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Two-Step Flow
Two-step flow

The two-step flow model of media effects has its origins in Lazarsfeld, Berelson and Gaudet's study The People's Choice (1944), which attempted to assess the impact of media election coverage on voting behaviour in American presidential elections. The conclusions of the study proved contentious and challenged the findings of previous studies by suggesting that the influence of media on audiences was more modest and complex than previously realized (Klapper, 1960: 32).

Contra the hypodermic model of media effects, Lazarsfeld argued that: (1) voters' electoral choices were highly resistant to media influence; (2) media coverage tended to reinforce rather than change people's existing opinions (Lazarsfeld et al., 1944: 88–9); (3) the small minority of voters who were undecided were the least likely to listen and ...

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