Key Ideas in Sociology

Books

Peter Kivisto

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    For Susan

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Preface

    This book, in presenting a brief account of the sociological vocation and promise, is designed to serve as a text particularly well suited for courses in which students are also expected to read from primary texts.

    I had two specific goals in mind when setting out to write Key Ideas in Sociology. First, I intended for it to provide students with a general overview of the ways in which a number of important ideas have helped sociologists to better understand contemporary societies and human social relations in those societies. I wanted to show how those ideas have been continually reformulated by social theorists attempting to respond to the ongoing impact of social change.

    The second reason for writing the book is related to this last point, for it is an effort to illustrate the value of social theory beyond the classroom. I want students to come to appreciate that theories are not arcane intellectual exercises but, in fact, invaluable interpretive guides helping them in the ongoing quest to understand complex and ever-changing social conditions. These ideas have relevance for sorting out issues related to the world of work. They speak to problems and possibilities shaping what it means to be a citizen today. They have much to offer in thinking about the shifting nature of social relations even at the most intimate levels involving lovers, friends, and neighbors. In short, the purpose of the book is to reveal the relevance of sociological thinking for everyone concerned about their public and private lives.

    In the second edition of the book I took more seriously than I had in the earlier version the challenges that globalization poses for sociological thought. As will be clear, some of the scholars discussed herein had an awareness of globalization before the term was common, whereas others operated with a problematic tendency to equate society with the nation-state. The concluding chapter of the book surveys promising developments in social theory today that build on the past while simultaneously attempting to grapple with new challenges posed by the advent of a global society.

    This new edition is intended to reflect on my earlier analyses, making use of scholarship that has been produced in the first decade of the 21st century. This includes new studies of the classics, some of which are biographical and some of which offer new and challenging interpretations of aspects of their work. It also includes new currents in theoretical thinking, seen, for example, in Jeffrey Alexander's development of the idea of the civil sphere and in Zygmunt Bauman's introduction of the idea of liquid modernity.

    In preparing this work, I came to realize how important some of my former teachers were in convincing me of the vitality and significance of the sociological imagination. In coming to understand what are admittedly often difficult ideas, I had the good fortune of encountering many truly wonderful teachers. This began in my undergraduate years at the University of Michigan, where the kind and generous Max Heirich first planted the seeds of my decision to become a sociologist. At Yale, I took engaging courses from Norman Birnbaum and David Apter, but it was particularly from the social theory courses of a dynamic and encouraging teacher, Steve Warner, that I obtained a real grounding in sociological theory. At the New School, my main teachers, Arthur Vidich, Stanford Lyman, and Benjamin Nelson, deepened and enriched my thinking while encouraging independence of thought.

    Over the past several years, I have benefited from ongoing encounters with a wide range of people, some of whom have contributed directly to my work on this book, while others have done so indirectly. I'd like to single out Jeffrey Alexander, Martin Bulmer, Samir Daspupta, Thomas Faist, Margaret Farrar, John Guidry, Beth Hartung, David Hill, Ewa Morawska, Devrimsel Nergiz, Wendy Ng, Giuseppe Sciortino, Bill Swatos, and Östen Wahlbeck.

    Many people read and commented on various versions of this work, either in manuscript or in book form. Although I did not always take their advice, I greatly appreciated the collegiality and the critical insights offered by Erik Allardt, Joan Alway, Kjell Andersson, Steve Dandaneau, Glen Goodwin, Gaurang Ranjan Sahay, Steven Lybrand, George Ritzer, Joseph Scimecca, and Cliff Staples.

    The origins of this project go back to a book that Steve Rutter wanted me to write. Although the final product took a rather different form from the one he originally sketched out, the initial conception of this book began with him, not me. Moreover, at every stage along the way, Steve read and responded to my drafts, thus making the final product a truly collaborative endeavor. Jerry Westby was instrumental in developing the second edition of the book. Since our initial partnership, I have gotten to know him well and have learned to appreciate his reasoned judgments about book publishing and to be thankful for his insights and general encouragement. During the preparation of this new edition, I have had the good fortune to be able to work with yet another pro, Dave Repetto. Like his predecessors, Dave made this a truly collaborative effort—and for that I am thankful.

    Acknowledgments

    SAGE Publications would like to thank the following reviewers:

    Anne F. Eisenberg

    SUNY–Geneseo

    Vincenzo Mele

    Monmouth University

    Kristen Myers

    Northern Illinois University

    Kevin T. Leicht

    The University of Iowa

    Jenifer Kunz

    West Texas A&M University

  • Review Questions

    • Marx contends that capitalism both alienates and exploits workers. Summarize and assess the main arguments he advances in making his case.
    • Review Marx's analysis of the principal classes in capitalist society. Is his perspective relevant today? Explain with reference to the other theorists discussed in Chapter 2.
    • In what ways can the members of the Frankfurt School be seen as heirs to Marx's intellectual legacy, and in what ways do they appear to part company with him?
    • Compare and contrast the counterimages of capitalist industrial society proposed by Joseph Schumpeter and Thorstein Veblen.
    • Critically evaluate C. Wright Mills's power elite thesis. Is this a Marxist analysis?
    • Describe what Daniel Bell means by postindustrial society. Do you find his thesis convincing? What do you think of the reactions of his critics?
    • Is bureaucracy in modern industrial societies inevitable according to Weber? Summarize his account, and in so doing discuss why he thought that the world of the future would increasingly become an iron cage.
    • Compare and contrast Weber's perspective on the prospects of democracy with that of Robert Michels.
    • What are the three types of legitimate domination that Weber identified? Which is most characteristic of the contemporary world? Why?
    • Are Marx's and Weber's ideas congruent or at odds with each other? Explain.
    • Review Talcott Parsons's understanding of citizenship, particularly as it was influenced by T. H. Marshall. How can this view be seen as a response to Weber?
    • Describe and offer a critical analysis of Seymour Martin Lipset's understanding of the relationship between democracy and class structure.
    • What does Jürgen Habermas mean by the public sphere, and how is it related to the idea of civil society? Why does he think the public sphere is threatened today?
    • Summarize Jeffrey Alexander's understanding of the civil sphere. In what ways does his position parallel that of Habermas, and how do the two differ?
    • What did Alexis de Tocqueville mean by individualism, and in what ways did he think it might be destructive? Relate his ideas to the work of both David Riesman and Robert Bellah.
    • Compare and contrast Ferdinand Toennies's distinction between gemeinschaft and gesellschaft. From his perspective, can they coexist, or are they mutually exclusive?
    • What did Durkheim mean by mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity? Which one is characteristic of modern industrial societies? What is the relevance of the division of labor to this argument?
    • Compare and contrast Marx's and Durkheim's understanding of the division of labor in industrial societies. Are these positions complementary or fundamentally at odds with each other?
    • What is anomie? Evaluate Durkheim's use of this term in his study of suicide.
    • What did Robert Merton mean by social strain, and how is it related to his understanding of a society's value system?
    • Discuss David Riesman's distinction between inner-directed and other-directed personalities. Relate his analysis to that of both Tocqueville and Bellah and associates.
    • Review and provide a critical analysis of Erving Goffman's contribution to our understanding of individualism in contemporary societies.
    • Summarize and evaluate the provisional definitions of modernity and postmodernity presented in the text.
    • What did Simmel mean by the tragedy of culture? Compare and contrast this idea with Weber's iron cage metaphor.
    • Discuss and evaluate Robert Park's discussion of race as a social construct and the significance of race in modern culture. What are some of the implications of viewing race as a social construct?
    • What are grand narratives? Discuss why postmodernists think that they have become exhausted.
    • What does Jean Baudrillard mean by the hyperreal, and how does this relate to a culture saturated by the mass media and by consumerism?
    • What does Zygmunt Bauman mean by liquid modernity? Is this concept essentially a synonym for postmodernity, or does it refer to a new phase of modernity?
    • Compare and contrast postmodernity with what Anthony Giddens calls late modernity.
    • What is the significance of risk in later modernity? Discuss this in terms of one of the four major risks Giddens identifies as characteristic of our age.
    • Provide an analysis of what Giddens means by globalization. What does it mean to depict it in terms of a runaway world?
    • Discuss the political implications of globalization, particularly concentrating on the idea advanced by Ulrich Beck about the potential for a transnational civil society and new conceptions of citizenship.
    • Compare and contrast the analyses of global culture proposed by Benjamin Barber and Orlando Patterson.

    References

    Adorno, Theodor W., ElseFrankel-Brunswik, Daniel J.Levinson, and R. NevittSanford. 1950. The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper & Row.
    Agger, Ben. 1990. The Decline of Discourse: Reading, Writing, and Resistance in Postmodern Capitalism. London: Falmer.
    Alba, Richard. 2009. Blurring the Color Line: The New Chance for a More Integrated America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Alexander, Jeffrey C.1982/1983. Theoretical Logic in Sociology. Vols. 1–4. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Alexander, Jeffrey C. 1987. Twenty Lectures: Sociological Theory Since World War II. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Alexander, Jeffrey C. 1995. Fin de Siècle Social Theory. London: Verso.
    Alexander, Jeffrey C. 1998. Neofunctionalism and After. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Alexander, Jeffrey C. 2006. The Civil Sphere. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195162509.001.0001
    Alexander, Jeffrey C. and PhilipSmith, eds. 2005. The Cambridge Companion to Durkheim. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CCOL9780521806725
    Althusser, Louis. 1970. For Marx. New York: Vintage.
    Alway, Joan. 1995. Critical Theory and Political Possibilities: Conceptions of Emancipatory Politics in the Works of Horkheimer, Adorno, Marcuse, and Habermas. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Anderson, Perry. 1976. Considerations of Western Marxism. London: New Left Books.
    Antonio, Robert J. 2007. “The Passing of Jean Baudrillard.”Fast Capitalism4(1). (http://www.fastcapitalism.com).
    Antonio, Robert J. and DouglasKellner. 1994. “The Future of Social Theory and the Limits of Postmodern Critique.” Pp. 127–152 in Postmodernism and Social Inquiry, edited by D. R.Dickens and A.Fontana. New York: Guilford.
    Appadurai, Arjun. 1996. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Apter, David. 1987. “Parsons's Politics.”American Journal of Sociology93(2):451–456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228755
    Aron, Raymond. 1985. History, Truth, Liberty: Selected Writings of Raymond Aron, edited by F.Draus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Ashton, Thomas S. 1948. The Industrial Revolution, 1760–1830. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Avineri, Shlomo. 1968. The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139171410
    Axelrod, Charles D. 1977. “Toward an Appreciation of Simmel's Fragmentary Style.”The Sociological Quarterly18(2): 185–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1977.tb01406.x
    Bannister, Robert C. 1987. Sociology and Scientism: The American Quest for Objectivity, 1880–1940. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
    Barber, Benjamin R. 1984. Strong Democracy. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Barber, Benjamin R. 1992. “Jihad vs. McWorld.”Atlantic Monthly, March, pp. 53–63.
    Barnett, Vincent. 2009. Marx. London: Routledge.
    Baudrillard, Jean. 1981. For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign. St. Louis, MO: Telos.
    Baudrillard, Jean. 1983. Simulations. New York: Semiotexte.
    Baudrillard, Jean. 1988. America. London: Verso.
    Baudrillard, Jean. 1991. La Guerre de Golfe n'a pas eu lieu. Paris: Galilee.
    Baudrillard, Jean. 2002. The Spirit of Terrorism: And Requiem for the Twin Towers. London: Verso.
    Baudrillard, Jean. 2005. “War Porn.”International Journal of Baudrillard Studies2(1). (http://www.ubishops.ca/BaudrillardStudies/vol2_1/taylorpf.htm).
    Bauman, Zygmunt. 1992. Intimations of Postmodernity. London: Routledge.
    Bauman, Zygmunt. 1993. Postmodern Ethics. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.
    Bauman, Zygmunt. 1995. Life in Fragments: Essays in Postmodern Morality. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.
    Bauman, Zygmunt. 1997. Postmodernity and Its Discontents. New York: New York University Press.
    Bauman, Zygmunt. 2000. Liquid Modernity. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Bauman, Zygmunt. 2007. Liquid Times. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Bauman, Zygmunt and TimMay. 2001. Thinking Sociologically,
    2nd edition
    . Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Beck, Ulrich. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Beck, Ulrich. 2000. What Is Globalization?Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Beck, Ulrich. 2006. Cosmopolitan Vision. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Beck, Ulrich. 2009. World at Risk. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Becker, Ernest. 1971. The Lost Science of Man. New York: George Braziller.
    Bell, Daniel. 1965. The End of Ideology. New York: Free Press.
    Bell, Daniel. 1973. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. New York: Basic Books.
    Bell, Daniel. 1976. The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism. New York: Basic Books.
    Bell, Daniel. 1980. The Winding Passage: Essays and Sociological Journeys, 1960–1980. Cambridge, MA: Abt.
    Bell, Daniel. 1981. “First Love and Early Sorrows.”Partisan Review47(4): 532–551.
    Bellah, Robert. 1970. Beyond Belief: Essays on Religion in a Post-Traditional World, New York: Harper & Row.
    Bellah, Robert. 1996. Letter to President Clinton, reprinted in New York Review of Books, November 28, p. 65.
    Bellah, Robert. 2005. “McCarthyism at Harvard.”New York Review of Books, February 10: 42–43.
    Bellah, Robert, RichardMadsen, William M.Sullivan, AnnSwidler, and Steven M.Tipton. 1985. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Bellah, Robert, RichardMadsen, William M.Sullivan, AnnSwidler, and Steven M.Tipton. 1991. The Good Society. New York: Knopf.
    Bellah, Robert, RichardMadsen, William M.Sullivan, AnnSwidler, and Steven M.Tipton. 1996. “Individualism and the Crisis of Civic Membership.”Christian Century, May 8, pp. 510–515.
    Bender, Thomas. 1987. New York Intellectuals. New York: Knopf.
    Bendix, Reinhard. 1960. Max Weber: An Intellectual Portrait. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Benhabib, Seyla. 1992. “Models of Public Space: Hannah Arendt, the Liberal Tradition, and Jürgen Habermas.” Pp. 73–98 in Habermas and the Public Sphere, edited by C.Calhoun. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Berlin, Isaiah. 1963. Karl Marx: His Life and Environment. London: Oxford University Press.
    Berman, Marshall. 1982. All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity. New York: Random House.
    Bernstein, Richard. 1972. Praxis and Action. London: Duckworth.
    Besnard, Philippe. 1987. L'Anomie, ses usages et fonction dans la discipline sociologique depuis Durkheim. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
    Besnard, Philippe. 1993. “Anomie and Fatalism in Durkheim's Theory of Regulation.” Pp. 169–190 in Émile Durkheim: Sociologist and Moralist, edited by S. P.Turner. New York: Routledge.
    Best, Steven and DouglasKellner. 1991. Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations. New York: Guilford.
    Bielharz, Peter. 2009. Socialism and Modernity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Birnbaum, Norman. 2009. “The Half-Forgotten Prophet.”The Nation, March 30: 34–36.
    Birnbaum, Pierre. 1970. Sociologie de Tocqueville. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
    Blackburn, Robin. 2007. “Perishable Goods.”The Nation, September 24: 34–40.
    Bluestone, Barry and BennettHarrison. 1982. The Deindustrialization of America: Plant Closings, Community Abandonment, and the Dismantling of Basic Industry. New York: Basic Books.
    Boltanski, Luc and ÉveChiapello. 2005. The New Spirit of Capitalism. London: Verso.
    Bottomore, Tom. 1984. The Frankfurt School. London: Tavistock. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203407110
    Bourdieu, Pierre. 1986. “The Forms of Capital.” Pp. 241–258 in Handbook of Theory and Research in the Sociology of Education, edited by J. G.Richardson. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Bourdieu, Pierre. 1993. Sociology in Question. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Bourdieu, Pierre. 2003. Firing Back: Against the Tyranny of the Market 2. New York: The New Press.
    Bourdieu, Pierre and LoïcWacquant. 1992. An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Bourricauld, Francois. 1981. The Sociology of Talcott Parsons. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Brick, Howard. 1993. “The Reformist Dimension of Talcott Parsons's Early Social Theory.” Pp. 357–396 in The Culture of the Market: Historical Essays, edited by T. L.Haskell and R. F.Teichgraeber III. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Brick, Howard. 2006. Transcending Capitalism: Visions of a New Society in Modern American Thought. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Brint, Steven. 2001. “Gemeinschaft Revisited: A Critique and Reconstruction of the Community Concept.”Sociological Theory19(1): 1–23.
    Brogan, Hugh. 2008. Alexis de Tocqueville: A Life. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Brown, Richard Harvey. 1989. Social Science as Civic Discourse: Essays on the Invention, Legitimation, and Uses of Social Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Bryant, Christopher G. A. and DavidJary, eds. 1991. Giddens' Theory of Structuration: A Critical Appreciation. London: Routledge.
    Burnham, James. 1941. The Managerial Revolution. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Burns, Tom. 1992. Erving Goffman. London: Routledge.
    Buxton, William. 1985. Talcott Parsons and the Capitalist Nation-State. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    Cahnman, Werner J. 1995. Weber and Toennies: Comparative Sociology in Historical Perspective, edited by J. B.Maier, J.Marcus, and Z.Tarr. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Calhoun, Craig. 1993. “Civil Society and the Public Sphere.”Public Culture5: 267–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363-5-2-267
    Calhoun, Craig. 1994. Neither Gods nor Emperors: Students and the Struggle for Democracy in China. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Callinicos, Alex. 1989. Against Postmodernism. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Callinicos, Alex. 2007. Social Theory: A Historical Introduction,
    2nd edition
    . Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Camic, Charles. 1989. “Structure After 50 Years: The Anatomy of a Charter.”American Journal of Sociology95(1): 38–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/229214
    Cammett, John M. 1967. Antonio Gramsci and the Origins of Italian Communism. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Campbell, Colin. 1987. The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Campbell, Colin. 2006. “Do Today's Sociologists Really Appreciate Weber's Essay The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism?”The Sociological Review54(2): 207–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2006.00610.x
    Castells, Manuel. 1996–1998. The Information Age: Economy, Society, and Culture. Vols. 1–3. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Chriss, James J. 1993. “Durkheim's Cult of the Individual as Civil Religion: Its Appropriation by Erving Goffman.”Sociological Spectrum13: 251–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02732173.1993.9982028
    Cohen, Ira. 1989. Structuration Theory: Anthony Giddens and the Constitution of Social Life. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Cohen, Jere. 2002. Protestantism and Capitalism: The Mechanisms of Influence. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
    Collins, Randall. 1988. “The Theoretical Continuities in Goffman's Work.” Pp. 41–63 in Erving Goffman: Exploring the Interaction Order, edited by P.Drew and A.Wootton. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
    Collins, Randall. 2005. Interaction Ritual Chains. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Connor, Steven. 2000. “Cultural Sociology and Cultural Sciences.” Pp. 352–386 in The Blackwell Companion to Social Theory,
    2d ed.
    , edited by B. S.Turner. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Cooley, Charles Horton. 1962. Social Organization. New York: Schocken.
    Cormack, Patricia and PatrickCormack. 2002. Sociology and Mass Culture: Durkheim, Mills, and Baudrillard. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    Coser, Lewis A. 1971. Masters of Sociological Thought. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    Coser, Rose Laub. 1975. “The Complexity of Roles as a Seedbox of Individual Autonomy.” Pp. 237–263 in The Idea of Social Structure: Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton, edited by L. A.Coser. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    Craib, Ian. 1992. Anthony Giddens. London: Routledge.
    Crothers, Charles. 1987. Robert K. Merton. New York: Tavistock.
    Dahms, Harry F. 1995. “From Creative Action to the Social Rationalization of the Economy: Joseph A. Schumpeter's Social Theory.”Sociological Theory13(1): 1–13.
    Dandaneau, Steven P. 1998. “Critical Theory, Legitimation Crisis, and the Deindustrialization of Flint, Michigan.” In Illuminating Social Life, edited by P.Kivisto. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Dandaneau, Steven P. 2001. Taking It Big: Defining Sociological Consciousness in Postmodern Times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Debord, Guy. 1983. Society of the Spectacle. Detroit, MI: Black & Red.
    Deegan, Mary Jo. 1988. Jane Addams and the Men of the Chicago School. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Delanty, Gerard. 2000. Citizenship in a Global Age. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
    Denby, David. 2009. “Americans in Paris.”The New Yorker, August 24: 82–83.
    Denzin, Norman. 1991. Images of Postmodern Society: Social Theory and Contemporary Cinema. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Derrida, Jacques. 1976. Of Grammatology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Derrida, Jacques. 1978. Writing and Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Derrida, Jacques. 1981. Positions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Derrida, Jacques. 1994. Specters of Marx: The State of the Debt, the Work of Mourning, and the New International. New York: Routledge.
    Diggins, John Patrick. 1988. The Proud Decades: America in War and Peace: 1941–1960. New York: Norton.
    Diggins, John Patrick. 1996. Max Weber: Politics and the Spirit of Tragedy. New York: Basic Books.
    Diggins, John Patrick. 1999. Thorstein Veblen: Theorist of the Leisure Class. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Dorfman, Joseph. 1934. Thorstein Veblen and His America. New York: Viking.
    Douglas, Jack D. 1967. The Social Meanings of Suicide. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Dumont, Louis. 1977. From Mandeville to Marx: The Genesis and Triumph of Economic Ideology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Dunbar, Paul Lawrence. 1974. “We Wear the Mask.” P. 14 in American Negro Poetry, edited by ArnaBontemps. New York: Hall & Wang.
    Durkheim, Émile. 1938. The Rules of Sociological Method. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Durkheim, Émile. [1897] 1951. Suicide: A Study in Sociology. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Durkheim, Émile. 1958a. Professional Ethics and Civic Morals. Translated by C.Brookfield. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Durkheim, Émile. 1958b. Socialism and Saint-Simon, edited by A.Gouldner. Yellow Springs, OH: Antioch.
    Durkheim, Émile. 1961. Moral Education. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Durkheim, Émile. [1893] 1964. The Division of Labor in Society. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Durkheim, Émile. [1912] 1965. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. New York: Free Press.
    Durkheim, Émile. [1898] 1969. “Individualism and the Intellectuals.”Political Studies17: 14–30.
    Durkheim, Émile. 1972. Émile Durkheim: Selected Writings, edited by A.Giddens. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Durkheim, Émile. [1924] 1974. Sociology and Philosophy. New York: Free Press.
    Durkheim, Émile. [1899] 2008. “Anti-Semitism and Social Crisis.”Sociological Theory26(4): 321–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9558.2008.00331_2.x
    Durkheim, Émile and MarcelMauss. 1971. “Note on the Notion of Civilization.”Social Research38(4): 808–813.
    Eagleton, Terry. 2000. The Idea of Culture. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Edemariam, Aida. 2007. “Professor with a Past.”The Guardian, April 27: 43.
    Eden, Robert. 1984. Political Leadership and Nihilism: A Study of Weber and Nietzsche. Tampa: University Press of South Florida.
    Edwards, Michael. 2004. Civil Society. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Elias, Norbert. 1978. What Is Sociology?New York: Columbia University Press.
    Elster, Jon. 1986. An Introduction to Karl Marx. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139163620
    Elster, Jon. 2009. Alexis de Tocqueville: The First Social Scientist. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511800429
    Emerson, Ralph Waldo. 1875. The Prose Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Vol. 1. New York: Osgood.
    Engels, Friedrich. [1844] 1968. The Condition of the Working Class in England. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Etzioni, Amitai. 1993. The Spirit of Community: Rights, Responsibilities, and the Communitarian Agenda. New York: Crown.
    Faist, Thomas. 1995. Social Citizenship for Whom?Brookfield, VT: Avebury.
    Ferraro, Thomas J. 2001. Social Action Systems: Foundation and Synthesis in Sociological Theory. New York: Praeger.
    Fine, Gary Alan and PhilipManning. 2000. “Erving Goffman.” Pp. 457–485 in The Blackwell Companion to Major Social Theorists, edited by G.Ritzer. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Foucault, Michel. 1988. Politics, Philosophy, Culture: Interviews and Other Writings, 1977–1984. New York: Routledge.
    Fraser, Nancy. 1992. “Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy.” Pp. 109–142 in Habermas and the Public Sphere, edited by C.Calhoun. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Freund, Julien. 1968. The Sociology of Max Weber. New York: Pantheon.
    Freund, Julien. 1978. “German Sociology in the Time of Max Weber.” Pp. 149–186 in A History of Sociological Analysis, edited by T.Bottomore and R.Nisbet. New York: Basic Books.
    Frisby, David. 1981. Sociological Impressionism: A Reassessment of Georg Simmel's Social Theory. London: Heinemann.
    Frisby, David. 1984. Georg Simmel. London: Tavistock.
    Frisby, David. 1992. Simmel and Since: Essays on Georg Simmel's Social Theory. London: Routledge.
    Fukuyama, Francis. 1992. The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Free Press.
    Galbraith, John Kenneth. 1967. The New Industrial State. New York: New American Library.
    Gane, Mike. 1991. Baudrillard: Critical and Fatal Theory. London: Routledge.
    Gane, Mike. Mike., ed. 1992. The Radical Sociology of Durkheim and Mauss. New York: Routledge.
    Geary, Daniel. 2009. Radical Ambition: C. Wright Mills, The Left, and American Social Thought. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1971. Capitalism and Modern Social Theory: An Analysis of the Writings of Marx, Durkheim and Max Weber. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803109
    Giddens, Anthony. 1973. The Class Structure of the Advanced Industrial Societies. New York: Harper & Row.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1976. The New Rules of Sociological Method: A Positive Critique of Interpretative Sociologies. New York: Harper & Row.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1979. Central Problems in Social Theory. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1984. The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1987. Social Theory and Modern Sociology. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1990. The Consequences of Modernity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1991a. Introduction to Sociology. New York: W.W. Norton.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1991b. Modernity and Self-Identity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1992. The Transformation of Intimacy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1994. Beyond Left and Right: The Future of Radical Politics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1995a. “In Defence of Sociology.”New Statesman and Society7: 18–20.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1995b. Politics, Sociology and Social Theory. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1998. The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1999. Runaway World: How Globalization Is Reshaping Our Lives. London: Profile Books.
    Giddens, Anthony. 2000. The Third Way and Its Critics. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Giddens, Anthony. 2002. Where Now for New Labour?Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Giddens, Anthony. 2007. Europe in the Global Age. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Giddens, Anthony. 2009. The Politics of Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Giddens, Anthony and ChristopherPierson. 1998. Conversations With Anthony Giddens: Making Sense of Modernity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Gitlin, Todd. 1995. The Twilight of Common Dreams: Why America Is Wracked by Culture Wars. New York: Metropolitan.
    Glassman, Ronald M., William H.Swatos, Jr., and PeterKivisto. 1993. For Democracy: The Noble Character and Tragic Flaws of the Middle Class. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Goffman, E. 1959. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Goffman, E. 1961a. Encounters: Two Studies in the Sociology of Interaction. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Goffman, E. 1961b. Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Goffman, E. 1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Goffman, E. 1967. Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Goffman, E. 1971. Relations in Public: Micro Studies of the Public Order. New York: Harper & Row.
    Goffman, E. 1974. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. New York: Harper & Row.
    Goldberg, Chad Alan. 2008. “Introduction to Emile Durkheim's ‘Anti-Semitism and Social Crisis’.”Sociological Theory26(4): 299–321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9558.2008.00331_1.x
    Goodwyn, Lawrence. 1976. Democratic Promise: The Populist Movement in America. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Gottdiener, Mark. 1993. “Ideology, Foundationalism, and Sociological Theory.”The Sociological Quarterly34(4): 653–671. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1993.tb00111.x
    Gouldner, Alvin. 1970. The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology. New York: Avon.
    Gouldner, Alvin. 1980. The Two Marxisms: Contradictions and Anomalies in the Development of Theory. New York: Seabury.
    Graeff, Peter and GuidoMehlkop. 2007. “When Anomie Becomes a Reason for Suicide: A New Macro-sociological Approach in the Durkheimian Tradition.”European Sociological Review23(4): 521–535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcm020
    Gramsci, Antonio. 1971. Selections from the Prison Notebooks. New York: International Publishers.
    Guidry, John A., Michael D.Kennedy, and Mayer N.Zald. 2000. “Globalizations and Social Movements.” Pp. 1–32 in Globalizations and Social Movements, edited by J. A.Guidry, M. D.Kennedy, and M. N.Zald. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Gurnah, Ahmed and AlanScott. 1992. The Uncertain Science: Criticism of Sociological Formalism. New York: Routledge.
    Habermas, Jürgen. 1970. Toward a Rational Society: Student Protest, Science, and Politics. Boston: Beacon.
    Habermas, Jürgen. 1971. Knowledge and Human Interests. Boston: Beacon.
    Habermas, Jürgen. 1973. Theory and Practice. Boston: Beacon.
    Habermas, Jürgen. 1975. Legitimation Crisis. Boston: Beacon.
    Habermas, Jürgen. 1979. Communication and the Evolution of Society. Boston: Beacon.
    Habermas, Jürgen. 1984. The Theory of Communicative Action. Vol. 1. Boston: Beacon.
    Habermas, Jürgen. 1987. The Theory of Communicative Action. Vol. 2. Boston: Beacon.
    Habermas, Jürgen. 1989a. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Habermas, Jürgen. 1989b. The New Conservatism. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Habermas, Jürgen. 1996. Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Habermas, Jürgen. 2002. The Inclusion of the Other: Studies in Political Theory. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Halliday, Terence C. and MorrisJanowitz, eds. 1992. Sociology and Its Publics: Reforms and Fates of Disciplinary Organization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Halton, Eugene. 1995. Bereft of Reason: On the Decline of Social Thought and Prospects for Its Renewal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Hamilton, Peter. 1983. Talcott Parsons. London: Tavistock.
    Hannerz, Ulf. 1992. Cultural Complexity: Studies in the Social Organization of Meaning. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Hardt, Michael and AntonioNegri. 2000. Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Harvey, David. 1989. The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry Into the Origins of Cultural Change. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Harvey, David. 1996. Justice, Nature, and the Geography of Difference. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Haskell, Thomas. 1977. The Emergence of Professional Social Science. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Hawthorn, Geoffrey. 1976. Enlightenment and Despair: A History of Sociology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Hayden, Tom. 2006. Radical Nomad: C. Wright Mills and His Times. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.
    Heater, Derek. 2002. World Citizenship: Cosmopolitan Thinking and Its Opponents. New York: Continuum.
    Heberle, Rudolf. 1968. “Ferdinand Toennies.” Pp. 98–103 in The International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 16, edited by D. L.Sills. New York: Macmillan/Free Press.
    Hillary, George. 1955. “Definitions of Community: Areas of Argument.”Rural Sociology20(1): 111–123.
    Hobsbawm, E. J. 1962. The Age of Revolution, 1789–1848. New York: New American Library.
    Hobsbawm, E. J. 1969. Industry and Empire. Middlesex, UK: Penguin.
    Hobsbawm, E. J. 1994. Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914–1991. London: Abacus.
    Hollinger, David A. 1996. Science, Jews, and Secular Culture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Holub, Robert C. 1991. Jürgen Habermas: Critic in the Public Sphere. London: Routledge.
    Honigsheim, Paul. 1968. On Max Weber. New York: Free Press.
    Horkheimer, Max and Theodor W.Adorno. [1948] 1971. Dialectic of Enlightenment. New York: Seabury.
    Horowitz, Daniel. 1994. Vance Packard and American Social Criticism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
    Horowitz, Irving Louis. 1983. C. Wright Mills: An American Utopian. New York: Free Press.
    Horowitz, Irving Louis. 1993. The Decomposition of Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Huff, Toby E. and WolfgangSchluchter, eds. 1999. Max Weber and Islam. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Hughes, H. Stuart. 1961. Consciousness and Society. New York: Vintage.
    Hughes, H. Stuart. 1975. The Sea Change: The Migration of Social Thought, 1930–1965. New York: Harper & Row.
    Huntington, Samuel P. 1976. “The Democratic Distemper.” Pp. 9–38 in The American Commonwealth, edited by N.Glazer and I.Kristol. New York: Basic Books.
    Illouz, Eva. 2007. Cold Intimacies: The Making of Emotional Capitalism. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Ingram, David. 1987. Habermas and the Dialectic of Reason. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Jacoby, Russell. 1987. The Last Intellectuals: American Culture in the Age of Academe. New York: Basic Books.
    Jameson, Fredric. 1991. Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Jamison, Andrew and RonEyerman. 1994. Seeds of the Sixties. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Jardin, André. 1989. Tocqueville: A Biography. Translated by L.Davis and R.Hemenway. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.
    Jaspers, Karl. 1964. Three Essays: Leonardo/Descartes/Max Weber. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World.
    Jaworski, Gary D. 1997. Georg Simmel and the American Prospect. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Jay, Martin. 1973. The Dialectical Imagination: A History of the Frankfort School and the Institute of Social Research, 1923–1950. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Jeffries, Stuart. 2005. “Modern Lover.”The Guardian, November 12: 31.
    Johnson, Barclay. 1965. “Durkheim's One Cause of Suicide.”American Sociological Review30: 875–886. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2090966
    Jones, Robert Alun. 1986. Émile Durkheim: An Introduction to Four Major Works. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Jones, Robert Alun. 1999. The Development of Durkheim's Social Realism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511488818
    Joppke, Christian. 2009. Veil: Mirror of Identity. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Judt, Tony. 2008. Reappraisals: Reflections on the Forgotten Twentieth Century. New York: Penguin.
    Juergensmeyer, Mark. 2001. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Kahan, Alan S. 2001. Aristocratic Liberalism: The Social and Political Thought of Jacob Burckhardt, John Stuart Mill, and Alexis de Tocqueville. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Kallen, Horace. 1924. Culture and Democracy in the United States. New York: Boni & Liveright.
    Käsler, Dirk. 1988. Max Weber: An Introduction to His Life and Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Kateb, George. 1989. “Individualism, Communitarianism, and Docility.”Social Research56(Winter): 921–942.
    Keen, Mike F. 1993. “No One Above Suspicion: Talcott Parsons Under Surveillance.”The American Sociologist Fall/Winter: 37–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02691918
    Keene, John. 2003. Global Civil Society?Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615023
    Kellner, Douglas. 2000. “Jean Baudrillard.” Pp. 731–753 in The Blackwell Companion to Major Social Theorists, edited by G.Ritzer. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Kivisto, Peter. 1980/1981. “Touraine's Post-Industrial Society.”Humboldt Journal of Social Relations8(1): 25–43.
    Kivisto, Peter. 1981. “The Theorist as Seer: The Case of Bell's Post-Industrial Society.”Quarterly Journal of Ideology5(2): 39–43.
    Kivisto, Peter. 1984. “Contemporary Social Movements in Advanced Industrial Societies and Sociological Intervention.”Acta Sociologica27: 355–366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000169938402700405
    Kivisto, Peter. 1989. “The Critic's Weapons: Comment on Sica.”The American Sociologist Fall: 246–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02697829
    Kivisto, Peter. 1990. “The Transplanted Then and Now: The Reorientation of Immigration Studies From the Chicago School to the New Social History.”Ethnic and Racial Studies13(4): 455–481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01419870.1990.9993685
    Kivisto, Peter. 1993. “A Dialectic of Racial Enlightenment.”International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society7(1): 121–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02142351
    Kivisto, Peter. 1994. “Toward an Antifoundational yet Relevant Sociology: Can Gottdiener Have It Both Ways?”The Sociological Quarterly35(4): 723–728. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1994.tb00425.x
    Kivisto, Peter. 2001. “Theorizing Transnational Immigration: A Critical Review of Current Efforts.”Ethnic and Racial Studies24(4): 549–577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01419870120049789
    Kivisto, Peter. 2002. Multiculturalism in a Global Society. Malden, MA: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470694916
    Kivisto, Peter. 2003a. “Social Spaces, Transnational Immigrant Communities, and the Politics of Incorporation.”Ethnicities3(1): 35–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1468796803003001786
    Kivisto, Peter. 2003b. “The View From America: Comments on Banton.”Ethnic and Racial Studies26(3): 526–534. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141987032000067354
    Kivisto, Peter. 2005. “The Revival of Assimilation in Historical Perspective.” Pp. 3–29 in Incorporating Diversity: Rethinking Assimilation in a Multicultural Age, edited by P.Kivisto. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.
    Kivisto, Peter. 2007. “In Search of the Social Space for Solidarity and Justice.”Thesis Eleven No. 91: 110–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0725513607082008
    Kivisto, Peter and ThomasFaist. 2007. Citizenship: Discourse, Theory, and Transnational Prospects. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Kivisto, Peter and ThomasFaist. 2010. Beyond a Border: The Causes and Consequences of Contemporary Immigration. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
    Kolakowski, Leszek. 2008. Main Currents of Marxism: The Founders—The Golden Age—The Breakdown. New York: W. W. Norton.
    Kolbert, Elizabeth. 2004. “Why Work? A Hundred Years of ‘The Protestant Ethic’.”The New Yorker, November 29: 154–160.
    Korpi, Walter. 1982. The Democratic Class Struggle. London: Routledge.
    Kracauer, Siegfried. 1995. The Mass Ornament: Weimar Essays. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Kumar, Krishan. 1988. The Rise of Modern Society: Aspects of the Social and Political Development of the West. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    Kumar, Krishan. 1993. “Civil Society: An Inquiry Into the Usefulness of an Historical Term.”British Journal of Sociology44(3): 375–395. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/591808
    Lal, Barbara Ballis. 1990. The Romance of Culture in an Urban Civilization: Robert E. Park on Race and Ethnic Relations in Cities. London: Routledge.
    Lash, Scott. 1990. Sociology of Postmodernism. London: Routledge.
    Lash, Scott and JohnUrry. 1987. The End of Organized Capitalism. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Lassman, Peter and IrvingVelody. 1998. Max Weber and the Fate of Politics. New York: Routledge.
    Latour, Bruno. 1993. We Have Never Been Modern. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Lechner, Frank. 2005. “Globalization.” Pp. 330–333 in The Encyclopedia of Social Theory, vol. 1, edited by G.Ritzer. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Leck, Ralph M. 2000. Georg Simmel and Avant-Garde Sociology. New York: Humanities Press.
    LeFeber, Walter. 2002. Michael Jordan and the New Global Capitalism. New York: Norton.
    Lehmann, Jennifer M. 1993. Deconstructing Durkheim: A Post-Post-Structuralist Critique. New York: Routledge.
    Lehmann, Jennifer M. 1995. “Durkheim's Theories of Deviance and Suicide: A Feminist Reconsideration.”American Journal of Sociology100(4): 904–930. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/230604
    Lemert, Charles. 1995. Sociology After the Crisis. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Lemert, Charles. 2005. Postmodernism Is Not What You Think. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.
    Lemert, Charles. 2006. Durkheim's Ghosts: Cultural Logics and Social Things. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich. 1969. The Lenin Reader. Chicago: Henry Regnery.
    Lepenies, Wolf. 1988. Between Literature and Science: The Rise of Sociology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Lerner, Max. 1994. Tocqueville and American Civilization. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Levine, Donald. 1985. The Flight From Ambiguity: Essays in Social and Cultural Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226056210.001.0001
    Levine, Donald. 1995. Visions of the Sociological Tradition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Levine, Donald. 2000. “On the Critique of ‘Utilitarian’ Theories of Action: Newly Identified Convergences Among Simmel, Weber, and Parsons.”Theory, Culture, and Society17(1): 63–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02632760022051004
    Liebersohn, Harry. 1988. Fate and Utopia in German Sociology, 1870–1923. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Linder, Rolf. 2006. Reportage of Urban Culture: Robert Park and the Chicago School, translated by A.Morris. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Lipovetsky, Gilles. 1994. The Empire of Fashion: Dressing Modern Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1950. Agrarian Socialism: The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation in Saskatchewan. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1963a. Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics. Garden City, NY: Anchor.
    Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1963b. First New Nation. New York: Basic Books.
    Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1964. “The Biography of a Research Project: Union Democracy.” Pp. 96–120 in Sociologists at Work, edited by P. E.Hammond. New York: Basic Books.
    Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1970. The Politics of Unreason. New York: Harper & Row.
    Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1994. “The Social Requisites of Democracy Revisited.”American Sociological Review59(1): 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2096130
    Lipset, Seymour Martin and GaryMarks. 2000. It Didn't Happen Here: Why Socialism Failed in the United States. New York: Norton.
    Lipset, Seymour Martin and Gerald M.Schaflander. 1971. Passion and Politics: Student Activism in America. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Lipset, Seymour Martin, MartinTrow, and JamesColeman. 1956. Union Democracy: The Internal Politics of the International Typographical Union. Garden City, NY: Anchor.
    Loewenstein, Karl. 1966. Max Weber's Political Ideas in the Perspective of Our Time. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
    Lofland, John. 1980. “Early Goffman: Style, Structure, Substance, Soul.” Pp. 24–51 in The View From Goffman, edited by J.Ditton. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Lowenthal, Richard. 1976. “Social Transformation and Democratic Legitimacy.”Social Research43(2): 423–434.
    Lukács, Georg.[1923] 1971. History and Class Consciousness: Studies in Marxist Dialectics. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Lukes, Steven. 1972. Emile Durkheim: His Life and Work. New York: Harper & Row.
    Lybrand, G. Steven. 1996. “Confusion at the Hermeneutic Cafe: How Sociologists (Mis)Read the Texts of Their Ancestors.” Presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Sociological Society, April, Chicago.
    Lyman, Stanford M. 1968. “The Race Relations Cycle of Robert E. Park.”Pacific Sociological Review11(2): 16–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1388520
    Lyman, Stanford M. 1973. “Civilization: Contents, Discontents, Malcontents.”Contemporary Sociology2: 360–366. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2062036
    Lyman, Stanford M. 1992. Militarism, Imperialism, and Racial Accommodation: An Analysis and Interpretation of the Early Writings of Robert E. Park. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.
    Lyman, Stanford M. and Marvin B.Scott. 1975. The Drama of Social Reality. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Lynd, Robert and HelenLynd. 1929. Middletown. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World.
    Lynd, Robert and HelenLynd. 1937. Middletown in Transition: A Study in Cultural Conflicts. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World.
    Lyon, David. 1994. Postmodernity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Lyotard, Jean-Francois. 1979. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Macdonald, Dwight. 1974. Discriminations: Essays and Afterthoughts, 1938–1974. New York: Viking.
    Manning, Philip. 1992. Erving Goffman and Modern Sociology. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Manning, Philip. 2005. Freud and American Sociology. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Manuel, Frank. 1995. A Requiem for Karl Marx. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Marcuse, Herbert. 1964. One-Dimensional Man. Boston: Beacon.
    Markoff, John. 1996. Waves of Democracy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Marshall, Gordon. 1982. In Search of the Spirit of Capitalism: An Essay on Max Weber's Protestant Ethic Thesis. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Marshall, T. H. 1964. Class, Citizenship, and Social Development. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Martinelli, Alberto. 2002. “Markets, Governments, Communities, and Global Governance.” Presidential address at the International Sociological Association XV Congress, July 8, Brisbane, Australia.
    Marx, Karl.[1847] 1963. The Poverty of Philosophy. New York: International Publishers.
    Marx, Karl.[1862/1863] 1963. Theories of Surplus Value. New York: International Publishers.
    Marx, Karl. 1964. Early Writings, edited by T. B.Bottomore. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Marx, Karl.[1857/1858] 1965. Pre-Capitalist Economic Formations, edited by E. J.Hobsbawm. New York: International Publishers.
    Marx, Karl.[1867] 1967. Capital. 3 vols.New York: International Publishers.
    Marx, Karl.[1862/1863] 1968. Theories of Surplus Value. New York: International Publishers.
    Marx, Karl.[1895] 1970. The Class Struggles in France. New York: International Publishers.
    Marx, Karl. 1971. Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844, edited by D. J.Struick. New York: International Publishers.
    Marx, Karl.[1857/1858] 1974. The Grundrisse: Foundations of a Critique of Political Economy. New York: Random House.
    Marx, Karl.[1852] 1996. Later Political Writings. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Marx, Karl and FriedrichEngels. [1848] 1967. The Communist Manifesto. New York: Penguin.
    Matthews, Fred. 1977. Quest for an American Sociology: Robert E. Park and the Chicago School. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
    Mazlish, Bruce. 1989. A New Science: The Breakdown of Connections and the Birth of Sociology. New York: Oxford University Press.
    McClay, Wilfred M. 1993. “The Strange Career of The Lonely Crowd: Or, the Antinomies of Autonomy.” Pp. 397–440 in The Culture of the Market: Historical Essays, edited by T. L.Haskell and R. F.Teichbraeher III. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    McClay, Wilfred M. 1994. The Masterless: Self and Society in Modern America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
    McCloskey, Donald. 1994. Knowledge and Persuasion in Economics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511599347
    McCraw, Thomas K. 2007. Prophet of Innovation: Joseph Schumpeter and Creative Destruction. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
    McLellan, David. 1975. Karl Marx. New York: Viking.
    McLuhan, Marshall. 1964. Understanding Media. London: Routledge.
    Merton, Robert K. 1938. “Social Structure and Anomie.”American Sociological Review3(3): 672–682. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2084686
    Merton, Robert K. 1968. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.
    Merton, Robert K. 1976. Sociological Ambivalence and Other Essays. New York: Free Press.
    Merton, Robert K. 1994. “A Life of Learning.” Occasional Paper No. 25, American Council of Learned Societies, New York.
    Mestrovíc, Stjepan G. 1988. Émile Durkheim and the Reformation of Sociology. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Mestrovíc, Stjepan G. and Helene M.Brown. 1985. “Durkheim's Concept of Anomie as Dérèglement.”Social Problems33(2): 81–99.
    Mészáros, István. 1970. Marx's Theory of Alienation. London: Merlin.
    Meyer, John, JohnBoli, George M.Thomas, and Francisco O.Ramirez. 1997. “World Society and the Nation-State.”American Journal of Sociology103(1): 144–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/231174
    Michels, Robert. 1958. Political Parties. New York: Free Press.
    Mills, C. Wright. 1948. The New Men of Power. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
    Mills, C. Wright. 1951. White Collar: The American Middle Class. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Mills, C. Wright. 1956. The Power Elite. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Mills, C. Wright. 1959. The Sociological Imagination. New York: Grove.
    Mills, C. Wright. 1963. Power, Politics, and People, edited by I. L.Horowitz. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Mills, C. Wright. 2000. C. Wright Mills: Letters and Autobiographical Writings, edited by KathrynMills with PamelaMills. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Mitchell, Harvey. 2002. American After Tocqueville: Democracy Against Difference. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511511738
    Mitzman, Arthur. 1970. The Iron Cage: An Historical Interpretation of Max Weber. New York: Knopf.
    Mitzman, Arthur. 1973. Sociology and Estrangement: Three Sociologists of Imperial Germany. New York: Knopf.
    Mommsen, Wolfgang. 1974. The Age of Bureaucracy: Perspectives on the Political Sociology of Max Weber. New York: Harper & Row.
    Mommsen, Wolfgang. 1984. Max Weber and German Politics, 1890–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Mommsen, Wolfgang. 1987. “Max Weber and the Crisis of Liberal Democracy.” Pp. 39–45 in Bureaucracy Against Democracy and Socialism, edited by R. M.Glassman, W. H.Swatos, Jr., and P. L.Rosen. New York: Greenwood.
    Mommsen, Wolfgang. 1989. The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Morris-Reich, Amos. 2008. The Quest for Jewish Assimilation in Modern Social Science. New York: Routledge.
    Nealon, Jeffrey T., ed. 2002. Rethinking the Frankfurt School: Alternative Legacies of Cultural Critique. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Nedelmann, Birgitta. 1990. “Georg Simmel as an Analyst of Autonomous Dynamics: The Merry-Go-Round of Fashion.” Pp. 243–257 in Georg Simmel and Contemporary Sociology, edited by M.Kaern, B. S.Phillips, and R. S.Cohen. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-0459-0_14
    Nedelmann, Birgitta. 1991. “Individualization, Exaggeration, and Paralysation: Simmel's Three Problems of Culture.”Theory, Culture, and Society8: 169–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327691008003012
    Nelson, Benjamin. 1973. “Civilizational Complexes and Inter-Civilizational Encounters.”Sociological Analysis34(2): 79–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3709717
    Nielsen, Donald A. 1999. Three Faces of God: Society, Religion, and Categories of Totality in the Philosophy of Émile Durkheim. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Nielsen, Jens Kaalhauge. 1991. “The Political Orientation of Talcott Parsons: The Second World War and Its Aftermath.” Pp. 217–233 in Talcott Parsons: Theorist of Modernity, edited by R.Robertson and B. S.Turner. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Nisbet, Robert. 1974. The Sociology of Émile Durkheim. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Nisbet, Robert. 1976. Sociology as an Art Form. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Nove, Alec. 1972. An Economic History of the U.S.S.R. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Oakes, Guy and Arthur J.Vidich. 1999. Collaboration, Reputation, and Ethics in American Academic Life: Hans H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Oberschall, Anthony. 1965. Empirical Social Research in Germany, 1848–1914. New York: Humanities Press.
    O'Neill, John. 1995. The Poverty of Postmodernism. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203429662
    Ong, Aihwa. 1999. Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logic of Transnationality. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Pachter, Henry. 1984. Socialism and History. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Padover, Saul K. 1978. Karl Marx: An Intimate Biography. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Page, Charles H. 1982. Fifty Years in the Sociological Enterprise: A Lucky Journey. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
    Park, Robert E. 1914. “Racial Assimilation in Secondary Groups, With Particular Reference to the Negro.”American Journal of Sociology19(5): 606–623. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/212297
    Park, Robert E. 1922. The Immigrant Press and Its Control. New York: Harper & Brothers.
    Park, Robert E. 1950. Race and Culture. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Park, Robert E. 1952. Human Communities. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Park, Robert E. 1972. The Crowd and the Public, and Other Essays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Park, Robert E., Ernest W.Burgess, and Roderick D.McKenzie. 1925. The City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Park, Robert E. and Herbert A.Miller. 1921. Old World Traits Transplanted. New York: Harper & Brothers.
    Parkin, Frank. 1979. Marxism and Class Theory: A Bourgeois Critique. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Parsons, Talcott. 1937. The Structure of Social Action. Vol. 1. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Parsons, Talcott. 1954. Essays in Sociological Theory. New York: Free Press.
    Parsons, Talcott. 1959. “A Short Account of My Intellectual Development.”Alpha Kappa Deltan29(1): 3–12.
    Parsons, Talcott. 1967. Sociological Theory and Modern Society. New York: Free Press.
    Parsons, Talcott. 1971. The System of Modern Societies. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Parsons, Talcott. 1990. “Beyond Coercion and Crisis: The Coming of an Era of Voluntary Community.” Pp. 298–305 in Culture and Society, edited by J. C.Alexander and S.Seidman. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Parsons, Talcott. 1991. The Early Essays, edited by C.Camic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Parsons, Talcott. 1993. Talcott Parsons on National Socialism, edited by U.Gerhardt. New York: Aldine.
    Parsons, Talcott. 2007. American Society: A Theory of the Societal Community, edited by GiuseppeSciortino. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.
    Patterson, Orlando. 2000. “Ecumenical America: Global Culture and the American Cosmos.” Pp. 465–480 in Multiculturalism in the United States, edited by P.Kivisto and G.Rundblad. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Pearce, Frank. 1989. The Radical Durkheim. Winchester, MA: Unwin Hyman.
    Pescosolido, Bernice A. and Beth A.Rubin. 2000. “The Web of Group Affiliations Revisited: Social Life, Postmodernism, and Sociology.”American Sociological Review65(1): 52–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2657289
    Piore, Michael and CharlesSabel. 1984. The Second Industrial Divide: Possibilities for Prosperity. New York: Basic Books.
    Poggi, Gianfranco. 1983. Calvinism and the Capitalist Spirit: Max Weber's Protestant Ethic. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
    Poggi, Gianfranco. 1993. Georg Simmel's Philosophy of Money. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Poggi, Gianfranco. 2000. Durkheim. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198780878.001.0001
    Pope, Whitney. 1976. Durkheim's Suicide: A Classic Analyzed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Portes, Edward Bryan. 1986. Max Weber and Political Commitment. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph. 1969. Selected Writings. Garden City, NY: Anchor.
    Putnam, Robert D. 1995. “Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital.”Journal of Democracy6(1): 65–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jod.1995.0002
    Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Putnam, Robert D., ed. 2002. Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0195150899.001.0001
    Radkau, Joachim, 2009. Max Weber: A Biography. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Raushenbush, Winifred. 1979. Robert E. Park: Biography of a Sociologist. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Richman, Michele H. 2002. Sacred Revolutions: Durkheim and the College de Sociologie. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Rieff, Philip. 1966. The Triumph of the Therapeutic: Uses of Faith After Freud. New York: Harper & Row.
    Riesman, David. 1953. Thorstein Veblen: A Critical Interpretation. New York: Scribner.
    Riesman, David. 1954. Individualism Reconsidered. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Riesman, David. 1990. “Becoming an Academic Man.” Pp. 22–74 in Authors of Their Own Lives: Intellectual Autobiographies by Twenty American Sociologists, edited by B. M.Berger. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Riesman, David, with NathanGlazer and ReuelDenney. [1950] 1989. The Lonely Crowd. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Rittersporn, Gábor Tómas. 1991. Stalinist Simplifications and Soviet Complications. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood.
    Ritzer, George. 1996. The McDonaldization of Society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Ritzer, George. 1999. Enchanting a Disenchanted World: Revolutionizing the Means of Consumption. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Ritzer, George. ed. 2007. The Blackwell Companion to Globalization. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Robertson, Roland. 1992. Globalization. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Rojek, Chris and Bryan S.Turner. 1993. Forget Baudrillard?London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203412886
    Rosenau, Pauline Marie. 1992. Post-Modernism and the Social Sciences: Insights, Inroads and Intrusions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Rosenberg, Nathan. 2000. Schumpeter and the Endogeneity of Technology: Some American Perspectives. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203465356
    Ross, Dorothy. 1991. The Origins of American Social Science. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Roth, Guenther. 1963. The Social Democrats in Imperial Germany: A Study in Working-Class Isolation and National Integration. New York: Bedminster.
    Rowe, Dorothy. 2005. “Money, Modernity, and Melancholy: The Writings of Georg Simmel.”Critical Studies25: 27–38.
    Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, Evelyne HuberStephens, and John D.Stephens. 1992. Capitalist Development and Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Rushdie, Salman. 1989. The Satanic Verses. New York: Viking.
    Ryan, Alan. 2003. “The Power of Positive Thinking.”New York Review of BooksL(1): 43–46.
    Ryan, Alan. 2007. “Tocqueville: The Flaws of Genius.”New York Review of Books, November 22: 53–56.
    Sartre, Jean-Paul. 1976. Critique of Dialectical Reason. London: New Left Books.
    Sassen, Saskia. 1994. Cities in a World Economy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Sassen, Saskia. 1996. Losing Control? Sovereignty in an Age of Globalization. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Savage, Stephen P. 1981. The Theories of Talcott Parsons: The Social Relations of Action. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Scaff, Lawrence A. 1989. Fleeing the Iron Cage: Culture, Politics, and Modernity in the Thought of Max Weber. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Scaff, Lawrence A. 2000. “Georg Simmel.” Pp. 215–278 in The Blackwell Companion to Major Social Theorists, edited by GeorgeRitzer. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Scheff, Thomas J. 2006. Goffman Unbound: A New Paradigm for Social Science. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.
    Schluchter, Wolfgang. 1989. Rationalism, Religion, and Domination: A Weberian Perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Schumpeter, Joseph A. 1928. “The Instability of Capitalism.”Economic Journal38: 361–386. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2224315
    Schumpeter, Joseph A. 1942. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. New York: Harper & Brothers.
    Scimecca, Joseph A. 1977. The Sociological Theory of C. Wright Mills. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat.
    Sciortino, Giuseppe. 2005. “How Different Can We Be? Parsons's Societal Community, Pluralism, and the Multicultural Debate.” Pp. 111–136 in After Parsons: A Theory of Social Action for the Twenty-First Century, edited by Renée C.Fox, VictorLidz, and Harold J.Bershady. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Sciulli, David and DeanGernstein. 1985. “Social Theory and Talcott Parsons in the 1980s.”Annual Review of Sociology11: 369–387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.11.080185.002101
    Seeley, John R., R. AlexanderSim, and Elizabeth W.Loosley. 1956. Crestwood Heights. New York: Basic Books.
    Seidman, Steven. 1983. Liberalism and the Origins of European Social Theory. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Seidman, Steven. 1994. Contested Knowledge: Social Theory in the Postmodern Era. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    Seigel, Jerrold. 1978. Marx's Fate: The Shape of a Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Sellerberg, Ann-Marie. 1994. A Blend of Contradictions: Georg Simmel in Theory and Practice. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Sennett, Richard. 1998. The Corrosion of Character: The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism. New York: Norton.
    Sennett, Richard. 2003. Respect in a World of Inequality. New York: Norton.
    Sennett, Richard. 2006. The New Culture of Capitalism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Shapin, Steven. 2007. “Man with a Plan: Herbert Spencer's Theory of Everything.”The New Yorker, August 13, 75–79.
    Shils, Edward. 1981. The Calling of Sociology and Other Essays on the Pursuit of Learning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Sica, Alan. 1989. “Social Theory's Constituency.”The American Sociologist Fall: 227–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02697827
    Sica, Alan. 2003. Max Weber and the New Century. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Simmel, Georg. 1950. The Sociology of Georg Simmel, edited by K. H.Wolff. New York: Free Press.
    Simmel, Georg.[1908] 1955. Conflict and the Web of Group Affiliations. New York: Free Press.
    Simmel, Georg. 1959. Georg Simmel, 1858–1918, edited by K.Wolff. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
    Simmel, Georg. 1971. On Individuality and Social Forms, edited by D. N.Levine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226924694.001.0001
    Simmel, Georg.[1892] 1977. The Problems of the Philosophy of History: An Epistemological Essay, edited by G.Oakes. New York: Free Press.
    Simmel, Georg. 1984. Georg Simmel: On Women, Sexuality, and Love. Translated and introduced by G.Oakes. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Simmel, Georg.[1907] 1991. The Philosophy of Money. London: Routledge.
    Sklair, Leslie. 1995. Sociology of the Global System. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Sklair, Leslie. 2001. The Transnational Capitalist Class. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Slater, Philip. 1970. The Pursuit of Loneliness: American Culture at the Breaking Point. Boston: Beacon.
    Smart, Barry. 1992. Modern Conditions, Postmodern Controversies. London: Routledge.
    Smelser, Neil J. and R. StephenWarner. 1976. Sociological Theory: Historical and Formal. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
    Smith, Dennis. 1988. The Chicago School: A Liberal Critique of Capitalism. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Soysal, Yasemin. 1994. Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Spinner, Jeff. 1994. The Boundaries of Citizenship: Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality in the Liberal State. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Spinner-Halev, Jeff. 1999. “Cultural Pluralism and Partial Citizenship.” Pp. 65–86 in Multicultural Questions, edited by C.Joppke and S.Lukes. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/019829610X.003.0004
    Spivak, Gayatri. 1988. “Can the Subaltern Speak.” Pp. 271–313 in Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, edited by C.Nelson and L.Grossberg. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Stedman Jones, Susan. 2001. Durkheim Reconsidered. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Stein, Maurice. 1960. The Eclipse of Community: An Interpretation of American Studies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Steinmeier, Frank-Walter. 2009. Habermas, Germany's greatest living philosopher, turns 80. Newsletter. German Embassy London. Retrieved December 7, 2009 (http://www.london.diplo.de/Vertretung/london/en/05/_Cultural_20News/2009/Habermas).
    Stolper, Wolfgang. 1968. “Joseph A. Schumpeter.” Pp. 67–72 in The International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, edited by D. L.Sills. New York: Macmillan/Free Press.
    Strenski, Ivan. 1997. Durkheim and the Jews of France. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226777351.001.0001
    Sumner, Colin. 1994. The Sociology of Deviance: An Obituary. New York: Continuum.
    Swatos, William H., Jr. and PeterKivisto. 1991a. “Max Weber as Christian Sociologist.”Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion30(4): 347–362. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1387273
    Swatos, William H., Jr. and PeterKivisto. 1991b. “Beyond Wertfreiheit: Max Weber and Moral Order.”Sociological Focus24(2): 117–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00380237.1991.10570585
    Szakolczai, Arpad. 1998. Max Weber and Michel Foucault: Parallel Life-Works. London: Routledge.
    Sztompka, Piotr. 1986. Robert K. Merton: An Intellectual Profile. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Sztompka, Piotr. 1993. The Sociology of Social Change. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    Tar, Zolton. 1977. The Frankfurt School: The Critical Theories of Max Horkheimer and Theodore W. Adorno. New York: John Wiley.
    Tawney, R.H.[1926] 1958. Religion and the Rise of Capitalism: A Historical Study. New York: New American Library.
    Therborn, Göran. 1976. Science, Class, and Society. London: New Left Books.
    Therborn, Göran. 1995. European Modernity and Beyond. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446222317
    Thompson, Kenneth. 1982. Emile Durkheim. New York: Tavistock. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203405338
    Tilman, Rick. 1984. C. Wright Mills: A Native Radical and His American Intellectual Roots. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Tilman, Rick. 1992. Thorstein Veblen and His Critics, 1891–1963. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Tiryakian, Edward. 1978. “Emile Durkheim.” Pp. 187–236 in A History of Sociological Analysis, edited by T.Bottomore and R.Nisbet. New York: Basic Books.
    Tocqueville, Alexis de.[1856] 1955. The Old Regime and the French Revolution. Translated by S.Gilbert. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Tocqueville, Alexis de.[1853] 1969. Democracy in America, edited by J. P.Mayer. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Toennies, Ferdinand.[1887] 1957. Community and Society, edited and translated by C. P.Loomis. New York: Harper & Row.
    Tole, Lise Ann. 1993. “Durkheim on Religion and Moral Community in Modernity.”Sociological Inquiry63(1): 1–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1993.tb00199.x
    Touraine, Alain. 1971. Post-Industrial Society. New York: Random House.
    Touraine, Alain. 1977. “What Is Daniel Bell Afraid Of?”American Journal of Sociology83(2): 469–473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/226562
    Touraine, Alain. 1995. Critique of Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    Touraine, Alain. 2000. Can We Live Together?Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Touraine, Alain. 2001. Beyond Neoliberalism. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Trevino, A. Javier, ed. 2001. Talcott Parsons Today: His Theory and Legacy in Contemporary Sociology. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Turner, Stephen, ed. 1993. Émile Durkheim: Sociologist and Moralist. New York: Routledge.
    Turner, Steven Park and Jonathan H.Turner. 1990. The Impossible Science: An Institutional Analysis of American Sociology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Urry, John. 2000. Sociology Beyond Societies: Mobilities for the Twenty-First Century. London: Routledge.
    Veblen, Thorstein. 1904. The Theory of Business Enterprise. New York: Scribner.
    Veblen, Thorstein. 1921. The Engineers and the Price System. New York: Viking.
    Veblen, Thorstein.[1899] 1924. The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions. New York: Huebsch.
    Veblen, Thorstein.[1924] 1993. The Higher Learning in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Vidich, Arthur J. and JosephBensman. 1958. Small Town in Mass Society: Class, Power, and Religion in a Rural Community. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Vidich, Arthur J. and Stanford M.Lyman. 1985. American Sociology: Worldly Rejections of Religion and Their Directions. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Vromen, Suzanne. 1990. “Georg Simmel and the Cultural Dilemmas of Women.” Pp. 319–339 in Georg Simmel and Contemporary Sociology, edited by MichaelKaern, BernardPhillips, and RobertCohen. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-0459-0_18
    Wagner, Peter. 2008. Modernity as Experience and Interpretation: A New Sociology of Modernity. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1974. The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the 16th Century. New York: Academic Press.
    Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1980. The Modern World-System II: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World-Economy, 1600–1750. New York: Academic Press.
    Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1989. The Modern World-System III: The Second Era of Great Expansion of the Capitalist World-Economy, 1730–1840. New York: Academic Press.
    Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1991. Unthinking Social Science: The Limits of Nineteenth Century Paradigms. Cambridge, MA: Polity.
    Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1998. Utopistics: Or, Historical Choices for the Twenty-First Century. New York: New Press.
    Warner, W. Lloyd and Paul S.Lunt. 1941. The Social Life of a Modern Community. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Waters, Malcolm. 1996. Daniel Bell. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203129357
    Waters, Malcolm. 2001. Globalization.
    2d ed
    . London: Routledge.
    Wearne, Bruce C. 1989. The Theory and Scholarship of Talcott Parsons to 1951. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Weber, Marianne. 1988. Max Weber: A Biography, edited and translated by H.Zohn. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Weber, Max.[1916] 1951. The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Weber, Max.[1904/1905] 1958. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York: Scribner.
    Weber, Max.[1921] 1968. Economy and Society. Vols. 1–3. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Weber, Max. 1978. Weber: Selections in Translation, edited by W. G.Runciman. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511810831
    Weber, Max. 1994. Political Writings, edited by P.Lassman and R.Speirs. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Weber, Max. 2002. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Translated by StephenKalberg. Los Angeles: Roxbury. http://dx.doi.org/10.1522/cla.wem.sec
    Webster, Frank. 1995. Theories of the Information Society. London: Routledge.
    Weingartner, Rudolph H. 1960. Experience and Culture: The Philosophy of Georg Simmel. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
    Weinstein, Deena and Michael A.Weinstein. 1993. Post-Modern(ized) Simmel. London: Routledge.
    Welch, Cheryl B. 2001. De Tocqueville. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Wheatland, Thomas. 2009. The Frankfurt School in Exile. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Wheen, Francis. 1999. Karl Marx. London: Fourth Estate.
    Wheen, Francis. 2008. Marx's Das Kapital: A Biography. New York: Grove Press.
    Whyte, William H., Jr.1956. The Organization Man. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Wiggershaus, Rolf. 1994. The Frankfurt School: Its History, Theories, and Political Significance. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Wiley, Norbert. 1994. The Semiotic Self. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Williams, Raymond. 1976. Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Wills, Garry. 2004. “Did Tocqueville ‘Get’ America?”New York Review of Books, April 29: 52–56.
    Winant, Howard. 2000. “Race and Race Theory.”Annual Review of Sociology26: 169–185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.169
    Wolfe, Alan. 1993. The Human Difference: Animals, Computers, and the Necessity of Social Science. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Wolfe, Alan. 1995. “Realism and Romanticism in Sociology.”Society January/February: 56–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02693294
    Wolfe, Alan. 1996. Marginalized in the Middle. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Wolff, Jonathan. 2002. Why Read Marx Today?Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Wolin, Sheldon S. 2001. Between Two Worlds: The Making of a Political and Theoretical Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Wolin, Sheldon S. 2008. Democracy Inc.: Managed Democracy and the Specter of Inverted Totalitarianism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Wright, Erik Olin. 2000. Class Matters: Student Edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511488917
    Wuthnow, Robert. 1994. Sharing the Journey: Support Groups and America's New Quest for Community. New York: Free Press.
    Young, Iris Marion. 1997. Intersecting Voices: Dilemmas of Gender, Political Philosophy, and Policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Žižek, Slavoj. 2002. Welcome to the Desert of the Real. London: Verso.
    Žižek, Slavoj. 2008. In Defense of Lost Causes. London: Verso.

    About the Author

    Peter Kivisto is the Richard Swanson Professor of Social Thought and chair of Sociology at Augustana College and Finland Distinguished Professor at the University of Turku. Among his recent books are Beyond a Border (2010, with Thomas Faist), Social Theory: Roots and Branches (4th ed.; 2010), Citizenship: Discourse, Theory, and Transnational Prospects (2007, with Thomas Faist), Dual Citizenship in Global Perspective (2007, with Thomas Faist), and Multiculturalism in a Global Society (2002). His primary scholarly and teaching interests concern social theory and ethnic studies. He has served as secretary-treasurer of the American Sociological Association's Theory and International Migration Sections and is the immediate past editor of The Sociological Quarterly. He is currently president of the Midwest Sociological Society.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website