Key Concepts in Healthcare Education


Edited by: Annette McIntosh, Janice Gidman & Elizabeth Mason-Whitehead

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    To Nina Sinclair

    List of Tables

    • 2.1 Twelve principles of effective assessment 8
    • 2.2 Strategies for the assessment of professional competence 9
    • 3.1 The A–B–C model 13
    • 3.2 Effects of different behavioural consequences 13
    • 6.1 Application of the principles of complexity to healthcare education (HCE) 30
    • 7.1 Aspects of the curriculum 35
    • 7.2 Application of content- and process-curriculum models to concepts of healthcare education 37
    • 18.1 Entwistle et al.'s ‘inner’ concepts related to the learning–teaching environment 96
    • 19.1 Learning styles and approaches 103
    • 22.1 Interpersonal and professional characteristics of effective mentors 118
    • 22.2 Interpersonal and professional characteristics of effective mentees 119
    • 22.3 Characteristics of a positive practice learning environment 120
    • 31.1 The characteristics of role modelling 171
    • 34.1 Assessment framework 185
    • 35.1 Examples of common sources for student support 191
    • 38.1 The range of teaching strategies 209
    • 38.2 Practice-based teaching strategies 210
    • 39.1 Application of theories X and Y to Higher Education 216

    List of Figures

    • 6.1 Systematic review of IPE at the undergraduate level combined with focus group research – the micro-picture of IPE 31
    • 10.1 The social identities of diversity 54
    • 10.2 Supporting diversity and promoting equality in students 54
    • 15.1 The SCONUL seven pillars model for information literacy 79
    • 24.1 Pre-observation pro forma for peer review 130
    • 28.1 The quality map 151
    • 31.1 Systematic representation of the process of role modelling 169
    • 34.1 Information processing cause and effect 186
    • 36.1 Study skill self assessment and action plan 195
    • 36.2 Weekly time management plan 197
    • 36.3 Assignment writing plan 199
    • 36.4 Steps to successful referencing 200
    • 37.1 Masters build up and PhD focus down ‘journey’ 203

    List of Contributors

    • Annette McIntosh, PhD, BSc, Cert Ed, Dip CNE, FHEA, RGN, SCM, RNT, RCNT is the Associate Dean, Learning and Teaching, in the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the University of Chester, UK
    • Janice Gidman, PhD, MEd, BSc (Hons), PGCE, FHEA, ONC, RN is a senior Teaching Fellow in the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the University of Chester, UK
    • Elizabeth, Mason-Whitehead PhD, BA (Hons), HV, PGDE, ONC, SRN, SCM is Professor of social and Health Care in the Faculty of Health and social Care at the University of Chester, UK
    • Nicola Andrew, Prof D, MN, PGCE, FHEA, RN is a senior Lecturer in the School of Health at Glasgow Caledonian University, UK
    • Margaret Andrews, MSc, BSc, FHEA, RN, RCNT, RNT is Pro-Vice Chancellor (Students) and Professor at Canterbury Christ Church University, UK
    • Julie Bailey-McHale, MSc, PG Dip Ed, BSc (Hons), RMN is a Senior Lecturer and Programme Leader in Mental Health in the Education and Training Centre, Isle of Man
    • Peter Bradshaw, MA, BNurs., RN, RMN, RHV, RNT is Professor of Health Care Policy at the University of Huddersfield, UK
    • Ann Bryan, MSc, Cert Ed, FHEA, ADM, RGN, RM, HV, RMT is Head of Community and Child Health in the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the University of Chester, UK
    • Elisabeth Clark, PhD, BA (Hons) is the Deputy Director of the open University – Royal College of Nursing Strategic Alliance, in the Faculty of Health and Social Care, The Open University, UK
    • Helen Cooper, PhD, BNurs., PGCHE, FHEA, RGN, RHV, DN Cert. is Professor of Community and Child Health in the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the University of Chester, UK
    • Chris Cox is director of Legal services, Royal college of Nursing
    • Kay Currie, PhD, PGCert., MN, BSc (Nursing), RN, RNT is Reader in Nursing in the school of Health at Glasgow Caledonian University, UK
    • Wendy Fiander, MA Information Studies, BSc (Hons), Member of the Chartered Institute of Information Professionals (MCLIP), FHEA is the deputy director of Learning and Information services at the University of chester, UK
    • Sandra Flynn, MSc, BA (Hons), RGN, ONC, DPSN is Nurse consultant in orthopaedics in the countess of chester Hospital, chester, UK
    • Jane Fox, PhD, MPhil, MSc, BA, Cert Ed/RNT, DN, ONC, SRN is development Manager, skills for Health, UK
    • Bernadette Gartside, MA (supporting Dyslexic Learners), PG Dip (Dyslexia and Literacy), Cert Ed, associate Member of the British Dyslexia Association (AMBDA) is an Academic skills Tutor (dyslexia specialist) at the University of chester, UK
    • Morag Gray, PhD, MN, Dip CNE, Cert. Ed, FHEA, RGN, RCNT, RNT is Professor, Associate dean (Academic development) and senior Teaching Fellow in the Faculty of Health, Life and social sciences at Edinburgh Napier University, UK
    • Karen Holland, MSc, BSc (Hons), Cert Ed, RGN, RNT is Research Fellow (Evidence Based Nurse Education Innovation) in the school of Nursing & Midwifery at the University of Salford, UK
    • Moira Hulme, PhD, MEd, MA, MA, BSc (Hons), PGCE is a Lecturer in Educational Research in the Faculty of Education at the University of Glasgow, UK
    • Rob Hulme, MA, BA (Hons), Cert Ed is Professor of Education and Director of the Research Unit for Trans-professionalism in the Public services, Faculty of Education and children's services at the University of chester, UK
    • Annette Jinks, PhD, MA, BA, RN, NDN is Professor of Nursing in the Faculty of Health at Edge Hill University, UK
    • Sue Lillyman, MA (Ed), BSc (Nursing) RN, RM, DPSN, PGCE, RNT is a senior Lecturer in Allied Health sciences in the Institute of Health and society at the University of Worcester, UK
    • Andrew Lovell, PhD, BA (Hons), Cert Ed, RNLD is a Reader in Learning Disabilities in the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the University of Chester, UK
    • Jean Mannix, MEd, BA (Hons) SCPHN, RN, HV is Deputy Head of Community and Child Health in the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the University of Chester, UK
    • Dorothy Marriss, PhD, MA, BEd (Hons), Cert Ed, Dip Nurs, FHEA, ONC, SRN, RNT, RCNT is Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic) at the University of Chester, UK
    • Tom Mason, PhD, BSc(Hons), FHEA, RMN, RNMH, RGN is Professor and Head of Mental Health and Learning Disabilities in the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the University of Chester, UK
    • Jill McCarthy, PhD, MSc, MA, BEd (Hons), Cert Ed, FHEA, RGN, DN Cert, RNT is a Senior Lecturer and e-learning co-ordinator in the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the University of Chester, UK
    • Andrea McLaughlin, MEd, Cert Ed., FHEA, RGN, RM, ADM is Head of Midwifery and Reproductive Health in the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the University of Chester, UK
    • Lyz Moore, BSc(Hons), PGCert HE, RN is a Lecturer in the Education and Training Centre, Isle of Man
    • Dianne Phipps, MA, PGCE, RNMH is Deputy Head of Mental Health and Learning Disabilities in the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the University of Chester, UK
    • Tracey Proctor-Childs, MA (Education), BSc (Hons) Nursing, Dip Nurs, RN, RM is Deputy Head (Learning and Teaching) of the School of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Plymouth, UK
    • Linda Proudfoot, MPhil, BA (Nursing Studies), RN, DN is a Practice Educator /Lecturer in the School of Health at Glasgow Caledonian University, UK
    • Mike Thomas, PhD, MA, BNurs., CertEd., FHEA, RMN, RNT is Professor of Mental Health and Executive Dean of the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the University of Chester, UK
    • Maureen Wilkins, MEd, RGN, RCNT, RNT is Head of Professional Development and Allied Health Care in the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the University of Chester, UK
    • Julie Williams, MSc, DipHE, DPSN, MHS (cert), PGCE, RGN, RNT is Head of Pre-registration Nursing in the Faculty of Health and social Care at the University of chester, UK
    • Terry Williams, MBA, Certificate in Social Work, Certificate in Social Work Management is the co-ordinator and development Worker in the Forum for carers and Users of services (FOCUS) in Cheshire and Merseyside, UK
    • Jan Woodhouse, MEd, PGDE, BN (Hons), Dip N, RGN, OND, FETC is a senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Health and social care at the University of chester, UK
    • Aidan Worsley, MPhil, MA Social Work (inc CQSW), BSc (Hons), Practice Teaching Award, FHEA is Professor and Head of social Work at the University of central Lancashire, UK
    Case Study Contributors
    • Mark Hellaby, BSc(Hons), RODP, RN is an MEd student and clinical Skills/ simulation Facilitator at Warrington and Halton Hospitals NHs Foundation Trust, Cheshire, UK
    • Janine Upton, MSc, PGDE, RGN, ONC is a senior Lecturer, Pre-registration Nursing, in the Faculty of Health and social Care at the University of chester, UK


    There are many people the editors wish to acknowledge in the development and production of this book.

    Our thanks and gratitude go to:

    • the lecturing staff of the Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester, for their help in identifying the key concepts for educators in healthcare;
    • the staff at Sage Publications who supported the premise of this book and offered invaluable guidance throughout the process, from conception to publication, particularly Zoe Elliot-Fawcett, Emma Paterson Alison Poyner and Katie Forsythe;
    • the authors, for their expert contributions;
    • our partners, Peter, Steve and Tom, for their forbearance and support in this endeavour.

    Editors' Preface

    This book presents 40 concepts for educators in healthcare, providing a comprehensive overview of the key theories, literature, drivers and practical considerations involved in educating in the healthcare professions in the 21st century.

    There are many involved in healthcare who have a responsibility for education as part of their role. While this can include promoting health through educating service users, carers and the general public, this text is primarily concerned with those educating students of healthcare at all levels, from prequalifying programmes through to doctoral levels of study.

    The current context of healthcare education requires that all individuals involved in the endeavour have a thorough grounding in a broad range of operational and theoretical concepts, alongside the skills to teach, support and inspire students in both educational and practice settings. To be effective in the art of educating requires an understanding of the contextual factors and drivers at three levels: macro, meso and micro.

    The macro level incorporates aspects such as political and economic drivers in healthcare and in education. These currently include a quality assurance approach to educating in healthcare which is based on targets and standards. This has led to corresponding changes in the aims of professional education programmes which have become increasingly competence-based. It is evident that there are potential tensions between outcome-driven curricula, which have to conform to rigid professional standards, and the need for professionals to respond effectively to the constantly changing environments of healthcare. contemporary government and professional policies also promote integrated services, interagency working and increased public involvement in all aspects of healthcare services. This requires healthcare programmes to incorporate interprofessional learning opportunities and to include service users in programme planning, recruitment, delivery and evaluation. External agencies also influence culture by exercising indirect control over institutions, with increasing levels of accountability required for teaching and research. Best practice is identified and sustained through quality assurance and enhancement. The challenges, opportunities and issues for staff development are mainly a response to these initiatives, with healthcare educators required to keep up to date with current policies and teaching methods and accept responsibility for change. The meso context in healthcare education concerns the institutional or organisational level. The extensive literature related to healthcare education highlights potential tensions between the need for practitioners to be fit for practice at the point of qualification, maintaining the interests of public safety, whilst adopting the ethos of higher education to empower students throughout their studies. similar challenges exist with qualified professionals, required to engage in lifelong learning and studying as part-time students while holding down demanding jobs. Indeed, many fulltime educators in higher education find themselves in this position, with the expectation that all lecturers will have doctoral level qualifications and be research active, alongside maintaining clinical and professional credibility.

    There are many aspects involved in the context of the micro level of healthcare education, that is, all things concerned with the development, planning and management of educational provision for students. Professional education programmes in healthcare adopt humanistic, student-centred approaches and incorporate both academic and practice-based learning and assessment. Recent professional and quality assurance requirements have strengthened the emphasis on practice-based learning and assessment within many programmes. However, tensions can be identified in relation to several competing agendas, for example, professional competence and student empowerment, professional roles and interprofessional learning and the relationships between service users and professionals.

    Clearly then, educating in healthcare requires consideration of a myriad of concepts, some theoretical and some operational, that interlink and weave together to form a theoretical network to support educators. This book sets out to bring these together for readers and is relevant to anyone with a teaching responsibility in healthcare. For those starting out in education, be it as lecturers within an Higher Education Institution, educators or mentors in practice or, indeed, pre-qualifying students addressing the teaching elements inherent in the role of healthcare professionals, these key concepts provide a sound base from which to develop the knowledge and skills to become an effective and competent educator in healthcare. For those more experienced in the education for, and of, health care professions, including managers, this book offers support for the essential pursuit of ongoing personal and professional development.

    Each entry is written by an author with expertise in the field, drawing together the salient points for the reader, underpinned by research and literature and a practical application of the concept. The text is arranged alphabetically for easy referencing and each chapter provides a comprehensive, yet succinct, account of a key concept and features:

    • a definition.
    • list of key points.
    • discussion of the main elements of the concept.
    • a case study to illustrate the application and usefulness of the theory to real world situations of educational practice.
    • a conclusion.
    • cross-references to other concepts, to facilitate linkages to be made.
    • some suggestions for further reading.

    This book, therefore, provides an overview of all the key concepts required in being an effective educator in healthcare in any context. Ensuring a sound educational experience for students is a significant responsibility and educators are required to have and develop the knowledge, skills and expertise to facilitate learning, often in the dual learning environments of academic and practice settings and in the broad context in which healthcare education takes place.

    AnnetteMcIntosh, JaniceGidman and ElizabethMason-WhiteheadChester, UK, October 2009
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