Key Concepts in Journalism Studies


Bob Franklin, Martin Hamer, Mark Hanna, Marie Kinsey & John E. Richardson

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Part I: Concepts

    Part II: Institutions

  • Recent volumes include:

    Key Concepts in Social Research

    Geoff Payne and Judy Payne

    Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies

    Jane Pilcher and Imelda Whelehan

    Key Concepts in Medical Sociology

    Jonathan Gabe, Mike Bury and Mary Ann Elston

    Key Concepts in Leisure Studies

    David Harris

    Key Concepts in Critical Social Theory

    Nick Crossley

    Key Concepts in Urban Studies

    Mark Gottdiener and Leslie Budd

    Key Concepts in Mental Health

    David Pilgrim

    The SAGE Key Concepts series provides students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension.


    View Copyright Page


    We would like to thank Annie Franklin for volunteering editorial assistance with compiling the various sections of this book during the summer of 2004. Thanks also to Julia Hall for her suggestion that we might write this book and her belief it might prove useful to students and teachers of journalism studies. Jamilah Ahmed and the editorial and production staff at Sage also deserve a vote of thanks for their support and skill in bringing the book to fruition.

    Note on the Text

    At the end of each entry, the initials of the contributor are shown:

    Bob FranklinBF
    Martin HamerMGH
    Mark HannaMNH
    Marie KinseyMK
    John RichardsonJER

    Each concept includes cross-references guiding readers to other related concepts and institutions. References in bold are to other journalism studies concepts; references in italics relate to institutions/organizations.


    Key Concepts in Journalism Studies is designed for students of journalism, media and communications studies and aims to provide them with an accessible, authoritative but preliminary guide to the central concepts informing the innovatory and burgeoning field of journalism studies. Perhaps away from the gaze of students, academics and teachers will also find the book a useful source of up-to-date information about contemporary journalism; as might working journalists in search of a more theoretical evaluation and explanation of their daily professional practice. Members of the broader reading public will also hopefully find something of interest here in the discussion of agony aunts, cartoons, Gonzo journalism, readers' letters, spin doctors and media scrums.

    Written by experienced academics, journalists and teachers, the book identifies, analyzes and presents key concepts in journalism studies, explores their interconnections and offers recommendations for further reading and study. The book examines journalism across all media platforms embracing print, radio, television and online journalism. An initial question is obvious: how is this field of journalism studies to be understood? Others soon follow. What parameters define its limits? How does this fledgling discipline connect to the concerns of other arts and social science subjects such as media studies, sociology and linguistics? Browse through the alphabetical listing of concepts and page 128 delivers one answer to these questions and outlines the essential features of journalism studies. Contrary definitions of the field undoubtedly exist: so much the better. It is contested accounts rather than unwarranted certainty that prompt further reflection and intellectual development.

    Journalism studies is the multidisciplinary study of journalism as an arena of professional practice and a subject focus for intellectual and academic inquiry. More specifically, it entails the critical analysis of the various processes involved in gathering, evaluating, interpreting, researching, writing, editing, reporting and presenting information and comment on a wide range of subjects (including business, fashion, news, politics, sport and travel), that are disseminated via an expansive range of mass media (including the Internet, magazines, newspapers, radio and television) to diverse audiences (distinguished by culture, identity and intellectual interests) resident in local, regional, national and international settings.

    Sources, of course, are invaluable to journalists and central to journalism studies; they are also important to students of journalism studies. Routinely or one-off, sources provide journalists with possible stories, exclusive insider information and authoritative quotations. Whistleblowers, leaks and spin-doctors' press briefings have the added advantage that they come for free, but they bring their own dangers. The growth in chequebook journalism, moreover, means that journalists increasingly need to dip into their back pockets and expense accounts to access sources' deep well of information.

    But sources' real value for journalists depends on how they are used. Journalists need to reflect on the information which sources provide, assess its accuracy and relevance, interpret its meaning, adjudicate between contested and contradictory information delivered by different sources, consider the relationship between them and, finally, use a diverse range of sources to construct a balanced and even-handed argument or account of events. The same requirements should steer the use of this book by students of journalism, media and communication studies who are also reliant on sources.

    Open the book at the entry for Sources and that message is underscored. Sources are ‘the people, places and organizations that supply journalists with ideas and general information for news stories and features … Cuttings, archival material, broadcast recordings and a variety of documents and websites provide further useful sources of information.’ All these sources of information, data and documentation are available in Key Concepts in Journalism Studies.

    The health warnings posted in the same entry about journalists' use of sources, apply with equal force to readers' use of this book. Journalists, for example, risk their independence being ‘compromised by an over-reliance’ on sources or their use of ‘a limited number of news sources’. Journalists' reliance on significant and authoritative sources, moreover, may offer the latter too great an influence on ‘how stories are reported and debated’. The dangers of getting too close to sources should be as apparent to journalists as students of journalism studies. But readers of Key Concepts in Journalism Studies differ markedly from journalists concerning the ‘need to protect the identity of sources’. Journalists traditionally guarantee their sources absolute anonymity while the protocols of scholarly research and writing insist on openness and honesty in the use of academic sources.

    What connects the ways that readers should use the sources of information in this book with journalists' use of sources of news is the simple observation that these ‘key concepts’, like journalists' sources, are intended to provide the starting point, not the terminus, of any inquiry. Their purpose is not to serve as a surrogate for further reading or critical reflection: unattributed sources to be ‘glued’ together into an ill-considered and intellectually inadequate pastiche. Key Concepts is not a simple dictionary that delivers uncontested ‘meanings’ or a précis of complex ideas.

    On the contrary, each concept should trigger thoughtful reflection about its meaning, prompt readers to explore the cognate concepts and, where meanings and interpretations collide, to strive for and achieve some new synthesis and understanding. Like journalists, readers, who wish to maximise the benefit to be derived from the sources provided here, should consult the widest possible range of sources, follow the recommendations for further reading which accompany entries and use the extensive bibliography to explore more widely, but in closer detail, the literature of this field of scholarly inquiry. See how useful this book can be?

    The book has been clearly structured into two broad parts to facilitate readers' access to information and source materials. Part I contains the substantive listing of key concepts in journalism studies, which is ordered alphabetically. Entries range from absence and agenda setting through to uses and gratifications and yellow journalism. Along the way censorship, discourse analysis, news values and tabloid journalism are discussed and analysed. Entries embrace consideration of both theoretical and practical concerns and, where appropriate, try to reconcile differences arising from this mix of theory and practice. The book makes explicit the interconnections between key concepts and highlights them by using bold type ‘hyperlinks’ across the alphabetically listed entries, but also seeks to whet readers' appetites for further reading by providing extensive and explicit bibliographical guidance to a wide range of primary and secondary literature to facilitate further study. Articles in newspapers, academic journals, books and a range of online sources offer readers opportunities to follow up particular interests. We have tried to include every concept which is relevant and useful, but if we have missed anything, please write to us c/o Sage, and we will attempt to make good the omission in any subsequent edition.

    Part II offers a listing of journalism organizations and institutions selected according to two criteria: first, their significance to the structures and processes of journalism; second, the extent to which they illustrate the institutional form through which particular concepts find organizational expression in the UK or European setting. Consequently, the discussion of the key concept regulation in Part I finds a complementary and companion discussion in the entries in Part II on the Press Complaints Commission, Ofcom and the BBC Board of Governors. Concepts such as news management and agenda setting will similarly find institutional illustration through the entries concerned with the Government Information and Communication Service (GICS) and the Central Office of Information (COI). Organizations identified for inclusion range across a broad spectrum including regulatory bodies (Ofcom), press agencies (Reuters), trade unions (National Union of Journalists, NUJ), journalists' professional organizations (Women in Journalism), government news management organizations (the Government News Network, GNN) and journalism educational organizations (Broadcast Journalism Training Council, BJTC).

    Towards the end of the book, there is a glossary listing key technical terms and phrases commonly used in print, broadcast and online journalism. Entries here include actuality, copy taster, corpsing, freelance and piece to camera.

    The book also explores the complex relationship between journalism studies and the connected disciplines of media, communication and cultural studies, seeking to resolve boundary disputes where they break out. The various entries also indicate the multidisciplinary character of journalism studies and the degree to which it builds on the traditional social science and humanities disciplines of sociology, politics, economics, history, psychology, literature and linguistics.

    Key Concepts in Journalism Studies illustrates the plurality and range of theoretical frameworks which deliver explanatory accounts of structures and processes in journalism studies, as well as identifying the characteristic methodological approaches which inform the knowledge base of the discipline and steer further research inquiries. It also introduces readers to the significant debates within the discipline, by outlining the arguments and positions of key protagonists and by offering summaries and evaluations of academics' and journalists' critical assessments of recent developments in journalism studies.

    Finally, Key Concepts in Journalism Studies outlines the impact of recent policy developments on the organizational structures, financial arrangements and regulatory environment of the media within which journalism is conducted as well as their consequences for journalism products.

    These are giddy ambitions. We hope we have achieved some of them. One measure of our success will be the extent to which readers find this publication valuable and engaging: typical benchmarks of success in journalism. We have tried to provide a useful but critical source of information and ideas about journalism studies. Use it wisely. To get the best from the book, readers, like journalists, must approach this source with appropriate scepticism, an open mind, a genuine spirit of inquiry and a desire to learn. Return to the entry on Sources on p. 248. Remember always to avoid the dangers involved in getting too close to a source or becoming overly reliant on a single source. But also remember that sources provide an extremely valuable fund of ideas, information and authoritative quotations. Significantly, they provide the starting point for an inquiry, but it is for the reader to evaluate, compare and reflect on the information and ideas delivered by multiple sources to arrive eventually at the terminus of that inquiry. Have a good trip!

    BobFranklin, MartinHamer, MarkHanna, MarieKinsey, John E.Richardson October 2004
  • Glossary of Terms

    • Acoustic The particular type of sound achievable in a room or space according to the type of surfaces sound is reflected from.
    • Actuality Sound effects, atmosphere and interviews recorded on location, or recording of a live event.
    • Ad-lib Unscripted, off-the-cuff remark.
    • ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Often referred to as broadband, it provides fast, always-on access to the internet using standard telephone copper lines while also allowing the user to make normal phone calls.
    • Advertising feature A piece of writing commissioned to be an advert, or to accompany (and therefore to attract) adverts.
    • AM Amplitude modulation. A term associated with analogue broadcasting on medium wave and a description of how the sound signal gets to the transmitter frequency.
    • Anchor American term for the person who fronts a high profile news programme.
    • Archive A store of news stories (or complete newspapers or broadcast bulletins) published previously, and therefore a source of research material for future. Newspaper stories from earlier decades may still be kept as cuttings (see below).
    • Aston A company that makes a system of on screen captioning and industry term in some organizations for the captioning process itself.
    • Atmos Atmosphere. The addition of natural sound or wild track to add to the authenticity of a piece.
    • Autocue An electrical device allowing television presenters to read a script while looking at the camera.
    • Back-announcement When the presenter gives more detail on an item immediately after its transmission, such as a phone number or the name of the reporter.
    • Back projection When pictures are projected onto a screen behind the presenter.
    • Back-timing Calculating backwards from the end point of a programme to work out the start time of a particular item.
    • Bandwidth (see also in concepts) This can refer either to the difference in the range of signal frequencies, measured in hertz, used on a particular transmission channel, or it can indicate the varying amount of digital information carried across a computer network, which is usually calculated in bits per second.
    • Banner Similar to a newspaper front page masthead, the banner is a section at or across the top of a web page (particularly the homepage) containing content (text and often images) and usually including the name and company logo (if applicable) of the website. The banner, or part of it, could also be an advertisement.
    • Bed Music backing that runs under news bulletins, station idents or adverts.
    • Bi-media Covering the same story for both radio and television.
    • Blurb Those text and graphics in a newspaper or magazine, e.g. on the front page, which enthusiastically tell the reader about articles on other pages, or which will appear in future issues.
    • Breaking news The earliest reports of any event or journalistic discovery e.g. of a court verdict, of a plane crash, or a scoop (see below) revealing a scandal. To ‘break’ a story is to publish it before any rivals do.
    • Brief Notes provided by a researcher or producer summarizing a story and telling a reporter how it will be covered.
    • Browser A computer program which can display all the content on a web page by deciphering the HTML coding. Only text could originally be viewed until the arrival of graphical browsers. The most common browser is Microsoft's Internet Explorer.
    • Bulletin News summary in television or radio usually lasting a few minutes at the top of the hour.
    • Byline A line of type in a news story which tells the reader which journalist wrote it, e.g. ‘By Harold Evans’.
    • Cans Colloquial term for headphones.
    • Capgen Electronic device for generating captions on television programmes.
    • Catchline One or two words used to identify a particular story. Also known as slug.
    • Chapel The British collective name, at workplace level, for members of a media trade union employed there, e.g. the Guardian NUJ Chapel is the term denoting all National Union of Journalist members employed at the Guardian newspaper. The term evolved from printers' workshops being called ‘chapels’. See also Father/Mother of the Chapel (below).
    • Chapel meeting A meeting of members of a trade union employed at the same media workplace (see Chapel, above).
    • Check calls Calls made by newsrooms several times a day to the emergency services.
    • Chromakey An electronic way of taking pictures from several sources to make it look as though a television presenter is standing against a particular backdrop. See CSO (below).
    • Clip Representative section of an interview lasting a few seconds for use in hourly radio news bulletins. Also known as cut or soundbite (see below).
    • CMS Content Management Systems. These are usually used for publishing web pages which can be created and edited using browser-based pre-defined templates without the need for the people inputting the content to know anything about the technology usually involved in producing and updating websites.
    • Colour piece A journalistic article or broadcast which is primarily descriptive of an event and/or its location, seeking to convey the eye- witness experience and emotions of being there, rather than to clinically narrate the news event.
    • Commentary Broadcast description of a live event, or, reporter's script read under pictures on a television news item.
    • Compact The description of a tabloid size newspaper with a broadsheet content. Since 17 May 2004, for example, the Independent has been published only in tabloid size, but editor Simon Kellner argues that the serious broadsheet content of the paper means it should be described as a compact rather than tabloid newspaper.
    • Contact Anyone spoken to by journalists to gain information about a story. See Source (in concepts).
    • Cookies These are small text files sent by web servers when a website is accessed and deposited on a recipient's computer. They can be used to identify users on future visits and also store information about the user's web-surfing habits. This can speed up the web-browsing process, but has led to privacy worries. Browsers can usually be configured to accept or reject cookies.
    • Copy Copy is a written piece of journalism, ready for any necessary editing.
    • Copy-taker A copy-taker is employed to key, into a newsroom's computers, stories dictated by phone by journalists at another location. Copy-takers are a breed near extinction, because journalists generally use laptop computers to transmit ‘copy’ (see above) straight into the newsroom system. Good copy-takers will correct mis-spellings, and take the shine off a reporter's vanity by carping, half-way through the dictation: ‘Is there much more of this?’
    • Copy taster A copy taster is a journalist, usually a sub-editor, who makes an initial selection of what news stories should be considered for publication.
    • Corpsing The uncontrolled desire to laugh, usually inappropriately, while live on air.
    • Covert filming Filming without the knowledge or necessarily agreement of the people or places being filmed.
    • Crossfade Fading in one source of sound while fading out another so that they overlap.
    • CSO Colour Separation Overlay. See Chromakey (see above).
    • Cue 1: A physical or audible signal to a presenter to begin reading, 2: Written introductory material lasting a few sentences and summarizing a story read by a presenter.
    • Cutaway Insertion of a picture within a visual sequence used to hide an edit.
    • Cuttings News stories or features kept in paper form after being cut out, e.g. by scissors, from the page on which they were published. A print journalist applying for a job will usually enclose his/her best work as photocopied cuttings. ‘Cuts’ is a slang abbreviation of the term. A ‘cuttings library’ is an old form of archive (see above).
    • Database An electronic facility used for retrieving, storing and classifying information.
    • Dead air Nothing is being broadcast when it should be. Usually the cue for frantic activity.
    • Deadline The latest time of day or night, e.g. 5.50 p.m., or the latest date, by which a news story or feature must be received by the newsdesk (or by sub-editors or the newsreader) if it is to be included in the next edition of a newspaper, magazine or the next broadcast bulletin.
    • Delay A device whereby transmission of a live programme can be delayed by a few seconds. Usually used as a precaution against obscenities.
    • Delayed drop A narrative technique used in print journalism in which the most newsworthy fact of the story is not placed in the introduction, but further down the text, hence ‘delayed’. This enables the journalist to use the intro to catch the readers' attention by intriguing them with ‘human interest’, or by building suspense, e.g: ‘When John Doe left his tidy bungalow in Surbiton, bang on 8.07 a.m. as normal, there was no clue that within 20 minutes his life would be changed forever.’.
    • Digital (see also Digitization in concepts). It describes the system by
    • which data is processed in combinations of the digits zero and one, meaning information is transmitted much faster and in a higher quality than previously possible.
    • Digital multiplex A hierarchical system allowing digital transmission of many different radio stations simultaneously.
    • Director In a studio, the person in control of the transmission gallery. On location, the person in control of what is to be filmed.
    • DNS The global Domain Name System (or Server or Service) helps users find their way around the internet by replacing the Internet Protocol (IP) address of a website with a domain name (also known as a web address or URL), making it far easier to remember than a series of numbers. Domain names, an example of which is, are registered through a registration agent. Information about specific domain names (including whether a particular one is available to register) and IP addresses can be obtained from one of the WHOIS search engines, such as
    • Doorstepping Journalists knocking on doors, and hanging around people's homes and workplaces, when attempting to interview, photograph or film them.
    • Dreamweaver One of the most popular types of web-authoring software, Macromedia Dreamweaver can be used to create and design web pages. Packages like this are known as WYSIWYG – what you see is what you get.
    • Drive time Periods of the day such as morning, lunchtime and late afternoon which coincide with peak commuter travel, when more people listen to the radio in their cars.
    • Dub 1: To make a copy of an item, a programme or an audio source. 2: To add sound to a pre-recorded television item.
    • Dummy An edition of a newspaper or magazine which is not published, but which is a trial run/test product for a publication due to be launched or one being redesigned.
    • Duration Exact length in minutes and/or seconds of an item or programme.
    • Early edition See First edition (below).
    • Ears Adverts which appear on either side of a newspaper's masthead (see below), i.e. in the top corners of its front page.
    • Editing The process of choosing material from a number of sources to go into a finished item, or choosing items to make up a programme.
    • Editorial, editorialize Editorial is a word which, confusingly, has several meanings. An ‘editorial department’ is the physical space within a workplace where journalists work. ‘Editorial’ material (when the term is used generally) is that part of the content of a publication which is produced by journalists, e.g. news, sport, features but not adverts. But ‘an editorial’ is a ‘leader’ (see below), i.e. a comment piece reflecting the publication's viewpoints. ‘To editorialize’ is to make partisan comment in a journalistic context, and therefore to depart from impartiality.
    • Effects (FX) Sound recorded on location or taken from an effects library to give an audio illustration that adds to the story, e.g. birdsong, roadworks.
    • Electronic In the digital age, this often relates to applications and activities involving computers and the internet. It is usually shortened to ‘e’, for example in email.
    • Email (see also in concepts) Electronic messages exchanged between internet users on a one-to-one or one-to-many basis. They usually contain text, but can also carry attachments, including multimedia files.
    • Encryption This involves the coding or scrambling of (usually sensitive or confidential) electronic information so it can be read only by the recipient for whom it is intended, assuming that person has the correct decoding key. One of its major uses is on secure websites.
    • ENG Electronic newsgathering using portable cameras or camcorders that record pictures and sound to the same source.
    • ENPS Electronic News Production System. Developed by Associated Press and used by major broadcasters including the BBC and ITN, for radio and television, it manages scripts, wire services, running orders and bulletin clips. Material can be called up by any journalist on demand.
    • Exclusive: a story of significant newsworthiness, initially only present in a single newspaper. Paying a fee to a source often ensures exclusive rights to a story. Other newspapers often attempt to undermine a competitor's exclusive with a spoiler.
    • Exposé, exposure A piece of investigative journalism which reveals a scandal.
    • Fade To gradually lower or increase the volume on sound until it becomes audible or inaudible, or to gradually dim pictures to either white or black.
    • FAQ This stands for ‘frequently-asked questions’ and is usually a text-based page providing answers for a pre-defined set of questions which a visitor to a website might be expected to ask, such as how to use the site or where to find things. Other uses for FAQs include giving specific information about video games and company information in general.
    • Feed Supply of a programme or programme items over a remote connection such as ISDN, satellite or mobile links vehicle.
    • File extension Text and multimedia files (including web pages and documents) all have extensions, a dot followed by two or more letters after the name, which indicates to operating systems and browsers what type it is and the application needed to open it. For example, in Windows all Microsoft Word files end in .doc for document. Other common file extensions include GIF (Graphic Interchange Format), JPG or JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) and PDF (Portable Document Format). There are also compressed files, which have extensions such as .MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group) and .MP3 or MPEG3 (audio files); these can only be opened using decompression software. Most web pages and documents end in .htm or .html.
    • Filing stories A news story is ‘filed’ when a reporter has sent it, as complete as possible, to the newsdesk.
    • Fillers Relatively unimportant items of varying duration used as stand-bys to bring a programme up to the correct length.
    • First Edition/Early Edition The first version of a newspaper to be produced. Daily newspapers update throughout the night with a final (usually fourth or fifth) edition printed early morning. The edition of the paper is usually indicated on the cover, often by a series of stars. Because newspapers have to be transported, readers living further away from the printing presses are more likely to buy an earlier edition.
    • Fluff Mistake in newsreading or programme presentation.
    • FM Frequency modulation. A term associated with analogue broadcasting on VHF and a description of how the sound signal gets to the transmitter frequency.
    • FoC Father of the Chapel An employee (male) elected by fellow trade union members to lead the chapel (see above) at a media workplace, and therefore the person most involved in negotiations with management. If a woman is elected to this role, she is known as the Mother of the Chapel.
    • Fog index The Gunning Fog index is one of the formulae designed to measure the ‘readability’ of text in the English language. It was devised by Robert Gunning, a consultant to newspapers and magazines, who was a crusader against jargon. It involves counting, in samples of text, the total of certain types of multi-syllable word, and the number of sentences. Application of the formula gives the number of years in education required to read and understand the text easily. A 1989 survey suggested a reader needed 8.5 years of education to understand the Sun newspaper, (i.e. if schooling began when the reader was aged five, the Sun required the reading age of a 13-year-old) and around 12 years of education (i.e. the reading age of a 17-year-old) to easily understand The Times.
    • Fold The fold necessarily made in a broadsheet paper to transport it easily and display it for sale. The most important stories on a page will be ‘above the fold’, where most easily seen.
    • Foldback Means of allowing presenters in the studio to hear programme output in the studio while keeping the microphones live.
    • Follow up An item based on a story that's already been published or broadcast, but saying something new about it.
    • Foot in the door A general reference to use of robust, persuasive tactics by journalists door-stepping (see above) people reluctant to speak to them, including literally placing a foot against a door's jamb to prevent it being closed in the journalist's face.
    • Format 1: Style and look of a programme. 2: Type of technical material used for recording, e.g. digital video tape, minidisk, BETA, VHS.
    • Freebie Products (e.g. CDs by pop bands) or services (e.g. a holiday trip) supplied free to journalists or their media employer to encourage them to provide favourable publicity for such goods or services.
    • Freelance (see also in concepts) A journalist who works on a shift or piecemeal basis for a number of media organizations, rather than full-time for just one. Also known as a ‘casual’.
    • FTP File Transfer Protocol is a tool for sending and retrieving information on the internet; it can also be used for uploading files such as web pages to a server. Formally, it is one of the main sets of rules governing the transfer of information across the internet.
    • Gallery (Control room) A room adjacent to a studio from where production and technical operations are controlled during transmission of a programme. A gallery will typically contain monitors for studio cameras and outside sources, sound and vision mixing desks and computing equipment linked to the newsroom.
    • General view (GV) A wide camera shot usually used to establish a location.
    • GNS General News Service. The BBC's internal service of national and international stories fed to local and regional radio newsrooms.
    • Graphics Computer-generated captions and treated pictures that explain aspects of television news stories that do not lend themselves to filmed material.
    • Hack Slightly derogatory, slang term for a hard-nosed male reporter (female hacks are, still more condescendingly, labelled ‘hackettes’). Hack can imply that journalists are jaded and venal rather than meticulous and idealistic, but may also be used to denote, in certain contexts, an experienced journalist. Characteristics include being hard-hearted, uninterested in developing friendships or being popular and ruthlessly pursuing the truth. The hack is not just fascinated by war zones, ‘he goes there on his holidays’; hacks don't just seek the truth, they're ‘obsessed by it’ (
    • Handout Press release or other publicity material.
    • Handover 1: Briefing sheet from programme editors or producers going off shift to those coming on. 2: Words used by a presenter to signal the end of their contribution.
    • Head of Content One of the senior executives among journalists in a media organization. As a job description, its scope varies between organizations, but usually denotes responsibility to oversee the quality of journalistic (news and features) content in the longer term, and to ensure it is geared to the target audience.
    • Hertz (Hz) Frequency of sound measured in cycles per second. 1000 hertz is a kilohertz (kHz).
    • Homepage This is usually the main page of a website and the one that a visitor will first see. It often contains introductory material (detailing the aims and purposes of the site) and links to the other main areas of the website.
    • HTML A universal coded language called Hypertext Markup Language used to create standard web pages and format the content in a way in which it can be viewed in a browser on different computer operating systems. HTML can be coded by hand, but this can be time-consuming and laborious, and the process is quicker and easier using web-authoring software like Macromedia Dreamweaver.
    • HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol defines how information is formatted and transferred from servers to browsers so web pages can be viewed.
    • Hyperlink (see also Hypertext in concepts) Hyperlinks, in the form of short text or graphics, are used to connect web pages and documents within the same website in addition to acting as gateways to other sites and destinations elsewhere on the internet. Email addresses can also be used as links.
    • Ident See Jingle (below).
    • Intake Term for a newsgathering team contributing to one or more programmes.
    • Internet (see also in concepts) A huge network of computers and smaller networks linked worldwide which allows people to access information and contact each other.
    • Interview (see also in concepts) An interview is usually a dialogue between two people, one of whom is questioning the other. In the case of a journalist, this would be in an attempt to find out information from the person being interviewed.
    • Intro The first paragraph of a report that grabs the audience and gives the main point of the story.
    • In vision (I/V) Instruction on a television script saying that the presenter should be seen on camera at that point.
    • In-words (In-cue) First few words of a recorded report written on a cue sheet and useful for checking that the right item is being played.
    • IP Internet Protocol relates to a unique series of numbers (between 0 and 255) which are assigned to every computer (and website) linking up to the internet. Through the DNS, the IP is translated into the URL and vice versa.
    • ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network. A way of sending digital audio signals over the telephone system.
    • ISP (see also in concepts) Internet Service Providers, also known as IAPs (Internet Access Providers), offer varying levels of internet access – and services such as email and web hosting – to individuals, organizations and companies, while many of them also have websites which act as portals to the world wide web. Domain names are usually registered though an ISP which will submit the application to Nominet UK or another international registry. ISPs are connected to one another through Network Access Points (NAPs). AOL (America Online) is one of the best-known ISPs, of which there are thousands globally.
    • Jingle Short piece of music used to identify a radio or television station, introduce a news bulletin. Also known as ident, sting, or stab.
    • Jump cut An edit which destroys visual continuity and makes the subject appear to ‘jump’ from one position in the frame to another.
    • Junior reporter A reporter who is not yet fully trained.
    • LAN As suggested by their name, Local Area Networks are much smaller than WANs in that they cover a relatively small geographical area and are typically used in offices and universities with computers connected to a server. LANs exchange data at high speeds and allow users to share information.
    • Lead The main story on a news page, therefore having the biggest headline.
    • Leader A comment piece in a newspaper which reflects its viewpoint on events, and any political allegiance it has. It appears in fixed position (in the ‘leader column’, on the ‘leader page’) traditionally with the paper's ‘masthead’ (see below) displayed over it, to add gravitas. Editors hope it helps form readers' opinions. A ‘leader writer’ is a specialist journalist, deemed informed and witty enough to write leaders, though editors also write their own. Most newspapers usually include two to three leaders, one of which will be shorter and about a lighter subject.
    • Legs 1: Colloquial term for a camera tripod. 2: Also, in a figurative use, a news story is said to have ‘legs’ if it proves to be a running story (see below), i.e. there are fresh, newsworthy developments, each justifying a further news report, over a long period.
    • Level The amount of sound registered by a recorder or mixing desk and adjusted to ensure there is no distortion.
    • Library The place in a media organization where any physical archive (see above) of cuttings or photographs or other reference material is kept, to help journalists research their work.
    • Lift To ‘lift’ a news story is to publish, without checking for factual accuracy, material already published by another outfit. It is poor journalistic practice, often done under pressure of a deadline (see above). There may be libel problems if the original story proves false, and copyright issues if phrases are ‘lifted’ entire.
    • Lighting rig/grid Construction of metal bars and cabling suspended from a studio ceiling to hold lights.
    • Link Short section of script read by a presenter connecting one item to another or bridging between interviews.
    • Links vehicle Mobile production studio used to transmit sound and pictures via microwave to base.
    • Live Happening now.
    • Masthead The title-piece of a newspaper, i.e. its name as displayed on its front page, and any artwork or logo used to embellish or project the name, e.g. the lion and unicorn coat of arms used by The Times, or the Daily Express crusader figure. Also used originally to denote the title and artwork as displayed, inside the paper, above the ‘leader column’ (see above).
    • Mic/mike Microphone.
    • MoC Mother of the Chapel See FoC Father of the Chapel, above.
    • Monitor Screen showing television pictures from one or more sources.
    • MPEG An abbreviation of the Motion Pictures Expert Group – a collection of some 350 industries and universities charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards. MPEG refers to the standards used for coding audio-visual information (e.g., movies, video, music) in a digital compressed format.
    • MP3 or MPEG3 An audio coding format. Using MP3, a user can make a data reduction of 1:12, while still maintaining original CD sound quality.
    • Multimedia (see also in concepts) A combination of different mediums to present content in varying forms. The internet can facilitate multimedia in its fullest sense by being able to accommodate text, audio, still pictures and graphics, animations and video (which can be streamed, meaning it is downloading while being played). However, browsers are not always able to play all files and plug-ins like Macromedia Flash or Apple QuickTime are usually needed to access certain media like music and video clips.
    • Natural sound Sound recorded at the same time as the pictures.
    • Newsdesk The desk or desks in a newsroom where the news editor and his/her deputies sit. It is the hub of the news-gathering operation, where reporters are allocated tasks and to which they send their copy (see above) to be checked, before any subbing (see below).
    • News flash Interruption of normal programming to bring details of an important breaking story.
    • Newsgroups Places on the internet where people can make contact with others sharing the same interests or find out about a specific subject. They can be useful sources of news and information for journalists.
    • NIB News in Brief. Short news stories, usually each of a single paragraph, usually laid out as a column down the edge of a newspaper page.
    • Noddies Shots of a reporter listening carefully to an interviewee taken after the interview to be intercut later if necessary to hide edits.
    • Non-linear editing Editing of film or video out of sequence, rather like a word processor cuts and pastes. Pre-digital computerized edit systems could only assemble pieces in order.
    • OB Outside broadcast.
    • On message A phrase suggesting that the person speaking and expressing a view is in broad agreement with the ideas of the larger group to which they belong; they are ‘on message’. Recently, the phrase has been used to describe the congruence between MPs and parties (especially New Labour) during a period of growing party centralization and party reliance on media-based communication strategies to convey its policies to voters.
    • OOV Out of vision. An instruction on television scripts that the presenter is reading the script, but not seen on camera.
    • Op Ed Page The page, or pages, of a newspaper containing the opinion columns and editorials.
    • Opt-in/opt-out Switching between local and networked programmes. Local programmes opt in to the networked programming and then opt out to their own programmes. Opt-out is also used to designate a point where a pre-recorded item can be ended early.
    • OS Outside source. A programming point remote from the main transmission studio.
    • Out-cue/out words Final few words of a news report. A ‘standard out-cue’ is where the reporter signs off with his/her name, organization and location.
    • Output 1: The team of people preparing a programme for transmission. 2: General programming.
    • Out-takes Discarded film material. Can show up embarrassingly at Christmas parties.
    • Overlay/underlay The process of matching a recorded soundtrack with pictures.
    • Package Pre-recorded radio or television news report or feature lasting between one and three minutes comprising several elements including interviews, commentary, natural sound, effects and, in the case of television, visual sequences.
    • Packet Data sent over networks like the internet is divided into small packets of information which are reassembled at their destination, a process described as packet-switching.
    • PasB Programme as broadcast. A written record of the programme content kept to ensure that performers and contributors are paid. Particularly important if snatches of music are used.
    • Pay off Last paragraph of script in a new item which summarizes the story and points to potential new developments.
    • Peg A published allusion to a recent news story which, because the allusion can grab audience attention, can be used early in a feature examining the story's wider context, or in any related, human interest piece. Such features are said figuratively to ‘hang’ on the ‘peg’, i.e. the allusion justifies their publication that day.
    • Phone-in Common radio programming format where listeners ring in with points of view.
    • Picture spread Space in a magazine or newspaper given over primarily to several photographs about a particular event or subject.
    • Pick up pic A photograph not taken by a media organization photographer but collected from (i.e. ‘picked up’ from) a member of the public (e.g. from their family album) or another agency (e.g. the police) to illustrate a news story or feature.
    • Piece to camera Information given by a reporter on location direct to camera, usually used to bridge from one point to another or bring the piece to a conclusion. Also known as stand-upper or stand-up.
    • Pitch Trying to sell an idea for an item or a programme to a commissioning editor or producer.
    • Pixel A single dot of visual information. Pixels combine to create the picture.
    • Plug-ins Computer software which can be downloaded to add extra functionality to browsers so users can receive multimedia information such as animation, audio and video. Examples of plug-ins include Shockwave Player, Real Player and QuickTime.
    • Prefade Listening to an item through the studio desk immediately before transmission to check that sound levels are correct.
    • Presenter The person fronting the programme either in vision or behind the microphone. See anchor (above).
    • Press pack A group of journalists, all chasing the same story.
    • Producer The person in charge of the practicalities involved in a period of programming, a particular programme, or particular item.
    • Prof button Profanity, or obscenity, button. A device whereby a programme can instantly be taken out of delay to prevent transmission of an obscenity.
    • Promo On-air promotion of a station or programme. Also known as trail.
    • Prospects A list of potential news items prepared each day by the forward planning desk. Forms the basis of daily editorial meetings.
    • Puff Derogative term for text produced by journalists or public relations agencies which praises, without sufficient reason, substance or objectivity, a contact (see above) or client, and which therefore has no real journalistic value for the audience.
    • Q&A A reporter talking live to a presenter about a story they've been covering. See Two-way.
    • Radio car Mobile radio studio used for live or pre-recorded location items.
    • Reporter A journalist who researches and writes or broadcasts news stories.
    • Reporting restriction An order made by a court or legal tribunal, or enshrined in statute, which places a legal limitation on what can be published, e.g. the British press cannot normally identify the victims of rape, or children as being in social services' care, or publish comment about any ongoing criminal case.
    • ROT Record off transmission. Recording made of on-air output.
    • RSL Restricted Service Licence. A short term broadcast lasting up to 28 days licensed by Ofcom. Used by community groups, student radio, special event teams, football clubs or to test the viability of a radio service in any given area.
    • Run A run is a continuous batch of production on a printing press, to produce a set number of copies of newspapers, magazines, books, etc.
    • Running copy Copy (see above) which must be filed (see above) by a reporter (see above) rapidly in several stages, because of developments in a fast-moving event and because the deadline (see above) is so close that the sub-editors (see below) must make an immediate start to sub some of it, before the event is over, e.g. a blow-by-blow report of a football match, or the Chancellor's Budget speech.
    • Running order Written list of the items within a programme, their durations and the exact order they appear.
    • Running story This term has two distinct meanings. First, a fast-moving news event, or one in which the key facts are not quickly clear, which generates the need for running copy (see above) or updates to later editions of the same day's newspaper or to a day's broadcast bulletins, e.g. news ‘breaking’ about a major disaster. Second, a news event which generates, because of related events, further developments or fresh revelations, media coverage over a period of days, months or even years (e.g. the gradual implosion of Prince Charles's and Princess Diana's marriage).
    • Rushes Unedited raw material recorded onto camera.
    • RX Recording.
    • Scoop, Scooped A scoop is an exclusive (see above). A media organization is ‘scooped’ when a rival publishes a news story first.
    • Search engine A website which uses software or humans to search documents, files and pages on the internet and then index the data in huge databases, allowing users to look for information usually by keyword or directory (or both). Google, which also has an image search facility, is widely regarded as the most popular search engine in the world.
    • Senior reporter A reporter who has completed his/her formal training (but who is probably still in his/her early twenties!). See also Junior reporter (above).
    • Server A computer usually connected permanently to the internet and which has huge storage space. It stores files and documents (including web pages), and runs programs, which can all be accessed and used remotely by other (client) computers on the same network. The term server can also refer to the software running on the computer.
    • Shot list Content and duration details of each section of a package to enable a script to be written accurately.
    • Signposting In a news story it means emphasizing the central point, amplifying it logically, repeating key points where necessary and summarizing with a pay-off that takes the story forward. May also be used within programmes to trail forward to upcoming items to keep the audience interested.
    • Slug See Catchline (above).
    • SMS Short Message Service. This facilitates the sending of text messages (for example, news alerts) from one mobile device to another (and also from websites). Multimedia Service (MMS) messages can contain pictures, audio and video though more elaborate mobiles are needed to send them.
    • Snapper Slang term for a press photographer.
    • Snatch picture A news photograph taken without the subject's consent and usually, therefore, taken in a brief (i.e. ‘snatched’) opportunity, e.g. before the subject, realizing what is happening, runs or hides their face.
    • Soundbite A terse, accessible and memorable way of expressing a more complex idea. Since the mid-1980s, soundbites have been used by politicians to convey complex policy ideas in a simple slogan. Ahead of the 1997 general election, for example, New Labour leader Tony Blair claimed that if elected, the party would be ‘Tough on crime and tough on the causes of crime’. The party also claimed that its three policy priorities were ‘Education, education, education’. See Clip (above).
    • Spam A form of internet abuse, most commonly referring to unrequested electronic mail often advertising products not usually on general sale like Viagra, while some provide links to non-mainstream websites such as pornographic ones. Spam can also be sent to mobile devices via SMS. The origins of this use of the term spam, which can also refer to junk advertising messages sent to a bulletin board or newsgroup – thereby preventing normal ‘conversation’ – have been attributed to a Monty Python sketch in which a group of people shouted ‘spam’ to stop others from talking. Spam, a registered trademark, is a tinned luncheon meat produced by Hormel Foods Corporation.
    • Spike The place where news stories or features deemed not to merit or be suitable for publication, or which arrive too late, are deposited. A ‘spiked’ story is therefore a rejected one. In bygone decades, these were literally impaled on metal spikes on the newsdesk (see above) or subbing desks. Now ‘the spike’ is part of the editorial computer system.
    • Splash The main story on a newspaper's front page.
    • Spoiler, see concept.
    • Stand upper See piece to camera.
    • Sting 1: See Jingle. 2: ‘Sting’ is a term used of investigative journalism which, in a denouement involving subterfuge, exposes a rogue or hypocrite. Also, the term ‘sting’, in a libel case, refers to the most damaging allegation published.
    • Subbing Re-writing and/or editing news stories and features, while checking them for factual errors or other legal dangers, to make them fit the allocated space in a newspaper, magazine or website, or in broadcast airtime. Also, writing headlines and designing page lay-out, incorporating any photographs.
    • Sub-editor A journalist who subs. See Subbing.
    • Talent Colloquial and not altogether flattering term for television presenters and reporters.
    • Talkback Audio link enabling gallery staff to talk to presenters through their ear piece. Open talkback enables presenters to hear everything going on in the gallery and other areas. Closed (switch) talkback means they'll only hear instructions meant for them. May also link different control areas.
    • Talking head An interviewee. Also used disparagingly with reference to a programme or item that has too much expert opinion at the expense of real people.
    • TBU Telephone balance unit. A device which enables interviews to be conducted in a studio over the telephone. The interviewer can talk to the interviewee through the desk microphone, balance the sound levels and record the interview into the computer.
    • Teaser Short headline or sequence of headlines at the start of a programme designed to pique the audience's curiosity and keep them interested.
    • Throw line A line of script immediately preceding an interview clip that leads into the gist of the interviewee's point without repeating it.
    • Treatment Detailed written version of a planned programme or item. It will typically include details of interviewees, locations, visual or audio sequences. Usually used for long form programming.
    • TX Transmission.
    • URL The Uniform Resource Locator is another name for a web page address (e.g.
    • VFD Verified Free Distribution An accepted industry standard for certifying the validity of distribution data for free newspapers which are hand-delivered to individual households in a defined geographical area.
    • Virus Programs or scripts sent electronically, often to many email addresses at once, usually with the intention of causing loss of information through destruction of files on the recipient computer. They are the most common security threat on the internet, although anti-virus software can be used to combat the problem.
    • Vision mixer Operator in the gallery who controls fades, dissolves and cuts between different sources during a programme's transmission.
    • Voice over Commentary recorded over pictures by an unseen reporter.
    • Voicer, voice piece A way of telling stories in a radio bulletin that uses a named reporter's voice – ‘The details from John Smith’. There are usually more details than in a copy story and it allows a change of voice from the newsreader.
    • Vox pop Literally ‘vox populi’ or ‘voice of the people’. Street interviews conducted as a straw poll of public opinion and edited for transmission.
    • WAN The internet is the best – and biggest – example of a Wide Area Network which refers to a computer network that spans a large geographical area. They tend to be slower operationally than LANs.
    • Waveform (wav) Digital display of sound on a computer screen.
    • Wildtrack Recording of the ambient sound at any location to be used later to add atmosphere to an edited piece.
    • Wipe 1: An editing device which transitions from one picture to another by making it look as though the second wipes the first off the screen. 2: Erasing material.
    • Wire A stream of stories flowing into a news organization from a major newsagency e.g. the Press Association or Reuters. In the age of the telegraphy these arrived literally by wire, but today are sent and displayed by computer.
    • Wireless technology The attractive prospect of accessing the internet or sending and processing multimedia information without the need for cables and wires has led to a proliferation in the use of mobile telephone devices – including Portal Digital Assistants (PDAs) – and wireless networking thanks to major advances in technology.
    • World Wide Web (see also in concepts) The public part of the internet containing millions of websites and documents.
    • WPB Waste paper bin. Where most of a newsroom's incoming mail ends up.
    • Wrap A way of telling stories in a radio news bulletin which ‘wraps’ the reporter's voice either side of a short interview clip.
    • Yawn factor An informal measure of how boring an item or programme is.


    Aaronovitch, et al. (2004) The Hutton Inquiry and its Impact. London: Politicos.
    Alasuutari, P. (1995) Researching Culture: Qualitative Methods and Cultural Studies. London: Sage.
    Allan, S. (1999) News Culture. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Allan, S. (2002) ‘Reweaving the Internet’, in Zelizer, B. and Allan, S. (eds) Journalism after September 11. London: Routledge.
    Allport, G.W. (1954) The Nature of Prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Althusser, L. (1971) ‘Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses’, in Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. London: New Left Books.
    Anderson, J. (2002) Advice Columnist Ann Landers Dead at 83’, Chicago Tribune, 22 June.
    Antaki, C. and Widdicombe, S. (eds) (1998) Identities in Talk. London: Sage.
    Anthias, F. (1995) ‘Cultural Racism or Racist Culture?’Economy and Society, 24(2): 279–301.
    Applegate, E. (2000) Advertising in the United States: Past, Present, Future’, Journalism Studies, 1(2): 285–303.
    Aristotle (1962) Poetics (trans. Hutton, J.). New York: W.W. Norton.
    Aristotle (1984) ‘Sophistical Refutations’ (trans. Pickard-Cambridge, W.A.), in Barnes, J. (ed.), The Complete Works of Aristotle. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Aristotle (1991) Aristotle ‘On Rhetoric’: A Theory of Civic Discourse (trans. Kennedy, G.A.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Article 19 (1989) No Comment: Censorship, Secrecy and the Irish Troubles. London: The International Centre on Censorship.
    Atkin, A. and Richardson, J.E. (2003) ‘Constructing the (Imagined) Antagonist in Advertising Argumentation’, in van Eemeren, F.H., Blair, J.A., Willard, CA. and Snoeck Henkemans, A.F. (eds), Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation. Amsterdam: ISSA, pp. 39–44.
    Atton, C. (2002a) ‘News Cultures and New Social Movements: Radical Journalism and the Mainstream Media’, Journalism Studies, 3(4): 491–505.
    Atton, C. (2002b) Alternative Media. London: Sage.
    Australian Broadcasting Authority (2002) Narrowcasting for Radio: Guidelines and Information about Open Subscription Narrowcasting Radio Services, available at
    Bagdikian, B.H. (1987) The Media Monopoly. Boston: Beacon Press.
    Baistow, T. (1985) Fourth Rate Estate. London: Macmillan.
    Barendt, E. (1985) Freedom of Speech. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Barendt, E. (1995) Broadcasting Law: A Comparative Study. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Barker, C. (1997) Global Television: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Barker, M. and PetleyJ. (1997) Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate. London: Routledge.
    Barnard, S. (1989) On the Radio: Music Radio in Britain. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Barnett, S. and Gaber, I. (2001) Westminster Tales: The Twenty-first Century Crisis in Political Journalism. London: Continuum.
    Barnett, S. and Seymour, E. (1999) A Shrinking Iceberg Travelling South: Changing Trends in British Television – A Case Study of Drama and Current Affairs. London: Campaign for Quality Television.
    Barnicoat, T. and Bazalgette, P. (no date) ‘Endermol UK: response to the consultation on media ownership rules’, available at:
    Barthes, R. ([1957]2000) Mythologies. London: Vintage.
    Barthes, R. (1967) Elements of Semiology. London: Jonathan Cape.
    BBC (1992) Extending Choice: The BBC's Role in the New Broadcasting Age. London: BBC.
    BBC (1993) Responding to the Green Paper. London: BBC.
    BBC (1994) Producer Guidelines. London: BBC.
    BBC (1995) People and Programmes. London: BBC.
    BBC (2002) Producers’ Guidelines. London: BBC.
    BBC Online (2003) ‘Want to Be a Press Baron? Read this first’, 21 November, available at:
    BBC Online (2003) ‘Journalists “Should Name Sources”’ (18 July) (accessed 5 November 2003).
    BBC Online (2004) The BBC's Journalism after Hutton: The Report of the Neil Review Team, at
    Bell, A. (1991) The Language of News Media. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Bell, M. (1996) ‘TV News: How Far Should We Go?’Critical Studies in Mass Communications, 13 (3): 7–16.
    Bell, M. (1998) ‘The Journalism of Attachment’, in Kieran, M.Media Ethics. London: Routledge. pp. 15–22.
    Bell, S. (1999) Bell's Eye: Twenty Years of Drawing Blood. London: Methuen.
    Belson, W. (1978) Television Violence and the Adolescent Boy. Farnborough: Saxon House.
    Berelson, B. (1952) ‘Content Analysis in Communications Research’, in Berelson, B. and Janowitz, M. (eds) (1966), Reader in Public Opinion and Communication. New York: Free Press, pp. 260–6.
    Berger, G. (2000) ‘Grave New World? Democratic Journalism Enters the Global Twenty-first Centry’, Journalism Studies, 1(1): 81–100.
    Berkowitz, D. (1997) Social Meanings of News: A Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Bernstein, C. and Woodward, B. (1974) All the President's Men. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Bertrand, C. (2000): Media Ethics and Accountability Systems. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Bertrand, C. (ed.) (2003) An Arsenal for Democracy: Media Accountability Systems. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
    Bessie, S. (1938) Jazz Journalism. New York: Dutton.
    Bird, S.E. and Dardenne, R.W. (1988) ‘Myth, Chronicle and Story: Exploring the Narrative Qualities of News’, in Berkowitz, D. (ed.) (1997) Social Meanings of News: A Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 333–50.
    Black, A. (2004) People Who Live in the Dark: The History of the Special Adviser in British Politics. London: Politicos.
    Black, J. (2001) The English Press 1621–1861. Gloucestershire: Sutton Press.
    Black, P. (1972) The Biggest Aspidistra in the World. London: BBC.
    Blick, A. (2004) People Who Live in the Dark: The History of the Special Adviser in British Politics. London: Politicos.
    Blommaert, J. and Verschueren, J. (1998) Debating Diversity: Analysing the Discourse of Tolerance. London: Routledge.
    Blumler, J.G. (1992) Television and the Public Interest: Vulnerable Values in West European Broadcasting. London: Sage.
    Blumler, J.G. (1993) ‘Public Service Broadcasting in Multi-Channel Conditions: Function and Funding’, in Barnett, S. (ed.) Funding the BBC's Future. London: British Film Institute, pp. 26–42.
    Blumler, J.G., Gurevitch, M. and Nossiter, T. (1989) ‘The Earnest Versus the Determined’, in Crewe, I. and Harrop, M. (eds) Political Communications: The General Election Campaign of 1987. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 157–75.
    Blumler, J.G. and Katz, E. (1974) The Uses of Mass Communications. London: Sage.
    Boese, A. (2002) The Museum of Hoaxes: A Collection of Pranks, Stunts, Deceptions and Other Wonderful Stories Contrived for the Public from the Middle Ages to the New Millennium. London: E.p. Dutton.
    Bolton, R. (1990) Death on the Rock and Other Stories. London: W.H. Allen.
    Boon, P. (ed.) (2003) The UK Radio Guide and Directory. London: Goldcrest.
    Boorstin, D. (1963) The Image: Or What Happened to the American Dream. Harmondsworth: Pelican.
    Boulton, D. (1991) The Third Age of Broadcasting. London: Institute for Public Policy Research.
    Bourdieu, P. and Wacquant, L. (1999) ‘On the Cunning of Imperialist Reason’, Theory, Culture and Society, 16(1): 41–58.
    Boyce, G., Curran, J. and Wingate, P. (eds) (1978) Newspaper History from the 17th Century to the Present Day. London: Constable.
    Boyd, A. (2001) Broadcast Journalism: Techniques of Radio and Television News,
    5th edn.
    Oxford: Focal Press.
    Boyd-Barrett, O. (1970) ‘Journalism Recruitment and Training: Problems in Professionalization’, in Tunstall, J. (ed.), Media Sociology. London: Constable.
    Boyd-Barrett, O. (1980) The International News Agencies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Boyd-Barrett, O. (1998a) ‘“Global” News Agencies’, in Boyd-Barrett, O. and Rantanen, T. (eds), The Globalization of News. London: Sage.
    Boyd-Barrett, O. (1998b) ‘The Globalization of News’, in Boyd-Barrett, O. and Rantanen, T. (eds), The Globalization of News. London: Sage.
    Boyd-Barrett, O. (1998c) ‘News Agencies as Agents of Globalization’, in Boyd-Barrett, O. and Rantanen, T. (eds), The Globalization of News. London: Sage.
    Braithwaite, N. (ed.) (1996) The International Libel Handbook. London: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.
    Briggs, A. (1965) The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom, vol. II: The Golden Age of Wireless. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Briggs, A. (1979) The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom, vol. IV: Sound and Vision. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Braham, P. (1982) ‘How the Media Report Race’, in Gurevitch, M., Bennett, T., Curran, J. and Woolacott, J. (eds) Culture, Society and the Media. London: Routledge, pp. 268–86.
    The Broadcasting Act 1990 (1990) London: HMSO.
    Broadcasting Research Unit (1985) The Public Service Idea in British Broadcasting: Main Principles. Luton: John Libbey.
    Bromley, M. (1998a) ‘“Watching the Watchdogs?” The Role of Readers’ Letters in Calling the Press to Account’, in Bromley, M. and Stephenson, H. (eds) Sex, Lies and Democracy. London: Longman, pp. 147–62.
    Bromley, M. (1998b) ‘The “Tabloiding” of Britain: Quality Newspapers in the 1990s’, in Bromley, M. and Stephenson, H. (eds) Sex, Lies and Democracy: The Press and the Public. New York: Longman.
    Bromley, M. and Stephenson, H. (eds) (1998) Sex, Lies and Democracy: The Press and the Public. New York: Longman.
    Bromley, M., Tumber, H. and Zelizer, B. (2001) ‘Editorial’, Journalism: Theory, Practice and Criticism, 2(3): 251–4.
    Brown, G. and Yule, G. (1983) Discourse Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Brown, M. (2003) ‘Now – Can Five Maintain its Momentum?’, Guardian 14 July, pp. 6–7.
    Bryant, M. (2000) Dictionary of Twentieth Century Cartoonists and Caricaturists. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Bull, P. (2003) The Microanalysis of Political Communication: Claptrap and Ambiguity. London: Routledge.
    Burke, K. (1950) A Rhetoric of Motives. New York: Prentice Hall.
    Burt, T. and Kirchgaessner, S. (2004) ‘Raised Voices and Lower Reputations’, Financial Times Creative Business, May 25, p. 8.
    Byrne, C. (2003) ‘Sun's Yelland in Shock Departure’, Guardian Unlimited.,7495,873980,00.html.
    Calcutt, D. (1990) Report of the Committee on Privacy and Related Matters, Cm 1102. London: HMSO.
    Calcutt, D. (1993) Review of Press Self-regulation Cm 2135. London: HMSO.
    Callaghan, K. and Schnell, F. (2001) ‘Assessing the Democratic Debate: How the News Media Frame Elite Policy Discourse’, Political Communication, 18: 183–212.
    Cameron, D. (1996) ‘Style Policy and Style Politics: A Neglected Aspect of the Language of the News’, Media, Culture and Society, 18(3): 315–33.
    Cameron, D. (2001) Working with Spoken Discourse. London: Sage.
    Cameron, G., Ju-Pak, K. and Kim, B.H. (1996) ‘Advertorials in Magazines, Current Use and Compliance with Industry Guidelines’, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 73: 722–33.
    Cameron, J. (1967) Vicky: A Memorial Volume. London: Allen Lane.
    Campaign for Press and Broadcasting Freedom (1996) Twenty-first Century Media: Shaping the Democratic Vision. London: CPBF.
    Campaign for Quality Television (1998) The Purposes of Broadcasting. London: CQT.
    Campbell, A. (1999) Beyond Spin: Government and the Media. London: Fabian Special Pamphlet no 42.
    Campbell, C. (2000) ‘Citizens Matter: And That Is Why Public Journalism Matters’, Journalism Studies, 1(4): 689–95.
    Campbell, CP. (1995) Race, Myth and the News. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Carter, R.E. Jnr (1958) ‘Newspaper Gatekeepers and the Sources of News’, Public Opinion Quarterly, 22: 133–44.
    Cashmore, E.E. (1988) Dictionary of Race and Ethnic Relations. London: Routledge.
    Central Office of Information (2001) Central Office of Information Annual Report and Accounts. London: Stationery Office.
    Channel 5 Broadcasting (1995) Application to the Independent Television Commission for the Channel 5 Licence.
    Chantler, P. and Harris, S. (1997) Local Radio Journalism. Oxford: Focal Press.
    Charity, A. (1995) Doing Public Journalism. New York: Guilford Press.
    Chippindale, P. and Horrie, C. (1992) Stick It Up Your Punter: The Rise and Fall of The Sun. London: Mandarin Paperbacks.
    Chomsky, N. (1986) ‘Thought Control: The Case of the Middle East’, in Chomsky, N.(2002) Pirates and Emperors, Old and New: International Terrorism in the Real World. London: Pluto Press pp. 19–37.
    Chomsky, N. (1997) Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda. New York: Seven Stories Press.
    Clapperton, G. (2003) ‘Back on Stream’, The Guardian New Media, 20 October, p. 42.
    Clark, T. (1997) Art and Propaganda in the Twentieth Century: The Political Image in the Age of Mass Culture. London: Everyman Art Library.
    Clarke, N. (2003) The Shadow of a Nation. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.
    Cobb, R. (1989) ‘PR Has Radio Taped’, PR Week, 20 April, pp. 12–13.
    Cockerell, M., Hennessey, P. and Walker, D. (1984) Sources Close to the Prime Minister: Inside the Hidden World of the News Manipulators. London: Macmillan.
    Cohen, S. (1973) Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers. St Albans: Paladin.
    Cohen, S. and Young, J. (eds) (1973) The Manufacture of News: Social Problems, Deviance and the News Media. London: Constable.
    COI (2001) Annual Reports and Accounts 2000–1 HC53. London: HMSO.
    Cole, P. (1997) ‘Do You Care about Tomorrow?’, Association of British Editors, speech to journalism training seminar, the Guild of Editors and the Media Society, 30 January.
    Cole, P. (2002) A New Space Age’, in McNayM. (ed.) The Guardian Past and Present. Manchester: Guardian Newspapers, pp. 54–7.
    Coleman, S. (1999) Election Call: A Democratic Public Forum?London: The Hansard Society.
    Coman, M. (2000) ‘Developments in Journalism Theory about Media “Transitions” in Central and Eastern Europe’, Journalism Studies, 1(1): 35–56.
    Communications Act 2003 (2003), DTI and DCMS (2000) A New Future for Communications. London: The Stationery Office.
    Condit, CM. (1989) ‘The Rhetorical Limits of Polysemy’, in Lucaites, J.L., Condit, CM. and Caudill, S. (eds) (1999), Contemporary Rhetorical Theory: A Reader. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 494–511.
    ConboyM. (2002) The Press and Popular Culture. London: Sage.
    Connolly, C. (1938) ‘Enemies of Promise’, in Allen, J.(2003) The BBC News Styleguide. London: BBC.
    Corner, J. (1996) The Art of Record: A Critical Introduction to Documentary. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Costera Meijer, I. (2001) ‘The Public Quality of Popular Journalism: Developing a Normative Framework’, Journalism Studies, 2(2): 189–206.
    Costera Meijer, I. (2003) ‘What is Quality News? A Plea for Extending the Professional Repertoire of Newsmakers’, Journalism Studies, 4(1): 15–30.
    Cottle, S. (1993) ‘“Race” and Regional Television News: Multiculturalism and the Production of Popular TV’, New Community, 19(4): 581–92.
    Cottle, S., (1999) ‘Ethnic Minorities in the British News Media: Explaining (Mis)Representation’, in Stokes, J. and Reading, A. (eds) The Media in Britain: Current Debates and Developments. Houndsmills: Macmillan, pp. 191–200.
    Cottle, S. (2000a) ‘Media Research and Ethnic Minorities: Mapping the Field’, in Cottle, S. (ed.) Ethnic Minorities and the Media: Changing Cultural Boundaries. Buckingham: Open University Press, pp. 1–30.
    Cottle, S. (ed.) (2000b) Ethnic Minorities and the Media. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Cox, G. (1995) Pioneering Television News. London: John Libbey.
    Cozens, C. (2003) ‘News Bunny Back Say Live TV Lads’, Guardian, 16 May, p. 21.
    Cozens, C. (2004) ‘Guardian Agrees £50m for relaunch’, Guardian Unlimited, 29 June.,14173,1249915,00.html.
    Crewe, I. and Harrop, M. (eds) (1989) Political Communications: The General Election Campaign of 1987. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Crisell, A. (1994) Understanding Radio,
    2nd edn.
    London: Routledge.
    Crisell, A. (2002) An Introductory History of British BroadcastingLondon: Routledge.
    Critcher, C. (2003) Moral Panics and the Media. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Croad, E. (2003) ‘Blogs Bring Personal View of War’, 27 March, dotJournalism, available at:
    Crone, T. (1997) ‘Public Are the Losers from this Shameful Travesty’, Press Gazette, 25 July.
    Crone, T. (2002) Law and the Media,
    4th edn.
    Oxford: Focal Press.
    Cronkite, W. (1997) ‘More Bad News’, Guardian, 27 January, p. 2.
    Crook, T. (1998) International Radio Journalism, History, Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.
    Cudlipp, H. (1953) Publish and Be Damned: The Astonishing Story of the ‘Daily Mirror’. London: Andrew Dakers.
    Culture, Media and Sport Select Committee (2003) Fifth Report: Privacy and Media Intrusion, HC 458 – I, ISBN 0 10 501122 8. Oral Evidence and Written Evidence of above report, HC 458 – II, ISBN 0 10 501117 1. Written Evidence of above report, HC 458 – III, ISBN 0 10 501118 X.
    Curran, J. (1978) The British Press: A Manifesto. London: Macmillan.
    Curran, J. (1990) ‘The New Revisionism in Mass Communication Research: A Reappraisal’, European Journal of Communication, 5: 135–64.
    Curran, J. and Seaton, J. (1997) Power without Responsibility,
    5th edn.
    London: Routledge.
    Curran, J. and Seaton, J. (2003) Power without Responsibility,
    6th edn.
    London: Routledge.
    Curtis, M. (2003) Web of Deceit: Britain's Real Role in the World. London: Vintage.
    Cutting, J. (2002) Pragmatics and Discourse: A Resource Book for Students. London: Routledge.
    Daniels, J. (1997) White Lies: Race, Class, Gender and Sexuality in White Supremacist Discourse. New York: Routledge.
    Davidson, A. (1992) Under the Hammer: Greed and Glory inside the Television Business. London: Mandarin Books.
    Davis, A. (2002) Public Relations Democracy: Public Relations, Politics and the Mass Media in Britain. London: Sage.
    Davis, S. (2000) ‘Public Journalism: The Case Against’, Journalism Studies, 1(4): 686–8.
    Deacon, D. and Golding, P. (1994) Taxation and Representation: The Media, Political Communication and the Poll Tax. London: John Libbey.
    Deacon, D., Pickering, M., Golding, P. and Murdock, G. (1999) Researching Communications: A Practical Guide to Methods in Media and Cultural Analysis. London: Arnold.
    de Burgh, H. (ed.) (2000) Investigative Journalism: Context and PracticeLondon: Routledge.
    Delano, A. and Henningham, J. (1995) The News Breed: British Journalists in the 1990s. London: The London College of Printing and Distributive Trades.
    Department for Culture, Media and Sport (2003) The Government's Response to the Fifth Report of the Culture, Media and Sport Select Committee CM5 985. London: TSO
    Department of National Heritage (1992) The Future of the BBC. London: HMSO
    Department of National Heritage (1995a) Media Ownership: The Government's Proposals. Cmnd 2872. London: HMSO.
    Department of National Heritage (1995b) Privacy and Media Intrusion: The Government's Response. CM2918. London: HMSO.
    Department of Trade and Industry (2004) Enterprise Act 2002: Public Interest Intervention in Media Mergers: Guidance on the Operation of the Public Interest Merger Provisions Relating to Newspaper and Other Media Mergers.
    Deuze, M. (2004) ‘What is Multimedia Journalism?’Journalism Studies, 5(2): 139–52.
    De Wolk, R. (2001) Introduction to Online Journalism. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    Diamond, E. (1991) The Media Show: The Changing Face of the News 1985–1990. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    van Dijk, T.A. (1988a) News as Discourse. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    van Dijk, T.A. (1988b) News Analysis: Case Studies of International and National News in the Press. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    van Dijk, T.A. (1991) Racism and the Press. London: Routledge.
    van Dijk, T.A. (ed.) (1997) Discourse as Structure and Process. London: Sage.
    van Dijk, T.A. (1998) Ideology: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London: Sage.
    van Dijk, T.A. (2000) ‘New(s) Racism: A Discourse Analytical Approach’, in Cottle, S. (ed.) Ethnic Minorities and the Media: Changing Cultural Boundaries. Buckingham: Open University Press, pp. 33–49.
    Dimitrova, D.V., Connolly-Ahern, C., Williams, A.P., Kaid, L.L. and Reid, A. (2003) ‘Hyperlinking as Gatekeeping: Online Newspaper Coverage of the Execution of an American Terrorist’, Journalism Studies, 4(3): 401–14.
    Djerf-Pierre, M. (2000) ‘Squaring the Circle: Public Service and Commercial News on Swedish Television 1956–99’, Journalism Studies, 1(2): 239–60.
    DohertyM.A. (2000) Nazi Wireless Propaganda: Lord Haw-Haw and British Public Opinion in the Second World War. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Doig, A. (1992) ‘The Retreat of the Investigators’, British Journalism Review, 3(4): 44–50.
    Doig, A. (1997) ‘Decline of Investigatory Journalism’, in Bromley, M. and O'MalleyT. (eds) A Journalism Reader. London: Routledge, pp. 189–213.
    Donohue, G.A.Tichenor, P.J. and Olien, C.N. (1995) A Guard Dog Perspective on the Role of the Media’, Journal of Communication, 45(2): 115–32.
    Doward, J. (2003) ‘Sky Wins Battle for Rolling News Audience’, Observer, 6 April.
    Doyle, G. (2002) Media Ownership. London: Sage.
    DTI and DCMS (2000) A New Future for Communications. London: Stationery Office.
    DTLR (2001) ‘Consultation Begins on Council Allowances’, news release, 12 September.
    Dyke, G. (2004) Inside Story. London: HarperCollins.
    ECHR (2003) European Court of Human Rights: Historical Background, Organisation and Procedure, September
    Eckman, A. and Lindlof, T. (2003) ‘Negotiating The Gray Lines: An Ethnographic Case Study of Organisational Conflict Between Advertorials and News’, Journalism Studies, 4(1): 65–79.
    Eemeren, F.H. van, Grootendoorst, R., Snoeck Henkemans, A.F., Blair, J.A., Johnson, R.H., Krabbe, E.C.W., Plantin, C.H., Walton, D.N., Willard, CA., Woods, J. and ZarefskyD. (1996) Fundamentals of Argumentation Theory: A Handbook of Historical Backgrounds and Contemporary Developments. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Eggins, S. and Ledema, R. (1997) ‘Difference Without Diversity: Semantic Orientation and Ideology in Competing Women's Magazines’, in Wodak, R. (ed.) Gender and Discourse. London: Sage.
    Eldridge, J. (2000) ‘The Contribution of the Glasgow Media Group to the Study of Television and Print Journalism’, Journalism Studies, 1(1): 113–27.
    Eliasoph, N. (1988) ‘Routines and the Making of Oppositional News’, in Berkowitz, D. (ed.) (1997) Social Meanings of News: A Text Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 230–53.
    Emery, E. and Emery, M. (1978) The Press and America: An Interpretative History of the Mass Media. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Engel, M. (1996a) Tickle the Public: One Hundred Years of the Popular Press. London: Victor Gollancz.
    Engel, M. (1996b) ‘Papering over the Cracks’, Guardian, 3 October, pp. 2–3.
    Entman, R. (1993) ‘Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm’, Journal of Communication, 43 (4): 51–8.
    Essed, PJ.M. (1991) Understanding Everyday Racism: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Esser, F., Reinemann, C. and Fan, D. (2000) ‘Spin Doctoring in British and German Election Campaigns’, European Journal of Communication, 15(2): 209–41.
    Ettema, J. et al. (1987) ‘Professional Mass Communication’, in Berkowitz, D. (ed.) (1997) Social Meanings of News: A Text Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Ettema, J., Whitney, C. with Wackman, D. (1997) ‘Professional Mass Communicators’, in Berkowitz, D. (ed.) Social Meanings of News. London: Sage.
    Evans, H. (1979) Pictures on a Page: Photo-journalism, Graphics and Picture Editing. London: Book Club Associates.
    Evans, H. (1983) Good Times, Bad Times. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
    Evans, H. (1984) Good Times, Bad Times. London: Coronet.
    Evans, H. (1994) Good Times, Bad Times,
    3rd edn.
    London: Phoenix.
    Evans, H. (1996) Speech to the Guild of Editors, reprinted inPress Gazette, 1 November, p. 10.
    Evans, H. (2000) Essential English for Journalists, Editors and Writers. London: Pimlico.
    Evans, H. (2002) Attacking the Devil’, British Journal Review, 13(4): 6–14.
    Eyre, R. (1999) ‘Public Interest Broadcasting’, MacTaggart Memorial Lecture, Edinburgh International Television and Film Festival, 27 August. Reproduced and edited in Franklin, B.(2001) British Television Policy: A Reader. London: Routledge, pp. 43–6.
    Ezzard, J. (2003) ‘500 Years of History Ends for Fleet St’, theGuardian, 24 September.
    Fairclough, N. (1993) ‘Critical Discourse Analysis and the Marketisation of Public Discourse: The Universities’, Discourse and Society, 3(2): 193–217.
    Fairclough, N. (1995a) Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Longman.
    Fairclough, N. (1995b) Media Discourse. London: Edward Arnold.
    Fairclough, N. (2000) New Labour, New Language?London: Routledge.
    Fairclough, N. (2003) Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. London: Routledge.
    Fallows, J. (1997) Breaking the News: How the Media Undermine American Democracy. New York: Vintage Books.
    Fawcett, L. (2001) Political Communication and Devolution in Northern Ireland, End of Award Report to ESRC Award L327253040.
    Fedorcio, D., Heaton, P. and Madden, K. (1991) Public Relations in Local Government. Harlow: Longman.
    Feintuck, M. (1999) Media Regulation, Public Interest and the Law. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Feldman, T. (1997) An Introduction to Digital Media. London: Routledge.
    Ferguson, R. (1998) Representing ‘Race’: Ideology, Identity and the Media. London: Edward Arnold.
    Fielding, N. and Hollingsworth, M. (1999) Defending the Realm, MI5 and the David Shayler Affair. London: André Deutsch.
    Fielding, N. and Tomlinson, R. (2001) The Big Breach. Edinburgh: Cutting Edge Press.
    Fleetwood, B. (1999) ‘The Broken Wall: How Newspapers Are Selling Their Credibility to Advertisers’, Washington Monthly, September
    Foss, S.K. (1996) Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.
    Foucault, M. (1972) The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language. New York: Pantheon.
    Foucault, M. (1973) The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York: Vintage.
    Foucault, M. (1979) Discipline and Punish. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Fowler, R. (1991) Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Fowler, R., Hodge, R., Kress, G. and Trew, T. (1979) Language and Control. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Fradgley, K.E. and Niebauer Jnr, W.E. (1995) ‘London's “Quality” Newspapers: Newspaper Ownership and Reporting Patterns’, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 72(4): 902–12.
    Franklin, B. (1988) Public Relations Activities in Local Government. London: Charles Knight Ltd.
    Franklin, B. (1989) ‘Local parties, local media and the constituency campaign’, in Crewe, I. and Harrop, M. (eds) Political Communication: The General Election of 1987. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 211–21.
    Franklin, B. (1994) Packaging Politics. London: Edward Arnold.
    Franklin, B. (1996) An Obituary for the Press Gallery’, Parliamentary Brief, 4(4): 13–15.
    Franklin, B. (1997) Newszak and News Media. London: Arnold.
    Franklin, B. (1998a) Tough on Soundbites, Tough on the Causes of Soundbites: New Labour and News ManagementLondon: Catalyst.
    Franklin, B. (1998b) ‘No News Isn't Good News: The Development of Local Free Newspapers’, in Franklin, B. and Murphy, D. (eds) Making the Local News: Local Journalism in Context. London: Routledge.
    Franklin, B. (2001) British Television Policy: A Reader. London: Routledge.
    Franklin, B. (2003) A Good Day to Bury Bad News? Journalists, Sources and the Packaging of Politics’, in Cottle, S. (ed.) News, Public Relations and Power. London: Sage.
    Franklin, B. (2004a) Packaging Politics: Political Communications in Britain's Media Democracy. London: Arnold.
    Franklin, B. (2004b) A Damascene Conversion? New Labour and Media Relations’, in Ludlam, S. and Smith, M. (eds) Governing as New Labour: Policy and Politics under Blair. London: Palgrave, pp. 88–106.
    Franklin, B. (2005) ‘McJournalism: The McDonaldization Thesis and the UK Local Press’, in Allan, S. (ed.) Contemporary Journalism: Critical Essays. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Franklin, B. and Richardson, J. (2002) A Journalist's Duty? Continuity and Change in Local Newspapers’ Coverage of Recent UK General Elections’, Journalism Studies, 3(1): 35–52.
    Franklin, B. and Murphy, D. (1998a) ‘Changing Times: Local Newspapers, Technology and Markets’, in Franklin, B. and Murphy, D. (eds) Making the Local News: Local Journalism in Context. London: Routledge, pp. 7–23.
    Franklin, B. and Murphy, D. (1998b) ‘The Press in the Age of the Conglomerates’, in Franklin, B. and Murphy, D. (eds) Making the Local News. London: Routledge.
    Franklin, B. and VanSlyke Turk, J. (1988) ‘Information Subsidies: Agenda Setting Traditions’, Public Relations Review, Spring: 29–41.
    Franks, Lord (Chairman) (1972) Report and Evidence of the Committee on Section 2 of the Official Secrets Act 1911. Cmnd 5104. London: HMSO.
    Freedman, D. (2003) Television and the Labour Party, 1951–2001. London: Cass.
    Freedman, L. (2004) ‘Misreporting War Has a Long History’, in Miller, D. (ed.) Tell Me Lies: Propaganda and Media Distortion in the Attack on Iraq. London: Pluto Press, pp. 63–9.
    Frost, C. (2000) Media Ethics and Self-regulation. London: Longman.
    Frost, C. (2004) ‘The Press Complaints Commission: A Study of Ten Years of Adjudications on Press Complaints’, Journalism Studies, 5(1): 101–14.
    The Future Funding of the BBC(1999) Report of the Independent Review Panel chaired by Gavyn Davies. London: Department of Culture, Media and Sport.
    Gaber, I. (2000) ‘Lies, Damn Lies and Political Spin’, British Journalism Review, 11(1): 60–70.
    Gaber, I. (2001) ‘Government by Spin: An Analysis of the Process’, Media, Culture and Society, 22(4): 507–18.
    Gage, L. (1999) A Guide to Commercial Radio Journalism. Oxford: Focal Press.
    Gall, G. (1998) ‘Industrial Relations and the Local Press: The Continuing Employers’ Offensive’, in Franklin, B. and Murphy, D. (eds) Making the Local News: Local Journalism in Context. London: Routledge.
    Galtung, J. and Ruge, M. (1965a) ‘The Structure of Foreign News: The Presentation of the Congo, Cuba and Cyprus Crises in Four Norwegian Newspapers’, Journal of International Peace Research, 1: 64–91.
    Galtung, J. and Ruge, M. (1965b) ‘Structuring and Selecting News’, in Cohen, S. and Young, J. (eds) (1973) The Manufacture of News: Social Problems, Deviance and the News Media. London: Constable, pp. 62–72.
    Gamson, W.A. and Modigliani, A. (1987) ‘The Changing Culture of Affirmative Action’, in Braungart, R.G. and Braubgart, M. (eds) Research in Political Sociology. Greenwich, CTJAI Press, vol. 3, pp. 137–77.
    GandyO. (1982) Beyond Agenda Setting: Information Subsidies and Public Policy. New York: Ablex.
    Gandy, O. Jnr (2000) ‘Race, Ethnicity and the Segmentation of Media Markets’, in Curran, J. and Gurevitch, M. (eds) Mass Media and Society. London: Arnold, pp. 44–69.
    Gandy, O. Jnr. (2001) ‘Reproducing Racism’, Rhodes Journalism Review, August: 10–11.
    Gans, HJ. (1980) Deciding What's News. London: Constable.
    Gardner, C. (1986) ‘How They Buy the Bulletins’, theGuardian, 17 September.
    Garner, K. (2003) ‘On Defining the Field’, The Radio Journal, 1(1): 7.
    Gauntlett, D. (1996) Video Critical: Children, the Environment and Media Power. London: John Libbey
    Gauntlett, D. (1997) ‘Ten Things Wrong With the “Effects” Model’, in Dickinson, R., Harindranath, R. and Linne, O. (eds), Approaches to Audiences. London: Arnold.
    Gee, J.P. (1990) Social Linguistics and Literacies: Ideology in Discourses. London: Falmer Press.
    Gee, J.P. (1999) An Introduction to Discourse Analysis: Theory and Method. London: Routledge.
    George, M. (2003) ‘Bell Attacks Iraq Rolling News Coverage’, BBC News Online, 23 May, at
    Gerbner, G. (1958) ‘On Content Analysis and Critical Research in Mass Communication’, in Dexter, L.A. and Manning, D. (eds) (1964) People, Society and Mass Communications. New York: Free Press, pp. 476–500.
    Gerbner, G. (1967) ‘Mass Media and Human Communication Theory’, in McQuail, D. (ed.) (1972) Sociology of Mass Communications. Harmondsworth: Penguin, pp. 35–58.
    Gibbons, T. (1998) Regulating the Media,
    2nd edn.
    London: Sweet and Maxwell.
    Gieber, W. (1964) ‘News is What Newspapermen Make It’, in Dexter, L.A. and Manning, D. (eds), People, Society and Mass Communications. New York: Free Press, pp. 173–82.
    Gillespie, M. (1995) Television, Ethnicity and Cultural Change. London: Routledge.
    Gillespie, M. (2000) ‘Transnational Communications and Diaspora Communities’, in Cottle, S. (ed.) Ethnic Minorities and the Media. Buckingham: Open University Press, pp. 164–78.
    van Ginneken, J. (1998) Understanding Global News: A Critical Introduction. London: Sage.
    Gitlin, T. (1979) ‘Prime-Time Ideology: The Hegemonic Process in Television Entertainment’, Social Problems, 26: 251–66.
    Glasgow Media Group (1976) Bad News. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Glasgow Media Group (1980) More Bad News. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Glasgow Media Group (1982) Really Bad News. London: Writer and Readers.
    Glasgow Media Group (1985) War and Peace News. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Glasser, T. (2000) ‘The Politics of Public Journalism’, Journalism Studies, 1(4): 683–5.
    Glencross, D. (1994) ‘Superhighways and Supermarkets’, a speech to theRoyal Television Society, 8 March.
    Glover, S. (1993) Paper Dreams. London: Jonathan Cape.
    Goffman, E. (1981) Forms of Talk. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Goldie, G. (1977) Facing the Nation: Television and Politics, 1936–1976. London: Bodley Head.
    Golding, P. (1989) ‘Limits to Leviathan: The Local Press and the Poll Tax’, paper presented to the Political Studies Association Annual Conference, University of Warwick, 6 April.
    Golding, P. and Murdock, G. (1973) ‘For a Political Economy of Mass Media’, in Miliband, R. and Saville, J. (eds) Socialist Register. London: Merlin, pp. 205–34.
    Golding, P. and Murdock, G. (2000) ‘Culture, Communications and Political Economy’, in Curran, J. and Gurevitch, M. (eds) Mass Media and Society. London: Arnold.
    Gombrich, E.H. (1978) Meditation on a Hobby Horse. Oxford: Phaidon Press.
    Goode, E. and Ben-Yahuda, N. (1994) Moral Panics: The Social Construction of Deviance. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Goodwin, P. (1998) Television under the Tories: Broadcasting Policy 1979–97. London: BFI.
    Gramsci, A. (1971) Extracts from the Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Greatbatch, D. (1998) ‘Conversation Analysis: Neutralism in British News Interviews’, in Bell, A. and Garrett, P. (eds) Approaches to Media Discourse. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 163–85.
    Greenslade, R. (2003) ‘The Night I Gave Murdoch a Bollocking’, Media Guardian, 29 September, p. 6.
    Greenslade, R. (2004a) ‘So Just Who's Who?’, Media Guardian, 23 February, pp. 6–7.
    Greenslade, R. (2004b) ‘Metros on the March’, MediaGuardian, 19 January, p. 7.
    Greenslade, R. (2004c) ‘Little Echo’, MediaGuardian, 19 January, p. 6.
    Gunter, B. (2000) Media Research Methods. London: Sage.
    Habermas, J. (1989) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    HagertyB. (2002) ‘Editorial’, British Journal Review, 13(4): 6.
    Hall, J. (2001) Online Journalism: A Critical Primer. London: Pluto Press.
    Hall, S. (1973) ‘The Determination of News Photographs’, in Cohen, S. and Young, J. (eds) The Manufacture of News: Social Problems, Deviance and the News Media. London: Constable, pp. 176–90.
    Hall, S. (1980) ‘Encoding/Decoding’, in Marris, P. and Thornham, S. (eds) Media Studies: A Reader. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 51–61.
    Hall, S. (1982) ‘The Rediscovery of Ideology: Return of the Repressed in Media Studies’, in Gurevitch, M., Bennet, T., Curran, J. and Woollacott, J. (eds), Culture, Society and the Media. London: Methuen, pp. 56–90.
    Hall, S. (1994) ‘Cultural Identity and Diaspora’, in Williams, P. and Chrisman, L. (eds), Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 392–403.
    Hall, S. (2001) ‘Conjoined Twin Flies Home After Deal’, theGuardian, 18 June.,7495,508674,00.html.
    Hall, S., Critcher, S., Jefferson, T., Clarke, J. and Roberts, B. (1978) Policing the Crisis. London: Macmillan.
    Haller, B. and Ralph, S. (2001) ‘Not Worth Keeping Alive? News Framing of Physician-Assisted Suicide in the United States and Great Britain’, Journalism Studies, 2(3): 407–21.
    Halliday, M.A.K. (1994) An Introduction to Functional Grammar,
    2nd edn.
    London: Arnold.
    Halliday, M.A.K. and Hasan, R. (1989) Language, Context and Text: Aspects of Language in a Social Semiotic Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hammond, J. (1987) Ashamed of the Press’, UK Press Gazette, 23 March, reproduced in Boyd, A. (2001) Broadcast Journalism, Techniques of Radio and Television News. Oxford: Focal Press.
    Hanna, M. (2000) ‘British Investigative Journalism: Protecting the Continuity of Talent through Changing Times’, paper presented at the Professional Education section of the International Association for Media and Communication Research, 22nd General Assembly and annual conference, Singapore.
    Hanna, M. and Epworth, J. (1998) ‘Media Payments to Witnesses: The Press Faces the First Breach of its Post-Calcutt Defences’, paper presented to the annual conference of the Association for Journalism Education, London, 15 May.
    Hansen, A., Cottle, S., Negrine, R. and Newbold, C. (1998) Mass Communication Research Methods.
    Hansen, H.V. and Pinto, R.C. (1995) Fallacies: Classical and Contemporary Readings. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press.
    Harcup, T. (1994) A Northern Star: Leeds’ Other Paper and the Alternative Press, 1974–1994. Upton: The Campaign for Press and Broadcasting Freedom (North) MNH.
    Harcup, T. (1998) ‘There Is No Alternative: The Demise of the Alternative Local Newspaper’, in Franklin, B. and Murphy, D. (eds) Making the Local News: Local Journalism in Context. London: Routledge.
    Harcup, T. (2003) ‘The Unspoken – Said: The Journalism of Alternative Media’, Journalism: Theory, Practice and Criticism4 (3): 356–76.
    Harcup, T. (2004) Journalism: Principles and Practice. London: Sage.
    Harcup, T. and O'Neill, D. (2001) ‘What Is News? Galtung and Ruge Revisited’, Journalism Studies, 2(2): 261–80.
    Harding, L., Leigh, D. and Pallister, D. (1997) The Liar: The Fall of Jonathan Aitken. London: Penguin.
    Hardt, H. (1999) ‘Reinventing the Press for the Age of Commercial Appeals: Writings on and about Public Journalism’, in Glasser, T. (ed.) The Idea of Public Journalism. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 197–209.
    Hargreaves, I. (1993) Sharper Visions: The BBC and the Communications Revolution. London: Demos.
    Hargreaves, I. (2003) Journalism: Truth or Dare?Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hargreaves, I. and Thomas, J. (2002) New News, Old News. London: ITC/BSC.
    Harmon, M.D. and White, C. (2001) ‘How Television News Programmes Use Video News Releases’, Public Relations Review, 27(2): 213–22.
    Harris, P. (1970) When Pirates Ruled the Waves. London: Impulse Books.
    Harris, R. (1990) Good and Faithful Servant. London: Faber and Faber
    Harris, S. (1991) ‘Evasive Action: How Politicians Respond to Questions in Political Interviews’, in Scannell, P. (ed.) Broadcast Talk. London: Sage, pp. 76–99.
    Harrison, J. (2000) Terrestrial TV News in Britain: The Culture of Production. Manchester, Manchester University Press.
    Harrison, M. (1985) Whose Bias?Berkshire: Policy Journals.
    Harrop, M. (eds) (1989) Political Communications: The General Election Campaign of 1987. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hart, A. (1991) Understanding the Media: A Practical Guide. London: Routledge.
    Hartley, J. (1982) Understanding News. London: Methuen.
    Hartmann, P. and Husband, C. (1974) Racism and the Mass Media: A Study of the Role of the Mass Media in the Formation of White Beliefs and Attitudes in Britain. London: Davis-Poynter
    Hartmann, P. and Husband, C. (1973) ‘The Mass Media and Racial Conflict’, in Cohen, S. and Young, J. (eds) The Manufacture of News: Social Problems, Deviance and the News Media. London: Constable, pp. 270–83.
    Hastings, M. (2002) EditorLondon: Macmillan.
    HattersleyR. (2001) ‘The Unholy Alliance: The Relationship between Members of Parliament and the Press’, James Cameron Lecture 1996, reprinted in Stephenson, H. (ed.) Media Voices: The James Cameron Memorial Lectures, London: Politicos, pp. 227–45.
    Hayes, A. (1996) Family in Print. Dursley: Bailey Newspaper Group Ltd.
    Held, D. and McGrew, A. (2000) The Global Transformations Reader: An Introduction to the Globalization Debate. Malden, MA: Polity Press.
    Henderson, N. (2003) ‘The Henderson Interview’, Radio Magazine, 25 October.
    Henningham, J. and Delano, A. (1998), ‘British Journalists’, in Weaver, D.H. (ed.) The Global Journalist: News People Around the World. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
    Herbert, J. (2001) Practising Global Journalism. Oxford: Focal Press.
    Heren, L. (1988) Memories of Times Past. London: Hamish Hamilton.
    Heritage, J. (1985) Analysing News Interviews: Aspects of the Production of Talk for Overhearing Audiences’, in van Dijk, T.A. (ed.) Handbook of Discourse Analysis. London: Academic Press, vol. 3, pp. 95–119.
    Heritage, J. (2001) ‘Goffman, Garfinkel and Conversation Analysis’, in Wetherell, M., Taylor, S. and Yates, S.J. (eds) Discourse Theory and Practice. London: Sage.
    Herman, E.S. (1995) Beyond Hypocrisy: Decoding the News in an Age of Propaganda. Boston: South End Press.
    Herman, E.S. (2000) ‘The Propaganda Model: A Retrospective’, Journalism Studies, 1(1): 101–12.
    Herman, E. and Chomsky, N. ([1988] 1994) Manufacturing Consent: The Political
    Economy of the Mass Media. New York: Pantheon.
    Herman, E.S. and Chomsky, N. (1994) Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. London: Vintage.
    Hetherington, A. (1985) News, Newspapers and Television. London: Macmillan.
    Hicks, W., Adams, S. and Gilbert, H. (1999) Writing for Journalists. London: Routledge.
    Hicks, W. and Holmes, T. (2002) Subediting for Journalists. London: Routledge.
    Hilmes, M. (2003) ‘British Quality, American Chaos’, The Radio Journal, 1(1): 13.
    Hirst, M. (2003) ‘What is Gonzo? The Etymology of an Urban Legend’, unpublished paper, School of Journalism, University of Queensland.
    Hodgson, F.W. (1996) Modern Newspaper Practice: A Primer on the Press. Oxford: Focal Press.
    Hodgson, F.W. (1998) New Subediting. Oxford: Focal Press.
    Hodgson, J. (2001a) A Gentlemen's Agreement: Is the D-Notice Committee an Archaic Leftover or Vital to National Security?’, Guardian, 1 October.,7558,560812,00.html.
    Hodgson, J. (2001b) ‘Francis “Thought False Alibi Was for Archer's Wife”’, Guardian, 18 June.,7495,508967,00.html.
    Hoggart, R. (1993) An Imagined Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hoggart, S. (2002) Playing to the Gallery: Parliamentary Sketches from Blair Year Zero. London: Atlantic Books.
    Holtz-Bacha, C. and Frolich, R. (eds) (2003) Journalism Education in Europe and North America: An International Comparison. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
    Home Office (1978) Reform of Section 2 of the Official Secrets Act 1911. London: HMSO.
    Hood, S. (1980) On Television. London: Pluto Press.
    Hooper, D. (1988) Official Secrets: The Use and Abuse of the Act. Sevenoaks: Coronet.
    Horgan, J. (2001) ‘“Government Sources Said Last Night …”: The Development of the Parliamentary Press Lobby in Modern Ireland’, in Morgan, H. (ed.) Information, Media and Power through the Ages. Dublin: University College Dublin Press, pp. 259–71.
    Horrie, C. and Nathan, A. (1999) Live TV: Telly Brats and Topless Darts. London: Simon and Schuster.
    Howitt, D. (1982) Mass Media and Social Problems. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    Hoyer, S. (2003) ‘Newspapers Without Journalists’, Journalism Studies, 4(4): 451.
    Hume, M. (1997) Whose War Is It Anyway? The Dangers of the Journalism of Attachment. London: LM.
    Humphreys, P.J. (1996) Mass Media and Media Policy in Western Europe. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Humphrys, J. (1999) Devil's Advocate. London: Hutchinson.
    Humphrys, J. (2004) ‘First Do No Harm’, in Franklin, B. (ed.) (2005) Television Policy: The MacTaggart Lectures. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Hutton, Lord (2004) Report of the Inquiry into the Circumstances Surrounding the Death of Dr David Kelly, CMG. London: The Stationery Office. HC247 at
    Ingham, B. (1991) Kill the Messenger. London: HarperCollins. International Federation of Journalists:
    ITC (1998) ‘ITC Imposes £2m Financial Penalty for The Connection, press release 118/98, 18 December.
    ITC (1999) ‘ITC Imposes Financial Penalty on Channel Four for Too Much Too Young: Chickens’, press release 10/99, 26 February.
    Iyengar, S. (1991) Is Anyone Responsible? How Television Frames Political Issues. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Jackson, I. (1971) The Provincial Press and the Community. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Jäger, S. (2001) ‘Discourse and Knowledge: Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of a Critical Discourse and Dispositive Analysis’, in Wodak, R. and Meyer, M. (eds) Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage, pp. 32–62.
    Jasinski, J. (2001) Sourcebook on Rhetoric: Key Concepts in Contemporary Rhetorical Studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Jempson, M. and Cookson, R. (eds) (2004) Satisfaction Guaranteed? Press Complaints Systems Under Scrutiny. Bristol: Mediawise.
    Johansen, P., Weaver, D.H. and Dornan, C. (2001) ‘Journalism Education in the United States and Canada: Not Merely Clones’, Journalism Studies, 2(4): 469–83.
    Jones, N. (1995) Soundbites and Spin Doctors: How Politicians Manipulate the Media and Vice Versa. London: Cassell.
    Jones, N. (2002) The Control Freaks: How New Labour Gets its Own Way. London: Politicos.
    Jones, N. (2003) A Question of Trust’, The Journalists’ Handbook, 75: pp. 15–28.
    Journalist News (2003) ‘Pieces in the Jigsaw War’, Journalist, October/November: 10–11.
    Jucker, A.H. (1992) Social Stylistics: Syntactic Variation in British Newspapers. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter
    Katz, E. (1959) ‘Mass Communication Research and the Study of Popular Culture’, Studies in Public Communication, 2: 1–27.
    Keeble, R. (2001) Ethics for Journalists. London: Routledge.
    Kellner, P. (1983) ‘The Lobby, Official Secrets and Good Government’, Parliamentary Affairs36(3): 275–82.
    Kelso, P. (2001) ‘We Have Known about This for 15 Years’, Guardian, 23 July.,7558,525816,00.html.
    Kennedy, P. (2002), ‘People's Champ Leaves NoW in Censorship Row’, Press Gazette online, 24 January.
    Kent, R. (ed.) (1994) Measuring Media Audiences. London: Routledge.
    Kilborn, R. and Izod, J. (1997) An Introduction to Television Documentary: Confronting Reality. Manchester, Manchester University Press.
    Kitzinger, J. and Barbour, R. (eds) (1999) Developing Focus Group Research: Politics, Theory and Practice. London: Sage.
    Klaehn, J. (2003) ‘Behind the Invisible Curtain of Scholarly Criticism: Revisiting the Propaganda Model’, Journalism Studies, 4(3): 359–69.
    Klapper, J.T. (1949) The Effects of Mass Media. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Klapper, J.T. (1960) The Effects of Mass Communication. New York: Free Press.
    Knightley, P. (1997) A Hack's Progress. London: Jonathan Cape.
    Kraus, S. and Davis, D. (1976) The Effects of Mass Behaviour on Political Behaviour. Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Kress, G. (1983) ‘Linguistic and Ideological Transformations in News Reporting’, in Davis, H. and Walton, P. (eds) Language, Image and Media. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp. 120–38.
    Kress, G. and van Leeuwen, T. (1996) Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. London: Routledge.
    KrishnamurthyR. (1996) ‘Ethnic, Racial and Tribal: The Language of Racism?’, in Caldas-Coulthard, C.R. and Coulthard, M. (eds) Texts and Practices: Readings in Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Routledge, pp. 129–49.
    LaceyN. (1998) Image and Representation: Key Concepts in Media Studies. Houndsmills: Macmillan.
    Laclau, E. and Mouffe, C. (1985) Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics. London: Verso.
    Langer, J. (1998) Tabloid Television: Popular Journalism and the ‘Other News’. LondonRoutledge.
    Lawson, M. (1990) ‘Raising an Eyebrow’, The Independent Magazine, 24 February, pp. 28–36.
    Lazarsfeld, P., Berelson, B. and Gaudet, H. (1944) The People's Choice. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce.
    van Leeuwen, T. (1996) ‘The Representation of Social Actors’, in Caldas-Coulthard, C.R. and Coulthard, M. (eds) Texts and Practices: Readings in Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Routledge, pp. 32–70.
    Leigh, D. and VulliamyE. (1997) Sleaze: The Corruption of Parliament. London: Fourth Estate.
    Leitch, V.B. (1983) Deconstructive Criticism: An Advanced Introduction. New York: Columbia University Press.
    L'Etaing, J. (2004) Public Relations in Britain: A History of Professional Practice in the Twentieth Century. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Letts, Q. (2003) ‘Still Thriving, the Daily Sketch’, British Journalism Review, 1(4): 39–45.
    Levinson, P. (1999) Digital McLuhan. London: Routledge.
    Levy, H.P. (1967) The Press Council: History, Procedure and Cases. London: Macmillan.
    Lewis, J. (1991) The Ideological Octopus: An Exploration of Television and Its Audience. London: Routledge.
    Liberty and Article 19 (2000) Secrets, Spies and Whistleblowers. London: Liberty and Article 19.
    LindleyR. (2002) Panorama: Fifty Years of Pride and Paranoia. London: Politicos.
    Linklater, M. (1993) An Insight into Insight’, British Journalism Review, 4(2): 17–20.
    Lister, S. (2004) ‘Times Is First for a Perfect Picture Service’, The Times, 28 June, p. 9.
    Livingstone, S. and Lunt, P. (1994) Talk on Television. London: Routledge.
    Lloyd, C. (1999) Attacking the Devil: 130 Years of The Northern Echo. Darlington: The Northern Echo.
    Lloyd, J. (2004) What the Media Are Doing to Our Politics. London: Constable.
    Lord Chancellor's Department (1993) Infringement of Privacy, consultation paper. London: Lord Chancellor's Department.
    Lule, J. (2001) Daily News, Eternal Stories: The Mythical Role of Journalism. New York: Guilford Press.
    Lynn, N. and Lea, S. (2003) ‘“A Phantom Menace and the New Apartheid”: The Social Construction of Asylum Seekers in the United Kingdom’, Discourse and Society, 14(4): 425–52.
    MacArthur, B. (2004) ‘Ego Trips Full of Passion that Set the Tone for Newspapers’, The Times, 27 February, p. 39.
    MacDonald, M. (2003) Exploring Media Discourse. London: Arnold.
    MacGregor, B. (1997) Live, Direct and Biased: Making Television News in the Satellite Age. London: Arnold.
    MacGregor, Lord (1977) Royal Commission on the Press: Final Report. Cmnd 6810. London: HMSO.
    Machin, D. and Thornborrow, J. (2003) ‘Branding and Discourse: The Case ofCosmopolitan, Discourse and Society, 14(4): 453–71.
    Malik, K. (1996) The Meaning of Race: Race, History and Culture in Western Society. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Manning, P. (1998) Spinning for Labour: Trades Unions and the New Media Environment. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Manning, P. (2001) News and News Sources: A Critical Introduction. London: Sage.
    Marks, N. (2000) ‘Uncovering the Secrets of “Real” Journalism’, Press Gazette, 14 January, p. 15.
    Marr, A. (2001) ‘Is It Possible that No News is Good News?’, The Independent, 16 March.
    Martin, W. (1986) Recent Theories of Narrative. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Marx, K. ([1848] 1998) ‘Manifesto of the Communist Party’ (trans. Carver, T.), in Cowling, M. (ed.), The Communist Manifesto: New Interpretations. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 14–37.
    Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1974) The German Ideology (ed. Arthur, C.J.). London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Mayes, I. (2004) ‘Trust Me – I'm an Ombudsman’, British Journalism Review, 15(2): 65–70.
    McCombs, M. and Shaw, D. (1972) ‘The Agenda-setting Function of the Mass Media’, Public Opinion Quarterly, 36: 176–87.
    McCombs, M., Shaw, D. and Weaver, D. (1997) Communication and Democracy: Exploring the Intellectual Frontiers of Agenda-setting Theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    McCormack, S. (2004) ‘The Trouble with Two-Ways’, UK Press Gazette, 6 February.
    McIntosh, N. (2003) ‘Start here: Setting up a Website’, Guardian Unlimited, 25 September, available at:,,1048698,00.html.
    McKeen, W. (1991) ‘Hunter S. Thompson’, in Twayne's United States Authors (ed. F.Day). Boston: Twayne.
    McKie, D. (1999) Media Coverage of Parliament. London: Hansard.
    McLaughlin, G. (2002) The War Correspondent. London: Pluto.
    McManus, J. (1992) ‘What Kind of Commodity is News?’, Communications Research, 19(6): 780–812.
    McManus, J. (1994a) Market Driven Journalism. London: Sage.
    McManus, J. (1994b) ‘The First Stage of News Production: Learning What's Happening’, in Berkowitz, D. (ed.) (1997), Social Meanings of News. London: Sage.
    McNair, B. (1996) ‘Performance in Politics and the Politics of Performance: Public Relations, the Public Sphere and Democracy’, in L'Etaing, J. and Piecka, M. (eds) Critical Perspectives in Public Relations. London: International Thompson.
    McNair, B. (1998) The Sociology of Journalism. London: Arnold.
    McNair, B. (1999) News and Journalism in the UK,
    3rd edn.
    London: Routledge.
    McNair, B. (2000a) Journalism and Democracy: An Evaluation of the Political Public Sphere. London: Routledge.
    McNair, B. (2000b) ‘Journalism and Democracy: A Millennial Audit’, Journalism Studies, 1(2): 197–211.
    McNair, B. (2002) The Sociology of Journalism. London: Edward Arnold.
    McNair, B. (2001) News and Journalism in the UK. New York: Routledge.
    McNair, B. (2003) News and Journalism in the UK. London: Routledge.
    McNair, B., Hibberd, M. and Schlesinger, P. (2002) ‘Public Access Broadcasting and Democratic Participation in the Age of Mediated Democracy’, Journalism Studies, 3(3): 407–22.
    McQuail, D. ([1987]2000) Mass Communication Theory. London: Sage.
    McQuail, D. (1992) Media Performance, Mass Communication and the Public Interest. London: Sage.
    Media Guardian (2004) And Then There Was Murdoch’, Guardian, 5 January, p. 3.
    Meek, C. (2003) ‘Internet Is a Boon for Freelancers’ (14 October) dot Journalism:
    Meek, C. (2004) ‘Photo Opportunities Wasted’, 1 July, dotJournalism.
    Melly, G. (2004) ‘The Jazzman Cometh’, British Journalism Review, 15(2): 31–5.
    Melvern, L. (1986) The End of the Street. London: Methuen.
    Melville, R. (1998) ‘In Search of the Holy Grail: A Single National Qualification in Journalism across the Whole Industry’, paper delivered to the 3rd annual conference of the Association of Media, Cultural and Communication Studies, Sheffield, December.
    Merritt, D. (1998) Public Journalism and Public Life: Why Telling the News is Not Enough, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Merton, R.K. (1987) ‘The Focused Interview and Focus Groups: Continuities and Discontinuities’, Public Opinion Quarterly, 51: 550–66.
    Meyer, P. (1987) Ethical Journalism. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    Michie, D. (1998) The Invisible Persuaders. London: Bantam Press.
    Middleton, D. (1993) Pocketbook of Newspaper Terms. Edinburgh: Merchiston Publishing.
    Miller, D. (1998) ‘Public Relations and Journalism: Promotional Strategies and Media Power’, in Briggs, A. and Cobley, P. (eds) The Media: An Introduction. London: Longman.
    Miller, D. (2004) Tell Me Lies: Propaganda and Media Distortion in the Attack on Iraq. London: Pluto.
    Miller, D. and Dinan, W. (2000) ‘The Rise of the PR Industry in Britain, 1979–98’, European Journal of Communication, 15(1): 5–35.
    Miller, L., Stauber, J. and Rampton, S. (2004) ‘War is Sell’, in Miller, D. (ed.) Tell Me Lies: Propaganda and Media Distortion in the Attack on Iraq. London: Pluto Press, pp. 41–51.
    Mohammadi, A. (ed.) (1997) International Communication and Globalisation. London: Sage.
    Molotch, H. and Lester, M. (1974) ‘News as Purposive Behaviour: On the Strategic Use of Routine Events, Accidents and Scandals’, in Berkowitz, D. (ed.) Social Meanings of News: A Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 193–209.
    Montgomery, M. (1999) ‘Speaking Sincerely: Public Reactions to the Death of Diana’, Language and Literature, 8(1): 5–33.
    Montgomery, M., Durant, A., Fabb, N., Furniss, T. and Mills, S. (2000) Ways of Reading: Advanced Reading Skills for Students of English Literature. London: Routledge.
    MORI, (accessed 21 April 2004).
    MorleyD. (1980) The Nationwide Audience: Structure and Decoding. London: BFI.
    MorleyD. and Whitaker, B. (1986) The Press, Radio and Television: An Introduction to the Media. London: Commedia.
    Morrison, A. and Love, A. (1996) A Discourse of Disillusionment: Letters to the Editor in Two Zimbabwean Magazines after Independence’, Discourse and Society, 7(1): 39–75.
    MosleyD. (1980) The Nationwide Audience. London: BFI.
    Muntigl, P., Weiss, G. and Wodak, R. (eds) (2000) European Union Discourses on Unemployment: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Employment Policy-Making and Institutional Change. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    Murdock, G. (2000) ‘Reconstructing the Ruined Tower: Contemporary Communications and Questions of Class’, in Curran, J. and Gurevitch, M. (eds) Mass Media and Society. London: Arnold, pp. 7–26.
    National Heritage Committee (1993) Fourth Report, Privacy and Media Intrusion, Parliamentary Paper 294 of Session 1992–3. London: HMSO.
    National Union of Journalists:
    National Readership Survey, (accessed 21 April 2004).
    Negrine, R.M. (1994) Politics and the Mass Media in Britain,
    2nd edn.
    London: Routledge.
    Negrine, R. (1998) Parliament and the Media: A Study of Britain, Germany and France. London: Pinter.
    Neil, A. (1997) Full Disclosure. London: Pan Books.
    Neil, A. (2004) The Neil Report. available at:
    Nerone, J. and Barnhurst, K.G. (2003) ‘US Newspaper Types, the Newsroom and the Division of Labor, 1750–2000’, Journalism Studies, 4(4): 435.
    Nicol, A., Millar, G., and Sharland, A. (2001), Media Law and Human Rights. London: Blackstone Press.
    Nielsen, J. (1995) Multimedia and Hypertext: The Internet and Beyond. London: Academic Press.
    Nielsen, J. (2000) Designing Web Usability. Indianapolis: New Riders Publishing.
    Northmore, D. (1996) Lifting the Lid: A Guide to Investigative Research. London: Cassell.
    NUJ (2003a) ‘The Worst-Treated Journalists in Europe’, online article inThe Journalist, 11 September 11
    NUJ (2003b) ‘Journalists launch biggest pay campaign for a decade’, online article inThe Journalist October 23
    O'Malley, T. (1994) Closedown: The BBC and Government Broadcasting Policy 1979–92. London: Pluto Press.
    O'Malley, T. (1997) ‘Labour and the 1947–49 Royal Commission on the Press’, in Bromley, M. and O'Malley, T. (eds) A Journalism Reader. London: Routledge.
    O'Malley, T. (1998) ‘Demanding Accountability: The Press, the Royal Commissions and the Pressure for Reform, 1945–77’ in M.Bromley and H.Stephenson (eds) Sex, Lies and Democracy: The Press and the Public. New York: Longman.
    O'Malley, T. and SoleyC. (2000) Regulating the Press. London: Pluto Press.
    O'Sullivan, T., Dutton, B. and Rayner, P. (1994) Studying the Media. London: Arnold.
    Oborne, P. (1999) Alastair Campbell, New Labour and the Rise of the Media Class. London: Aurum Press.
    Oborne, P. and Walters, S. (2004) Alastair Campbell. London: Aurum.
    Ochs, E. (1997) ‘Narrative’, in van Dijk, T.A. (ed.) Discourse as Structure and Process. London: Sage, pp. 185–207.
    Ofcom (2003) Programme Code, Section 3.7. London: Ofcom.
    Ofcom (2004a) ‘Ofcom Publishes Guidance on Media Mergers Public Interest Test’, press release, 7 May.
    Ofcom (2004b) ‘Ofcom Guidance for the Public Interest Test for Media Mergers’.
    Ofcom (2004c) ‘The Communications Market 2004’ 9 August
    Ornebring, H. and Jönsson, A.M. (2004) ‘Tabloid Journalism and the Public Sphere: A Historical Perspective on Tabloid Journalism’, Journalism Studies, 5(3): 283–97.
    Orwell, G. (1946) ‘Politics and the English Language’, in Orwell, G.(1962) Inside the Whale and Other Essays. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
    Paraschos, E.E. (1998) Media Law and Regulation in the European Union: National, Transnational and US Perspectives. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
    Parekh, B. (1997) ‘National Culture and Multiculturalism’, in Thompson, K. (ed.) Media and Cultural Regulation. London: Sage, pp. 163–94.
    Parris, M. (2002) Chance Witness: An Outsider's Life in Politics. London: Viking.
    Pax, S. (2003) ‘Where Is Raed?’.
    Paterson, C. (1998) ‘Global Battlefields’, in Boyd-Barrett, O. and Rantanen, T. (eds) The Globalization of News. London: Sage.
    Pavlik, J.V. (2001) Journalism and New Media. Columbia, NY: University Press.
    Peacock, A. (1986) Report of the Committee on Financing the BBC. London: HMSO.
    Peak, S. (ed.) (2002) Guardian Media Guide 2003. London: Guardian Books.
    Peirce, CS. (1931–58) Collected Papers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Periodical Publishers Association website:
    Pew Research Center (1999) Striking the Balance: Audience Interests, Business Pressures and Journalists’ Values’, 30 March
    Pew Research Center (2000) ‘Self Censorship: How Often and Why: Journalists Avoiding the News’, 30 April
    Phillips, A. (2003) A Question of Degree’, British Journalism Review, 14(1): 71–5.
    Philo, G. (1990) Seeing and Believing: The Influence of Television. London: Routledge.
    Philo, G. (2002) ‘Television News and Audience Understanding of War, Conflict and Disaster’, Journalism Studies, 3(2): 173–86.
    Philo, G. and Berry, M. (2004) Bad News from Israel. London: Pluto Press.
    Philo, G. and Miller, D. (1999) ‘The Effective Media’, in Philo, G. (ed.) Message Received. London: Longman, pp. 21–33.
    Pickering, M. (2001) Stereotyping: The Politics of Representation. Houndsmills: Palgrave. The Pilkington Report (1962)London: HMSO.
    Plumb, S. (2004) ‘Politicians as Superheroes: The Subversion of Political Authority Using a Pop Cultural Icon in the Cartoons of Steve Bell’, Media, Culture and Society, 26(3): 432–9.
    Ponting, C. (1985) The Right to Know: The Inside Story of the Belgrano Affair. London: Sphere.
    Ponting, C. (1988) A Fundamentally New Approach to Controlling Information’, UK Press Gazette, 31 October.
    Ponting, C. (1990) Secrecy in Britain. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Poole, E. (2002) Reporting Islam: Media Representations of British Muslims. London: I.B. Tauris.
    Porter, C. (2002) ‘The Truth about Mags and Ads’, Guardian, 15 November.,3605,840390,00.html.
    Pottker, H. (2003) ‘News and its Communicative Quality: The Inverted Pyramid–When and Why Did It Appear?’, Journalism Studies, 4(4): 501–11.
    Poulantzas, N. (1973) Political Power and Social Classes. London: New Left Books.
    Powers, L. (1995) ‘The One Fallacy Theory’, Informal Logic, 17(2): 303–14.
    Prager, D. and Telushkin, J. (2003) Why the Jews? The Reason for Antisemitism. New York: Touchstone.
    Press Complaints Commission (1997) ‘New Code for Press “the Toughest in Europe”’, press release, 19 December.
    Press Complaints Commission (2003) ‘Witness Payments: Important Changes to Editors’ Code Announced’, press release, 19 March
    Preston, P. (2002) ‘Readers’ Editors Do a Great Job, But the Real Work is the PCC's’, Observer, 10 March.
    Preston, P. (2003a) ‘The Regeneration Game’, Observer, 14 September.
    Preston, P. (2003b) ‘It's a Charade and We All Know It’, Guardian, 7 July, p. 13.
    Pritchard, S. (2001) ‘I'm Here for the Readers: Introducing Your Man at the Observer’, Observer, 4 March.
    Putnam, R. (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster
    Randall, D. (2000) The Universal Journalist. London: Pluto.
    Ray, V. (2003) The Television News Handbook. London: Macmillan.
    Raynsford, J. (2003) ‘Blogging: the New Journalism?’, 25 March, dot.Journalism, available at:
    Reah, D. (2002) The Language of Newspapers. London: Routledge.
    Reddick, R. and King, E. (2001) The Online Journalist: Using the Internet and Other Electronic Resources,
    3rd edn.
    Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace and Company.
    Reese, S.D. (1990) ‘The News Paradigm and the Ideology of Objectivity: A Socialist at the Wall Street Journal’, in Berkowitz, D. (ed.) (1997) Social Meanings of News. London: Sage, pp. 420–40.
    Reese, S.D. (2001) ‘Understanding the Global Journalist: A Hierarchy-of-Influences Approach’, Journalism Studies, 2(2): 173–87.
    Reese, S.D. and Cohen, J. (2000) ‘Education for Journalism: The Professionalism of Scholarship’, Journalism Studies, 1(2): 213–27.
    Reisigl, M. and Wodak, R. (2001) Discourse and Discrimination: Rhetorics of Racism and Anti-Semitism. London: Routledge, pp. 45–54.
    Reith, J. (1924) Broadcast Over BritainLondon: Hodder and Stoughton.
    Rheingold, H. (1994) The Virtual Community. London: Minerva.
    Richardson, J.E. (2001a) ‘“Now Is the Time to Put an End to All This” Argumentative Discourse Theory and Letters to the Editor’, Discourse and Society, 12(2): 143–68.
    Richardson, J.E. (2001b) ‘British Muslims in the Broadsheet Press: A Challenge to Cultural Hegemony?’, Journalism Studies, 2(2): 221–42.
    Richardson, J.E. (2004) (Mis)Representing Islam: The Racism and Rhetoric of British Broadsheet Newspapers. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    Richardson, J.E. and Franklin, B. (2003) ‘“Dear Editor”: Race, Readers’ Letters and the Local Press’, Political Quarterly, 74(2): 184–92.
    Richardson, J.E. and Franklin, B. (2004) ‘Letters of Intent: Election Campaigning and Orchestrated Public Debate in Local Newspapers’ Letters to the Editor’, Political Communication, 21(4): 459–78.
    Riddell, P. (1999) A Shift of Power and Influence’, British Journalism Review, 10(3): 26–33.
    Riggins, S.H. (1997a) ‘The Rhetoric of Othering’, in Riggins, S.H. (ed.) The Language and Politics of Exclusion: Others in Discourse. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 1–30.
    Riggins, S.H. (ed.) (1997b) The Language and Politics of Exclusion: Others in Discourse. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Ritzer, G. (1993) The McDonaldization of Society. London: Pine Forge/Sage.
    Ritzer, G. (1998) The McDonaldization Thesis. London: Sage.
    Robertson, G. (1983) An Inquiry into the Press Council. London: Quartet Books.
    Robertson, G. and Nicol, A. (2002) Media Law.
    4th edn.
    London: Penguin.
    Robertson, K.G. (1982) Public Secrets: A Study of the Development of Government SecrecyLondon: Macmillan.
    Robertson, R. (1992) Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture. London: Sage.
    Rock, P. (1973) ‘News as an Eternal Recurrence’, in Cohen, S. and Young, J. (eds) The Manufacture of News. London: Constable.
    Rosen, J. (2000) ‘Questions and Answers About Public Journalism’, Journalism Studies, (1)4:: 679–82.
    Rosenfeld, L. and Morville, P. ([1998]2002) Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, 2nd edn. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly and Associates.
    Rozenberg, J. (2004) Privacy and the Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Rowson, M. (2000) ‘Seriously Funny’, Index on Censorship, 6: 23–9.
    Rubenstein, S.M. (1992) ‘The Flow and Ebb of US Libel Law’, British Journalism Review, 3(3): 47–56.
    Rusbridger, A. (1997a) ‘The Freedom of the Press and Other Platitudes’, in Stephenson, H. (ed.) (2001) Media Voices: The James Cameron Memorial Lectures. London: Politicos, pp. 146–280.
    Rusbridger, A. (1997b) ‘Why Are We the Libel Capital of the World?’British Journalism Review, 8(3): 25–31.
    Rusbridger, A. (2000) ‘No More Ghostly Voices’, Guardian, 15 July, p. 20.
    Sadler, P. (2001) National Security and the D Notice System. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Said, E.W. (1978) Orientalism. London: Penguin Books.
    Safire, W. (1993) Safire's New Political Dictionary: The Definitive Guide to the New Language of Politics,
    3rd edn.
    New York: Random House.
    Sahlins, M. (1985) Islands of History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Sampson, A. (1996) ‘The Crisis at the Heart of Our Media’, British Journalism Review, 7(3): 42–56.
    Sanders, K. (2003) Ethics and Journalism. London: Sage.
    Sardar, Z. (1999) Orientalism. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Saussure de, F. (1974) Course in General Linguistics. London: Collins.
    Schechter, D. (1997) The More you Watch The Less You Know. New York: Seven Stories Press.
    Schement, J. (1998) ‘Through Americans: Minorities and the New Media’, in Garmer, A. (ed.) Investing in Diversity: Advancing Opportunities for Minorities and the Media. Washington, DC: Aspen Institute, pp. 87–124.
    Schiffrin, D. (1996) Approaches to Discourse. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Schirato, T. and Webb, J. (2003) Understanding Globalisation. London: Sage.
    Schlesinger, P. (1987) Putting Reality Together. London: Methuen.
    Schlesinger, P. (1989) ‘From Production to Propaganda?’Media, Culture and Society, 11: 283–306.
    Schlesinger, P. (1990) ‘Rethinking the Sociology of Journalism: Source Strategies and the Limits of Media Centrism’, in Ferguson, M. (ed.) Public Communication: The New Imperatives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Schlesinger, P. (1991) Media, State and Nation. London: Sage.
    Schlosser, E. (2002) Fast Food Nation: What the All American Meal Is Doing to the World. London: Penguin.
    Schudson, M. (1978) Discovering the News: A Social History of the American Newspaper. New York: Banc Books.
    Schudson, M. (1989) ‘The Sociology of News Production’, in Berkowitz, D. (ed.) (1997) Social Meanings of News: A Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 7–22.
    Schudson, M. (1992) ‘Watergate: A Study in Mythology’, Columbia Journalism Review, May/June 1992.
    Semetko, H. and Valkenburg, P. (2000) ‘Framing European Politics: Content Analysis of Press and Television News’, Journal of Communication, 50(2): 93–109.
    Sennitt, A. (2002) ‘This Is LDN’. available at:
    Seymour-Ure, C. (1991) The British Press and Broadcasting since 1945. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Seymour-Ure, C. (2001) ‘What Future for the British Political Cartoon?’Journalism Studies, 3(2): 333–55.
    Seymour-Ure, C. (2003) Prime Ministers and the Media: Issues of Power and Control. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Shannon, R. (2001) A Press Free and Responsible: Self-regulation and the Press Complaints Commission 1991–2001. London: John Murray.
    ShapleyO. (1996) Broadcasting a Life: The Autobiography of Olive Shapley, Scarlet Press.
    Shawcross, W. (1992) Rupert Murdoch: Ringmaster of the Information Circus. London: Chatto and Windus.
    Shepard, A. (1994) ‘The Gospel of Public Journalism’, American Journalism Review, September: 28–34.
    Shiple, J. (2003) ‘Why's Information architecture so important?’ available at:
    Shoemaker, P.J. (1991a) ‘A New Gatekeeping Model’, in Berkowitz, D. (ed.) Social Meanings of News: A Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 57–62.
    Shoemaker, P.J. (1991b) ‘Gatekeeping’, in Tumber, H. (1999) (ed.) News: A Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Shoemaker, P. and Reese, S. (1996) Mediating the Message: Theories of Influence on Mass Media Content. White Plains, NY: Longman.
    ShrimsleyB. (2003) ‘Columns! The Good, the Bad, the Best’, British Journal Review, 14(3): 23–30.
    Silvester, C. (ed.) The Penguin Book of Columnists. London: Penguin Books.
    Simpson, J. (2002) News from No Man's Land: Reporting the World. London: Macmillan.
    Skillset (2002) Journalists at Work: Their Views on Training, Recruitment and Conditions. London: The Journalism Training Forum.
    Smallman, A. (1996) ‘Telling the Editorial from the Adverts’, Press Gazette, 10 May, p. 11.
    Smith, A. (ed.) (1974a) British Broadcasting. Newton Abbott: David and Charles.
    Smith, A. (ed.) (1974b) The British Press since the War. Newton Abbott: David and Charles
    Smith, C. (1999) Lecture delivered to the Royal Television Society, Cambridge, 17 September.
    SnoddyR. (1993) The Good, the Bad and the Unacceptable: The Hard News about the British Press. London: Faber and Faber
    Snow, N. (2004) ‘Brainscrubbing: The Failures of US Public Diplomacy after 9/11’, in Miller, D. (ed.) Tell Me Lies: Propaganda and Media Distortion in the Attack on Iraq. London: Pluto Press, pp. 52–62.
    Spark, D. (2000) Investigative Reporting: A Study in Technique. Oxford: Focal Press.
    Sparks, C. (1999) ‘The Press’, in Stokes, J. and Reading, A. (eds) The Media in Britain: Current Debates and Developments. Houndsmills: Macmillan, pp. 41–60.
    Sparks, C. and Tulloch, J. (2000) Tabloid Tales: Global Debates over Media Standards. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
    Sparrow, A. (2003) Obscure Scribblers: A History of Parliamentary Journalism. London: Politicos.
    Splichal, S. and Sparks, C. (1994) Journalists for the 21st Century. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    SrebernyA. (2000) ‘Media and Diasporic Consciousness: An Exploration among Iranians in London’, in Cottle, S. (ed.) Ethnic Minorities and the Media. Buckingham: Open University Press, pp. 179–96.
    Starck, N. (2004a) ‘Writes of Passage’, doctoral thesis, Flinders University, Australia.
    Starck, N. (2004b) ‘Posthumous Reflections: The Newspaper Obituary as the First Verdict of History’, paper presented to the annual conference of the Association for Journalism Education. London, 10 September.
    Stephenson, H. (1998) ‘Tickle the Public: Consumerism Rules’, in Bromley, M. and Stephenson, H. (eds) Sex, Lies and Democracy: The Press and the Public. New York: Longman.
    Stepp, C. (2000) ‘Reader Friendly’, American Journalism Review, July/August: 23–35.
    Stevens, J. (2001) ‘Where Are the New Storytellers?’, in De Wolk, R.Introduction to Online Journalism. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    Stevens, M. (2002) ‘Small Camera, Big Vision’, UK Press Gazette, 9 September.
    Stevenson, W. (2000) ‘The BBC in the Future’, in e-britannia. Luton: University of Luton Press, pp. 121–7.
    Storey, J. (1993) An Introductory Guide to Cultural Theory and Popular Culture. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Straw, J. (1999) ‘Wanted: One Bold Editor’, British Journalism Review, 10(1): 29–34.
    Sullivan, D. (2003) ‘Google Throws Hat into the Contextual Advertising Ring’, 4 March.
    Taylor, J. (2000) ‘Problems in Photojournalism: Realism, the Nature of News and the Humanitarian Narrative’, Journalism Studies, 1(1): 129–43.
    Taylor, P.M. (1995) Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Era. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Taylor, P.M. (2003) ‘“We Know Where You Are”: Psychological Operations Media During Enduring Freedom’, in Thussu, D.K. and Freedman, D. (eds) War and the Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7. London: Sage, pp. 101–13.
    Taylor, S.J. (1992) Shock! Horror! The Tabloids in Action. London: Black Swan Books.
    Tdorovich, L. (1997) ‘Deep Throat Suspects’ (June 13)
    Tench, D. (2004) ‘You Can't Print That’, theGuardian, 5 January.,7558,1115966,00.html.
    Thatcher, M. (1993) ‘Margaret Thatcher's Analysis and Policy Prescriptions’, in Franklin, B. (ed.) (2001) British Television Policy: A Reader. London: Routledge, pp. 50–3.
    Thatcher, M. (1995) The Downing Street Years. London: HarperCollins.
    The Broadcasting Act 1990 (1990) London: HMSO
    The Communications Act 2003 (2003) available at
    The Joint Industry Committee for Regional Press Research (JICREG), (accessed 21 April 2004).
    The Newspaper Society (2004)
    Thelan, G., Kaplan, J. and Bradley, D. (2003) ‘Convergence’, Journalism Studies, 4(4): 513.
    Thompson, H.S. (1971) Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas: A Savage Journey into the Heart of the American Dream. New York: The Modern Library.
    Tibawi, A.L. (1964) English Speaking Orientalists. London: Luzac.
    Timms, D. (2004) ‘Record numbers follow Olympics via web and interactive TV. 20 August, Guardian Unlimited, available at:
    Tindale, C.W. (1999) Acts of Arguing: A Rhetorical Model of Argument. New York: SUNY Press.
    Titscher, S., Meyer, M., Wodak, R. and Vetter, E. (2000) Methods of Text and Discourse Analysis. London: Sage.
    Tomlin, R.S., Forrest, L.Pu, M.M. and Kim, M.H. (1997) ‘Discourse Semantics’, in van Dijk, T.A. (ed.) Discourse as Structure and Process. London: Sage, pp. 63–111.
    TraceyM. (1998) The Decline and Fall of Public Service Broadcasting. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Tracy, M. (1995) ‘Non-Fiction Television’, in Smith, A. (ed.) Television: An International History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 118–47.
    Truss, L. (2003) Eats, Shoots and Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation. London: Profile.
    Tuchman, G. (1972) ‘Objectivity as a Strategic Ritual: An Examination of Newsmen's Notions of Objectivity’, American Journal of Sociology, 77(4): 660–70.
    Tuchman, G. (1973) ‘Making News by Doing Work: Routinizing the Unexpected’, in Berkowitz, D. (ed.) (1997) Social Meanings of News: A Text Reader. London: Sage.
    Tuchman, G. (1983) ‘Consciousness Industries and the Production of Culture’, Journal of Communication, 33: 330–41.
    Tucker, A.H. (1992) Social Stylistics: Syntactic Variation in British Newspapers. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    Tulloch, J. (1998) ‘Managing the Press in a Medium-sized European Power’, in M.Bromley, and H.Stephenson (eds) Sex, Lies and Democracy: The Press and the Public. New York: Longman.
    Tumber, H. (1982) Television and the Riots. London: BFI.
    Tumber, H. (ed.) (1999) News: A Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Tumber, H. and Prentoulis, M. (2003) ‘Journalists Under Fire: Subcultures, Objectivity and Emotional Literacy’, in Thussu, D.K. and Freedman, D. (eds) War and the Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7. London: Sage, pp. 215–30.
    Tunstall, J. (1971) Journalists at Work. London: Constable.
    Tunstall, J. (1977) ‘Letters to the Editor, Royal Commission on the Press’, in Studies on the Press. London: HMSO, pp. 203–48.
    Tunstall, J. (1983) The Media in Britain. London: Constable.
    Tunstall, J. (1996) Newspaper Power: The New National Press in Britain. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Tunstall, J. and Palmer, M. (1991) Media Moguls. London: Routledge.
    Turnbull, M. (1988) The Spy Catcher Trial. London: Heinemann.
    Ursell, G. (2003) ‘Creating Value and Valuing Creation in Contemporary UK Television: or Dumbing Down the Workforce’, Journalism Studies, 4(1): 31–46.
    van Dijk, T.A. (ed.) (1991) Racism and the Press. London: Routledge.
    van Dijk, T.A. (ed.) (1997) Discourse as Structure and Process. London: Sage.
    van Dijk, T.A. (1988a) News as Discourse. Willsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    van Dijk, T.A. (ed.) (2000) ‘New(s) Racism’, in S.Cottle (ed.), Ethnic Minorities and the Media, pp. 33–49. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Van den Bergh, P. (1998) ‘The Business of Freelance Journalism: Some Advice from an Old Friend’, in Franklin, B. and Murphy, D. (eds) Making the Local News. London: Routledge.
    Vick, D.W. and Macpherson, L. (1997) An Opportunity Lost: The United Kingdom's Failed Reform of Defamation Law’, Federal Communications Law Journal, 49(3).
    Vincent, D. (1998) The Culture of Secrecy: Britain 1832–1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Volosinov, V. N. ([1929]1973) Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (trans. Matejka, L. and Titunik, I.R.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Wahl-Jorgensen, K. (2001) ‘Letters to the Editor as a Forum for Public Deliberation: Modes of Publicity and Democratic Debate’, Critical Studies in Mass Communications, 18(3): 303–20.
    Wahl-Jorgensen, K. (2002) Understanding the Conditions for Public Discourse: Four Rules for Selecting Letters to the Editor’, Journalism Studies, 3(1): 69–81.
    Wakeham, Lord (1998) ‘Can Self-regulation Achieve More than the Law?’Wynne Baxter Lecture 15 May,
    Walker, D. (2003) ‘Journalists “Most Protect Whistleblowers”’ (19 July)
    Ward, M. (2002) Journalism Online. Oxford: Focal Press.
    Warren, S. and Brandeis, L. (1890) ‘The Right to Privacy’, Harvard Law Review4.
    Waterhouse, K. (1993) Waterhouse on Newspaper Style. London: Penguin.
    Waters, M. (1995) Globalisation. London: Routledge.
    Watson, J. (1998) Media Communication: An Introduction to Theory and Process. Basingstoke, Macmillan.
    Weaver, D. (ed.) (1998) The Global Journalist. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
    Weaver, D., Graber, D., McCombs, M. and Eyal, C. (eds) (1981) Media Agenda-setting in a Presidential Election: Issues, Images and Interest. New York: Praeger Publishers.
    Weaver, D.H. and Wilhoit, G.C. (1991) The American Journalist: A Portrait of US News People and Their Work. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    Weaver, D.H. and Wilhoit, G.C. (1996) The American Journalist in the 1990s. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Weiner, J.H. (1969) The War of the Unstamped: The Movement to Repeal the British Newspaper Tax 1830–6. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Weiss, G. and Wodak, R. (2003) Critical Discourse Analysis: Theory and Interdisciplinarity. London: Palgrave.
    Welch, D. (1993) The Third Reich: Politics and Propaganda. London and New York: Routledge.
    Wells, M. (2004) ‘Serious Shows Turn Off Viewers’, Guardian, 22 April, p. 9.
    Welsh, T. and Greenwood, W. (2003) McNae's Essential Law for Journalists,
    17th edn.
    London: LexisNexis.
    WhatelyR. (1848) Elements of Logic,
    9th edn.
    London: Longmans.
    Whitaker, R. (2004) ‘How Could He Have Got It So Wrong?’Independent, 1 February.
    White, D.M. (1950) ‘The “Gatekeeper”: A Case Study in the Selection of News’, in Berkowitz, D. (ed.) Social Meanings of News: A Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 63–71.
    Whittaker, J. (2000) Producing for the Web. London: Routledge.
    Whittaker, R. (2004) ‘How Could He Have Got It So Wrong?’Independent, 1 February.
    Wilby, P. and ConroyA. (1999) The Radio Handbook. London and New York, Routledge.
    Willcock, J. (1999) ‘BT Threatened to Pull Ads after Newspaper Article, Tribunal Told’, theIndependent, 22 September.
    Williams, A. and Kerr, J. (2004) ‘Editor Steps Down’, Daily Mirror, 15 May, p. 5.
    Williams, H. (2002) ‘Beware the Silly Season’, Guardian Unlimited (31 July),10821,766668,00.html (accessed 31 March 2004).
    Wilson, J. (1996) Understanding Journalism: A Guide to Issues. London: Routledge.
    Winston, B. (1995) Claiming the Real: The Documentary Film Revisited. London: British Film Institute.
    Winston, B. (2001) ‘Towards Tabloidisation? Glasgow Revisited 1975–2001’, Journalism Studies, 3(1): 5–20.
    Wise, R. (2000) Multimedia: A Critical Introduction. London: Routledge.
    Wober, J.M. (2004) ‘Top People Write to The Times’, British Journalism Review, 15(2): 49–54.
    Wodak, R., De Cillia, R., Reisigl, M. and Liebhart, K. (1999) The Discursive Construction of National Identity. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Wodak, R. and Iedema, R. (eds) (1999) ‘Organisational Discourses’, Special Issue ofDiscourse and Society10(1).
    Wodak, R. and Meyer, M. (eds) (2001) Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. London: Sage.
    Wolfe, T. (1977) The New Journalism. London: Picador.
    Wolff, M. (2004) ‘And Then There Was Murdoch’, Media Guardian, 5 January.
    Woods, L.A. and Kroger, R.O. (2000) Doing Discourse Analysis: Methods for Studying Action in Talk and Text. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Woolmar, C. (1990) Censorship. London: Wayland Books.
    Worcester, R. (1998) ‘Demographics and Values: What the British Public Reads and What It Thinks about its Newspapers’, in Bromley, M. and Stephenson, H. (eds) Sex, Lies and Democracy: The Press and the Public. London: Longman, pp. 39–48.
    Yorke, I. (2000) Television News, Oxford: Focal Press.
    Web References
    ABC Electronic (accessed 26 October 2003).
    ABC/VFD (Britain)
    Barnicoat, T. and Bazalgette, P. (no date) ‘Endemol UK: Response to the Consultation on Media Ownership Rules’, (accessed 13 July 2004).
    BBC Online (accessed 21 July 2003).
    BBC Online (2003) ‘Journalists “should name sources”’ (18 July) (accessed 5 November 2003).
    BBC Online (2003) ‘Want to be a press baron? Read this first’ (21 November) (accessed 5 January 2004).
    Blogger (accessed 16 September 2003).
    Broadband (accessed 16 September 2003).
    Byrne, C. (2003) ‘Sun's Yelland in Shock Departure’, (13 January) Guardian Unlimited,7495,873980,00.html (accessed 1 July 2004).
    Campaign against Official Secrecy
    Campaign for Freedom of Information
    Campaign for Press and Broadcasting Freedom
    CAP, A One-stop-shop for all Advertising Complaints (accessed 14 June 2004).
    CERN (accessed 21 July 2003).
    Cozens, C. (2004) ‘Guardian Agrees £50m for Relaunch’, Guardian Unlimited, 29 June,14173,1249915,00.html (accessed 3 July 2004).
    Croad, E. (2003) ‘Blogs Bring Personal View of War’ (27 March) dotJournalism (accessed 16 September 2003).
    Defence, Press and Broadcasting Advisory Committee
    De La Mare, P. (1997) (21 April) (accessed 30 September 2003).
    van Dijk, T.A. (no date) From Text Grammar to Critical Discourse Analysis (accessed 2 July 2003).
    DTI (2004) Enterprise Act 2002: Public Interest Intervention in Media Mergers. Guidance on the Operation of the Public Interest Merger Provisions Relating to Newspaper and Other Media Mergers
    EuroAccessibility Consortium (accessed 30 June 2004).
    Ezzard, J. (2003) ‘500 Years of History Ends for Fleet St’ (24 September) ‘,7495,1048274,00.html (accessed 7 January 2004).
    Fleetwood, B. (1999) ‘The Broken Wall: How Newspapers Are Selling their Credibility to Advertisers’, Washington Monthly, September The Guardian
    Guardian Unlimited,6799,394059,00.html (accessed 16 September 2003).
    Hightower, J. (2004) ‘The People's Media Reaches More People than FOX Does’CommonDreams 15 June, (accessed 21 June 2004).
    Hutton (2004) Report of the Inquiry into the Circumstances Surrounding the Death of Dr David Kelly, CMG, London: The Stationery Office. HC247 at
    International Federation of Journalists (accessed 22 October 2003).
    Internet2 (accessed 21 July 2003).
    Internet Society (accessed 21 July 2003).
    ITC Advertising Standards Code (accessed 14 June 2004).
    Janeway Michael (2000) Fall Forum 2000 Keynote Address (accessed 14 June 2004).
    The Jargon Dictionary (accessed 21 July 2003).
    Joint Industry Committee for Regional Press Research (JICREG) (accessed 21 April 2004).
    Kiss, J. (2004) ‘E-publications Stand up and Get Counted’, Journalism, 15 June 2004 (accessed 6 July 2004).
    The Living Internet (accessed 21 July 2003).
    McIntosh, N. (2003) ‘Start Here: Setting up a Website’ (25 September)Guardian Unlimited,,1048698,00.html (accessed 3 October 2004).
    McNayM. (2004) ‘Neither Pedantic Nor Wild?’Guardian Unlimited,5817,181311,00.html (accessed 14 January 2004).
    Media Info (2004) ‘Claim: As TV Fragments, Newspapers Are Last Mass Medium’, 23 January (accessed 14 June 2004).
    Meek, C. (2003) ‘Internet is a Boon for Freelancers’, (14 October) dotJournalism (accessed 22 October 2003).
    Meek, C. (2004) ‘Photo Opportunities Wasted’, (1 July) dotJournalism (accessed 4 July 2004).
    Military City (2003) ‘Media Embed Ground Rules’http://www.militarycity.con/iraq/1631270.html, (accessed 30 May 2003).
    Miller, D. (2003) ‘Embed with the Military’Scoop Opinion 12 Apri (accessed 30 May 2003).
    MORI (accessed 21 April 2004).
    National Readership Survey (accessed 21 April 2004).
    National Union of Journalists (accessed 22 October 2003).
    Naughton, J. (2003) ‘The Genius of Blogging’ (23 February) The Observer,6903,900841,00.html (accessed 16 September 2003).
    Neil Report (2004) The BBC's Journalism After Hutton; The Report of the Neil Review Team at
    The Newspaper Society (accessed 21 April 2004).
    Nielsen, J.‘Usability 10’ (25 August 2003) (accessed 16 September 2003).
    Nielsen, J.‘Why You Only Need to Test with 5 Users’ (19 March 2003) (accessed 16 September 2003).
    Nielsen//NetRatings (accessed 26 October 2003).
    Nielsen Norman Group (2003) (accessed 16 September 2003).
    Number 10 Website
    OFCOM (2004a) Ofcom publishes guidance on media mergers public interest test, press release May 7
    OFCOM (2004b) Ofcom guidance for the public interest test for media mergers
    OJD (Spain)
    PACT (2004) Latest terms of trade documents and trust letters (accessed 13 July 2004).
    Pax, S. (2003) ‘Where is Raed?’ (accessed 16 September 2003).
    Perrone, J. (2004) ‘What is a weblog?’ (20 May) Guardian Unlimited,6799,394059,00.html (accessed 3 October 2004).
    The Press Association (2003) (accessed 10 November 2003).
    Prospects (no date) Broadcast… As It Is (accessed 13 July 2004).
    Pryor, L. (1999) ‘Old Media Firms Dig a Grave with Shovelware’ (posted 9 April 1999, changed 4 April 2002, accessed 21 July 2003).
    The Radio Authority Advertising and Sponsorship Code,.
    Radio Joint Audience Research
    Raynsford, J. (2003) ‘Blogging: The New Journalism?’ (25 March) dotJournalism (accessed 16 September 2003).
    Royal National Institute of the Blind (accessed 30 June 2004).
    Schofield, J. (2003) ‘Decorators with Keyboards’, Guardian Unlimited, 17 July,3605,999218,00.html (accessed 30 June 2004).
    Shiple, J.‘Why's Information Architecture So Important?’ (accessed 16 September 2003).
    Sochats, K. and Robins, B. (2002) ‘Web Portals: History and Direction’ (accessed 23 July 2003).
    Sullivan, D. (2003) ‘Google Throws Hat into the Contextual Advertising Ring’ (4 March) Search Engine Watch (accessed 22 September 2004).
    Talking Cities (accessed 7 January 2004).
    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (accessed 23 July 2003).
    Thompson, J. (2003) ‘Online Subs Counted in Print Circulation’ (6 November) dotJournalism (accessed 7 November 2003).
    The Times Online (2003) The Times Style and Usage Guide (January),,2941,00.html (accessed 14 January 2004).
    Timms, D. (2004) ‘Record Numbers Follow Olympics via Web and Interactive TV’ (20 August)Guardian Unlimited.,,1287620,00.html (accessed 7 September 2004).
    Todorovich, L. (1997) ‘Deep Throat Suspects’ (June 13) (accessed 5 November 2003).
    Travis, A. (2004) ‘Public Supports Privacy Law for Stars in Backlash against Beckham Story’ (21 April) Guardian Unlimited,3604,1197047,00.html (accessed 22 April 2004).
    Walker, D. (2003) ‘Journalists “Must Protect Whistleblowers”’ (19 July) (accessed 5 November 2003).
    Webopedia (accessed 23 July 2003).
    Williams, H. (2002) ‘Beware the Silly Season’ (31 July) Guardian Unlimited,10821,766668,00.html (accessed 31 March 2004).
    World Wide Web Consortium (accessed 21 July 2003).
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website