Key Concepts in Urban Geography

Books

Alan Latham, Derek McCormack, Kim McNamara & Donald McNeill

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Key Concepts in Human Geography

    The Key Concepts in Human Geography series is intended to provide a set of companion texts for the core fields of the discipline. To date, students and academics have been relatively poorly served with regards to detailed discussions of the key concepts that geographers use to think about and understand the world. Dictionary entries are usually terse and restricted in their depth of explanation. Student textbooks tend to provide broad overviews of particular topics or the philosophy of Human Geography, but rarely providing a detailed overview of particular concepts, their premises, development over time and empirical use. Research monographs most often focus on particular issues and a limited number of concepts at a very advanced level, so do not offer an expansive and accessible overview of the variety of concepts in use within a subdiscipline.

    The Key Concepts in Human Geography series seeks to fill this gap, providing detailed description and discussion of the concepts that are at the heart of theoretical and empirical research in contemporary Human Geography. Each book consists of an introductory chapter that outlines the major conceptual developments over time along with approximately twenty-five entries on the core concepts that constitute the theoretical toolkit of geographers working within a specific subdiscipline. Each entry provides a detailed explanation of the concept, outlining contested definitions and approaches, the evolution of how the concept has been used to understand particular geographic phenomenon, and suggested further reading. In so doing, each book constitutes an invaluable companion guide to geographers grappling with how to research, understand and explain the world we inhabit.

    RobKitchin Series Editor

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Acknowledgements

    We would like to thank Rob Kitchin, Robert Rojek, Sarah-Jayne Boyd, Wendy Scott and the production staff at SAGE for all their help in moving the project from commissioning to completion. Derek would like to thank Brendan Bartley and Paul Knox for helping him think about urban geography, and Andrea for her patience. Alan would like to thank Rita and Tom for their love and support. Kim would like to thank her family, and especially Mia and Mikaela. Donald would like to thank Carol for her love.

    Alan, Derek and Donald would like to show their appreciation of the guidance of Steven Pinch. Many of the ideas contained in their entries were developed while at the University of Southampton, and Steven's counsel and enthusiasm was invaluable. Kim is grateful for the advice of Nick Couldry.

    Photo Acknowledgements

    All photos are copyright of Kim McNamara, except that of 2.3.1 and 5.1.2 (©Donald McNeill).

    Diagram Acknowledgements

    1.1.2: Park, R., Burgess, E. and McKenzie, R. (1925/1967) The City, Chicago: University of Chicago, Chart II. Urban areas. p. 55.

    3.1.1: ‘Generalisations of internal structure of cities’, Fig. 5, p. 13 in Harris, C. and Ullman, E. (1945) The nature of cities', The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 242: 7–17.

    3.1.2: Latham, A. (2003a) ‘Research, performance, and doing human geography: some reflections on the diary-photo diary-interview method, Environment and Planning A, 35: 1993–2017. (The image is from page 2010.)

    4.1: ‘The ecology of fear’ from Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of Disaster, by Mike Davis. Copyright 1998 by Mike Davis. Reprinted by permission of Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

  • Bibliography

    Abrams, C.B., AlbrightK. and Panofsky, A. (2004) ‘Contesting the New York Community: From Liminality to the “New Normal” in the Wake of September 11’, City and Community, 3(3): 189–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1535-6841.2004.00078.x
    Acland, C.R. (2003) Screen Traffic: Movies, Multiplexes, and Global Culture, Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press.
    Adey, P. (2007) Surveillance at the airport: surveilling mobility/mobilising surveillance, Environment and Planning A, 36: 1365–1380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a36159
    Adorno, T. (2001) The Culture Industry, London: Routledge.
    Adorno, T. and Horkheimer, M. (2002) Dialectic of Enlightenment, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Agamben, G. (1998) Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Albrecht, J. (2007) Key Concepts and Techniques in GIS, London: Sage.
    Allen, C. (2007) ‘Of urban entrepreneurs or 24-hour party people? City-centre living in Manchester, England’, Environment and Planning A, 39: 666–683. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a37302
    Allen, J., Cochrane, A. and MasseyD. (1998) Rethinking the Region: Spaces of NeoLiberalism, London: Routledge.
    Allen, J., Massey, D. and Pryke, M. (eds) (1999) Unsettling Cities, London: Routledge.
    Allen, S. (1999) Points + Lines: Diagrams and Projects for the City, New York: Princeton Architectural Press.
    Allon, F. (2004) An ontology of everyday control: space, media flows and “smart living” in the absolute present’, in N.Couldry and A.McCarthy (eds), MediaSpace: Place, Scale and Culture in a Media Age, London: Routledge.
    Amin, A. (2002) ‘Spatialities of globalisation’, Environment and Planning A, 34: 385–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a3439
    Amin, A. (2007) ‘Re-thinking the urban social’, City, 11(1): 100–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13604810701200961
    Amin, A. and Graham, S. (1997) ‘The Ordinary City’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS, 22(4): 411–429. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-2754.1997.00411.x
    Amin, A. and Thrift, N. (2002) Cities: Reimagining the Urban, Cambridge: Polity.
    Amin, A. and Thrift, N. (2004) ‘The “emancipatory” city?’ in L.Lees, (ed.) The Emancipatory City: Paradoxes and Possibilities, London: Sage. pp. 231–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221365
    Anderson, B. (1983) Imagined Communities, London: Verso.
    Anderson, K.J. (1988) ‘Cultural hegemony and the race-definition process in Chinatown, Vancouver: 1880–1980’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 6(2): 127–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d060127
    Anderson, K.J. (1991) Vancouver's Chinatown: Racial Discourse in Canada, 1875–1980, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
    Anderson, K.J. (1995) ‘Culture and nature and the Adelaide zoo: at the frontiers of “human” geography’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 20(3): 275–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622652
    Anderson, K.J. (1998) ‘A walk on the wild side: a critical geography of domestication'’, Progress in Human Geography, 21(4): 463–485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/030913297673999021
    Anderson, K.J. (1999) ‘Introduction’, in F.Gale and K.Anderson (eds), Cultural Geographies,
    second edition
    , Melbourne: Addison Wesley Longman. pp. 1–21.
    Anderson, K.J. and Jacobs, J.M. (1999) ‘Geographies of publicity and privacy: Residential activism in Sydney in the 1970s’, Environment and Planning A, 31(6): 1017–1030. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a311017
    Andrejevic, M. (2004) Reality TV: The Work of Being Watched, New York: Rowman and Littlefield.
    Appadurai, A. (ed.) (1986) The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Appadurai, A. (1990) ‘Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy’, Theory, Culture and Society, 7: 295–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327690007002017
    Appadurai, A. (1996) Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
    Atkinson, D. (1998) ‘Totalitarianism and the street in fascist Rome’, in N.Fyfe (ed.), Images of the Street: Planning, Identity and Control in Public Space, London: Routledge. pp. 13–30.
    Atkinson, D. (2007) ‘Kitsch geographies and the everyday spaces of social memory’, Environment and Planning A, 39(3): 521–540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a3866
    Atkinson, D. and Cosgrove, D. (1998) ‘Urban rhetoric and embodied identities: city, nation and empire at the Vittorio Emmanuele II monument in Rome, 1870–1945’, Annals of the Association of American Geographer, 88(1): 28–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8306.00083
    Attfield, J. (2000) Wild Things: the Medical Culture of Everyday Life, Oxford: Berg.
    Augé, M. (1995) Non-places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity, London: Verso.
    Balshaw, M. and Kennedy, L. (eds) (2000) Urban Space and Representation, London: Pluto Press.
    Barber, S. (2002) Projected Cities: Cinema and Urban Space, London: Reaktion Books.
    Barley, N. (ed.) (2000) Breathing Cities: The Architecture of Movement, Berlin: Birkhäuser.
    Barnes, T.J. (2003) ‘The place of locational analysis: a selective and interpretive history’, Progress in Human Geography, 27: 69–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132503ph419oa
    Barnes, T.J. (2005) ‘The 1990s show: culture leaves the farm and hits the streets’, in B.J.L.Berry and J.O.Wheeler (eds), Urban Geography in America, 1950–2000: Paradigms and Personals, New York: Routledge. pp. 311–326.
    Barnett, C. (2003) ‘A critique of the cultural turn’, in J.S.Duncan, N.C.Johnson and R.H.Schein (eds), A Companion to Cultural Geography, Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 38–48.
    Barthes, R. (1972) Mythologies, London: Vintage.
    Batty, M. (2005) Cities and Complexity: Understanding Cities with Cellular Automata, Agent-based Models, and Fractals, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Batty, M. (2006) ‘Digital cornucopias: changing conceptions of the virtual city’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 33: 799–802. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/b3306ed
    Batty, M. and Smith, A. (2002) ‘Virtuality and cities: Definitions, geographies, Designs’, in P.F.Fisher and D.B.Unwin (eds), Virtual Reality in Geography, London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 270–291.
    Baudrillard, J. (1988) America, London: Verso.
    Bauman, Z. (2001) Community, Cambridge: Polity.
    Beauregard, R.A. (1993) Voices of Decline: The Postwar Fate of US Cities, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    Beaverstock, J.V., Smith, R.G. and Taylor, P.J. (2000) World-city network: a new metageography?, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90(1): 123–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0004-5608.00188
    Beaverstock, J.V. (2002) ‘Transnational elites in global cities: British expatriates in Singapore's financial district’, Geoforum, 33(4): 525–538. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7185%2802%2900036-2
    Beaverstock, J.V. (2005) ‘Transnational elites in the city: British highly-skilled intercompany transferees in New York City's financial district’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies21(2): 245–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369183042000339918
    Beckman, J. (2001) ‘Automobility – a social problem and theoretical concept’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 19: 593–607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d222t
    Bell, C. and Newby, H. (1972) Community Studies: An Introduction to the Sociology of the Local Community, London: Harper Collins.
    Bell, D. (2007) ‘The hospitable city: social relations in commercial settings’, Progress in Human Geography, 31(1): 7–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309132507073526
    Bell, D. and Valentine, G. (eds) (1995) Mapping Desire: Geographies of Sexuality, London: Routledge.
    Bell, D. and Valentine, G. (1997) Consuming Geographies: We Are Where We Eat, London: Routledge.
    Bell, D. and Jayne, M. (eds) (2006) Small Cities: Urban Experience Beyond the Metropolis, Abingdon: Routledge.
    Benjamin, W. (1999) Illuminations, London: Pimlico.
    Bennett, J. (2001) The Enchantment of Modern Life: Attachments, Crossings, Ethics, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Berman, M. (1982) All That is Solid Melts into Air, London: Verso.
    Berman, M. (2006) On the Town: One Hundred Years of Spectacle in Times Square, New York: Random House.
    Berry, B.J.L. (1973) The Human Consequences of Urbanisation: Divergent Paths in the Urban Experience in the 20th Century, London: Macmillan.
    Berry, B.J.L. and Wheeler, J.O. (2005) Urban Geography in America, 1950–2000, New York: Routledge.
    Bialasiewicz, L. (2006) ‘Geographies of production and the contexts of politics: dislocation and new ecologies of fear in the Venetocittà diffusa’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 24: 41–67.
    Bingham, N. (1996) ‘Object-ions: from technological determinism towards geographies of relations’Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 14: 635–657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d140635
    Biressi, A. and Nunn, H. (2003) Video justice: crimes of violence in social/media space’, Space and Culture, 6: 276–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1206331203251659
    Bishop, P. (2002) ‘Gathering the land: the Alice Springs to Darwin rail corridor’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 20: 295–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d329
    Bladerunner (1980) Directed by Ridley Scott.
    Blunt, A. and Dowling, R. (2006) Home, London: Routledge.
    Boesch, H. (2001) Die sinnliche Stadt: Essays zur modernen Urbanistik, Zürich: Nagel&Kimche.
    Borden, I. (2001) Skateboarding, Space and the City: Architecture and the Body, Oxford: Berg.
    Bourdieu, P. (1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bourne, R. (1916) ‘Trans-national America’, Atlantic Monthly, 118 (July): 86–97.
    Boyer, C. (1996a) Cybercities, New York: Princeton Architectural Press.
    Boyer, C. (1996b) City of Collective Memory, Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
    Bratzel, S. (1999) ‘Conditions of success in sustainable urban transport policy-policy change in ‘relative successful’ European cities’, Transport Reviews, 19, 2: 177–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014416499295600
    Brenner, N. and Keil, R. (2006) The Global Cities Reader, Abingdon: Routledge.
    Brenner, N. and Theodore, N. (eds) (2002) Spaces of Neoliberalism: Urban Restructuring in North America and Western Europe, Oxford: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444397499
    Brenner, N. and N.Theodore (2002) ‘Cities and the Geographies of “Actually Existing Neoliberalism”’, Antipode, 34(3): 349–379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00246
    Breward, C. and Gilbert, D. (eds) (2006) Fashion's World Cities, Oxford: Berg. http://dx.doi.org/10.2752/9780857854117
    Bridge, G. (2005) Reason in the City of Difference, London: Routledge.
    Brown, M. (1995) Ironies of distance: an ongoing critique of the geographies of AIDS’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 13(2): 159–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d130159
    Brown, M. (1999) ‘Reconceptualizing public and private in urban regime theory: governance in AIDS politics’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23(1): 45–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00179
    Brunhes, J. (1920) Human Geography, Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Bunnell, T. (1999) ‘Views from above and below: the Petronas Twin Towers and/in contesting visions of development in contemporary Malaysia’, Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 20(1): 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9493.00040
    Bunnell, T. (2004a) Malaysia, Modernity and the Multimedia Super Corridor: A Critical Geography of Intelligent Landscapes, London: Routledge.
    Bunnell, T. (2004b) ‘Re-viewing the Entrapment controversy: Megaprojection, (mis)representation and postcolonial performance’, GeoJournal, 59(4): 297–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:GEJO.0000026703.44576.6f
    Burgess, E. (1925) ‘The growth of the city: An introduction to a research project’, in R.Park, E.Burgess and R.McKenzie (eds), The City, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Buttimer, A. (1978) ‘Charisma and context’, in D.Ley, and M.Samuels (eds) Humanistic Geography: Prospects and Problems, Chicago: Maaroufa Press.
    Caldeira, T. (2000) City of Walls: Crime, Segregation, and Citizenship in Sao Paulo, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Calvert, C. (2000) Voyeur Nation: Media, Privacy, and Peering in Modern Culture, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Castells, M. (1989) The Informational City, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Castells, M. (1997) The Power of Identity, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Clarke, D.B. (ed.) (1997) The Cinematic City, London: Routledge.
    Chung, C.J. (ed.) (2002) The Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping, Cologne: Taschen.
    Cloke, P., Philo, C. and Sadler, D. (1991) Approaching Human Geography: An Introduction to Contemporary Theoretical Debates, New York: Guilford.
    Coaffee, J. (2004) ‘Rings of steel, rings of concrete and rings of confidence: designing out terrorism in Central London pre and post September 11th’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28(1): 201–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0309-1317.2004.00511.x
    Cody, J.W. (2003) Exporting American Architecture, 1870–2000, London: Routledge.
    Cocks, C. (2001) Doing the Town: The Rise of Urban Tourism in the United States, 1850–1915, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Conradson, D. and Latham, A. (2005) ‘Transnational urbanism: attending to everyday practices and mobilities’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 21(2): 227–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369183042000339891
    Conradson, D. and Latham, A. (2007) ‘The experiential economy of London: Antipodean transnational and the overseas experience’, Mobilities, 2(2): 231–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17450100701381573
    Cook, I. and Harrison, M. (2003) ‘Cross over food: re-materializing postcolonial geographies’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 28: 297–317.
    Couldry, N. (2000) The Place of Media Power: Pilgrims and Witnesses of the Media Age, London: Routledge.
    Couldry, N. and McCarthy, A. (2004) ‘Introduction. Orientations: mapping MediaSpace’, in N.Couldry and A.McCarthy (eds), MediaSpace: Place, Scale and Culture in a Media Age, London: Routledge. pp. 1–18.
    Cox, K. (1993) ‘The local and the global in the new urban politics: a critical review’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 11: 433–448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d110433
    Cox, K. (1998) ‘Spaces of dependence, spaces of engagement and the politics of scale, or: looking for local politics’, Political Geography, 17: 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-6298%2897%2900048-6
    Crabtree, L. (2006) ‘Disintegrated houses: exploring ecofeminist housing and urban design options’, Antipode, 38(4): 711–734. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2006.00473.x
    Crang, M. and Travlou, P.S. (2001) ‘The city and topologies of memory’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 19(2): 161–177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d201t
    Crang, P. and Dwyer, C. (2002) ‘Fashioning ethnicities: the commercial spaces of multiculture’, Ethnicities, 2(3): 410–430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/14687968020020030701
    Crang, P., Dwyer, C. and Jackson, P. (2003) ‘Transnationalism and the spaces of commodity culture’, Progress in Human Geography, 27(4): 438–456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132503ph443oa
    Crang, M., Graham, S. and Crosbie, T. (2006) ‘Variable geometries of connection: urban digital divides and the uses of information technology’, Urban Studies, 43: 2551–2570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980600970664
    Crawford, M. (1999) ‘Blurring the boundaries: public space and private life’, in J.Chase, M.Crawford and J.Kaliski, (eds), Everyday Urbanism, New York: Monacelli Press. pp. 22–35.
    Cresswell, T. (2006) On the Move: Mobility in the Modern Western World, London: Routledge.
    Crewe, L. (2001) ‘The besieged body: geographies of retailing and consumption’, Progress in Human Geography, 25(4): 629–640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/030913201682688986
    Crewe, L. and Gregson, N. (1998) ‘Tales of the unexpected: exploring car boot sales as marginal spaces of consumption’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 23: 39–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-2754.1998.00039.x
    Crewe, L. and Lowe, M. (1995) ‘Gap on the map? Towards a geography of consumption and identity’, Environment and Planning A, 27: 1877–1898. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a271877
    Crilley, D. (1993) ‘Megastructures and urban change: aesthetics, ideology and design’, in P.L.Knox (ed.), The Restless Urban Landscape, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. pp. 127–164.
    Cronin, A. (2006) ‘Advertising and the metabolism of the city: urban space, commodity rhythms’, Environment & Planning D: Society and Space, 24(4): 615–632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d389t
    Cronon, W. (1991) Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West, New York: W.W. Norton.
    Crouch, D., Jackson, R. and Thompson, F. (eds) (2005) The Media and the Tourist Imagination: Converging Cultures, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203389935
    Cunningham, S. (2004) ‘The creative industries after cultural policy: a geneology and some possible preferred futures’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(1): 105–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1367877904040924
    Curtin, M. (2003) ‘Media capital: towards the study of spatial flows’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 6(2): 202–228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13678779030062004
    Darian-Smith, E. (1999) Bridging Divides: The Channel Tunnel and English Legal Identity in the New Europe, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Datta, K., McIlwaine, C., Evans, Y., Herbert, J., May, J. and Wills, J. (2007) ‘From coping strategies to tactics: London's low-pay economy and migrant labour’, British Journal of Industrial Relations45(2): 404–432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8543.2007.00620.x
    Davis, M. (1990) City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles, London: Vintage.
    Davis, M. (1992) Beyond Blade Runner: Urban Control, the Ecology of Fear, Westview, NJ: Open Media.
    Davis, M. (1998) Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of Disaster, New York: Metropolitan Books.
    Davis, M. (2000) Magical Urbanism: Latinos Reinvent the American City, London: Verso.
    Dayan, D. and Katz, E. (1992) Media Events: The Live Broadcasting of History, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
    Dear, M. (1987) ‘The postmodern challenge: re-constructing human geography’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS 13: 262–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622990
    Dear, M. (2000) The Postmodern Urban Condition, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Dear, M. (2003) ‘Superlative urbanisms: the necessity of rhetoric in social theory’, City and Community, 2(3): 201–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1540-6040.00050
    Dear, M. (ed.) (2002) From Chicago to LA.: Revisioning Urban Theory, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231211
    Dear, M. and Wolch, J. (1987) Landscapes of Despair: From Deinstitutionalisation to Homelessness, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Dear, M., Leclerc, G. and Homero Vill, R. (eds) (1999) Urban Latino Cultures: La vida latina en LA, London: Sage.
    Debord, G. (1994) The Society of the Spectacle, New York: Zone Books.
    DeCerteau, M. (1984) The Practice of Everyday Life, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Deleuze, G. (1989) Spinoza: Practical Philosophy, San Francisco: City Lights Press.
    Deleuze, G. (1999) Foucault, London: Athlone.
    Deleuze, G. (2006) Two Regimes of Madness: Texts and Interviews 1976–1995, New York: Semiotexte.
    Dickinson, R. (1947) City Region and Regionalism: A Geographical Contribution to Human Ecology, London: Kegan Paul.
    Dodge, M. and Kitchin, R. (2004) ‘Flying through code/space: the real virtuality of air travel’, Environment and Planning A, 36(2): 195–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a3698
    Dodge, M. and Kitchen, R. (2005) ‘Code and the transduction of space’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 95(1): 162–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.2005.00454.x
    Dodge, M. and Kitchin, R. (2007) ‘The automatic management of drivers and driving spaces’, Geoforum, 38: 264–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2006.08.004
    Doel, M.A. (1999) Poststructuralist Geographies: The Diabolical Art of Spatial Science, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Dorling, D., Rigby, J., Wheeler, B., Ballas, D., Thomas, B., Fahmy, E., Gordon, D. and Lupton, R. (2007) Poverty, Wealth and Place in Britain, 1968–2005, Bristol: Policy Press.
    Dowling, R. (2000) ‘Cultures of mothering and car use in suburban Sydney: a preliminary investigation’, Geoforum, 31: 345–353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7185%2899%2900048-2
    Driver, F. and Gilbert, D. (eds) (1999) Imperial Cities: Landscape, Display, and Identity, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Duncan, O., Cuzzort, R. and Duncan, B. (1961) Statistical Geography, Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press.
    Duncan, O. and Duncan, B. (1955) ‘A methodological analysis of segregation indexes’, American Sociological Review, 20: 210–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2088328
    Dunn, D. (2005) ‘“We are not here to make a film about Italy, we are here to make a film about ME …”: British television holiday programmes' representations of the tourist destination’, in D.Crouch, R.Jackson and F.Thompson (eds), The Media and the Tourist Imagination: Converging Cultures, London: Routledge. pp. 154–169.
    Dunn, K.M. (2005) ‘Repetitive and troubling discourses of nationalism in the local politics of mosque construction in Sydney, Australia’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 23: 29–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d388
    Durkheim, E. (1947) The Division of Labor in Society (trans. GeorgeSimpson), New York: The Free Press.
    Duruz, J. (2005) ‘Eating at the borders, culinary journeys’, Environment and Planning D, 23: 51–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d52j
    Edensor, T. (2002) National Identity, Popular Culture and Everyday Life, Oxford: Berg.
    Ehrenreich, B. and Hochschild, A. (eds) (2003) Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy, London: Granta.
    Eliot Hurst, M. (ed.) (1974) Transportation Geography: Comments and Readings, New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Erkip, F. (2003) ‘The shopping mall as an emergent urban space in Turkey’, Environment and Planning A, 35(6): 1073–1093. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a35167
    Ewen, S. (1999) All Consuming Images: The Politics of Style in Contemporary Culture,
    revised edition
    , New York: Basic Books.
    Fainstein, S. (2001) The City Builders: Property Development in New York, and London, 1980–2000, Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.
    Featherstone, M. (1991) Consumer Culture and Postmodernism, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212424
    Featherstone, M., Thrift, N. and Urry, J. (eds) (2005) Automobilities, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212578
    Fincher, R. and JacobsJ. (eds) (1998) Cities of Difference, London: Guilford.
    Fischer, C. (1982) To Dwell Among Friends, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Fishman, R. (1987) Bourgeois Utopias: The Rise and Fall of Suburbia, New York: Basic Books.
    Florida, R. (2002) The Rise of the Creative Class, New York: Basic Books.
    Flyvbjerg, B., Bruzelius, N. and Rothengatter, W. (2003) Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Fogelson, R.M. (2001) Downtown: Its Rise and Fall, 1850–1950, New Haven: Yale University Press.
    Fogelson, R. (2003) Bourgeois Nightmares: Suburbia, 1870–1930, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Forest, B. and Johnson, J. (2002) ‘Unraveling the threads of history: soviet-era monuments and post-soviet national identity in Moscow’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 92(3): 524–547. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8306.00303
    Foucault, M. (1995) Discipline and Punish, Translated by A.Sheridan, New York: Random House.
    Frazier, J., Margai, F. and Tetteyfio, E. (2003) Race and Place: Equity Issues In Urban America, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Frieden, B.J. and Sagalyn, L.B. (1989) Downtown, Inc.: How America Rebuilds Cities, Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
    Friedmann, J. and Wolff, G. (1982) ‘World city formation: an agenda for research and action’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 6(3): 309–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.1982.tb00384.x
    Friesen, W., Murphy, L. and Kearns, R. (2005) ‘Spiced-up Sandringham: Indian transnationalism and new suburban spaces in Auckland, New Zealand’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 21(2): 227–233.
    Fritzsche, P. (1996) Reading Berlin 1900, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
    Fug, G. (1999) City Making: Building Communities without Building Walls, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Fyfe, N. (ed.) (1998) Images of the Street: Planning, Identity and Control in Public Space, London: Routledge.
    Gandy, M. (1997) ‘The making of a regulatory crisis: the restructuring of New York City's water supply’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 22(3): 338–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-2754.1997.00338.x
    Gandy, M. (1999) ‘The Paris sewers and the rationalization of urban space’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 24: 23–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-2754.1999.00023.x
    Gandy, M. (2002) Concrete and Clay: Reworking Nature in New York City, Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
    Gandy, M. (2005a) ‘Cyborg urbanization: complexity and monstrosity in the contemporary city’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29(1): 26–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2005.00568.x
    Gandy, M. (2005b) ‘Learning from Lagos’, New Left Review, 33: 37–52.
    Gans, H. (1962) The Urban Villagers: Group and Class in the Life of Italian-Americans, New York: Free Press.
    Gans, H. (1967) Levittowners: Ways of Life and Politics in a New Suburban Community, New York: Pantheon.
    Garreau, J. (1991) Edge City: Life on the New Frontier, New York: Anchor Books.
    Gilbert, D. (2006), ‘From Paris to Shanghai: the changing geographies of fashion's world cities’. in C.Breward and G.Gilbert (eds), Fashion's World Cities, Oxford: Berg. pp. 3–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.2752/9780857854117
    Glass, R. (1972) ‘Anti-urbanism’, in M.Stewart (ed.) The City: Problems of Planning, London: Penguin. pp. 63–71.
    Glennie, P.D. and Thrift, N.J. (1992) ‘Modernity, urbanity and mass consumption’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 10: 423–443. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d100423
    Glick Shiller, N., Basch, L. and Szanton Blanc, C. (1992) Towards a Transnational Perspective on Migration: Race, Class, Ethnicity, and Nationalism, New York: New York Academy of Sciences.
    Glick Shiller, N., Basch, L. and Szanton Blanc, C. (1995) ‘From immigrant to transmigrant: theorizing transnational migration’, Anthropological Quarterly, 68(1): 48–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3317464
    Goss, J. (1993) ‘The “magic of the mall”: an analysis of form, function, and meaning in the contemporary retail built environment’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 83(1): 18–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1993.tb01921.x
    Goss, J. (1999) ‘Once-upon-a-time in the commodity world: an unofficial guide to the mall of America’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 89(1): 45–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0004-5608.00130
    Gottdiener, M. (1994) Postmodern Semiotics: Material Culture and the Forms of Postmodern Life, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Gottdeiner, M. (1997) The Theming of America: Dreams, Visions, and Commerical Spaces, Boulder: Westview Press.
    Gottmann, J. (1957) ‘Megalopolis or the urbanization of the Northeastern seaboard’, Economic Geography, 33(3): 189–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/142307
    Gottmann, J. (1961) Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States, New York: The Twentieth Century Fund.
    Graham, S. (1997) ‘Cities in the real-time age: the paradigm challenge of telecommunications to the conception and planning of urban space’, Environment and Planning A, 29(1): 105–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a290105
    Graham, S. (2000) ‘Constructing premium network spaces: reflections on infrastructure networks and contemporary urban development’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24(1): 183–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00242
    Graham, S. (ed.) (2004a) Cities, War and Terrorism, Oxford: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470753033
    Graham, S. (2004b) ‘Constructing urbicide by bulldozer in the Occupied Territories’, in Graham, S. (ed.) Cities, War and Terrorism, Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 192–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470753033.ch11
    Graham, S. (2004c) ‘Vertical geopolitics: Baghdad and after’, Antipode, 36(1): 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2004.00379.x
    Graham, S. and Aurigi, A. (1997) ‘Virtual cities, social polarisation and the crisis in urban public space’, Journal of Urban Technology, 4: 19–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10630739708724546
    Graham, S. and Marvin, S. (1996) Telecommunications and the City: Electronic Spaces, Urban Places, New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203430453
    Graham, S. and Marvin, S. (2001) Splintering Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities, and the Urban Condition, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203452202
    Graham, S. and Wood, D. (2003) ‘Digitizing surveillance: categorization, space, inequality’, Critical Social Policy, 75: 227–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261018303023002006
    Greenberg, M. (2003) ‘The limits of branding: the World Trade Center, fiscal crisis and the marketing of recovery’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27(2): 386–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.t01-1-00454
    Gregson, N., Metcalfe, A. and Crewe, L. (2007) ‘Identity, mobility, and the throw-away society’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 25(4): 682–700. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d418t
    Grosz, E. (1994) Volatile Bodies: Towards a Corporeal Feminism, Bloomington: University of Indiana Press.
    Groth, P. (1994) Living Downtown: The History of Residential Hotels in the United States, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    GUST (Ghent Urban Studies Team) (1999) The Urban Condition: Space, Community and Self in the Contemporary Metropolis, Rotterdam: 010 Publishers.
    Habermas, J. ([1962] 1989) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Hägerstrand, T. (1970) ‘What about people in regional science?’, Papers, Regional Science Association, 24: 1–21.
    Hägerstrand, T. (1982) ‘Diagram, path and project’, Tijdschift voor Economise en Social Geographie, 73: 323–339.
    Haggett, P. (1965) Locational Analysis in Human Geography, London: Edward Arnold.
    Haldrup, M. and Larson, J. (2006) ‘Material culture of tourism’, Leisure Studies, 25(3): 275–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02614360600661179
    Hall, P. (1966) The World Cities, New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Hall, P. (1980) Great Planning Disasters, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
    Hall, P. (1996) Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Century,
    revised edition
    , Oxford: Blackwell.
    Hall, P. (2000) ‘Creative cities and economic development’, Urban Studies, 37(4): 639–649. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980050003946
    Hall, T. (2006) Urban Geography,
    3rd edition
    , London: Routledge.
    Hall, T. and Hubbard, P. (eds) (1998) The Entrepreneurial City: Geographies of Politics, Regime and Representation, Chichester: Wiley.
    Hammett, J. and Hammett, K. (eds) (2007) The Suburbanization of New York, New York: Princeton University Press.
    Hannerz, U. (1996) Transnational Connections, London: Routledge.
    Hannerz, U. (1998) ‘Transnational research’, in H.R.Bernard (ed.), Handbook of Methods in Cultural Anthropology, Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press. pp. 235–256.
    Hannigan, J. (1998) Fantasy City: Pleasure and Profit in the Postmodern Metropolis, Routledge: London.
    Haraway, D. (1991) Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, London: Routledge.
    Harris Ali, S. and Keil, R. (2006) ‘Global cities and the spread of infectious disease: the case of Severe Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto, Canada’, Urban Studies, 43(3): 491–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980500452458
    Harris, C. and Ullman, E. (1945) ‘The nature of cities’, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 242: 7–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000271624524200103
    Harvey, D. (1969) Explanation in Human Geography, Arnold: London.
    Harvey, D. (1973) Social Justice and the City, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Harvey, D. (1982) The Limits to Capital, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Harvey, D. (1985) The Urbanization of Capital, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Harvey, D. (1987) ‘Flexible accumulation through urbanization: reflections on ‘postmodernism’ in the American city’, Antipode, 19(3): 260–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.1987.tb00375.x
    Harvey, D. (1989a) ‘From managerialism to entrepreneurial: the transformation of governance in late capitalism’, Geografiska Annaler, 71B: 3–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/490503
    Harvey, D. (1989b) The Condition of Postmodernity, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Harvey, D. (1994) ‘The invisible political economy of architectural production’, in O.Bouman and R.Van Toorn (eds), The Invisible in Architecture, London: Academy. pp. 420–427.
    Harvey, D. (2000) Spaces of Hope, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Harvey, D. (2003) Paris: Capital of Modernity, New York: Routledge.
    Hebbert, M. (2005) ‘The street as locus of collective memory’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 23(4): 581–596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d55j
    Herbert, D. (1972) Urban Geography: A Social Perspective, New York: Praeger.
    Herod, A. and Aguiar, L.L.M. (2006) ‘Introduction: cleaners and the dirty work of neo-liberalism’, Antipode, 38(3): 425–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0066-4812.2006.00587.x
    Herzog, L.A. (2006) Return to the Center: Culture, Public Space and City Building in a Global Era, Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Hetherington, K. (2004) ‘Consumption, disposal, and absent presence’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 22(1): 157–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d315t
    Hinchliffe, S. (1999) ‘Cities and natures: intimate strangers’, in J.Allen, D.Massey and M.Pryke (eds), Unruly Cities?London: Open University Press.
    Hinchliffe, S., Kearns, M., Degen, M. and Whatmore, S. (2005) ‘Urban wild things: a cosmopolitical experiment’, Environment and Planning D: Society & Space, 23(5): 643–658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d351t
    Hirsch, A. (1983) Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940–1960, Chicago: University of Chicago.
    Hitchings, R. (2003) ‘People, plants and performance: on actor network theory and the material pleasures of the private garden’, Social and Cultural Geography, 4(1): 99–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1464936032000049333
    Hitchings, R. (2007) ‘Expertise and inability: cultured materials and the reason for some retreating lawns in London’, Journal of Material Culture, 11(3): 364–381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359183506068810
    Hollands, R. and Chatterton, P. (2003) ‘Producing nightlife in the new urban entertainment economy: corporatisation, branding, and market segmentation’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27(2): 223–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00453
    House of Commons Health Committee 2004, 3rd report of session 2003–4, vol. 1. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmhealth/23/2304.htm
    Howard, E. (1996 [1898]) ‘Garden cities of tomorrow’, ‘Author's introduction’ and ‘The town-country magnet’, in The City Reader, R.LeGates and F.Stout (eds), London: Routledge. pp. 345–353.
    Hoyle, B. and Knowles, R. (1992) Modern Transport Geography, London: Belhaven.
    Hubbard, P. (2002) ‘Screen-shifting: consumption, riskless risks and the changing geographies of cinema’, Environment and Planning A, 34(4): 1239–1258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a3522
    Hubbard, P. (2003) ‘Going out/staying in: the seductions of new urban leisure spaces’, Leisure Studies, 22(3): pp. 255–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026143603200075461
    Hubbard, P. (2006) The City, London: Routledge.
    Hubbard, P. and Lilley, K. (2004) ‘Pacemaking the modern city: the urban politics of speed and slowness’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 22: 273–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d338t
    Hughes, A. and Reimer, S. (eds) (2004) Geographies of Commodity Chains, London: Routledge.
    Huxtable, A.L. (1997) The Unreal America: Architecture and Illusion, New Press: New York.
    Imrie, R. (2003) ‘“Architects” conceptions of the human body’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 21(1): 47–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d271t
    Imrie, R. and Raco, M. (eds) (2003) Urban Renaissance? New Labour, Community, and Urban Policy, Bristol: Policy Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781861343802.001.0001
    Iveson, K. (2007) Publics and the City, Oxford: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470761748
    Jackson, J.B. (1984) Discovering the Vernacular Landscape, London: Yale University Press.
    Jackson, J.B. (1994) A Sense of Place, a Sense of Time, London: Yale University Press.
    Jackson, K. (1985) Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States, New York: Oxford University Press.
    Jackson, P. (1984) ‘Social disorganisation and moral order in the city’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 9: 68–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622167
    Jackson, P. (1985) ‘Urban ethnography’, Progress in Human Geography, 9: 157–176.
    Jackson, P. (2000) ‘Rematerialising social and cultural geography’, Social and Cultural Geography, 1(1): 9–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14649369950133449
    Jackson, P., Lowe, M. and Miller, D. (eds) (2000) Commercial Cultures: Economies, Practices, Spaces, Oxford: Berg.
    Jackson, P., Crang, P. and Dwyer, C. (eds) (2004) Transnational Spaces, London: Routledge.
    Jacobs, J. (1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York: Norton.
    Jacobs, J.M. (1994a) Edge of Empire: Postcolonialism and the City, London: Routledge.
    Jacobs, J.M. (1994b) ‘Negotiating the heart: heritage, development and identity in postimperial London’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 12: 751–772. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d120751
    Jacobs, J.M. (2006) ‘A geography of big things’, Cultural Geographies, 13(1): 1–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/1474474006eu354oa
    Jacobs, J.M., Cairns, S. and Strebel, I. (2007) ‘“A tall storey … but, a fact just the same”: the red road high-rise as a black box’, Urban Studies, 44(30): 609–629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980601131910
    Jain, S. (2004) ‘“Dangerous instrumentality”: The bystander as subject in automobility’, Cultural Anthropology, 19(1): 61–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/can.2004.19.1.61
    Jargowsky, P. (1997) Poverty and Place: Ghettoes, Barrios, and the American City, New York: The Russell Sage Foundation.
    Jencks, C. (2005) The Iconic Building: The Power of Enigma, London: Frances Lincoln.
    Jenkins, H. (2004) ‘The cultural logic of media convergence’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(1): 33–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1367877904040603
    Jessop, B., Peck, J. and Tickell, A. (1999) ‘Retooling the machine: economic crisis, state restructuring, and urban politics’, in A.E.G.Jonas and D.Wilson (eds), The Urban Growth Machine: Critical Perspectives, Two Decades Later, Albany: SUNY Press. pp. 141–159.
    Johnson, N.C. (2002) ‘Mapping monuments: the shape of public space and cultural identities’, Visual Communication, 1(3): 293–298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/147035720200100302
    Johnston, R. (1971) Urban Residential Patterns: An Introductory Review, Bell: London.
    Johnston, R. (1978) Multivariate Statistical Analysis in Geography, Longman: London.
    Johnston, R. (1983) Geography and Geographers: Anglo-American Human Geographers since 1945, Arnold: London.
    Johnston, R., Gregory, D. and Smith, D. (1986) The Dictionary of Human Geography,
    3rd edition
    , Oxford: Blackwell.
    Jonas, A.E.G. and Wilson, D. (eds) (1999) The Urban Growth Machine: Critical Perspectives, Two Decades Later, Albany: SUNY Press.
    Judd, D.R. and Swanstrom, T. (2006) City Politics: the Political Economy of Urban America,
    5th edition
    , New York: Pearson Longman.
    Kaika, M. (2004) City of Flows: Modernity, Nature and the City, London: Routledge.
    Katz, C. and Kirby, A. (1991) ‘In the nature of things: the environment and everyday life’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 16(3): 259–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622947
    Katz, J. (1999) ‘Pissed-off in LA.’, in How Emotions Work, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Katz, J. and Aakhus, M. (eds) (2002) Perpetual Contact; Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489471
    Kearney, M. (1995) ‘The local and the global: the anthropology of globalization and transnational, Annual Review of Anthropology, 24: 547–565. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.24.100195.002555
    Kearns, M. (2003) ‘Geographies that matter – the rhetorical deployment of physicality?’, Social and Cultural Geography, 4(2): 139–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14649360309061
    Keeling, D.J. (2007) ‘Transportation geography: new directions on well-worn trails’, Progress in Human Geography, 31(2): 217–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309132507075370
    Keohane, R. and Nye, J. (eds) (1972) Transnational Relations and World Politics, Cambridge MA.: Harvard University Press.
    Kesteloot, C., van Weesep, J. and White, P. (eds) (1997) ‘Minorities in West European cities’, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 88: 2.
    Kipfer, S. and Keil, R. (2002) ‘Toronto Inc.? Planning the competitive city in the New Toronto’, Antipode, 227–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00237
    Klein, N. (2000) No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies, New York: Picador.
    Klein, N. (2004) The Vatican to Vegas: A History of Special Effects, New York: New Press.
    Knauer, L.M. and Walkowitz, D.J. (2004) ‘Introduction’, in D.J.Walkowitz, and L.M.Knauer (eds), Memory and the Impact of Political Transformation in Public Space, Duke University Press, Durham, pp. 1–18.
    Knox, P. (1982) Urban Social Geography: An Introduction, Harlow: Longman.
    Knox, P. (1987) ‘The social production of the built environment: architects, architecture and the post-modern city’, Progress in Human Geography, 11: 354–377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030913258701100404
    Knox, P. (1991) ‘The restless urban landscape: economic and sociocultural change and the transformation of Metropolitan Washington, DC, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 81(2): 181–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1991.tb01686.x
    Knox, P. and Taylor, P.J. (eds) (1995) World Cities in a World-System, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511522192
    Knox, P. and Pinch, S. (2006) Urban Social Geography: An Introduction,
    5th edition
    , Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Koskela, H. (2000) ‘“The Gaze without Eyes”. Video surveillance and the changing nature of urban space’, Progress in Human Geography, 24(2): 243–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/030913200668791096
    Kotkin, J. (2001) The New Geography: How the Digital Revolution is Reshaping the American Landscape, New York: Random House.
    Kwan, M.P. (2002) ‘Feminist visualisation: re-envisioning GIS as a method in feminist geographic research’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 92: 645–661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8306.00309
    Ladd, A. (1997) The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Landry, C. and Bianchini, F. (1995) The Creative City, London: Demos.
    Larner, W. (2007) ‘Expatriate experts and globalising governmentalities: the New Zealand diaspora strategy’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS, 32(3): 331–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2007.00261.x
    Larsen, J. (2005) ‘Families seen sightseeing: performativity of tourist photography’, Space and Culture, 8(4): 416–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1206331205279354
    Larsen, J., Urry, J. and Axhausen, K. (2006) Mobilities, Networks, Geographies, Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Latham, A. (2003a) ‘Research, performance, and doing human geography: some reflections on the daily-photo diary-interview method’, Environment and Planning A, 35: 1993–2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a3587
    Latham, A. (2003b) Urbanity, lifestyle and the politics of the new urban economy’, Urban Studies, 40(9): 1699–1724. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0042098032000106564
    Latham, A. (2004) ‘American dreams, American empires, American cities’, Urban Geography, 25 (8): 788–791. http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-3638.25.8.788
    Latham, A. (2006) ‘Sociality and the cosmopolitan imagination: national, cosmopolitan and local imaginaries in Auckland, New Zealand’, in J.Binny, J.Holloway, S.Millington and C.Young (eds), Cosmopolitan Urbanism, London: Routledge.
    Latham, A. and McCormack, D.P. (2004) ‘Moving cities: rethinking the materialities of urban geographies’, Progress in Human Geography, 28(6): 701–724. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132504ph515oa
    Latham, A. and McCormack, D. (2008) ‘Speed and slowness’, in T.Hall, P.Hubbard, and J.R.Short (eds), The Urban Studies Compendium, London: Sage.
    Latour, B. (1999) Pandora's Hope: Essays on the Reality of Science Studies, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    Latour, B. (2005) Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory, Oxford: Oxford University.
    Latour, B. and P.Weibel (eds) (2005) Making Things Public: Atmospheres of Democracy, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Laurier, E. and Philo, C. (2006a) ‘Cold shoulders and napkins handed: gestures of responsibility’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 31(2): 193–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2006.00205.x
    Laurier, E. and Philo, C. (2006b) ‘Possible geographies: a passing encounter in a café’, Area, 38(4): 353–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4762.2006.00712.x
    Law, R. (1999) ‘Beyond “women and transport”: towards new geographies of gender and urban mobility’, Progress in Human Geography, 23: 567–588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/030913299666161864
    Lees, L. (2001), ‘Towards a critical geography of architecture: the case of an ersatz Colosseum’, Ecumene, 8: 51–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/096746001701556904
    Lees, L. (2002) ‘Rematerialising geography: the ‘new’ urban geography’, Progress in Human Geography, 26: 101–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132502ph358pr
    Lees, L. (ed.) (2004) The Emancipatory City: Paradoxes and Possibilities, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221365
    Lefebvre, H. (1991) The Production of Space, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Lefebvre, H. (2004) Rhythmanalysis: Space, Time, and Everyday Life. Edited and translated by S.Elden and G.Moore. London: Continuum.
    Leitner, H. (1990) ‘Cities in pursuit of economic growth: the local state as entrepreneur’, Political Geography Quarterly, 9: 146–170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0260-9827%2890%2990016-4
    Leitner, H. and Sheppard, E. (2005) ‘Unbounding critical geographic research on cities: the 1990s and beyond’, in B.Berry and J.Wheeler (eds), Urban Geography in America, 1950–2000: Paradigms and Personalities, London: Routledge. pp. 349–372.
    Lemanski, C. (2006a) ‘Spaces of exclusivity or connection: linkages between a gated community and its poorer neighbour in a Cape Town master-plan development’, Urban Studies, 43(2): 397–420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980500495937
    Lemanski, C. (2006b) ‘The impact of residential desegregation on social integration: evidence from a South African neighbourhood’, Geoforum, 37: 417–435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2005.09.002
    Lennon, J. and Foley, M. (1999) ‘Interpretation of the unimaginable: The US holocaust memorial museum, Washington, D.C. and “dark tourism”’, Journal of Travel Research, 38: 46–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004728759903800110
    Lennon, J. and Foley, M. (2000) Dark Tourism: The Attraction of Death and Disaster, London and New York: Continuum.
    Leslie, D. and Reimer, S. (2003) ‘Gender, modern design, and home consumption’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 21: 293–316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d337
    Levitt, P. (1994) ‘The social basis for Latino small businesses: the case of Dominican and Puerto Rican entrepreneurs’, in E.Melendez and M.Uriarte (eds), Latino Poverty and Economic Development in Massachusetts, Boston, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
    Levitt, P. (2001) Transnational Villagers, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Lewis, I. (1993) The City in Slang: New York Life and Popular Speech, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Ley, D. (1983) A Social Geography of the City, New York: Harper and Row.
    Ley, D. (1996) The New Middle Class and the Remaking of the Central City, Oxford: Oxford University.
    Ley, D. (2004) ‘Transnational spaces and everyday lives’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 29: 151–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-2754.2004.00122.x
    Ley, D. and Samuels, M. (eds) (1978) Humanistic Geography: Prospects and Problems, Chicago: Maaroufa Press.
    Leyshon, A. and Thrift, N. (1997) Money/Space: Geographies of Monetary Transformation, London: Routledge.
    Lichtenberger, E. (1997) ‘Harris and Ullman's “The Nature of Cities”: The paper's historical context and impact on further research’, Urban Geography, 18: 7–14.
    Lieberson, S. (1963) Ethnic Patterns in American Cities, Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press.
    Lieberson, S. (1980) A Piece of the Pie: Blacks and White Immigrants Since 1880, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Liebow, E. (1967) Tally's Corner, Boston: Little Brown.
    Lindner, L. (1996) The Reportage of Urban Culture: Robert Park and the Chicago School, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Llewellyn, M. (2004) ‘“Urban village” or “white house”: envisioned spaces, experienced places, and everyday life at Kensal House, London in the 1930s’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 22: 229–249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d342t
    Longhurst, R. (2005) ‘Fat bodies: developing geographical research agendas’, Progress in Human Geography, 29(3): 247–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132505ph545oa
    Low, S. (2004) Behind the Gates: Life, Security, and the Pursuit of Happiness in Fortress America, New York: Routledge.
    Logan, J.R. and Molotch, H.L. (1987) Urban Fortunes: the Political Economy of Place, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Luke, Timothy (1997) ‘At the end of nature: cyborgs, “humachines”, and environments in postmodernity’, Environment and Planning A: Society and Space, 29: 1367–1380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a291367
    Lukinbeal, C. (1998) ‘Reel-to-real urban geographies: the top five cinematic cities in North America’, The California Geographer, 38: 64–78.
    Lyon, D. (2001) Surveillance Society: Monitoring Everyday Life, Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Lyon, D. (ed.) (2003) Surveillance as Social Sorting: Privacy, Risk and Digital Discrimination, London: Routledge.
    Lyon, D. (2004) ‘Technology vs “terrorism”: circuits of city surveillance since September 11, 2001’, in S.Graham (ed.), Cities, War and Terrorism: Towards an Urban Geopolitics, Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 288–311.
    McCarthy, A. (2003) Ambient Television: Visual Culture and Public Space, Durham: Duke University Press.
    McCormack, D. (2005) ‘Diagramming practice and performance’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 23(1): 119–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d51j
    McDowell, L. (1995) ‘Body work: heterosexual gender performance in city workplaces’, in D.Bell, and G.Valentine (eds), Mapping Desire: Geographies of Sexuality, Routledge, London.
    McDowell, L. (1997) Capital Culture: Gender at Work in the City, Oxford: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470712894
    McDowell, L. (1999) Gender, Identity and Place: Understanding Feminist Geographies, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    McDowell, L., Batnitzky, A. and Dyer, S. (2007) ‘Division, segmentation and interpellation: the embodied labours of migrant workers in a Greater London hotel’, Economic Geography, 81(1): 1–26.
    McGuigan, J. (2004) Rethinking Cultural Policy, Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    McKenzie, E. (1994) Privatopia: Homeowner Associations and the Rise of Residential Private Government, New Haven: Yale University Press.
    McLuhan, M. (1962) The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    McNeill, D. (2001a) ‘Barcelona as imagined community: Pasqual Maragall's spaces of engagement’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 26: 340–352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-5661.00026
    McNeil, D. (2001b) ‘Embodying a Europe of the cities: the geographies of mayoral leadership’, Area, 33: 353–359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-4762.00041
    McNeill, D. (2003a) ‘Mapping the European urban left: the Barcelona experience’. Antipode, 35(1): 74–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00303
    McNeill, D. (2003b) ‘Rome, global city? Church, state and the jubilee 2000’, Political Geography, 22: 535–556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-6298%2803%2900034-9
    McNeill, D. (2005) ‘Skyscraper geography’, Progress in Human Geography, 29(1): 41–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132505ph527oa
    McNeill, D. (2007) ‘Office buildings and the signature architect: Piano and Foster in Sydney’, Environment and Planning A, 39: 487–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a3720
    McNeill, D. (2008a) The Global Architect: Firms, Fame and Urban Form, New York: Routledge.
    McNeill, D. (2008b) ‘The hotel and the city’, Progress in Human Geography, 32(3): 383–398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309132508089096
    McNeill, D., Dowling, R. and Fagan, R. (2005) ‘Sydney/global/city: an exploration’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29(4): 935–944. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2005.00629.x
    Machimura, T. (1998) ‘The urban restructuring process in Tokyo in the 1980s: transforming Tokyo into a world city’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 16(1): 114–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.1992.tb00468.x
    MacLeod, G. (1998) ‘In what sense a region? Place hybridity, symbolic shape, and institutional formation in (post-) modern Scotland’, Political Geography, 17 (7): 833–863. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-6298%2898%2900041-9
    Mackenzie, A. (2002) Transductions: Bodies and Machines at Speed, London: Continuum.
    Malbon, B. (1999) Clubbing: Dancing, Ecstasy and Vitality, London: Routledge.
    Mansvelt, J. (2005) Geographies of Consumption, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221433
    Marcuse, P. (1997) ‘The ghetto of exclusion and the fortified enclave: new patterns in the United States’, American Behavioural Scientist, 41(3): 311–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764297041003004
    Marcuse, P. (2004) ‘The “war on terrorism” and life in cities’, in S.Graham (ed.), Cities, War and Terrorism: Towards and Urban Geopolitics, Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 263–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470753033.ch15
    Marston, S.A. (2000) ‘The social construction of scale’, Progress in Human Geography, 24(2): 219–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/030913200674086272
    Marston, S.A. (2002) Making difference: conflict over Irish identity in the New York City St Patrick's Day parade’, Political Geography, 21: 373–392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-6298%2801%2900051-8
    Marvin, S. and Medd, W. (2006) ‘Metabolisms ofobecity: flows of fat through bodies, cities and sewers’, Environment and Planning A, 38: 313–324.
    Massey, D. (2005a) For Space, London: Sage.
    Massey, D. (2005b) Strangers in a Strange Land: Humans in an Urbanizing World, New York: W.W. Norton.
    Massey, D. and Denton, N. (1988) ‘The dimensions of residential segregation’, Social Forces, 67(2): 281–315.
    Massey, D. and Denton, N. (1993) American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Massey, D., White, M. and Phua, V.-C. (1996) ‘The dimensions of segregation revisited’, Sociological Methods and Research, 25: 172–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049124196025002002
    Massey, D., Allen, J. and Sarre, P. (eds) (1999) Human Geography Today, Cambridge: Polity.
    Massumi, B. (2002) Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Massumi, B. (2005) ‘The future birth of the affective fact’, available at http://www.radicalempiricism.org/biotextes/textes/massumi.pdf (accessed March 1st, 2007)
    Matless, D. (2000) ‘Five objects’, in S.Naylor, J.Ryan and I.Cook (eds), Cultural Turns/Geographical Turns, London: Pearson.
    May, J., Wills, J., Datta, K., Evans, Y., Herbert, J. and McIlwaine, C. (2007) ‘Keeping London working: global cities, the British state, and London's new migrant division of labour’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 32: 151–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2007.00241.x
    May, T. (2005) Deleuze: An Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165419
    Mayer, H. and Kohn, C. (1959) Readings in Urban Geography, Chicago: Chicago University Press.
    Mead, L. (1986) Beyond Entitlement: The Social Obligations of Citizenship, New York: The Free Press.
    Merrifield, A. (1993a) ‘The struggle over place: Redeveloping American can in Southeast Baltimore’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 18: 102–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/623071
    Merrifield, A. (1993b) ‘The Canary Wharf debacle: from “TINA” – there is no alternative – to “THEMBA” – there must be an alternative’, Environment and Planning A, 25: 1247–1265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a251247
    Merrifield, A. (2002) Metromarxism: A Marxist Tale of the City, New York: Routledge.
    Merriman, P. (2006) ‘“A new look at the English landscape”: landscape architecture, movement and the aesthetics of motorways in early postwar Britain’, Cultural Geographies, 13: 78–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/1474474006eu351oa
    Merriman, P. (2007) Driving Spaces: A Cultural-Historical Geography of England's M1 Motorway, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470762448
    Metropolis (1929) Directed by Fritz Lang.
    Meyrowitz, J. (1985) No Sense of Place: the Impact of Electronic Media on Social Behaviour, New York: Oxford University Press.
    Michael, M. (2006) Technoscience and Everyday Life: the Complex Simplicities of the Mundane, Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Miles, M., Hall, T. and Borden, I. (eds) (2003) The City Cultures Reader, London: Routledge.
    Miller, D. (1989) Lewis Mumford: A Life, New York: Weidenfield and Nicolson.
    Miller, D. (ed.) (2001) Car Cultures, Oxford: Berg.
    Miller, D. (ed.) (2005) Materiality, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Miller, D., Jackson, P., Thrift, N., Holbrook, B. and Rowlands, M. (1998) Shopping Place and Identity, London and New York: Routledge.
    Mitchell, D. (2003) The Right to the City: Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space, New York: The Guilford Press.
    Mitchell, K. (1995) ‘Flexible circulation in the Pacific Rim: capitalisms in cultural context’Economic Geography, 71(4): 364–382. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/144423
    Mitchell, K. (1997) ‘Transnational discourse: bringing geography back in’, Antipode, 29(2): 101–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00038
    Mitchell, K. (2003) ‘Monuments, memorials, and the politics of memory’, Urban Geography, 24(5): 442–459. http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-3638.24.5.442
    Mitchell, W. (1995) City of Bits: Space, Place and the Infobahn, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Mitchell, W. (1999) E-Topia: Urban Life Jim But Not as We Know It, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Mollenkopf, J. and Castells, M. (eds) (1991) Dual City: Restructuring New York, New York: Russell Sage.
    Monkhouse, F. and Wilkinson, H. (1973) Maps and Diagrams, Methuen: London.
    Monmonier, M. (1996) How to Lie with Maps,
    2nd edition
    , Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
    Monmonier, M. (2002) Spying with Maps: Surveillance Technologies and the Future of Privacy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Morley, D. and Robins, K. (eds) (1996) Spaces of Identity: Global Media, Electronic Landscapes and Cultural Boundaries, London: Routledge.
    Mullins, P., Natalier, K., Smith, P. and Smeaton, B. (1999) ‘Cities and consumption spaces’, Urban Affairs Review, 35(1): 44–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10780879922184284
    Mumford, L. (1938) The Culture of Cities, London: Secker and Warburg.
    Murdoch, J. (2006) Post-Structuralist Geography: A Guide to Relation Space, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221426
    Murray, C. (1984) Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950–1980, New York: Basic Books.
    Neyland, D. (2006) ‘The accomplishment of spatial adequacy: analysing CCTV accounts of British towncentres’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 24: 599–613. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d384t
    Nye, D.E. (1996) American Technological Sublime, Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
    O'Neill, P.M. and McGuirk, P. (2003) ‘Reconfiguring the CBD: work and discourses of design in Sydney's office space’, Urban Studies, 40(9): 1751–1767. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0042098032000106582
    O'Sullivan, D. and Wong, D. (2007) ‘A surfaced based approach to measuring spatial segregation’, Geographical Analysis, 39: 147–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-4632.2007.00699.x
    Olds, K. and Yeung, H. (1999) ‘Reshaping “Chinese” business networks in a globalising era’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 17(5): 535–555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d170535
    Olds, K. (1995) ‘Globalisation and the production of new urban spaces: Pacific Rim mega-projects in the late 20th century’, Environment and Planning A, 27: 1713–1743. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a271713
    Olds, K. (2001) Globalization and Urban Change: Capital, Culture and Pacific Rim Mega-Projects, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Olmstead, F. L. (1996 [1870]) ‘Public parks and the enlargement of towns’, in R.Legates, and F.Stat (eds), The City Reader, London: Routledge. pp. 337–344.
    Ong, A. (1999) Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logics of Globalization, London: Duke University Press.
    Pain, R. (2001) ‘Gender, race, age and fear in the city’, Urban Studies, 38: 899–913. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980120046590
    Park, R. (1923) ‘The natural history of the newspaper’, The American Journal of Sociology, 29(3): 273–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/213596
    Park, R. (1925) ‘The city: suggestions for the investigation of human behaviour in the urban environment’, in R.Park, E.Burgess and R.McKenzie (eds), The City, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 1–46.
    Paul, D.E. (2004) ‘World cities as hegemonic projects: the politics of global imagineering in Montreal’, Political Geography, 23(5): 571–596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2004.02.002
    Peach, C. (1996) ‘Does Britain have ghettos?’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 22: 216–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622934
    Peach, C. (ed.) (1975) Urban Social Segregation, London: Longman.
    Peach, C., Robinson, V. and Smith, S. (eds) (1981) Ethnic Segregation in Cities, London: Croom Helm.
    Peck, J. (2005) ‘Struggling with the creative class’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29(4): 740–770. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2005.00620.x
    Peleman, K. (2002) ‘The impact of residential segregation on participation in associations: the case of Moroccan women in Belgium’, Urban Studies, 39: 727–747. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980220119543
    Peterson, P. (1981) City Limits, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Philpot, T. (1978) The Slum and the Ghetto: Neighborhood Deterioration and Middle-Class Reform, Chicago, 1880–1930, New York: Oxford University Press.
    Philo, C. (1995) ‘Animals, geography, and the city: notes on inclusions and exclusions’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 13(6): 655–681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d130655
    Pile, S. (1996) The Body and the City: Psychoanalysis, Subjectivity and Space, London: Routledge.
    Pile, S. (1999) ‘What is a city?’, in D.Massey, J.Allen, and S.Pile (eds), City WorldsLondon: Routledge. pp. 3–52.
    Pinck, P. (2000) ‘From the sofa to the crime scene: Skycam, local news and the televisual city’, Urban Space and Representation, in N.Balshaw, and L.Liam Kennedy (eds), London: Pluto. pp. 55–68.
    Pinder, D. (2005) Visions of the City: Utopianism, Power and Politics in Twentieth-Century Urbanism, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Ponce de Leon, C. (2002) Self-Exposure: Human Interest Journalism and The Emergence of Celebrity in America 1890–1940, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
    Poole, M. and Boal, F. (1973) ‘Religious residential segregation in Belfast in mid-1969: a multilevel analysis’, The Institute of British Geographers, 25: 321–332.
    Portes, A. (1996) ‘Global villagers: the rise of transnational communities’, The American Prospect, 2:74–77.
    Portes, A. and Rumbaut, R. (1990) Immigrant America: A Portrait, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Portes, A., Guarnizo, L. E. and Landolf, P. (1999) ‘The study of transnationalism: the pitfalls and promise of an emergent research field’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(2): 217–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014198799329468
    Power, E. (2005), ‘Human-nature relations in suburban gardens’, Australian Geographer, 36: 39–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00049180500050847
    Power, M. and Sidaway, J. (2005) ‘Deconstructing twinned towers: Lisbon's Expo '98 and the occluded geographies of discovery’, Social and Cultural Geography, 6(6): 865–883. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14649360500353228
    Pred, A. (1966) The Spatial Dynamics of US Urban-Industrial Growth, 1800–1914: Interpretative and Theoretical Essays, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Pred, A. (1977) City-Systems in Advanced Economies: Past Growth, Present Processes and Future Development Options, London: Hutchinson.
    Prince, H. (1980) ‘Review of humanistic geography: prospects and problems’, by David Ley and Marwyb S. Samuels, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 70(2): 294–296.
    Quilley, S. (1999) ‘Entrepreneurial Manchester: the genesis of elite consensus’, Antipode, 31: 185–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00099
    Quilley, S. (2000) ‘Manchester first: from municipal socialism to the entrepreneurial city’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24: 601–615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00267
    Raco, M. (2005) ‘Sustainable Development, rolled-out neo-liberalism and sustainable communities’, Antipode, 37(2): 324–346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0066-4812.2005.00495.x
    Rantisi, N. and Leslie, D. (2006) ‘Branding the design metropole: the case of Montréal, Canada’, Area, 38(4): 364–376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4762.2006.00705.x
    Rappaport, E. (2000) Shopping for Pleasure: Women in the Making of London's West End, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Ratcliffe, J., Stubbs, M. and Shepherd, M. (2004) Urban Planning and Real Estate Development,
    2nd edition
    , London: Spon.
    Reichl, A.J. (1999) Reconstructing Times Square: Politics and Culture in Urban Development, Lawrence, KA: University Press of Kansas.
    Revell, K.D. (2003) Building Gotham: Civic Culture and Public Policy in New York City, 1898–1938, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Ritzer, G. (1997) The McDonaldization of Society, London: Sage.
    Robertson, S. (2007) ‘Visions of urban mobility: the Westway, London, England’, Cultural Geographies, 14: 74–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1474474007072820
    Robinson, J. (1998) ‘Spaces of democracy: remapping the apartheid city’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 16(5): 533–548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d160533
    Robinson, J. (2006) Ordinary Cities: Between Modernity and Development, London: Routledge.
    Rodman, G.B. (1996) Elvis After Elvis: The Posthumous Career of a Living Legend, London and New York: Routledge.
    Rodrigue, J-P., Comtois, C. and Slack, B. (2006) The Geography of Transport Systems, New York: Routledge.
    Rose, G. (1993) Feminism and Geography: The Limits of Geographical Knowledge, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Rose, G. (2007) Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials,
    2nd edition
    , London: Sage.
    Ross, K. and Nightingale, V. (2003) Media and Audiences, Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Sachs, W. (1984) For Love of the Automobile: Looking Back into the History of Our Desires, Berkeley: University of California.
    Sack, R. (1988) ‘The consumer's world: place as context’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 78(4): 642–664. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1988.tb00236.x
    Sadler, S. (1998) The Situationist City, London: MIT Press.
    Sagalyn, L.B. (2001) Times Square Roulette: Remaking the City Icon, Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
    Sanders, J. (2001) Celluloid Skyline: New York and the Movies, London: Bloomsbury.
    Sassen, S. (1988) The Mobility of Labor and Capital. A Study in International Investment and Labor Flow, Cambridge: Cambridge University. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511598296
    Sassen, S. (1991) The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Sassen, S. (1995) ‘On concentration and centrality in the global city’, in P.L.Knox and P.J.Taylor (eds), World Cities in a World-Economy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 63–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511522192
    Sassen, S. (2000) ‘The global city: strategic site/new frontier’, in E.F.Isin (ed.), Democracy, Ctizenship and the Global City, London: Routledge. pp. 48–61.
    Sassen, S. (2001) The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo,
    2nd edition
    , Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Sauer, C.O. (1925) ‘The morphology of Landscape’, University of California Publications in Geography, 2: 19–54.
    Schivelbusch, W. (1986) The Railway Journey: the Industrialization of Time and Space in the Nineteenth Century, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Schwartz, V. (1999) Spectacular Realities: Early Mass Culture in Fin-De Siecle Paris, Berkeley: University of California.
    Schwarzer, M. (2004) Zoomscape: Architecture in Motion and Meaning, New York: Princeton Architectural Press.
    Scott, A. (1980) The Urban Land Nexus and the State, London: Pion.
    Scott, A. (ed.) (2002) Global City-Regions: Trends, Theory, Policy, New York: Oxford University Press.
    Scott, A. (2004) ‘Cultural-products industries and urban economic development: prospects for growth and market contestation in global context’, Urban Affairs Review, 39(4): 461–490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1078087403261256
    Scott, H. (2003) ‘Cultural turns’, in J.S.Duncan, N.C.Johnson, and R.H.Schein (eds), A Companion to Cultural Geography, Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 24–37.
    Self, R. (2003) American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Sennett, R. (1977) The Fall of Public Man, London: Faber and Faber.
    Sennett, R. (1994) Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilisation, New York: W.W. Norton.
    Shatkin, G. (1998) ‘“Fourth world” cities in the global economy: the case of Phnom Penh, Cambodia’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 22(3): 378–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00147
    Shaw, G. and Wheeler, D. (1985) Statistical Techniques in Geographical Analysis, New York: John Wiley.
    Sheller, M. (2003) ‘Mobile publics: beyond the network perspective’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 22(1): 39–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d324t
    Sheller, M. and Urry, J. (2000) ‘The city and the car’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24: 737–757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00276
    Sheller, M. and Urry, J. (2003) ‘Mobile transformations of “private” and “public” life’, Theory, Culture, and Society, 20(3): 115–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02632764030203007
    Sheller, M. and Urry, J. (eds) (2004) Tourism Mobilities: Places to Play, Places in Play, London: Routledge.
    Sheller, M. and Urry, J. (eds) (2006) Mobile Technologies of the City, London: Routledge.
    Shiel, M. and Fitzmaurice, T. (2001) Cinema and the City: Film Studies and Urban Societies in a Global Context, Oxford: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470712948
    Shields, R. (ed.) (1992) Lifestyle Shopping: the Subject of Consumption, London: Routledge.
    Shields, R. (2003) The Virtual, London: Routledge.
    Short, J. (1996) The Urban Order, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Sibley, D. (1995) Geographies of Exclusion, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203430545
    Sidaway, J.D. and Power, M. (1995) ‘Sociospatial transformation in the “postsocialist” periphery: the case of Maputo, Mozambique’, Environment and Planning A, 27(9): 1463–1491. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a271463
    Sidorov, D. (2000) ‘National monumentalization and the politics of scale: the resurrections of the cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90(3): 548–572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0004-5608.00208
    Silk, M. and Andrews, D. (2006) ‘The fittest city in America’, Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 30(3): 315–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193723506290677
    Simmel, G. (1997) ‘The metropolis and mental life’, in D.Frisby and M.Featherstone (eds), Simmel or Culture, London: Sage. pp. 174–185.
    Simone, A. (2004) For the City Yet to Come: Changing African Life in Four Cities, Durham: Duke University Press.
    Simpson, L. (2007) ‘Ghettos of the mind: the empirical behaviour of indices of segregation and diversity’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 170, Part 2: 405–424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-985X.2007.00465.x
    Sinclair, U. (1905) The Jungle, Broomhall, PA: Chelsea House.
    Sklair, L. (2001) The Transnational Capitalist Class, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Slater, T. (2006) ‘The eviction of critical perspectives from gentrification research’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 30(4): 737–757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2006.00689.x
    Smith, M.D. (1996) ‘The empire filter back: consumption, production and the politics of Starbucks coffee’, Urban Geography, 17: 502–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-3638.17.6.502
    Smith, D. (1979) ‘Towards a theory of gentrification: a back to the city movement of capital not people’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 45: 538–548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944367908977002
    Smith, M.P. and Guarnizo, L.E. (eds) (1998) Transnationalism from Below: Comparative Urban and Community Research, New Brunswick NJ: Transaction Publishers.
    Smith, M.P. (1994) ‘Can you imagine? Transnational migration and the globalization of grassroots politics’, Social Text, 39: 15–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/466362
    Smith, M.P. (1998) ‘The global city: whose social construct is it anyway?’Urban Affairs Review, 33(4): 482–488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107808749803300403
    Smith, M.P. (2001) Transnational Urbanism: Locating Globalization, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Smith, M.P. (2002) ‘Power in place: retheorizing the local and the global’, in J.Eade and C.Mele (eds), Understanding the City: Contemporary and Future Perspectives, Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 109–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470693582.ch6
    Smith, M.P. (2005a) ‘Power in place/places of power: contextualizing transnational research’, City and Society, 17(1): 5–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/city.2005.17.1.5
    Smith, M.P. (2005b) ‘From context and back again: the uses of transnational urbanism’, City and Society, 17(1): 81–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/city.2005.17.1.81
    Smith, M.P. (2005c) ‘Transnational urbanism revisited, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies’, 31(2): 235–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369183042000339909
    Smith, M.P. and Bakker, M. (2005) ‘The transnational politics of the Tomato King: meaning and impact, Global Networks, 5(2): 129–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0374.2005.00111.x
    Smith, N. (1979) ‘Towards a theory of gentrification: a back to the city movement by capital not people’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 45: 538–548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944367908977002
    Smith, N. (1984) Uneven Development, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Smith, N. (1987) ‘Of yuppies and housing: gentrification, social restructuring, and the urban dream’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 5: 151–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d050151
    Smith, N. (1996) The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City, London: Routledge.
    Smith, N. (2002) ‘New globalism, new urbanism: gentrification as global urban strategy’, Antipode, 34(3): 434–457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00249
    Soja, E.W. (1989) Postmodern Geographies: The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory, London: Verso.
    Soja, E.W. (1996) Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Soja, E.W. (2000) Postmetropolis: Critical Studies of Cities and Regions, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Sorkin, M. (ed.) (1992) Variations on a Theme Park, New York: Hill and Wang.
    Sparke, M. (2000) ‘“Chunnel visions”: unpacking the anticipatory geographies of an anglo-European borderland’, Journal of Borderland Studies, 15: 187–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08865655.2000.9695547
    Spigel, L. (2001) ‘Media homes then and now’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 4(4): 385–411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/136787790100400402
    Stacey, M. (1969) ‘The myth of community studies, British Journal of Sociology, 20(2): 134–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/588525
    Stenning, A. (2003) ‘Shaping the economic landscapes of postsocialism? Labour, workplace and community in Nowa Huta, Poland’, Antipode, 35(4): 761–780. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-8330.2003.00349.x
    Stone, C.N. (1989) Regime Politics: Governing Atlanta 1946–1988, Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.
    Sturken, M. and Cartwright, L. (2001), Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Sudjic, D. (1992) The 100 Mile City, San Diego: Harcourt Brace.
    Sudjic, D. (2005) The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful Shape the World, London: Allen Lane.
    Sugrue, T. (1996) The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Sui, D.Z. (2003) ‘Musings on the fat city: are obesity and urban forms linked?’, Urban Geography, 24(1): 75–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-3638.24.1.75
    Sutton, C. (1987) The Caribbeanization of New York City and the emergence of transnational social systems’, in R.Sutton and E.Chaney (eds), Caribbean Life in New York City: Sociocultural Dimensions, New York: Centre for Migration Studies. pp. 15–30.
    Swyngedouw, E. (1997) ‘Power, nature and the city. The conquest of water and the political ecology of urbanization in Guayaquil, Ecuador: 1880–1980’, Environment and Planning A, 29(2): 311–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a290311
    Swyngedouw, E. (2007) ‘Technonatural relations: the scalar politics of Franco's hydro-social dream for Spain, 1939–1975’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 32: 9–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2007.00233.x
    Swyngedouw, E., Moulaert, F. and Rodriguez, A. (2002), ‘Neoliberal urbanization in Europe: large-scale urban development projects and the new urban policy’, Antipode, 34: 542–577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00254
    Tauber, K. and Tauber, A. (1965) Negroes in Cities: Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Change, Chicago: University of Chicago.
    Taylor, G. (1949) Urban Geography, London: Methuen.
    Thrift, N. (1993) ‘For a new regional geography’, Progress in Human Geography, 17: 92–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030913259301700107
    Thrift, N. (1996) ‘New urban eras and old technological fears: reconfiguring the goodwill of electronic things’, Urban Studies, 33(8): 1463–1493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0042098966754
    Thrift, N. (2003) ‘Space: the fundamental stuff of human geography’, in S.Holloway, S.P.Rice, and G.Valentine (eds), Key Concepts in Human Geography, London: Sage.
    Thrift, N. (2005a) ‘Beyond mediation: three new material registers and their consequences’, in D.Miller (ed.), Materiality. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 231–255.
    Thrift, N. (2005b) ‘But malice aforethought: cities and the natural history of hatred’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS, 30: 133–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2005.00157.x
    Thrift, N. (2005c) ‘Torsten Hagerstrand and social theory’, Progress in Human Geography, 29(3): 337–340.
    Thrift, N. (2007) ‘Immaculate Warfare’, in D.Gregory and A.Pred (eds), Violent Geographies: Fear, Terror, and Political Violence, London: Routledge.
    Thrift, N. and Pred, A. (1981) ‘Time geography: a new beginning’, Progress in Human Geography, 5: 277–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030913258100500209
    Till, K.E. (2005) The New Berlin: Memory, Politics, Place, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Tölölyan, K. (1991) The nation-state and its others’, Diaspora, 1(1): 3–7.
    Tölölyan, K. (1996) ‘Rethinking diaspora(s): stateless power in the transnational world’, Diaspora, 5(1): 3–36.
    Tönnies, F. (1963) Community and Society, New York: Harper and Row.
    Uitermark, J. (2004a) ‘Looking forward by looking back: May Day protests in London and the strategic significance of the urban’, Antipode, 36(4): 706–727. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2004.00444.x
    Uitermark, J. (2004b) ‘The co-optation of squatters in Amsterdam and the emergence of a movement meritocracy: a critical reply to Pruijt’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28(3): 687–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0309-1317.2004.00543.x
    Ullman, E. (1957) American Commodity Flow: A Geographical Interpretation of Rail and Water Traffic Based on Principles of Spatial Interchange, Washington: University of Washington Press.
    Underhill, P. (2000) Why We Buy: The Science of Shopping, New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Underhill, P. (2004) Call of the Mall: The Geography of Shopping, New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Urry, J. (2000) Sociology Beyond Societies: Mobilities for the Twenty-First Century, London: Routledge.
    Vertovec, S. (1999) ‘Conceiving and researching transnationalism’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(2): 447–662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014198799329558
    Vertovec, S. (2001) ‘Transnationalism and identity’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 27(4): 573–582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691830120090386
    Vidler, A. (2001) ‘Diagrams of Utopia’, in C.de Zegher, and M.Wigley (eds), The Activist Drawing: Retracing Situationist Architecture from Constant's New Babylon to Beyond, Cambridge MA: MIT Press. pp. 83–91.
    Wacquant, L. (1999) ‘Urban marginality in the coming millennium’, Urban Studies, 36(10): 1639–1647. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0042098992746
    Wacquant, L. (2001) Deadly symbiosis: when ghetto and prison meet and mesh, Punishment and Society, 3(1): 95–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/14624740122228276
    Wacquant, L. (2004) Body and Soul: Notebooks of an Apprentice Boxer, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Wacquant, L. (2007) A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality, Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Waitt, G. and Head, L. (2001) ‘Postcards and frontier mythologies: sustaining views of the Kimberley as timeless’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 20: 319–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d269t
    Waldinger, R. (1999) Still the Promised City? African-Americans and New Immigrants in Post Industrial New York, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Walker, R. (1996) ‘Another round of globalization in San Francisco’, Urban Geography, 17(1): 60–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-3638.17.1.60
    Walkowitz, D.J. and Knauer, L.M. (2004) Memory and the Impact of Political Transformation in Public Space, Durham: Duke University Press.
    Wark, M. (1994) Virtual Geography: Living with Global Media Events, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
    Waters, J. (2005) ‘Transnational family strategies and education in the contemporary Chinese diaspora’, Global Networks, 5(4): 359–377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0374.2005.00124.x
    Waters, J. (2006) ‘Geographies of cultural capital: education, international migration and family strategies between Hong Kong and Canada’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS, 31(2): 179–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2006.00202.x
    Webber, M. (1964) Explorations into Urban Structure, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
    Weber, R. (2002) ‘Extracting value from the city: neoliberalism and urban redevelopment’, Antipode, 34(3): 519–540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00253
    Webster, C. (ed.) (2006) Private Cities: Global and Local Perspectives, London: Routledge.
    Wellman, B. (1979) ‘The community question’, American Journal of Sociology, 84: 1201–1331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/226906
    Wellman, B. (ed.) (1998) Networks in the Global Village: Life in Contemporary Communis, Boulder: Westview Press.
    Wellman, B. and Haythornthwaite, C. (eds) (2002) The Internet in Everyday Life, Oxford: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470774298
    Wellman, B., Carrington, P. and Hall, A. (1988) ‘Networks as personal communities’, in B.Wellman and S.Berkowitz (eds), Social Structure: A Network Approach, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 130–184.
    Wellman, B. and Leighton, B. (1979) ‘Network, neighborhoods and communities’, Urban Affair Quarterly, 14: 363–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107808747901400305
    Welter, V. (2002) Biopolis: Patrick Geddes and the City of Life, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Westerbeck, C. and Meyrowitz, J. (2001) Bystander: A History of Street Photography, Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
    Whatmore, S. (2002) Hybrid Geographies: Nature, Culture, Space, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446219713
    Wheeler, B., Shaw, M., Mitchell, R. and Dorling, D. (2005) Life in Britain: using millennial Census data to understand poverty, inequality and place, Bristol: The Policy Press.
    Wheeler, J. (2005) ‘Assessing the role of spatial analysis in urban geography in the 1960s’, in B.J.L.Berry, and J.O.Wheeler (eds), Urban Geography in America, 1950–2000: Paradigms and Personalis, New York: Routledge. pp. 117–128.
    Whelan, A., Wrigley, N., Warm, D. and Cannings, E. (2002) ‘Life in a “food desert”’, Urban Studies, 39(11): 2083–2100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0042098022000011371
    While, A. (2003) ‘Locating art worlds: London and the remaking of young British art’, Area, 35(3): 251–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-4762.00174
    While, A. (2006) ‘Modernism vs urban renaissance: negotiating post-war heritage in English city centres’, Urban Studies, 43(13): 2399–2419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980601038206
    Whyte, A. and Mackintosh, A. (2003) ‘Representational politics in virtual urban places’, Environment and Planning A, 35: 1607–1627. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a34237
    Williams, R. (1973) The Country and the City, London: Chatto and Windus.
    Williams, R. (1976) Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, London: Flamingo.
    Wills, J. (2001) ‘Community unionism and trade union renewal in the UK: moving beyond the fragments at last?’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 26(4): 465–483. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-5661.00035
    Wilson, A. (2000) Complex Spatial Systems: The Modelling Foundations of Regional Analysis, Harlow: Prentice Hall.
    Wilson, D. (2007) Cities and Race: The New American Black Ghetto, London: Routledge.
    Wilson, E. (1991) The Sphinx in the City: Urban Design, the Control of Disorder, and Women, London: Virago.
    Wilson, J. (1987) The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Wolch, J., West, K. and Gaines, T. (1995) ‘Trans-species urban theory’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 13(9): 735–760.
    Wolch, J. (2002) ‘Anima urbris’, Progress in Human Geography, 26(6): 721–742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132502ph400oa
    Wolch, J. (2007) Green urban worlds’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 97(2): 373–384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.2007.00543.x
    Wollen, P. and Kerr, J. (eds) (2002) Autopia: Cars and Culture, London: Reaktion.
    Women and Geography Study Group of the IBG (1984) Geography and Gender: An Introduction to Feminist Geography, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Wood, D.M., Lyon, D. and Abe, K. (2007) ‘Surveillance in urban Japan: a critical introduction’, Urban Studies, 44(3): 551–568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980601176097
    Wrigley, N. and Lowe, M. (2002), Reading Retail: A Geographical Perspective on Retailing and Consumption Spaces, London: Arnold.
    Wu, F. (ed.) (2005) Globalization and the Chinese City, London: Routledge.
    Yeung, H. (2005) ‘Rethinking relational economic geography’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS, 30: 37–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2005.00150.x
    Young, M. and Willmott, P. (1957) Family and Kinship in East London, London: Penguin Books.
    Zukin, S. (1992) ‘The city as a landscape of power: London and New York as global financial capitals’, in L.Budd, and S.Whimster (eds), Global Finance and Urban Living, Andover: Routledge, Chapman and Hall. pp. 195–223.
    Zukin, S. (1995) The Cultures of Cities, Cambridge MA: Blackwell.

    Author Index


    • Loading...
Back to Top