Key Concepts in Urban Geography
Publication Year: 2009
Key Concepts in Urban Geography is a new kind of textbook that forms part of an innovative set of companion texts for the human geography sub-disciplines. Organized around 20 short essays, Key Concepts in Urban Geography provides a cutting edge introduction to the central concepts that define contemporary research in urban geography.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Location and Movement
- Global Cities
- Transnational Urbanism
- Chapter 2: Constructions
- Chapter 3: Envisioning and Experience
- Chapter 4: Social and Political Organisation
- Urban Politics
- Chapter 5: Sites and Practices
- Public Space
Key Concepts in Human Geography[Page ii]
The Key Concepts in Human Geography series is intended to provide a set of companion texts for the core fields of the discipline. To date, students and academics have been relatively poorly served with regards to detailed discussions of the key concepts that geographers use to think about and understand the world. Dictionary entries are usually terse and restricted in their depth of explanation. Student textbooks tend to provide broad overviews of particular topics or the philosophy of Human Geography, but rarely providing a detailed overview of particular concepts, their premises, development over time and empirical use. Research monographs most often focus on particular issues and a limited number of concepts at a very advanced level, so do not offer an expansive and accessible overview of the variety of concepts in use within a subdiscipline.
The Key Concepts in Human Geography series seeks to fill this gap, providing detailed description and discussion of the concepts that are at the heart of theoretical and empirical research in contemporary Human Geography. Each book consists of an introductory chapter that outlines the major conceptual developments over time along with approximately twenty-five entries on the core concepts that constitute the theoretical toolkit of geographers working within a specific subdiscipline. Each entry provides a detailed explanation of the concept, outlining contested definitions and approaches, the evolution of how the concept has been used to understand particular geographic phenomenon, and suggested further reading. In so doing, each book constitutes an invaluable companion guide to geographers grappling with how to research, understand and explain the world we inhabit.
© Alan Latham, Derek McCormack, Kim McNamara, Donald McNeill 2009
First published 2009
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, Post Bag 7
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Library of Congress Control Number 2008922616
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4129-3042-0 (pbk)
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed by The Cromwell Press Ltd, Trowbridge, Wiltshire
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
We would like to thank Rob Kitchin, Robert Rojek, Sarah-Jayne Boyd, Wendy Scott and the production staff at SAGE for all their help in moving the project from commissioning to completion. Derek would like to thank Brendan Bartley and Paul Knox for helping him think about urban geography, and Andrea for her patience. Alan would like to thank Rita and Tom for their love and support. Kim would like to thank her family, and especially Mia and Mikaela. Donald would like to thank Carol for her love.
Alan, Derek and Donald would like to show their appreciation of the guidance of Steven Pinch. Many of the ideas contained in their entries were developed while at the University of Southampton, and Steven's counsel and enthusiasm was invaluable. Kim is grateful for the advice of Nick Couldry.Photo Acknowledgements
All photos are copyright of Kim McNamara, except that of 2.3.1 and 5.1.2 (©Donald McNeill).Diagram Acknowledgements
1.1.2: Park, R., Burgess, E. and McKenzie, R. (1925/1967) The City, Chicago: University of Chicago, Chart II. Urban areas. p. 55.
3.1.1: ‘Generalisations of internal structure of cities’, Fig. 5, p. 13 in Harris, C. and Ullman, E. (1945) The nature of cities', The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 242: 7–17.
3.1.2: Latham, A. (2003a) ‘Research, performance, and doing human geography: some reflections on the diary-photo diary-interview method, Environment and Planning A, 35: 1993–2017. (The image is from page 2010.)
[Page vii]4.1: ‘The ecology of fear’ from Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of Disaster, by Mike Davis. Copyright 1998 by Mike Davis. Reprinted by permission of Henry Holt and Company, LLC.[Page viii]
Bibliography[Page 195]2004) ‘Contesting the New York Community: From Liminality to the “New Normal” in the Wake of September 11’, City and Community, 3(3): 189–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1535-6841.2004.00078.x, and (2003) Screen Traffic: Movies, Multiplexes, and Global Culture, Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press.(2007) Surveillance at the airport: surveilling mobility/mobilising surveillance, Environment and Planning A, 36: 1365–1380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a36159(2001) The Culture Industry, London: Routledge.(2002) Dialectic of Enlightenment, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.and (1998) Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(2007) Key Concepts and Techniques in GIS, London: Sage.(2007) ‘Of urban entrepreneurs or 24-hour party people? City-centre living in Manchester, England’, Environment and Planning A, 39: 666–683. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a37302(1998) Rethinking the Region: Spaces of NeoLiberalism, London: Routledge., and (Allen, J., Massey, D. and Pryke, M. (eds) (1999) Unsettling Cities, London: Routledge.1999) Points + Lines: Diagrams and Projects for the City, New York: Princeton Architectural Press.(2004) An ontology of everyday control: space, media flows and “smart living” in the absolute present’, in N.Couldry and A.McCarthy (eds), MediaSpace: Place, Scale and Culture in a Media Age, London: Routledge.(2002) ‘Spatialities of globalisation’, Environment and Planning A, 34: 385–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a3439(2007) ‘Re-thinking the urban social’, City, 11(1): 100–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13604810701200961(1997) ‘The Ordinary City’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS, 22(4): 411–429. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-2754.1997.00411.xand (2002) Cities: Reimagining the Urban, Cambridge: Polity.and (2004) ‘The “emancipatory” city?’ in L.Lees, (ed.) The Emancipatory City: Paradoxes and Possibilities, London: Sage. pp. 231–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221365and (1983) Imagined Communities, London: Verso.(1988) ‘Cultural hegemony and the race-definition process in Chinatown, Vancouver: 1880–1980’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 6(2): 127–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d060127(1991) Vancouver's Chinatown: Racial Discourse in Canada, 1875–1980, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.(1995) ‘Culture and nature and the Adelaide zoo: at the frontiers of “human” geography’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 20(3): 275–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622652(1998) ‘A walk on the wild side: a critical geography of domestication'’, Progress in Human Geography, 21(4): 463–485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/030913297673999021([Page 196]1999) ‘Introduction’, in F.Gale and K.Anderson (eds), Cultural Geographies,(second edition, Melbourne: Addison Wesley Longman. pp. 1–21.1999) ‘Geographies of publicity and privacy: Residential activism in Sydney in the 1970s’, Environment and Planning A, 31(6): 1017–1030. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a311017and (2004) Reality TV: The Work of Being Watched, New York: Rowman and Littlefield.(Appadurai, A. (ed.) (1986) The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.1990) ‘Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy’, Theory, Culture and Society, 7: 295–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327690007002017(1996) Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.(1998) ‘Totalitarianism and the street in fascist Rome’, in N.Fyfe (ed.), Images of the Street: Planning, Identity and Control in Public Space, London: Routledge. pp. 13–30.(2007) ‘Kitsch geographies and the everyday spaces of social memory’, Environment and Planning A, 39(3): 521–540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a3866(1998) ‘Urban rhetoric and embodied identities: city, nation and empire at the Vittorio Emmanuele II monument in Rome, 1870–1945’, Annals of the Association of American Geographer, 88(1): 28–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8306.00083and (2000) Wild Things: the Medical Culture of Everyday Life, Oxford: Berg.(1995) Non-places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity, London: Verso.(Balshaw, M. and Kennedy, L. (eds) (2000) Urban Space and Representation, London: Pluto Press.2002) Projected Cities: Cinema and Urban Space, London: Reaktion Books.(Barley, N. (ed.) (2000) Breathing Cities: The Architecture of Movement, Berlin: Birkhäuser.2003) ‘The place of locational analysis: a selective and interpretive history’, Progress in Human Geography, 27: 69–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132503ph419oa(2005) ‘The 1990s show: culture leaves the farm and hits the streets’, in B.J.L.Berry and J.O.Wheeler (eds), Urban Geography in America, 1950–2000: Paradigms and Personals, New York: Routledge. pp. 311–326.(2003) ‘A critique of the cultural turn’, in J.S.Duncan, N.C.Johnson and R.H.Schein (eds), A Companion to Cultural Geography, Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 38–48.(1972) Mythologies, London: Vintage.(2005) Cities and Complexity: Understanding Cities with Cellular Automata, Agent-based Models, and Fractals, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2006) ‘Digital cornucopias: changing conceptions of the virtual city’, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 33: 799–802. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/b3306ed(2002) ‘Virtuality and cities: Definitions, geographies, Designs’, in P.F.Fisher and D.B.Unwin (eds), Virtual Reality in Geography, London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 270–291.and (1988) America, London: Verso.([Page 197]2001) Community, Cambridge: Polity.(1993) Voices of Decline: The Postwar Fate of US Cities, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.(2000) World-city network: a new metageography?, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90(1): 123–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0004-5608.00188, and (2002) ‘Transnational elites in global cities: British expatriates in Singapore's financial district’, Geoforum, 33(4): 525–538. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7185%2802%2900036-2(2005) ‘Transnational elites in the city: British highly-skilled intercompany transferees in New York City's financial district’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies21(2): 245–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369183042000339918(2001) ‘Automobility – a social problem and theoretical concept’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 19: 593–607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d222t(1972) Community Studies: An Introduction to the Sociology of the Local Community, London: Harper Collins.and (2007) ‘The hospitable city: social relations in commercial settings’, Progress in Human Geography, 31(1): 7–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309132507073526(Bell, D. and Valentine, G. (eds) (1995) Mapping Desire: Geographies of Sexuality, London: Routledge.1997) Consuming Geographies: We Are Where We Eat, London: Routledge.and (Bell, D. and Jayne, M. (eds) (2006) Small Cities: Urban Experience Beyond the Metropolis, Abingdon: Routledge.1999) Illuminations, London: Pimlico.(2001) The Enchantment of Modern Life: Attachments, Crossings, Ethics, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(1982) All That is Solid Melts into Air, London: Verso.(2006) On the Town: One Hundred Years of Spectacle in Times Square, New York: Random House.(1973) The Human Consequences of Urbanisation: Divergent Paths in the Urban Experience in the 20th Century, London: Macmillan.(2005) Urban Geography in America, 1950–2000, New York: Routledge.and (2006) ‘Geographies of production and the contexts of politics: dislocation and new ecologies of fear in the Venetocittà diffusa’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 24: 41–67.(1996) ‘Object-ions: from technological determinism towards geographies of relations’Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 14: 635–657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d140635(2003) Video justice: crimes of violence in social/media space’, Space and Culture, 6: 276–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1206331203251659and (2002) ‘Gathering the land: the Alice Springs to Darwin rail corridor’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 20: 295–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d329(Bladerunner (1980) Directed by Ridley Scott.2006) Home, London: Routledge.and (2001) Die sinnliche Stadt: Essays zur modernen Urbanistik, Zürich: Nagel&Kimche.(2001) Skateboarding, Space and the City: Architecture and the Body, Oxford: Berg.([Page 198]1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1916) ‘Trans-national America’, Atlantic Monthly, 118 (July): 86–97.(1996a) Cybercities, New York: Princeton Architectural Press.(1996b) City of Collective Memory, Cambridge MA: MIT Press.(1999) ‘Conditions of success in sustainable urban transport policy-policy change in ‘relative successful’ European cities’, Transport Reviews, 19, 2: 177–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014416499295600(2006) The Global Cities Reader, Abingdon: Routledge.and (Brenner, N. and Theodore, N. (eds) (2002) Spaces of Neoliberalism: Urban Restructuring in North America and Western Europe, Oxford: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/97814443974992002) ‘Cities and the Geographies of “Actually Existing Neoliberalism”’, Antipode, 34(3): 349–379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00246and (Breward, C. and Gilbert, D. (eds) (2006) Fashion's World Cities, Oxford: Berg. http://dx.doi.org/10.2752/97808578541172005) Reason in the City of Difference, London: Routledge.(1995) Ironies of distance: an ongoing critique of the geographies of AIDS’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 13(2): 159–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d130159(1999) ‘Reconceptualizing public and private in urban regime theory: governance in AIDS politics’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23(1): 45–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00179(1920) Human Geography, Chicago: Rand McNally.(1999) ‘Views from above and below: the Petronas Twin Towers and/in contesting visions of development in contemporary Malaysia’, Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 20(1): 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9493.00040(2004a) Malaysia, Modernity and the Multimedia Super Corridor: A Critical Geography of Intelligent Landscapes, London: Routledge.(2004b) ‘Re-viewing the Entrapment controversy: Megaprojection, (mis)representation and postcolonial performance’, GeoJournal, 59(4): 297–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:GEJO.0000026703.44576.6f(1925) ‘The growth of the city: An introduction to a research project’, in R.Park, E.Burgess and R.McKenzie (eds), The City, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1978) ‘Charisma and context’, in D.Ley, and M.Samuels (eds) Humanistic Geography: Prospects and Problems, Chicago: Maaroufa Press.(2000) City of Walls: Crime, Segregation, and Citizenship in Sao Paulo, Berkeley: University of California Press.(2000) Voyeur Nation: Media, Privacy, and Peering in Modern Culture, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.(1989) The Informational City, Oxford: Blackwell.(1997) The Power of Identity, Oxford: Blackwell.(Clarke, D.B. (ed.) (1997) The Cinematic City, London: Routledge.Chung, C.J. (ed.) (2002) The Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping, Cologne: Taschen.1991) Approaching Human Geography: An Introduction to Contemporary Theoretical Debates, New York: Guilford., and (2004) ‘Rings of steel, rings of concrete and rings of confidence: designing out terrorism in Central London pre and post September 11th’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28(1): 201–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0309-1317.2004.00511.x([Page 199]2003) Exporting American Architecture, 1870–2000, London: Routledge.(2001) Doing the Town: The Rise of Urban Tourism in the United States, 1850–1915, Berkeley: University of California Press.(2005) ‘Transnational urbanism: attending to everyday practices and mobilities’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 21(2): 227–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369183042000339891and (2007) ‘The experiential economy of London: Antipodean transnational and the overseas experience’, Mobilities, 2(2): 231–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17450100701381573and (2003) ‘Cross over food: re-materializing postcolonial geographies’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 28: 297–317.and (2000) The Place of Media Power: Pilgrims and Witnesses of the Media Age, London: Routledge.(2004) ‘Introduction. Orientations: mapping MediaSpace’, in N.Couldry and A.McCarthy (eds), MediaSpace: Place, Scale and Culture in a Media Age, London: Routledge. pp. 1–18.and (1993) ‘The local and the global in the new urban politics: a critical review’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 11: 433–448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d110433(1998) ‘Spaces of dependence, spaces of engagement and the politics of scale, or: looking for local politics’, Political Geography, 17: 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-6298%2897%2900048-6(2006) ‘Disintegrated houses: exploring ecofeminist housing and urban design options’, Antipode, 38(4): 711–734. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2006.00473.x(2001) ‘The city and topologies of memory’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 19(2): 161–177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d201tand (2002) ‘Fashioning ethnicities: the commercial spaces of multiculture’, Ethnicities, 2(3): 410–430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/14687968020020030701and (2003) ‘Transnationalism and the spaces of commodity culture’, Progress in Human Geography, 27(4): 438–456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132503ph443oa, and (2006) ‘Variable geometries of connection: urban digital divides and the uses of information technology’, Urban Studies, 43: 2551–2570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980600970664, and (1999) ‘Blurring the boundaries: public space and private life’, in J.Chase, M.Crawford and J.Kaliski, (eds), Everyday Urbanism, New York: Monacelli Press. pp. 22–35.(2006) On the Move: Mobility in the Modern Western World, London: Routledge.(2001) ‘The besieged body: geographies of retailing and consumption’, Progress in Human Geography, 25(4): 629–640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/030913201682688986(1998) ‘Tales of the unexpected: exploring car boot sales as marginal spaces of consumption’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 23: 39–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-2754.1998.00039.xand (1995) ‘Gap on the map? Towards a geography of consumption and identity’, Environment and Planning A, 27: 1877–1898. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a271877and (1993) ‘Megastructures and urban change: aesthetics, ideology and design’, in P.L.Knox (ed.), The Restless Urban Landscape, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. pp. 127–164.(2006) ‘Advertising and the metabolism of the city: urban space, commodity rhythms’, Environment & Planning D: Society and Space, 24(4): 615–632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d389t([Page 200]1991) Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West, New York: W.W. Norton.(Crouch, D., Jackson, R. and Thompson, F. (eds) (2005) The Media and the Tourist Imagination: Converging Cultures, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/97802033899352004) ‘The creative industries after cultural policy: a geneology and some possible preferred futures’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(1): 105–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1367877904040924(2003) ‘Media capital: towards the study of spatial flows’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 6(2): 202–228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13678779030062004(1999) Bridging Divides: The Channel Tunnel and English Legal Identity in the New Europe, Berkeley: University of California Press.(2007) ‘From coping strategies to tactics: London's low-pay economy and migrant labour’, British Journal of Industrial Relations45(2): 404–432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8543.2007.00620.x, , , , and (1990) City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles, London: Vintage.(1992) Beyond Blade Runner: Urban Control, the Ecology of Fear, Westview, NJ: Open Media.(1998) Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of Disaster, New York: Metropolitan Books.(2000) Magical Urbanism: Latinos Reinvent the American City, London: Verso.(1992) Media Events: The Live Broadcasting of History, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.and (1987) ‘The postmodern challenge: re-constructing human geography’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS 13: 262–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622990(2000) The Postmodern Urban Condition, Oxford: Blackwell.(2003) ‘Superlative urbanisms: the necessity of rhetoric in social theory’, City and Community, 2(3): 201–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1540-6040.00050(Dear, M. (ed.) (2002) From Chicago to LA.: Revisioning Urban Theory, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814522312111987) Landscapes of Despair: From Deinstitutionalisation to Homelessness, Princeton: Princeton University Press.and (Dear, M., Leclerc, G. and Homero Vill, R. (eds) (1999) Urban Latino Cultures: La vida latina en LA, London: Sage.1994) The Society of the Spectacle, New York: Zone Books.(1984) The Practice of Everyday Life, Berkeley: University of California Press.(1989) Spinoza: Practical Philosophy, San Francisco: City Lights Press.(1999) Foucault, London: Athlone.(2006) Two Regimes of Madness: Texts and Interviews 1976–1995, New York: Semiotexte.(1947) City Region and Regionalism: A Geographical Contribution to Human Ecology, London: Kegan Paul.(2004) ‘Flying through code/space: the real virtuality of air travel’, Environment and Planning A, 36(2): 195–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a3698and (2005) ‘Code and the transduction of space’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 95(1): 162–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.2005.00454.xand ([Page 201]2007) ‘The automatic management of drivers and driving spaces’, Geoforum, 38: 264–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2006.08.004and (1999) Poststructuralist Geographies: The Diabolical Art of Spatial Science, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.(2007) Poverty, Wealth and Place in Britain, 1968–2005, Bristol: Policy Press., , , , , , and (2000) ‘Cultures of mothering and car use in suburban Sydney: a preliminary investigation’, Geoforum, 31: 345–353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7185%2899%2900048-2(Driver, F. and Gilbert, D. (eds) (1999) Imperial Cities: Landscape, Display, and Identity, Manchester: Manchester University Press.1961) Statistical Geography, Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press., and (1955) ‘A methodological analysis of segregation indexes’, American Sociological Review, 20: 210–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2088328and (2005) ‘“We are not here to make a film about Italy, we are here to make a film about ME …”: British television holiday programmes' representations of the tourist destination’, in D.Crouch, R.Jackson and F.Thompson (eds), The Media and the Tourist Imagination: Converging Cultures, London: Routledge. pp. 154–169.(2005) ‘Repetitive and troubling discourses of nationalism in the local politics of mosque construction in Sydney, Australia’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 23: 29–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d388(1947) The Division of Labor in Society (trans. GeorgeSimpson), New York: The Free Press.(2005) ‘Eating at the borders, culinary journeys’, Environment and Planning D, 23: 51–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d52j(2002) National Identity, Popular Culture and Everyday Life, Oxford: Berg.(Ehrenreich, B. and Hochschild, A. (eds) (2003) Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy, London: Granta.Eliot Hurst, M. (ed.) (1974) Transportation Geography: Comments and Readings, New York: McGraw-Hill.2003) ‘The shopping mall as an emergent urban space in Turkey’, Environment and Planning A, 35(6): 1073–1093. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a35167(1999) All Consuming Images: The Politics of Style in Contemporary Culture,(revised edition, New York: Basic Books.2001) The City Builders: Property Development in New York, and London, 1980–2000, Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.(1991) Consumer Culture and Postmodernism, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212424(Featherstone, M., Thrift, N. and Urry, J. (eds) (2005) Automobilities, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212578Fincher, R. and JacobsJ. (eds) (1998) Cities of Difference, London: Guilford.1982) To Dwell Among Friends, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1987) Bourgeois Utopias: The Rise and Fall of Suburbia, New York: Basic Books.(2002) The Rise of the Creative Class, New York: Basic Books.([Page 202]2003) Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., and (2001) Downtown: Its Rise and Fall, 1850–1950, New Haven: Yale University Press.(2003) Bourgeois Nightmares: Suburbia, 1870–1930, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(2002) ‘Unraveling the threads of history: soviet-era monuments and post-soviet national identity in Moscow’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 92(3): 524–547. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8306.00303and (1995) Discipline and Punish, Translated by A.Sheridan, New York: Random House.(2003) Race and Place: Equity Issues In Urban America, Boulder, CO: Westview Press., and (1989) Downtown, Inc.: How America Rebuilds Cities, Cambridge MA: MIT Press.and (1982) ‘World city formation: an agenda for research and action’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 6(3): 309–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.1982.tb00384.xand (2005) ‘Spiced-up Sandringham: Indian transnationalism and new suburban spaces in Auckland, New Zealand’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 21(2): 227–233., and (1996) Reading Berlin 1900, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.(1999) City Making: Building Communities without Building Walls, Princeton: Princeton University Press.(Fyfe, N. (ed.) (1998) Images of the Street: Planning, Identity and Control in Public Space, London: Routledge.1997) ‘The making of a regulatory crisis: the restructuring of New York City's water supply’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 22(3): 338–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-2754.1997.00338.x(1999) ‘The Paris sewers and the rationalization of urban space’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 24: 23–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-2754.1999.00023.x(2002) Concrete and Clay: Reworking Nature in New York City, Cambridge MA: MIT Press.(2005a) ‘Cyborg urbanization: complexity and monstrosity in the contemporary city’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29(1): 26–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2005.00568.x(2005b) ‘Learning from Lagos’, New Left Review, 33: 37–52.(1962) The Urban Villagers: Group and Class in the Life of Italian-Americans, New York: Free Press.(1967) Levittowners: Ways of Life and Politics in a New Suburban Community, New York: Pantheon.(1991) Edge City: Life on the New Frontier, New York: Anchor Books.(2006), ‘From Paris to Shanghai: the changing geographies of fashion's world cities’. in C.Breward and G.Gilbert (eds), Fashion's World Cities, Oxford: Berg. pp. 3–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.2752/9780857854117(1972) ‘Anti-urbanism’, in M.Stewart (ed.) The City: Problems of Planning, London: Penguin. pp. 63–71.(1992) ‘Modernity, urbanity and mass consumption’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 10: 423–443. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d100423and ([Page 203]1992) Towards a Transnational Perspective on Migration: Race, Class, Ethnicity, and Nationalism, New York: New York Academy of Sciences., and (1995) ‘From immigrant to transmigrant: theorizing transnational migration’, Anthropological Quarterly, 68(1): 48–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3317464, and (1993) ‘The “magic of the mall”: an analysis of form, function, and meaning in the contemporary retail built environment’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 83(1): 18–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1993.tb01921.x(1999) ‘Once-upon-a-time in the commodity world: an unofficial guide to the mall of America’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 89(1): 45–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0004-5608.00130(1994) Postmodern Semiotics: Material Culture and the Forms of Postmodern Life, Oxford: Blackwell.(1997) The Theming of America: Dreams, Visions, and Commerical Spaces, Boulder: Westview Press.(1957) ‘Megalopolis or the urbanization of the Northeastern seaboard’, Economic Geography, 33(3): 189–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/142307(1961) Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States, New York: The Twentieth Century Fund.(1997) ‘Cities in the real-time age: the paradigm challenge of telecommunications to the conception and planning of urban space’, Environment and Planning A, 29(1): 105–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a290105(2000) ‘Constructing premium network spaces: reflections on infrastructure networks and contemporary urban development’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24(1): 183–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00242(Graham, S. (ed.) (2004a) Cities, War and Terrorism, Oxford: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/97804707530332004b) ‘Constructing urbicide by bulldozer in the Occupied Territories’, in Graham, S. (ed.) Cities, War and Terrorism, Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 192–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470753033.ch11(2004c) ‘Vertical geopolitics: Baghdad and after’, Antipode, 36(1): 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2004.00379.x(1997) ‘Virtual cities, social polarisation and the crisis in urban public space’, Journal of Urban Technology, 4: 19–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10630739708724546and (1996) Telecommunications and the City: Electronic Spaces, Urban Places, New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203430453and (2001) Splintering Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities, and the Urban Condition, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203452202and (2003) ‘Digitizing surveillance: categorization, space, inequality’, Critical Social Policy, 75: 227–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261018303023002006and (2003) ‘The limits of branding: the World Trade Center, fiscal crisis and the marketing of recovery’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27(2): 386–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.t01-1-00454(2007) ‘Identity, mobility, and the throw-away society’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 25(4): 682–700. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d418t, and (1994) Volatile Bodies: Towards a Corporeal Feminism, Bloomington: University of Indiana Press.(1994) Living Downtown: The History of Residential Hotels in the United States, Berkeley: University of California Press.([Page 204]GUST (Ghent Urban Studies Team) (1999) The Urban Condition: Space, Community and Self in the Contemporary Metropolis, Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. 1989) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1970) ‘What about people in regional science?’, Papers, Regional Science Association, 24: 1–21.(1982) ‘Diagram, path and project’, Tijdschift voor Economise en Social Geographie, 73: 323–339.(1965) Locational Analysis in Human Geography, London: Edward Arnold.(2006) ‘Material culture of tourism’, Leisure Studies, 25(3): 275–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02614360600661179and (1966) The World Cities, New York: McGraw-Hill.(1980) Great Planning Disasters, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.(1996) Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Century,(revised edition, Oxford: Blackwell.2000) ‘Creative cities and economic development’, Urban Studies, 37(4): 639–649. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980050003946(2006) Urban Geography,(3rd edition, London: Routledge.Hall, T. and Hubbard, P. (eds) (1998) The Entrepreneurial City: Geographies of Politics, Regime and Representation, Chichester: Wiley.Hammett, J. and Hammett, K. (eds) (2007) The Suburbanization of New York, New York: Princeton University Press.1996) Transnational Connections, London: Routledge.(1998) ‘Transnational research’, in H.R.Bernard (ed.), Handbook of Methods in Cultural Anthropology, Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press. pp. 235–256.(1998) Fantasy City: Pleasure and Profit in the Postmodern Metropolis, Routledge: London.(1991) Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, London: Routledge.(2006) ‘Global cities and the spread of infectious disease: the case of Severe Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto, Canada’, Urban Studies, 43(3): 491–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980500452458and (1945) ‘The nature of cities’, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 242: 7–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000271624524200103and (1969) Explanation in Human Geography, Arnold: London.(1973) Social Justice and the City, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1982) The Limits to Capital, Oxford: Blackwell.(1985) The Urbanization of Capital, Oxford: Blackwell.(1987) ‘Flexible accumulation through urbanization: reflections on ‘postmodernism’ in the American city’, Antipode, 19(3): 260–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.1987.tb00375.x(1989a) ‘From managerialism to entrepreneurial: the transformation of governance in late capitalism’, Geografiska Annaler, 71B: 3–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/490503(1989b) The Condition of Postmodernity, Oxford: Blackwell.(1994) ‘The invisible political economy of architectural production’, in O.Bouman and R.Van Toorn (eds), The Invisible in Architecture, London: Academy. pp. 420–427.([Page 205]2000) Spaces of Hope, Berkeley: University of California Press.(2003) Paris: Capital of Modernity, New York: Routledge.(2005) ‘The street as locus of collective memory’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 23(4): 581–596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d55j(1972) Urban Geography: A Social Perspective, New York: Praeger.(2006) ‘Introduction: cleaners and the dirty work of neo-liberalism’, Antipode, 38(3): 425–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0066-4812.2006.00587.xand (2006) Return to the Center: Culture, Public Space and City Building in a Global Era, Austin: University of Texas Press.(2004) ‘Consumption, disposal, and absent presence’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 22(1): 157–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d315t(1999) ‘Cities and natures: intimate strangers’, in J.Allen, D.Massey and M.Pryke (eds), Unruly Cities?London: Open University Press.(2005) ‘Urban wild things: a cosmopolitical experiment’, Environment and Planning D: Society & Space, 23(5): 643–658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d351t, , and (1983) Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940–1960, Chicago: University of Chicago.(2003) ‘People, plants and performance: on actor network theory and the material pleasures of the private garden’, Social and Cultural Geography, 4(1): 99–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1464936032000049333(2007) ‘Expertise and inability: cultured materials and the reason for some retreating lawns in London’, Journal of Material Culture, 11(3): 364–381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359183506068810(2003) ‘Producing nightlife in the new urban entertainment economy: corporatisation, branding, and market segmentation’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27(2): 223–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00453and (House of Commons Health Committee 2004, 3rd report of session 2003–4, vol. 1. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmhealth/23/2304.htm1996 ) ‘Garden cities of tomorrow’, ‘Author's introduction’ and ‘The town-country magnet’, in The City Reader, R.LeGates and F.Stout (eds), London: Routledge. pp. 345–353.(1992) Modern Transport Geography, London: Belhaven.and (2002) ‘Screen-shifting: consumption, riskless risks and the changing geographies of cinema’, Environment and Planning A, 34(4): 1239–1258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a3522(2003) ‘Going out/staying in: the seductions of new urban leisure spaces’, Leisure Studies, 22(3): pp. 255–272. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026143603200075461(2006) The City, London: Routledge.(2004) ‘Pacemaking the modern city: the urban politics of speed and slowness’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 22: 273–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d338tand (Hughes, A. and Reimer, S. (eds) (2004) Geographies of Commodity Chains, London: Routledge.1997) The Unreal America: Architecture and Illusion, New Press: New York.(2003) ‘“Architects” conceptions of the human body’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 21(1): 47–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d271t(Imrie, R. and Raco, M. (eds) (2003) Urban Renaissance? New Labour, Community, and Urban Policy, Bristol: Policy Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781861343802.001.0001[Page 206]2007) Publics and the City, Oxford: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470761748(1984) Discovering the Vernacular Landscape, London: Yale University Press.(1994) A Sense of Place, a Sense of Time, London: Yale University Press.(1985) Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States, New York: Oxford University Press.(1984) ‘Social disorganisation and moral order in the city’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 9: 68–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622167(1985) ‘Urban ethnography’, Progress in Human Geography, 9: 157–176.(2000) ‘Rematerialising social and cultural geography’, Social and Cultural Geography, 1(1): 9–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14649369950133449(Jackson, P., Lowe, M. and Miller, D. (eds) (2000) Commercial Cultures: Economies, Practices, Spaces, Oxford: Berg.Jackson, P., Crang, P. and Dwyer, C. (eds) (2004) Transnational Spaces, London: Routledge.1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York: Norton.(1994a) Edge of Empire: Postcolonialism and the City, London: Routledge.(1994b) ‘Negotiating the heart: heritage, development and identity in postimperial London’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 12: 751–772. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d120751(2006) ‘A geography of big things’, Cultural Geographies, 13(1): 1–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/1474474006eu354oa(2007) ‘“A tall storey … but, a fact just the same”: the red road high-rise as a black box’, Urban Studies, 44(30): 609–629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980601131910, and (2004) ‘“Dangerous instrumentality”: The bystander as subject in automobility’, Cultural Anthropology, 19(1): 61–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/can.2004.19.1.61(1997) Poverty and Place: Ghettoes, Barrios, and the American City, New York: The Russell Sage Foundation.(2005) The Iconic Building: The Power of Enigma, London: Frances Lincoln.(2004) ‘The cultural logic of media convergence’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(1): 33–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1367877904040603(1999) ‘Retooling the machine: economic crisis, state restructuring, and urban politics’, in A.E.G.Jonas and D.Wilson (eds), The Urban Growth Machine: Critical Perspectives, Two Decades Later, Albany: SUNY Press. pp. 141–159., and (2002) ‘Mapping monuments: the shape of public space and cultural identities’, Visual Communication, 1(3): 293–298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/147035720200100302(1971) Urban Residential Patterns: An Introductory Review, Bell: London.(1978) Multivariate Statistical Analysis in Geography, Longman: London.(1983) Geography and Geographers: Anglo-American Human Geographers since 1945, Arnold: London.(1986) The Dictionary of Human Geography,, and (3rd edition, Oxford: Blackwell.Jonas, A.E.G. and Wilson, D. (eds) (1999) The Urban Growth Machine: Critical Perspectives, Two Decades Later, Albany: SUNY Press.2006) City Politics: the Political Economy of Urban America,and ([Page 207]5th edition, New York: Pearson Longman.2004) City of Flows: Modernity, Nature and the City, London: Routledge.(1991) ‘In the nature of things: the environment and everyday life’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 16(3): 259–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622947and (1999) ‘Pissed-off in LA.’, in How Emotions Work, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(Katz, J. and Aakhus, M. (eds) (2002) Perpetual Contact; Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO97805114894711995) ‘The local and the global: the anthropology of globalization and transnational, Annual Review of Anthropology, 24: 547–565. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.24.100195.002555(2003) ‘Geographies that matter – the rhetorical deployment of physicality?’, Social and Cultural Geography, 4(2): 139–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14649360309061(2007) ‘Transportation geography: new directions on well-worn trails’, Progress in Human Geography, 31(2): 217–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309132507075370(Keohane, R. and Nye, J. (eds) (1972) Transnational Relations and World Politics, Cambridge MA.: Harvard University Press.Kesteloot, C., van Weesep, J. and White, P. (eds) (1997) ‘Minorities in West European cities’, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 88: 2.2002) ‘Toronto Inc.? Planning the competitive city in the New Toronto’, Antipode, 227–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00237and (2000) No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies, New York: Picador.(2004) The Vatican to Vegas: A History of Special Effects, New York: New Press.(2004) ‘Introduction’, in D.J.Walkowitz, and L.M.Knauer (eds), Memory and the Impact of Political Transformation in Public Space, Duke University Press, Durham, pp. 1–18.and (1982) Urban Social Geography: An Introduction, Harlow: Longman.(1987) ‘The social production of the built environment: architects, architecture and the post-modern city’, Progress in Human Geography, 11: 354–377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030913258701100404(1991) ‘The restless urban landscape: economic and sociocultural change and the transformation of Metropolitan Washington, DC, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 81(2): 181–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1991.tb01686.x(Knox, P. and Taylor, P.J. (eds) (1995) World Cities in a World-System, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO97805115221922006) Urban Social Geography: An Introduction,and (5th edition, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.2000) ‘“The Gaze without Eyes”. Video surveillance and the changing nature of urban space’, Progress in Human Geography, 24(2): 243–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/030913200668791096(2001) The New Geography: How the Digital Revolution is Reshaping the American Landscape, New York: Random House.(2002) ‘Feminist visualisation: re-envisioning GIS as a method in feminist geographic research’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 92: 645–661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8306.00309(1997) The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1995) The Creative City, London: Demos.and (2007) ‘Expatriate experts and globalising governmentalities: the New Zealand diaspora strategy’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS, 32(3): 331–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2007.00261.x([Page 208]2005) ‘Families seen sightseeing: performativity of tourist photography’, Space and Culture, 8(4): 416–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1206331205279354(2006) Mobilities, Networks, Geographies, Aldershot: Ashgate., and (2003a) ‘Research, performance, and doing human geography: some reflections on the daily-photo diary-interview method’, Environment and Planning A, 35: 1993–2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a3587(2003b) Urbanity, lifestyle and the politics of the new urban economy’, Urban Studies, 40(9): 1699–1724. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0042098032000106564(2004) ‘American dreams, American empires, American cities’, Urban Geography, 25 (8): 788–791. http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-3618.104.22.1688(2006) ‘Sociality and the cosmopolitan imagination: national, cosmopolitan and local imaginaries in Auckland, New Zealand’, in J.Binny, J.Holloway, S.Millington and C.Young (eds), Cosmopolitan Urbanism, London: Routledge.(2004) ‘Moving cities: rethinking the materialities of urban geographies’, Progress in Human Geography, 28(6): 701–724. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132504ph515oaand (2008) ‘Speed and slowness’, in T.Hall, P.Hubbard, and J.R.Short (eds), The Urban Studies Compendium, London: Sage.and (1999) Pandora's Hope: Essays on the Reality of Science Studies, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.(2005) Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network Theory, Oxford: Oxford University.(Latour, B. and P.Weibel (eds) (2005) Making Things Public: Atmospheres of Democracy, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.2006a) ‘Cold shoulders and napkins handed: gestures of responsibility’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 31(2): 193–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2006.00205.xand (2006b) ‘Possible geographies: a passing encounter in a café’, Area, 38(4): 353–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4762.2006.00712.xand (1999) ‘Beyond “women and transport”: towards new geographies of gender and urban mobility’, Progress in Human Geography, 23: 567–588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/030913299666161864(2001), ‘Towards a critical geography of architecture: the case of an ersatz Colosseum’, Ecumene, 8: 51–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/096746001701556904(2002) ‘Rematerialising geography: the ‘new’ urban geography’, Progress in Human Geography, 26: 101–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132502ph358pr(Lees, L. (ed.) (2004) The Emancipatory City: Paradoxes and Possibilities, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462213651991) The Production of Space, Oxford: Blackwell.(2004) Rhythmanalysis: Space, Time, and Everyday Life. Edited and translated by S.Elden and G.Moore. London: Continuum.(1990) ‘Cities in pursuit of economic growth: the local state as entrepreneur’, Political Geography Quarterly, 9: 146–170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0260-9827%2890%2990016-4(2005) ‘Unbounding critical geographic research on cities: the 1990s and beyond’, in B.Berry and J.Wheeler (eds), Urban Geography in America, 1950–2000: Paradigms and Personalities, London: Routledge. pp. 349–372.and (2006a) ‘Spaces of exclusivity or connection: linkages between a gated community and its poorer neighbour in a Cape Town master-plan development’, Urban Studies, 43(2): 397–420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980500495937([Page 209]2006b) ‘The impact of residential desegregation on social integration: evidence from a South African neighbourhood’, Geoforum, 37: 417–435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2005.09.002(1999) ‘Interpretation of the unimaginable: The US holocaust memorial museum, Washington, D.C. and “dark tourism”’, Journal of Travel Research, 38: 46–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004728759903800110and (2000) Dark Tourism: The Attraction of Death and Disaster, London and New York: Continuum.and (2003) ‘Gender, modern design, and home consumption’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 21: 293–316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d337and (1994) ‘The social basis for Latino small businesses: the case of Dominican and Puerto Rican entrepreneurs’, in E.Melendez and M.Uriarte (eds), Latino Poverty and Economic Development in Massachusetts, Boston, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.(2001) Transnational Villagers, Berkeley: University of California Press.(1993) The City in Slang: New York Life and Popular Speech, Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1983) A Social Geography of the City, New York: Harper and Row.(1996) The New Middle Class and the Remaking of the Central City, Oxford: Oxford University.(2004) ‘Transnational spaces and everyday lives’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 29: 151–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-2754.2004.00122.x(Ley, D. and Samuels, M. (eds) (1978) Humanistic Geography: Prospects and Problems, Chicago: Maaroufa Press.1997) Money/Space: Geographies of Monetary Transformation, London: Routledge.and (1997) ‘Harris and Ullman's “The Nature of Cities”: The paper's historical context and impact on further research’, Urban Geography, 18: 7–14.(1963) Ethnic Patterns in American Cities, Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press.(1980) A Piece of the Pie: Blacks and White Immigrants Since 1880, Berkeley: University of California Press.(1967) Tally's Corner, Boston: Little Brown.(1996) The Reportage of Urban Culture: Robert Park and the Chicago School, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2004) ‘“Urban village” or “white house”: envisioned spaces, experienced places, and everyday life at Kensal House, London in the 1930s’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 22: 229–249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d342t(2005) ‘Fat bodies: developing geographical research agendas’, Progress in Human Geography, 29(3): 247–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132505ph545oa(2004) Behind the Gates: Life, Security, and the Pursuit of Happiness in Fortress America, New York: Routledge.(1987) Urban Fortunes: the Political Economy of Place, Berkeley: University of California Press.and (1997) ‘At the end of nature: cyborgs, “humachines”, and environments in postmodernity’, Environment and Planning A: Society and Space, 29: 1367–1380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a291367(1998) ‘Reel-to-real urban geographies: the top five cinematic cities in North America’, The California Geographer, 38: 64–78.([Page 210]2001) Surveillance Society: Monitoring Everyday Life, Milton Keynes: Open University Press.(Lyon, D. (ed.) (2003) Surveillance as Social Sorting: Privacy, Risk and Digital Discrimination, London: Routledge.2004) ‘Technology vs “terrorism”: circuits of city surveillance since September 11, 2001’, in S.Graham (ed.), Cities, War and Terrorism: Towards an Urban Geopolitics, Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 288–311.(2003) Ambient Television: Visual Culture and Public Space, Durham: Duke University Press.(2005) ‘Diagramming practice and performance’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 23(1): 119–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d51j(1995) ‘Body work: heterosexual gender performance in city workplaces’, in D.Bell, and G.Valentine (eds), Mapping Desire: Geographies of Sexuality, Routledge, London.(1997) Capital Culture: Gender at Work in the City, Oxford: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470712894(1999) Gender, Identity and Place: Understanding Feminist Geographies, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(2007) ‘Division, segmentation and interpellation: the embodied labours of migrant workers in a Greater London hotel’, Economic Geography, 81(1): 1–26., and (2004) Rethinking Cultural Policy, Milton Keynes: Open University Press.(1994) Privatopia: Homeowner Associations and the Rise of Residential Private Government, New Haven: Yale University Press.(1962) The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(2001a) ‘Barcelona as imagined community: Pasqual Maragall's spaces of engagement’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 26: 340–352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-5661.00026(2001b) ‘Embodying a Europe of the cities: the geographies of mayoral leadership’, Area, 33: 353–359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-4762.00041(2003a) ‘Mapping the European urban left: the Barcelona experience’. Antipode, 35(1): 74–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00303(2003b) ‘Rome, global city? Church, state and the jubilee 2000’, Political Geography, 22: 535–556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-6298%2803%2900034-9(2005) ‘Skyscraper geography’, Progress in Human Geography, 29(1): 41–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132505ph527oa(2007) ‘Office buildings and the signature architect: Piano and Foster in Sydney’, Environment and Planning A, 39: 487–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a3720(2008a) The Global Architect: Firms, Fame and Urban Form, New York: Routledge.(2008b) ‘The hotel and the city’, Progress in Human Geography, 32(3): 383–398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309132508089096(2005) ‘Sydney/global/city: an exploration’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29(4): 935–944. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2005.00629.x, and (1998) ‘The urban restructuring process in Tokyo in the 1980s: transforming Tokyo into a world city’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 16(1): 114–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.1992.tb00468.x(1998) ‘In what sense a region? Place hybridity, symbolic shape, and institutional formation in (post-) modern Scotland’, Political Geography, 17 (7): 833–863. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-6298%2898%2900041-9([Page 211]2002) Transductions: Bodies and Machines at Speed, London: Continuum.(1999) Clubbing: Dancing, Ecstasy and Vitality, London: Routledge.(2005) Geographies of Consumption, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221433(1997) ‘The ghetto of exclusion and the fortified enclave: new patterns in the United States’, American Behavioural Scientist, 41(3): 311–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764297041003004(2004) ‘The “war on terrorism” and life in cities’, in S.Graham (ed.), Cities, War and Terrorism: Towards and Urban Geopolitics, Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 263–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470753033.ch15(2000) ‘The social construction of scale’, Progress in Human Geography, 24(2): 219–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/030913200674086272(2002) Making difference: conflict over Irish identity in the New York City St Patrick's Day parade’, Political Geography, 21: 373–392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-6298%2801%2900051-8(2006) ‘Metabolisms ofobecity: flows of fat through bodies, cities and sewers’, Environment and Planning A, 38: 313–324.and (2005a) For Space, London: Sage.(2005b) Strangers in a Strange Land: Humans in an Urbanizing World, New York: W.W. Norton.(1988) ‘The dimensions of residential segregation’, Social Forces, 67(2): 281–315.and (1993) American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.and (1996) ‘The dimensions of segregation revisited’, Sociological Methods and Research, 25: 172–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049124196025002002, and (Massey, D., Allen, J. and Sarre, P. (eds) (1999) Human Geography Today, Cambridge: Polity.2002) Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(2005) ‘The future birth of the affective fact’, available at http://www.radicalempiricism.org/biotextes/textes/massumi.pdf (accessed March 1st, 2007)(2000) ‘Five objects’, in S.Naylor, J.Ryan and I.Cook (eds), Cultural Turns/Geographical Turns, London: Pearson.(2007) ‘Keeping London working: global cities, the British state, and London's new migrant division of labour’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 32: 151–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2007.00241.x, , , , and (2005) Deleuze: An Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165419(1959) Readings in Urban Geography, Chicago: Chicago University Press.and (1986) Beyond Entitlement: The Social Obligations of Citizenship, New York: The Free Press.(1993a) ‘The struggle over place: Redeveloping American can in Southeast Baltimore’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 18: 102–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/623071(1993b) ‘The Canary Wharf debacle: from “TINA” – there is no alternative – to “THEMBA” – there must be an alternative’, Environment and Planning A, 25: 1247–1265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a251247(2002) Metromarxism: A Marxist Tale of the City, New York: Routledge.([Page 212]2006) ‘“A new look at the English landscape”: landscape architecture, movement and the aesthetics of motorways in early postwar Britain’, Cultural Geographies, 13: 78–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/1474474006eu351oa(2007) Driving Spaces: A Cultural-Historical Geography of England's M1 Motorway, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470762448(Metropolis (1929) Directed by Fritz Lang.1985) No Sense of Place: the Impact of Electronic Media on Social Behaviour, New York: Oxford University Press.(2006) Technoscience and Everyday Life: the Complex Simplicities of the Mundane, Maidenhead: Open University Press.(Miles, M., Hall, T. and Borden, I. (eds) (2003) The City Cultures Reader, London: Routledge.1989) Lewis Mumford: A Life, New York: Weidenfield and Nicolson.(Miller, D. (ed.) (2001) Car Cultures, Oxford: Berg.Miller, D. (ed.) (2005) Materiality, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.1998) Shopping Place and Identity, London and New York: Routledge., , , and (2003) The Right to the City: Social Justice and the Fight for Public Space, New York: The Guilford Press.(1995) ‘Flexible circulation in the Pacific Rim: capitalisms in cultural context’Economic Geography, 71(4): 364–382. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/144423(1997) ‘Transnational discourse: bringing geography back in’, Antipode, 29(2): 101–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00038(2003) ‘Monuments, memorials, and the politics of memory’, Urban Geography, 24(5): 442–459. http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-3622.214.171.1242(1995) City of Bits: Space, Place and the Infobahn, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1999) E-Topia: Urban Life Jim But Not as We Know It, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(Mollenkopf, J. and Castells, M. (eds) (1991) Dual City: Restructuring New York, New York: Russell Sage.1973) Maps and Diagrams, Methuen: London.and (1996) How to Lie with Maps,(2nd edition, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.2002) Spying with Maps: Surveillance Technologies and the Future of Privacy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(Morley, D. and Robins, K. (eds) (1996) Spaces of Identity: Global Media, Electronic Landscapes and Cultural Boundaries, London: Routledge.1999) ‘Cities and consumption spaces’, Urban Affairs Review, 35(1): 44–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10780879922184284, , and (1938) The Culture of Cities, London: Secker and Warburg.(2006) Post-Structuralist Geography: A Guide to Relation Space, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221426(1984) Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950–1980, New York: Basic Books.(2006) ‘The accomplishment of spatial adequacy: analysing CCTV accounts of British towncentres’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 24: 599–613. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d384t([Page 213]1996) American Technological Sublime, Cambridge MA: MIT Press.(2003) ‘Reconfiguring the CBD: work and discourses of design in Sydney's office space’, Urban Studies, 40(9): 1751–1767. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0042098032000106582and (2007) ‘A surfaced based approach to measuring spatial segregation’, Geographical Analysis, 39: 147–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1538-4632.2007.00699.xand (1999) ‘Reshaping “Chinese” business networks in a globalising era’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 17(5): 535–555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d170535and (1995) ‘Globalisation and the production of new urban spaces: Pacific Rim mega-projects in the late 20th century’, Environment and Planning A, 27: 1713–1743. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a271713(2001) Globalization and Urban Change: Capital, Culture and Pacific Rim Mega-Projects, Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1996 ) ‘Public parks and the enlargement of towns’, in R.Legates, and F.Stat (eds), The City Reader, London: Routledge. pp. 337–344.(1999) Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logics of Globalization, London: Duke University Press.(2001) ‘Gender, race, age and fear in the city’, Urban Studies, 38: 899–913. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980120046590(1923) ‘The natural history of the newspaper’, The American Journal of Sociology, 29(3): 273–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/213596(1925) ‘The city: suggestions for the investigation of human behaviour in the urban environment’, in R.Park, E.Burgess and R.McKenzie (eds), The City, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 1–46.(2004) ‘World cities as hegemonic projects: the politics of global imagineering in Montreal’, Political Geography, 23(5): 571–596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2004.02.002(1996) ‘Does Britain have ghettos?’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 22: 216–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/622934(Peach, C. (ed.) (1975) Urban Social Segregation, London: Longman.Peach, C., Robinson, V. and Smith, S. (eds) (1981) Ethnic Segregation in Cities, London: Croom Helm.2005) ‘Struggling with the creative class’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29(4): 740–770. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2005.00620.x(2002) ‘The impact of residential segregation on participation in associations: the case of Moroccan women in Belgium’, Urban Studies, 39: 727–747. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980220119543(1981) City Limits, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1978) The Slum and the Ghetto: Neighborhood Deterioration and Middle-Class Reform, Chicago, 1880–1930, New York: Oxford University Press.(1995) ‘Animals, geography, and the city: notes on inclusions and exclusions’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 13(6): 655–681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d130655(1996) The Body and the City: Psychoanalysis, Subjectivity and Space, London: Routledge.(1999) ‘What is a city?’, in D.Massey, J.Allen, and S.Pile (eds), City WorldsLondon: Routledge. pp. 3–52.(2000) ‘From the sofa to the crime scene: Skycam, local news and the televisual city’, Urban Space and Representation, in N.Balshaw, and L.Liam Kennedy (eds), London: Pluto. pp. 55–68.(2005) Visions of the City: Utopianism, Power and Politics in Twentieth-Century Urbanism, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.([Page 214]2002) Self-Exposure: Human Interest Journalism and The Emergence of Celebrity in America 1890–1940, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.(1973) ‘Religious residential segregation in Belfast in mid-1969: a multilevel analysis’, The Institute of British Geographers, 25: 321–332.and (1996) ‘Global villagers: the rise of transnational communities’, The American Prospect, 2:74–77.(1990) Immigrant America: A Portrait, Berkeley: University of California Press.and (1999) ‘The study of transnationalism: the pitfalls and promise of an emergent research field’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(2): 217–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014198799329468, and (2005), ‘Human-nature relations in suburban gardens’, Australian Geographer, 36: 39–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00049180500050847(2005) ‘Deconstructing twinned towers: Lisbon's Expo '98 and the occluded geographies of discovery’, Social and Cultural Geography, 6(6): 865–883. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14649360500353228and (1966) The Spatial Dynamics of US Urban-Industrial Growth, 1800–1914: Interpretative and Theoretical Essays, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1977) City-Systems in Advanced Economies: Past Growth, Present Processes and Future Development Options, London: Hutchinson.(1980) ‘Review of humanistic geography: prospects and problems’, by David Ley and Marwyb S. Samuels, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 70(2): 294–296.(1999) ‘Entrepreneurial Manchester: the genesis of elite consensus’, Antipode, 31: 185–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00099(2000) ‘Manchester first: from municipal socialism to the entrepreneurial city’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24: 601–615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00267(2005) ‘Sustainable Development, rolled-out neo-liberalism and sustainable communities’, Antipode, 37(2): 324–346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0066-4812.2005.00495.x(2006) ‘Branding the design metropole: the case of Montréal, Canada’, Area, 38(4): 364–376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4762.2006.00705.xand (2000) Shopping for Pleasure: Women in the Making of London's West End, Princeton: Princeton University Press.(2004) Urban Planning and Real Estate Development,, and (2nd edition, London: Spon.1999) Reconstructing Times Square: Politics and Culture in Urban Development, Lawrence, KA: University Press of Kansas.(2003) Building Gotham: Civic Culture and Public Policy in New York City, 1898–1938, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1997) The McDonaldization of Society, London: Sage.(2007) ‘Visions of urban mobility: the Westway, London, England’, Cultural Geographies, 14: 74–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1474474007072820(1998) ‘Spaces of democracy: remapping the apartheid city’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 16(5): 533–548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d160533(2006) Ordinary Cities: Between Modernity and Development, London: Routledge.([Page 215]1996) Elvis After Elvis: The Posthumous Career of a Living Legend, London and New York: Routledge.(2006) The Geography of Transport Systems, New York: Routledge., and (1993) Feminism and Geography: The Limits of Geographical Knowledge, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(2007) Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials,(2nd edition, London: Sage.2003) Media and Audiences, Milton Keynes: Open University Press.and (1984) For Love of the Automobile: Looking Back into the History of Our Desires, Berkeley: University of California.(1988) ‘The consumer's world: place as context’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 78(4): 642–664. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1988.tb00236.x(1998) The Situationist City, London: MIT Press.(2001) Times Square Roulette: Remaking the City Icon, Cambridge MA: MIT Press.(2001) Celluloid Skyline: New York and the Movies, London: Bloomsbury.(1988) The Mobility of Labor and Capital. A Study in International Investment and Labor Flow, Cambridge: Cambridge University. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511598296(1991) The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.(1995) ‘On concentration and centrality in the global city’, in P.L.Knox and P.J.Taylor (eds), World Cities in a World-Economy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 63–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511522192(2000) ‘The global city: strategic site/new frontier’, in E.F.Isin (ed.), Democracy, Ctizenship and the Global City, London: Routledge. pp. 48–61.(2001) The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo,(2nd edition, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.1925) ‘The morphology of Landscape’, University of California Publications in Geography, 2: 19–54.(1986) The Railway Journey: the Industrialization of Time and Space in the Nineteenth Century, Berkeley: University of California Press.(1999) Spectacular Realities: Early Mass Culture in Fin-De Siecle Paris, Berkeley: University of California.(2004) Zoomscape: Architecture in Motion and Meaning, New York: Princeton Architectural Press.(1980) The Urban Land Nexus and the State, London: Pion.(Scott, A. (ed.) (2002) Global City-Regions: Trends, Theory, Policy, New York: Oxford University Press.2004) ‘Cultural-products industries and urban economic development: prospects for growth and market contestation in global context’, Urban Affairs Review, 39(4): 461–490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1078087403261256(2003) ‘Cultural turns’, in J.S.Duncan, N.C.Johnson, and R.H.Schein (eds), A Companion to Cultural Geography, Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 24–37.(2003) American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland, Princeton: Princeton University Press.([Page 216]1977) The Fall of Public Man, London: Faber and Faber.(1994) Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilisation, New York: W.W. Norton.(1998) ‘“Fourth world” cities in the global economy: the case of Phnom Penh, Cambodia’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 22(3): 378–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00147(1985) Statistical Techniques in Geographical Analysis, New York: John Wiley.and (2003) ‘Mobile publics: beyond the network perspective’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 22(1): 39–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d324t(2000) ‘The city and the car’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 24: 737–757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00276and (2003) ‘Mobile transformations of “private” and “public” life’, Theory, Culture, and Society, 20(3): 115–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02632764030203007and (Sheller, M. and Urry, J. (eds) (2004) Tourism Mobilities: Places to Play, Places in Play, London: Routledge.Sheller, M. and Urry, J. (eds) (2006) Mobile Technologies of the City, London: Routledge.2001) Cinema and the City: Film Studies and Urban Societies in a Global Context, Oxford: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470712948and (Shields, R. (ed.) (1992) Lifestyle Shopping: the Subject of Consumption, London: Routledge.2003) The Virtual, London: Routledge.(1996) The Urban Order, Oxford: Blackwell.(1995) Geographies of Exclusion, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203430545(1995) ‘Sociospatial transformation in the “postsocialist” periphery: the case of Maputo, Mozambique’, Environment and Planning A, 27(9): 1463–1491. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a271463and (2000) ‘National monumentalization and the politics of scale: the resurrections of the cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90(3): 548–572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0004-5608.00208(2006) ‘The fittest city in America’, Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 30(3): 315–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193723506290677and (1997) ‘The metropolis and mental life’, in D.Frisby and M.Featherstone (eds), Simmel or Culture, London: Sage. pp. 174–185.(2004) For the City Yet to Come: Changing African Life in Four Cities, Durham: Duke University Press.(2007) ‘Ghettos of the mind: the empirical behaviour of indices of segregation and diversity’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 170, Part 2: 405–424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-985X.2007.00465.x(1905) The Jungle, Broomhall, PA: Chelsea House.(2001) The Transnational Capitalist Class, Oxford: Blackwell.(2006) ‘The eviction of critical perspectives from gentrification research’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 30(4): 737–757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2006.00689.x(1996) ‘The empire filter back: consumption, production and the politics of Starbucks coffee’, Urban Geography, 17: 502–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-36126.96.36.1992(1979) ‘Towards a theory of gentrification: a back to the city movement of capital not people’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 45: 538–548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944367908977002(Smith, M.P. and Guarnizo, L.E. (eds) (1998) Transnationalism from Below: Comparative Urban and Community Research, New Brunswick NJ: Transaction Publishers.[Page 217]1994) ‘Can you imagine? Transnational migration and the globalization of grassroots politics’, Social Text, 39: 15–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/466362(1998) ‘The global city: whose social construct is it anyway?’Urban Affairs Review, 33(4): 482–488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107808749803300403(2001) Transnational Urbanism: Locating Globalization, Oxford: Blackwell.(2002) ‘Power in place: retheorizing the local and the global’, in J.Eade and C.Mele (eds), Understanding the City: Contemporary and Future Perspectives, Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 109–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470693582.ch6(2005a) ‘Power in place/places of power: contextualizing transnational research’, City and Society, 17(1): 5–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/city.2005.17.1.5(2005b) ‘From context and back again: the uses of transnational urbanism’, City and Society, 17(1): 81–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/city.2005.17.1.81(2005c) ‘Transnational urbanism revisited, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies’, 31(2): 235–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369183042000339909(2005) ‘The transnational politics of the Tomato King: meaning and impact, Global Networks, 5(2): 129–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0374.2005.00111.xand (1979) ‘Towards a theory of gentrification: a back to the city movement by capital not people’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 45: 538–548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944367908977002(1984) Uneven Development, Oxford: Blackwell.(1987) ‘Of yuppies and housing: gentrification, social restructuring, and the urban dream’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 5: 151–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d050151(1996) The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City, London: Routledge.(2002) ‘New globalism, new urbanism: gentrification as global urban strategy’, Antipode, 34(3): 434–457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00249(1989) Postmodern Geographies: The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory, London: Verso.(1996) Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places, Oxford: Blackwell.(2000) Postmetropolis: Critical Studies of Cities and Regions, Oxford: Blackwell.(Sorkin, M. (ed.) (1992) Variations on a Theme Park, New York: Hill and Wang.2000) ‘“Chunnel visions”: unpacking the anticipatory geographies of an anglo-European borderland’, Journal of Borderland Studies, 15: 187–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08865655.2000.9695547(2001) ‘Media homes then and now’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, 4(4): 385–411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/136787790100400402(1969) ‘The myth of community studies, British Journal of Sociology, 20(2): 134–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/588525(2003) ‘Shaping the economic landscapes of postsocialism? Labour, workplace and community in Nowa Huta, Poland’, Antipode, 35(4): 761–780. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-8330.2003.00349.x(1989) Regime Politics: Governing Atlanta 1946–1988, Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.(2001), Practices of Looking: An Introduction to Visual Culture, Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (1992) The 100 Mile City, San Diego: Harcourt Brace.(2005) The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful Shape the World, London: Allen Lane.([Page 218]1996) The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit, Princeton: Princeton University Press.(2003) ‘Musings on the fat city: are obesity and urban forms linked?’, Urban Geography, 24(1): 75–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-36188.8.131.52(1987) The Caribbeanization of New York City and the emergence of transnational social systems’, in R.Sutton and E.Chaney (eds), Caribbean Life in New York City: Sociocultural Dimensions, New York: Centre for Migration Studies. pp. 15–30.(1997) ‘Power, nature and the city. The conquest of water and the political ecology of urbanization in Guayaquil, Ecuador: 1880–1980’, Environment and Planning A, 29(2): 311–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a290311(2007) ‘Technonatural relations: the scalar politics of Franco's hydro-social dream for Spain, 1939–1975’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 32: 9–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2007.00233.x(2002), ‘Neoliberal urbanization in Europe: large-scale urban development projects and the new urban policy’, Antipode, 34: 542–577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00254, and (1965) Negroes in Cities: Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Change, Chicago: University of Chicago.and (1949) Urban Geography, London: Methuen.(1993) ‘For a new regional geography’, Progress in Human Geography, 17: 92–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030913259301700107(1996) ‘New urban eras and old technological fears: reconfiguring the goodwill of electronic things’, Urban Studies, 33(8): 1463–1493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0042098966754(2003) ‘Space: the fundamental stuff of human geography’, in S.Holloway, S.P.Rice, and G.Valentine (eds), Key Concepts in Human Geography, London: Sage.(2005a) ‘Beyond mediation: three new material registers and their consequences’, in D.Miller (ed.), Materiality. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 231–255.(2005b) ‘But malice aforethought: cities and the natural history of hatred’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS, 30: 133–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2005.00157.x(2005c) ‘Torsten Hagerstrand and social theory’, Progress in Human Geography, 29(3): 337–340.(2007) ‘Immaculate Warfare’, in D.Gregory and A.Pred (eds), Violent Geographies: Fear, Terror, and Political Violence, London: Routledge.(1981) ‘Time geography: a new beginning’, Progress in Human Geography, 5: 277–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030913258100500209and (2005) The New Berlin: Memory, Politics, Place, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(1991) The nation-state and its others’, Diaspora, 1(1): 3–7.(1996) ‘Rethinking diaspora(s): stateless power in the transnational world’, Diaspora, 5(1): 3–36.(1963) Community and Society, New York: Harper and Row.(2004a) ‘Looking forward by looking back: May Day protests in London and the strategic significance of the urban’, Antipode, 36(4): 706–727. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2004.00444.x(2004b) ‘The co-optation of squatters in Amsterdam and the emergence of a movement meritocracy: a critical reply to Pruijt’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28(3): 687–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0309-1317.2004.00543.x([Page 219]1957) American Commodity Flow: A Geographical Interpretation of Rail and Water Traffic Based on Principles of Spatial Interchange, Washington: University of Washington Press.(2000) Why We Buy: The Science of Shopping, New York: Simon and Schuster.(2004) Call of the Mall: The Geography of Shopping, New York: Simon and Schuster.(2000) Sociology Beyond Societies: Mobilities for the Twenty-First Century, London: Routledge.(1999) ‘Conceiving and researching transnationalism’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22(2): 447–662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/014198799329558(2001) ‘Transnationalism and identity’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 27(4): 573–582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691830120090386(2001) ‘Diagrams of Utopia’, in C.de Zegher, and M.Wigley (eds), The Activist Drawing: Retracing Situationist Architecture from Constant's New Babylon to Beyond, Cambridge MA: MIT Press. pp. 83–91.(1999) ‘Urban marginality in the coming millennium’, Urban Studies, 36(10): 1639–1647. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0042098992746(2001) Deadly symbiosis: when ghetto and prison meet and mesh, Punishment and Society, 3(1): 95–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/14624740122228276(2004) Body and Soul: Notebooks of an Apprentice Boxer, Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2007) A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality, Cambridge: Polity Press.(2001) ‘Postcards and frontier mythologies: sustaining views of the Kimberley as timeless’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 20: 319–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d269tand (1999) Still the Promised City? African-Americans and New Immigrants in Post Industrial New York, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1996) ‘Another round of globalization in San Francisco’, Urban Geography, 17(1): 60–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-36184.108.40.206(2004) Memory and the Impact of Political Transformation in Public Space, Durham: Duke University Press.and (1994) Virtual Geography: Living with Global Media Events, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.(2005) ‘Transnational family strategies and education in the contemporary Chinese diaspora’, Global Networks, 5(4): 359–377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0374.2005.00124.x(2006) ‘Geographies of cultural capital: education, international migration and family strategies between Hong Kong and Canada’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS, 31(2): 179–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2006.00202.x(1964) Explorations into Urban Structure, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.(2002) ‘Extracting value from the city: neoliberalism and urban redevelopment’, Antipode, 34(3): 519–540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8330.00253(Webster, C. (ed.) (2006) Private Cities: Global and Local Perspectives, London: Routledge.1979) ‘The community question’, American Journal of Sociology, 84: 1201–1331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/226906([Page 220]Wellman, B. (ed.) (1998) Networks in the Global Village: Life in Contemporary Communis, Boulder: Westview Press.Wellman, B. and Haythornthwaite, C. (eds) (2002) The Internet in Everyday Life, Oxford: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/97804707742981988) ‘Networks as personal communities’, in B.Wellman and S.Berkowitz (eds), Social Structure: A Network Approach, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 130–184., and (1979) ‘Network, neighborhoods and communities’, Urban Affair Quarterly, 14: 363–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107808747901400305and (2002) Biopolis: Patrick Geddes and the City of Life, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(2001) Bystander: A History of Street Photography, Boston: Little, Brown and Company.and (2002) Hybrid Geographies: Nature, Culture, Space, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446219713(2005) Life in Britain: using millennial Census data to understand poverty, inequality and place, Bristol: The Policy Press., , and (2005) ‘Assessing the role of spatial analysis in urban geography in the 1960s’, in B.J.L.Berry, and J.O.Wheeler (eds), Urban Geography in America, 1950–2000: Paradigms and Personalis, New York: Routledge. pp. 117–128.(2002) ‘Life in a “food desert”’, Urban Studies, 39(11): 2083–2100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0042098022000011371, , and (2003) ‘Locating art worlds: London and the remaking of young British art’, Area, 35(3): 251–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-4762.00174(2006) ‘Modernism vs urban renaissance: negotiating post-war heritage in English city centres’, Urban Studies, 43(13): 2399–2419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980601038206(2003) ‘Representational politics in virtual urban places’, Environment and Planning A, 35: 1607–1627. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a34237and (1973) The Country and the City, London: Chatto and Windus.(1976) Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, London: Flamingo.(2001) ‘Community unionism and trade union renewal in the UK: moving beyond the fragments at last?’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 26(4): 465–483. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-5661.00035(2000) Complex Spatial Systems: The Modelling Foundations of Regional Analysis, Harlow: Prentice Hall.(2007) Cities and Race: The New American Black Ghetto, London: Routledge.(1991) The Sphinx in the City: Urban Design, the Control of Disorder, and Women, London: Virago.(1987) The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1995) ‘Trans-species urban theory’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 13(9): 735–760., and (2002) ‘Anima urbris’, Progress in Human Geography, 26(6): 721–742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0309132502ph400oa([Page 221]2007) Green urban worlds’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 97(2): 373–384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.2007.00543.x(Wollen, P. and Kerr, J. (eds) (2002) Autopia: Cars and Culture, London: Reaktion.Women and Geography Study Group of the IBG (1984) Geography and Gender: An Introduction to Feminist Geography, Oxford: Blackwell.2007) ‘Surveillance in urban Japan: a critical introduction’, Urban Studies, 44(3): 551–568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980601176097, and (2002), Reading Retail: A Geographical Perspective on Retailing and Consumption Spaces, London: Arnold.and (Wu, F. (ed.) (2005) Globalization and the Chinese City, London: Routledge.2005) ‘Rethinking relational economic geography’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, NS, 30: 37–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2005.00150.x(1957) Family and Kinship in East London, London: Penguin Books.and (1992) ‘The city as a landscape of power: London and New York as global financial capitals’, in L.Budd, and S.Whimster (eds), Global Finance and Urban Living, Andover: Routledge, Chapman and Hall. pp. 195–223.(1995) The Cultures of Cities, Cambridge MA: Blackwell.(