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The Marketing Mix
The marketing mix

The marketing mix has been credited to McCarthy (1960/1987), but in fact this was only one of several competing marketing mix models that were around at about the same time. Borden (1964) conceptualised marketing as a process of planning, implementation and control but included a total of 12 elements in his marketing mix. Various alternatives were considered and rejected (Frey, 1961; Howard, 1957; Lazer and Kelly, 1962) but finally McCarthy's (1960) model was adopted and remains to this day the accepted wisdom. The basis of the concept is that marketers have various tools at their disposal for encouraging exchanges: these tools ...

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