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The concept of fairness in assessment and any examinations system derives from two key principles: the first is that any assessment system itself is not subject to any form of bias relative to its candidates; and the second is that there is equity of access to whatever system and mode of assessment is on offer.

Historically, one of the original modes of assessment concentrated on a system of oral assessment that could be subject to social bias (e.g. gender, ethnicity, religion, social class) through personal knowledge between the examiner and the candidate. This system was largely superseded ...

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