The history of the care of people with a learning disability has been influenced by philosophies rooted in diverse international perspectives. However, dominant philosophies have held sway and often at an international level. People within today's services have experienced the lingering influence of the eugenics movement, which even in contemporary times can threaten to restrict choice, inclusion and empowerment. The original notions of normalisation can be traced back to the Scandinavian countries, with Denmark being the first to adopt the principle of providing patterns of living that were close to those of the rest of the population. Sweden, in particular, took a lead in the 1960s, developing a version of normalisation based on human rights. A further development of influential theories ...