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The process by which people are made to seem mildly or radically different. Through othering strategies, people are positioned as an out-group – as ‘an Other’. However, given that the word ‘Other is an elliptical pronoun … that can refer to practically anything, depending on the context or situation’ (Riggins, 1997: 4), the term requires further definition.

Self-identity is the result of a dialogue between self and other: I define what I am in contrast to what I am not; equally, we define others in terms which reflect their difference from us. However, personal identity is a fluid rather than a stable state in which the self draws on multiple identities – for example, son, husband, graduate, Socialist, Englishman, European, etc. – any of which may ...

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