Contexts: Transformations in Anthropological Knowledge. London: Routledge, 177–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203450901(1996) The new modernities. In J.Wassman and V.Keck (eds) Common Worlds and Single Lives: Constituting Knowledge in Pacific Societies. Oxford: Berg.(1997) Cutting the network. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 2: 517–35.(1999) Property, Substance and Effect. London: Athlone.(1987) Plans and Situated Actions: The Problem of Human-Machine Communications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(Human/machine reconsidered. Department of Sociology, University of Lancaster. At http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/sociology/socG4Gl5.htm.(2GG1)2002) Wild Cats of the World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.and (1986) Toys as Culture. New York: Gardner.(2001) The Moment of Complexity: Emerging Network Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(2002) The assessment: the new economy. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 18 (3): 241–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/18.3.241(2000) Fashion and Utopia in Management Thinking. Amsterdam: Benjamins.(1996) Mysteries of the bioapparatus. In M.A.Moser and D.McLeod (eds) Immersed in Technology: Art in Virtual Environments. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 51–71.(Thomas, P.J. (ed.) (1995) The Social and Interactional Dimensions of Human-Computer Interfaces. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.1991) The Lifeblood of War: Logistics in Armed Conflict. London: Brassey.([Page 248]1985) Flies and germs: a geography of knowledge. In D.Gregory and J.Urry (eds) Social Relations and Spatial Structures. London: Macmillan.(1991) For a new regional geography 2. Progress in Human Geography, 15: 456–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030913259101500407(1995) A hyperactive world? In R.J.Johnston, P.Taylor and M.Watts (eds) Geographies of Global Change. Oxford: Blackwell, 18–35.(1996a) Spatial Formations. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446222362(1996b) Shut up and dance, or, is the world economy knowable? In P.W.Daniels and W.Lever (eds) The Global Economy in Transition. London: Longman, 11–23.(1996c) New urban eras and old technological fears: reconfiguring the goodwill of electronic things. Urban Studies, 33: 1463–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0042098966754(1997a) The rise of soft capitalism. Cultural Values, 1: 29–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14797589709367133(1997b) The rise of soft capitalism. In A.Herod, G.O Tuathail and S.Roberts (eds) Unruly World: Globalisation, Governance and Geography. London: Routledge, 25–71.(1999a) Virtual capitalism: some proposals. In J.Carrier and D.Miller (eds) Virtualism: The New Political Economy. Oxford: Berg, 161–86.(1999b) The place of complexity. Theory, Culture and Society, 16: 31–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02632769922050610(2000a) Afterwords. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 18: 213–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d214t(2000b) Performing cultures in the new economy. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90: 674–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0004-5608.00217(2000c) Still life in nearly present time: the object of nature. Body and Society, 6: 34–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357034X00006003003(2000d) Spaces of everyday life in the city. In G.Bridge and S.Watson (eds) The Urban Companion. Oxford: Blackwell.(2001a) Elsewhere. In N.Cummings and M.Lewandowska (eds) Capital. London: Tate Modern.(2001b) New per-forms of the commodity. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Association of American Geographers, New York, March.(2001c) ‘It's the romance, not the finance, that makes the business worth pursuing’: disclosing a new market culture. Economy and Society, 30 (November): 412–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085140120089045(2002) Think and act like revolutionaries: episodes from the global triumph of management discourse. Critical Quarterly, 44: 19–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8705.00427(2003a) Bare life. In H.Thomas and J.Ahmed (eds) Cultural Bodies. Oxford: Blackwell.(2003b) Closer to the machine? Intelligent environments, new forms of possession and the rise of the supertoy. Cultural Geographies, 10: 389–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/1474474003eu282oa(2003c) Remembering the technological unconscious by foregrounding knowledges of position. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 22: 175–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d321t(2004) Investigating the field. In M.Pryke and S.J.Whatmore (eds) Thinking Through Research. London: Sage.(2002) The automatic production of space. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS 27: 309–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-5661.00057and (1996) Refiguring the economic in economic geography. Progress in Human Geography, 20 (3): 311–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030913259602000302and (2000) A virtual investment. Financial Times, 5 December: 26.(1989) La Raison Classificatoire: Quinze Etudes. Paris: Ambier.(2000) Life in the real-time city: mobile telephones and urban metabolism. Journal of Urban Technology, 7: 85–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713684114(1984) Dominance and Affection: The Making of Pets. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1991) Romantic reactions: paradoxical responses to the computer presence. In J.J.Sheehan and M.Sosna (eds) Boundaries of Humanity: Humans, Animals, Machines. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.(1996) Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.(2001) Society and Culture. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220689and (1997) Chaos and social science. In R.A.Eve, S.Horsfall and M.E.Lee (eds) Chaos, Complexity and Sociology: Myths, Models and Theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, xi–xxxii.(2000) The Extended Organism: The Physiology of Animal-Built Structures. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1997) Close to the Machine: Technophilia and Its Discontents. San Francisco: City Lights.(1989) Teletheory. London: Routledge.(1994) Time, leisure and social identity. Time and Society, 3: 131–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961463X94003002001(2003) Global Complexity. Cambridge: Polity.(1994) The cadre class and public multilateralism. In Y.Sakamoto (ed.) Global Transformation: Challenges to the State System. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 200–49.(1997) The balanced scorecard. Management Today, September: 22–3.(2001) Instrumentalizing the truth of practice. Social Epistemology, 15 (3): 247–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02691720110076567and (2000) Ethical Know-How. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(2000) Warped Space. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1995) Organizational Epistemology. Basingstoke: Macmillan.and (Kleine, D. (eds) (1998) Knowing in Firms: Understanding, Managing and Measuring Knowledge. London: Sage., , and [Page 249]1945) First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. Contract W-670-ORD-4926, US Army Ordnance Department and University of Pennsylvania. Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, 30 June 1945.(1977) Tools for Thought. London: Allen Lane.(1998) Managing Like a Man. Cambridge: Polity.(1993) Complexity. New York: Viking.(2000) Programming Perl. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly., , and (An imitation of artificial life. Scientific American.(195G)1953) The Living Brain. London: Penguin.(1999) Virtual Organisms: The Startling World of Artificial Life. London: Pan.(1999) Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Order and Randomness. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(2003) Six Degrees. London: Heinemann.(2001) Making Sense of the Organization. Oxford: Blackwell.(1999) The origins of ubiquitous computing research at PARC in the late 1980s. IBM Systems Journal, 38 (4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1147/sj.384.0693, , and (1996) The Making and Unmaking of the Haya Lived World. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(1998) Understanding Animation. London: Routledge.(1999) Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2002) Cultivating Communities of Practice. Boston: Harvard Business School Press., , and (2002) Hybrid Geographies. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446219713(1994) Leadership and the New Science: Learning About Organization from an Ordinary Universe. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.(1957) The Organization Man. New York: Doubleday Anchor.(1968) The Language of the Self: The Function of Language in Psychoanalysis by Jacques Lacan. Trans. with notes and commentary by Anthony Wilden. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(2000) From shareholder value to present-day capitalism. Economy and Society, 29: 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/030851400360532(2001) Trajectories of inequality. Review of International Political Economy, 8: 1–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/096922901300059087(1978) Marxism and Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1991) Notes on the Underground. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1999) Knowledge swap-shop. Financial Times, 22 January.(1994) Modelling the City. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203301906(1987) Understanding Computers and Cognition: A New Foundation for Design. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.and (Winograd, T. (ed.) (1996) Bringing Design to Software. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.1978) Remarks on the Philosophy of Mathematics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2003a) Animal Rites: American Culture, the Discourse of Species and Posthumanism. Chicago: Chicago University Press.(2003b) Zoontologies: The Question of the Animal. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(Wood, J. (ed.) (1998) The Virtual Embodied: Presence/Practice/Technology. London: Routledge.1995) Big is back: a survey of multinationals. The Economist, 24 June: 1–22.(1997) Trimming the fat: a survey of management consultancy. The Economist, 22 March.(1991) Configuring the user: the case of usability trials. In J.Law (ed.) A Sociology of Monsters: Essays on Power, Technology and Domination. London: Routledge, 58–97.([Page 250]Worthington, J. (ed.) (1996) Reinventing the Work Place. London: Butterworth Heinemann.1996) Art and science in chaos: contested readings of scientific visualisation. In G.Robertson, M.Mash, L.Tickner, J.Bird, B.Curtis and T.Putman (eds) Future Natural: Nature, Science, Culture. London: Routledge, 218–36.(1994) Evolving information use in firms, 1850–1920: ideology and information techniques and technologies. In L.Bud-Frierman (ed.) Information Acumen: The Understanding and Use of Knowledge in Modern Business. London: Routledge, 26–50.(1992) Genres of organisational communication. Academy of Management Review, 17: 299–326.and (1994) What is BISC? At http://cs.berkeley.edu/projects/Bisc/bisc.welcome.html.(Zentall, T. and Galef, B. (ed.) (1988) Social Learning. Psychological and Biological Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.2001) Imitation in animals: evidence, function and mechanisms. Cybernetics and Systems, 32: 53–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/019697201300001812(1990) The Quantum Self. London: Harper Collins.(1997) Rewiring the Corporate Brain: Using the New Science to Rethink How We Structure and Lead Organizations. San Francisco: Berret-Koehler.(