Job Satisfaction: Application, Assessment, Causes, and Consequences

Books

Paul E. Spector

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Advanced Topics in Organizational Behavior

    The Advanced Topics in Organizational Behavior series examines current and emerging issues in the field of organizational behavior. Written by researchers who are widely acknowledged subject area experts, the books provide an authoritative, up-to-date review of the conceptual, research, and practical implications of the major issues in organizational behavior.

    Editors:Julian Barling, Queen's University
    Kevin Kelloway, University of Guelph
    Editorial Board:Victor M. Catano, Saint Mary's University
    Cary L. Cooper, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology
    Daniel G. Gallagher, James Madison University
    Jean Hartley, University of Warwick
    Denise Rousseau, Carnegie-Mellon University
    Paul Spector, University of South Florida
    Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Preface

    Job satisfaction is the degree to which people like their jobs. Some people enjoy work and find it to be a central part of life. Others hate to work and do so only because they must. The study of the causes and consequences of these important employee attitudes is one of the major domains of industrial-organizational psychology and organizational behavior. More studies have been done to understand job satisfaction than for any other variable in organizations. In addition, the assessment of employee attitudes such as job satisfaction has become a common activity in organizations in which management is concerned with the physical and psychological well-being of people.

    This book will provide an overview of the vast job satisfaction research literature. It covers the assessment, causes, consequences, and nature of this important variable. Although the primary focus is on the findings and theories from the organizational behavior literature, we will also pay some attention to applications conducted within organizations to improve efficiency and the quality of working life. Job satisfaction is associated with many important behaviors and outcomes for employees that have implications for organizational and personal well-being.

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the field of job satisfaction. By necessity, it provides only an overview of the major issues and research findings, for a detailed treatment of this topic would require several volumes. The reader is assumed to have some background in industrial-organizational psychology or organizational behavior. Some familiarity with basic research methodology would be helpful. Although the book is not particularly technical, there are a few statistical terms used, such as the correlation coefficient.

    This book is organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the nature of job satisfaction, including what it is and why it is an important topic for concern in organizations. The assessment of job satisfaction is the topic of Chapter 2. Both the development of new scales and use of existing scales are covered. Chapter 3 focuses on how people feel about work. Included will be findings on job satisfaction differences for various demographic groups, as well as cross-country comparisons. Job satisfaction causes are covered in Chapter 4, including both organizational environment and personal factors. Potential effects of job satisfaction on employees and thereby on their organizations are discussed in Chapter 5. Potential effects range from the physical and psychological well-being of employees to job performance and withdrawal. Finally, Chapter 6 mentions how organizations might measure job satisfaction and respond constructively to employee concerns.

    No one writes a book such as this one without the assistance of others. I would like to thank Steve M. Jex and the series editors Julian Barling and Kevin Kelloway for their helpful comments and suggestions on the initial draft of this book.

  • Appendix: The Job Satisfaction Survey

    Note: The purchaser of this book is given license to use and modify the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) for noncommercial academic and research purposes. This license does not allow the purchaser to sell the JSS alone or as part of a consulting package.

    References

    Akerstedt, T., & Theorell, T. (1976). Exposure to night work: Serum gastrin reactions, psychosomatic complaints and personality variables. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 20, 479–484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999%2876%2990012-X
    Arvey, R. D., Bouchard, T. J., Segal, N. L., & Abraham, L. M. (1989). Job satisfaction: Environmental and genetic components. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 187–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.2.187
    Arvey, R. D., & Dewhirst, H. D. (1979). Relationships between diversity of interests, age, job satisfaction and job performance. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 52, 17–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1979.tb00436.x
    Arvey, R. D., Dewhirst, H. D., & Brown, E. M. (1978). A longitudinal study of the impact of changes in goal setting on employee satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 31, 595–608. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1978.tb00465.x
    Bacharach, S. B., Bamberger, P., & Conley, S. (1991). Work-home conflict among nurses and engineers: Mediating the impact of role stress on burnout and satisfaction at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 39–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030120104
    Balzer, W. K., Smith, P. C., Kravitz, D. E., Lovell, S. E., Paul, K. B., Reilly, B. A., & Reilly, C. E. (1990). User's manual for the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) and the Job in General (JIG) scales. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University.
    Barling, J., & Gallagher, D. G. (1996). Part-time employment. In C. L.Cooper & I. T.Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology, 1996 (pp. 243–277). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Barling, J., & MacEwen, K. E. (1988). A multitrait-multimethod analysis of four maternal employment role experiences. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 9, 335–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030090405
    Barton, J., & Folkard, S. (1991). The response of day and night nurses to their work schedules. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 207–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1991.tb00555.x
    Beatty, C. A. (1996). The stress of managerial and professional women: Is the price too high?Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 233–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1379%28199605%2917:3%3C233::AID-JOB746%3E3.0.CO;2-V
    Becker, T. E., & Billings, R. S. (1993). Profiles in commitment: An empirical test. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 177–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030140207
    Bedeian, A. G., Burke, B. G., & Moffett, R. G. (1988). Outcomes of work-family conflict among married male and female professionals. Journal of Management, 14, 475–491. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920638801400310
    Bedeian, A. G., Ferris, G. R., & Kacmar, K. M. (1992). Age, tenure, and job satisfaction: A tale of two perspectives. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 40, 33–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791%2892%2990045-2
    Begley, T. M., & Czajka, J. M. (1993). Panel analysis of the moderating effects of commitment on job satisfaction, intent to quit, and health following organizational change. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 552–556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.4.552
    Blau, G. (1993). Further exploring the relationship between job search and voluntary individual turnover. Personnel Psychology, 46, 313–330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1993.tb00876.x
    Bluedorn, A. C. (1982). A unified model of turnover from organizations. Human Relations, 35, 135–153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678203500204
    Bluen, S. D., Barling, J., & Burns, W. (1990). Predicting sales performance, job satisfaction, and depression by using the achievement strivings and impatience-irritability dimensions of Type A behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 212–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.2.212
    Bowers, D. G. (1973). OD techniques and their results in 23 organizations: The Michigan ICL study. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 9, 21–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002188637300900103
    Breaugh, J. A. (1983). The 12-hour work day: Differing employee reactions. Personnel Psychology, 36, 277–288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1983.tb01437.x
    Brief, A. P., Burke, M. J., George, J. M., Robinson, B., & Webster, J. (1988). Should negative affectivity remain an unmeasured variable in the study of job stress?Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 193–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.73.2.193
    Brush, D. H., Moch, M. K., & Pooyan, A. (1987). Individual demographic differences and job satisfaction. Journal of Occupational Behaviour, 8, 139–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030080205
    Buffum, W. E., & Konick, A. (1982). Employees' job satisfaction, residents' functioning, and treatment progress in psychiatric institutions. Health & Social Work, 7, 320–327.
    Caldwell, D. F., & O'Reilly, C. A., III. (1990). Measuring person-job fit with a profile-comparison process. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 648–657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.6.648
    Cammann, C., Fichman, M., Jenkins, D., & Klesh, J. (1979). The Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire, Unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Campion, M. A. (1988). Interdisciplinary approaches to job design: A constructive replication with extensions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 467–481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.73.3.467
    Campion, M. A. (1989). Ability requirement implications of job design: An interdisciplinary perspective. Personnel Psychology, 42, 1–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1989.tb01548.x
    Campion, M. A., & McClelland, C. L. (1991). Interdisciplinary examination of the costs and benefits of enlarged jobs: A job design quasi-experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 186–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.2.186
    Campion, M. A., & Thayer, P. W. (1985). Development and field evaluation of an interdisciplinary measure of job design. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 29–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.70.1.29
    Carsten, J. M., & Spector, P. E. (1987). Unemployment, job satisfaction, and employee turnover: A meta-analytic test of the Muchinsky model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 374–381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.72.3.374
    Chen, P. Y., & Spector, P. E. (1992). Relationships of work stressors with aggression, withdrawal, theft and substance use: An exploratory study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 65, 177–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1992.tb00495.x
    Clark, A., Oswald, A., & Warr, P. (1996). Is job satisfaction U-shaped in age?Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 69, 57–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1996.tb00600.x
    Cook, J. D., Hepworth, S. J., Wall, T. D., & Warr, P. B. (1981). The experience of work. New York: Academic Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009155219702500302
    Cooper, C. L., & Cartwright, S. (1994). Healthy mind; healthy organization: A proactive approach to occupational stress. Human Relations, 47, 455–471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679404700405
    Cordes, C. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (1993). A review and an integration of research on job burnout. Academy of Management Review, 18, 621–656.
    Crampton, S. M., & Wagner, J. A., III. (1994). Percept-percept inflation in microorganizational research: An investigation of prevalence and effect. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 67–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.1.67
    Cropanzano, R., James, K., & Konovsky, M. A. (1993). Dispositional affectivity as a predictor of work attitudes and job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 595–606. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030140609
    Dalton, D. R., & Mesch, D. J. (1991). On the extent and reduction of avoidable absenteeism: An assessment of absence policy provisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 810–817. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.6.810
    Davis-Blake, A., & Pfeffer, J. (1989). Just a mirage: The search for dispositional effects in organizational research. Academy of Management Review, 14, 385–400.
    DeVellis, R. F. (1991). Scale development: Theory and applications. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Dwyer, D. J., & Ganster, D. C. (1991). The effects of job demands and control on employee attendance and satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 595–608. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030120704
    Eberhardt, B. J., & Shani, A. B. (1984). The effects of full-time versus part-time employment status on attitudes toward specific organizational characteristics and overall job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 27, 893–900. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255887
    Edwards, J. R. (1991). Person-job fit: A conceptual integration, literature review, and methodological critique. In C. L.Cooper & I. T.Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology, 1991 (pp. 283–357). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Farh, J., Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1990). Accounting for organizational citizenship behavior: Leader fairness and task scope versus satisfaction. Journal of Management, 16, 705–721. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920639001600404
    Farrell, D., & Stamm, C. L. (1988). Meta-analysis of the correlates of employee absence. Human Relations, 41, 211–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678804100302
    Feldman, D. C. (1990). Reconceptualizing the nature and consequences of part-time work. Academy of Management Review, 15, 103–112.
    Fletcher, B. C., & Jones, F. (1993). A refutation of Karasek's demand-discretion model of occupational stress with a range of dependent measures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 319–330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030140404
    Fox, M. L., Dwyer, D. J., & Ganster, D. C. (1993). Effects of stressful job demands and control on physiological and attitudinal outcomes in a hospital setting. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 289–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256524
    Frankenhaeuser, M., & Johansson, G. (1986). Stress at work: Psychobiological and psychosocial aspects. International Review of Applied Psychology, 35, 287–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1986.tb00928.x
    Frese, M., & Zapf, D. (1988). Methodological issues in the study of work stress: Objective vs. subjective measurement of work stress and the question of longitudinal studies. In C. L.Cooper & R.Payne (Eds.), Causes, coping and consequences of stress at work (pp. 375–409). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Fried, Y. (1991). Meta-analytic comparison of the Job Diagnostic Survey and Job Characteristics Inventory as correlates of work satisfaction and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 690–697. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.5.690
    Fried, Y., & Ferris, G. R. (1987). The validity of the job characteristics model: A review and meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 40, 287–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1987.tb00605.x
    Gallup Organization. (1995, June). People throughout the world largely satisfied with personal lives. Gallup Organization International Newsletter.
    Ganster, D.C. (1980). Individual differences and task design: A laboratory experiment. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26, 131–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2880%2990051-3
    Gerhart, B. (1987). How important are dispositional factors as determinants of job satisfaction? Implications for job design and other personnel programs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 366–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.72.3.366
    Gerhart, B. (1990). Voluntary turnover and alternative job opportunities. Journal of Applied Psychology, 5, 467–476.
    Gillet, B., & Schwab, D. P. (1975). Convergent and discriminant validities of corresponding Job Descriptive Index and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 313–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076751
    Glick, W. H., Jenkins, G. D., Jr., & Gupta, N. (1986). Method versus substance: How strong are underlying relationships between job characteristics and attitudinal outcomes?Academy of Management Journal, 29, 441–464. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256218
    Goff, S. J., Mount, M. K., & JamisonR.L. (1990). Employer supported child care, work/family conflict, and absenteeism: A field study. Personnel Psychology, 43, 794–809.
    Greenberg, J. (1990). Employee theft as a reaction to underpayment inequity: The hidden cost of pay cuts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 5, 561–568.
    Greenhaus, J. H., Parasuraman, S., & Wormley, W. M. (1990). Effects of race on organizational experiences, job performance evaluations, and career outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 64–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256352
    Griffeth, R. W. (1985). Moderation of the effects of job enrichment by participation: A longitudinal field experiment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 35, 73–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978%2885%2990045-7
    Griffeth, R. W., & Horn, P. W. (1987). Some multivariate comparisons of multinational managers. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 22, 173–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr2202_3
    Griffin, R. W. (1991). Effects of work redesign on employee perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors: A long-term investigation. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 425–435. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256449
    Gupta, N., JenkinsJr., G. D., & Beehr, T. A. (1992). The effects of turnover on perceived job quality. Group A. Organization Management, 17, 431–445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1059601192174008
    Haccoun, R. R., & Jeanrie, C. (1995). Self reports of work absence as a function of personal attitudes toward absence, and perceptions of the organisation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 44, 155–170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1995.tb01072.x
    Hacked, R. D., & Guion, R. M. (1985). A reevaluation of the absenteeism-job satisfaction relationship. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 35, 340–381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978%2885%2990028-7
    Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1974). The Job Diagnostic Survey: An instrument for the diagnosis of jobs and the evaluation of job redesign projects (Tech. Rep. No. 4). New Haven, CT: Yale University.
    Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 159–170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076546
    Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 250–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2876%2990016-7
    Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Hall, J. K. (1990). Locus of control as a moderator of the relationship between perceived role ambiguity and reported work strains. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa.
    Hammer, T. H., & Landau, J. (1981). Methodological issues in the use of absence data. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 574–581. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.66.5.574
    Harrison, D. A., & Shaffer, M. A. (1993, August). Wading through Lake Woebegone: Comparative examinations of self reports and perceived norms of absenteeism. Paper presented at Academy of Management Convention, Atlanta, GA.
    Herzberg, F. (1968). One more time: How do you motivate employees?Harvard Business Review, January-February.
    Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: John Wiley. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1965.tb00294.x
    Holahan, C., & Gilbert, L. (1979). Interrole conflict for working women: Careers versus jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 86–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.64.1.86
    Hugick, L., & Leonard, J. (1991). Job dissatisfaction grows; “moonlighting” on the rise. Gallup Poll News Service, 56, 1–11.
    Hulin, C. L., & Blood, M. R. (1968). Job enlargement, individual differences, and worker responses. Psychological Bulletin, 69, 41–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0025356
    Hulin, C. L., Roznowski, M., & Hachiya, D. (1985). Alternative opportunities and withdrawal decisions: Empirical and theoretical discrepancies and an integration. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 233–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.97.2.233
    Iaffaldano, M. T., & Muchinsky, P. M. (1985). Job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 251–273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.97.2.251
    Ironson, G. H., Smith, P. C., Brannick, M. T., Gibson, W. M., & Paul, K. B. (1989). Constitution of a Job in General Scale: A comparison of global, composite, and specific measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 193–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.2.193
    Jackofsky, E. F., & Peters, L. H. (1987). Part-time versus full-time employment status differences: A replication and extension. Journal of Occupational Behaviour, 8, 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030080102
    Jackson, S. E., & Schuler, R. S. (1985). A meta-analysis and conceptual critique of research on role ambiguity and role conflict in work settings. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 36, 16–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978%2885%2990020-2
    Jacobs, R., & Solomon, T. (1977). Strategies for enhancing the prediction of job performance from job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 417–421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.62.4.417
    Jamal, M. (1990). Relationship of job stress and type-A behavior to employees' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, psychosomatic health problems, and turnover motivation. Human Relations, 43, 727–738. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679004300802
    Jamal, M., & Baba, V. V. (1992). Shiftwork and department-type related to job stress, work attitudes and behavioral intentions: A study of nurses. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 449–464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030130503
    Jex, S. M., & Beehr, T. A. (1991). Emerging theoretical and methodological issues in the study of work-related stress. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 9, 311–365.
    Jex, S. M., & Gudanowski, D. M. (1992). Efficacy beliefs and work stress: An exploratory study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 509–517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030130506
    Johansson, G. (1981). Psychoneuroendocrine correlates of unpaced and paced performance. In G.Salvendy & M. J.Smith (Eds.), Machine pacing and occupational stress. London: Taylor & Francis.
    Judge, T. A. (1992). The dispositional perspective in human resources research. Research Personnel and Human Resources Management, 10, 31–72.
    Judge, T. A. (1993). Does affective disposition moderate the relationship between job satisfaction and voluntary turnover?Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 395–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.3.395
    Judge, T. A., Boudreau, J. W., & Bretz, R. D., Jr. (1993). Job and life attitudes of executives (Working Paper No. 93–13). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.
    Judge, T. A., & Watanabe, S. (1993). Another look at the job satisfaction-life satisfaction relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 939–948. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.6.939
    Karasek, R. A., Jr. (1979). Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 285–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392498
    Karasek, R. A., Jr., Gardell, B., & Lindell, J. (1987). Work and non-work correlates of illness and behaviour in male and female Swedish white collar workers. Journal of Occupational Behaviour, 8, 187–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030080302
    Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: John Wiley.
    Keenan, A., & Newton, T. J. (1984). Frustration in organizations: Relationships to role stress, climate, and psychological strain. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 57, 57–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1984.tb00148.x
    Kim, J. S. (1980). Relationships of personality to perceptual and behavioral responses in stimulating and nonstimulating tasks. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 307–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255433
    Kohler, S. S., & Mathieu, J. E. (1993). Individual characteristics, work perceptions, and affective reactions influences on differentiated absence criteria. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 515–530. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030140602
    Koller, M., Kundi, M., & Cervinka, R. (1978). Field studies of shift work at an Austrian oil refinery I: Health and psychosocial well-being of workers who drop out of shiftwork. Ergonomics, 21, 835–847. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140137808931787
    Kozlowski, S. W. J., Chao, G. T., Smith, E. M., & Hedlund, J. (1993). Organizational downsizing: Strategies, interventions, and research implications. In C. L.Cooper & I. T.Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology, 1993 (pp. 263–332). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Krausz, M., & Freibach, N. (1983). Effects of flexible working time for employed women upon satisfaction, strains, and absenteeism. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 56, 155–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1983.tb00123.x
    Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person-organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel Psychology, 49, 1–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1996.tb01790.x
    Lammond, D. (1995). Unpublished data set. Macquarie University, Australia.
    Lance, C. E., Lautenschlager, G. J., Sloan, C. E., & Varca, P. E. (1989). Journal of Personality, 57, 601–624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopy.1989.57.issue-3
    Lawler, E. E., III, Hackman, J. R., & Kaufman, S. (1973). Effects of job redesign: A field experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 58, 49–62.
    Lee, C., Ashford, S. J., & Bobko, P. (1990). Interactive effects of “Type A” behavior, and perceived control on worker performance, job satisfaction, and somatic complaints. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 870–881. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256296
    Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1993). A further examination of managerial burnout: Toward an integrated model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 3–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030140103
    Lewis, S. N., & Cooper, C. L. (1987). Stress in two-earner couples and stage in the life-cycle. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 60, 289–303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1987.tb00261.x
    Lincoln, J. R., Hanada, M., & Olson, J. (1981). Cultural orientations and individual reactions to organizations: A study of employees of Japanese-owned firms. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26, 93–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392603
    Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D.Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1297–1349). Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Loher, B. T., Noe, R. A., Moeller, N. L., & Fitzgerald, M. P. (1985). A meta-analysis of the relation of job characteristics to job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 280–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.70.2.280
    MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Fetter, R. (1991). Organizational citizenship behavior and objective productivity as determinants of managerial evaluations of salespersons' performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 123–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978%2891%2990037-T
    Marion-Landais, C. A. (1993). A cross-cultural study of leader-member exchange quality and job satisfaction as correlates of intra-dyadic work-value congruence. Unpublished master's thesis, University of South Florida, Tampa.
    Martocchio, J. J. (1994). The effects of absence culture on individual absence. Human Relations, 47, 243–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679404700301
    Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. (1981). The Maslach Burnout Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t05190-000
    Mathieu, J. E., & Kohler, S. S. (1990). A cross-level examination of group absence influences on individual absence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 217–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.2.217
    McNeely, B. L., & Meglino, B. M. (1994). The role of dispositional and situational antecedents in prosocial organizational behavior: An examination of the intended beneficiaries of prosocial behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 836–844. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.6.836
    Melamed, S., Ben-Avi, I., Luz, J., & Green, M. S. (1995). Objective and subjective work monotony: Effects on job satisfaction, psychological distress, and absenteeism in blue-collar workers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 29–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.80.1.29
    Miller, H. E., & Terborg, J. R. (1979). Job attitudes of part-time and full-time employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 380–386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.64.4.380
    Mitra, A., Jenkins, G. D., Jr., & Gupta, N. (1992). A meta-analytic review of the relationship between absence and turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 879–889. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.6.879
    Mobley, W. H., Griffeth, R. W., Hand, H. H., & Meglino, B. M. (1979). Review and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 493–522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.86.3.493
    Moyle, P. (1995). The role of negative affectivity in the stress process: Tests of alternative models. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, 647–668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030160705
    Munene, J. C. (1995). “Not-on-seat”: An investigation of some correlates of organisational citizenship behaviour in Nigeria. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 44, 111–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1995.tb01069.x
    Neuman, G. A., Edwards, J. E., & Raju, N. S. (1989). Organizational development interventions: A meta-analysis of their effects on satisfaction and other attitudes. Personnel Psychology, 42, 461–483. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1989.tb00665.x
    Newton, T., & Keenan, T. (1991). Further analyses of the dispositional argument in organizational behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 781–787. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.6.781
    Nicholson, N., & Johns, G. (1985). The absence culture and the psychological contract: Who's in control of absence?Academy of Management Review, 10, 397–407.
    Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    O'Brien, G. E. (1983). Locus of control in work and retirement. In H. M.Lefcourt (Ed.), Research in locus of control (Vol. 3). New York: Academic Press.
    O'Connor, E. J., Peters, L. H., Pooyan, A., Weekley, J., Frank, B., & Erenkrantz, B. (1984). Situational constraint effects on performance, affective reactions, and turnover: A field replication and extension. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 663–672. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.69.4.663
    O'Connor, E. J., Peters, L. H., Rudolf, C. J., & Pooyan, A. (1982). Situational constraints and employee affective reactions: A partial field replication. Group & Organization Studies, 7, 418–428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105960118200700405
    O'Driscoll, M. P., & Beehr, T. A. (1994). Supervisor behaviors, role stressors and uncertainty as predictors of personal outcomes for subordinates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 141–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030150204
    Organ, D. W., & Konovsky, M. (1989). Cognitive versus affective determinants of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 157–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.1.157
    Organ, D. W., & Ryan, K. (1995). A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology, 48, 775–802. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1995.tb01781.x
    Orpen, C. (1979). The effects of job enrichment on employee satisfaction, motivation, involvement, and performance: A field experiment. Human Relations, 32, 189–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872677903200301
    Palmore, E. (1969). Predicting longevity: A follow-up controlling for age. The Gerontologist, 9, 247–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/9.4_Part_1.247
    Parasuraman, S., Greenhaus, J. H., & Granrose, C. S. (1992). Role stressors, social support, and well-being among two-career couples. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 339–356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030130403
    Pasmore, W., Francis, C., Haldeman, J., & Shani, A. (1982). Sociotechnical systems: A North American reflection on empirical studies of the seventies. Human Relations, 12, 1179–1204.
    Perlow, R., & Latham, L. L. (1993). Relationship of client abuse with locus of control and gender: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 831–834. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.5.831
    Peters, L. H., & O'Connor, B. J. (1980). Situational constraints and work outcomes: The influences of a frequently overlooked construct. Academy of Management Review, 5, 391–397.
    Peters, L. H., O'Connor, E. J., & Rudolf, C. J. (1980). The behavioral and affective consequences of performance-relevant situational variables. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 25, 79–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2880%2990026-4
    Petty, M. M., McGee, G. W., & Cavender, J. W. (1984). A meta-analysis of the relationships between individual job satisfaction and individual performance. Academy of Management Review, 9, 712–721.
    Pierce, J. L., & Dunham, R. B. (1992). The 12-hour work day: A 48-hour, eight-day week. Academy of Management Journal, 35, 1086–1098. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256542
    Pierce, J. L., & Newstrom, J. W. (1982). Employee responses to flexible work schedules: An inter-organization, inter-system comparison. Journal of Management, 8, 9–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920638200800101
    Porter, L. W. (1962). Job attitudes in management: I. Perceived deficiencies in need fulfillment as a function of job level. Journal of Applied Psychology, 46, 375–384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0047808
    Raggatt, P. T. (1991). Work stress among long-distance coach drivers: A survey and correlational study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 565–579. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030120702
    Rain, J. S., LaneI.M., & Steiner, D. D. (1991). A current look at the job satisfaction/life satisfaction relationship: Review and future considerations. Human Relations, 44, 287–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679104400305
    Ralston, D. A. (1989). The benefits of flextime: Real or imagined?Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 369–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030100407
    Rice, R. W., Frone, M. R., & McFarlin, D. B. (1992). Work-nonwork conflict and the perceived quality of life. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 155–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030130205
    Rice, R. W., Phillips, S. M., & McFarlin, D. B. (1990). Multiple discrepancies and pay satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 386–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.4.386
    Roberts, K. H., & Glick, W. (1981). The job characteristics approach to task design: A critical review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 193–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.66.2.193
    Roethlisberger, F. J. (1941). Management and morale. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Ronen, S., & Primps, S. B. (1981). The compressed work week as organizational change: Behavioral and attitudinal outcomes. Academy of Management Review, 6, 61–74.
    Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80(1), no. 609.
    Roznowski, M. (1989). Examination of the measurement properties of the job descriptive index with experimental items. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 805–814. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.5.805
    Salancik, G. R., & Pfeffer, J. (1978). A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 224–253. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392563
    Sargent, L., & Terry, D. J. (1994, August). The effects of work control and job demands on employee adjustment and work performance. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Conference, Dallas.
    Schaubroeck, J., Ganster, D. C., & Fox, M. L. (1992). Dispositional affect and work-related stress. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 322–335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.3.322
    Schaubroeck, J., Ganster, D. C., & Kemmerer, B. E. (1994). Job complexity, “type A” behavior, and cardiovascular disorder: A prospective study. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 426–439. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256837
    Schmitt, N., Coyle, B. W., White, J. K., & Rauschenberger, J. (1978). Background, needs, job perceptions, and job satisfaction: A causal model. Personnel Psychology, 31, 889–901. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1978.tb02129.x
    Schnake, M. (1991). Organizational citizenship: A review, proposed model, and research agenda. Human Relations, 44, 735–759. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679104400706
    Schneider, B., & Dachler, H. P. (1978). A note on the stability of the Job Descriptive Index. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 650–653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.63.5.650
    Schriesheim, C. A., Powers, K. J., Scandura, T. A., Gardiner, C. C., & Landau, M. J. (1993). Improving construct measurement in management research: Comments and a quantitative approach for assessing the theoretical content adequacy of paper-and-pencil survey-type instruments. Journal of Management, 19, 385–417.
    Scott, K. D., & Taylor, G. S. (1985). An examination of conflicting findings on the relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism: A meta-analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 28, 599–612. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256116
    Shirom, A. (1989). Burnout in work organizations. In C. L.Cooper & I. T.Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology, 1989 (pp. 25–48). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Shore, L. M., Newton, L. A., & Thornton, G. C., III. (1990). Job and organizational attitudes in relation to employee behavioral intentions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 57, 57–67.
    Sims, H. P., Jr., Szilagyi, A. D., & Keller, R. T. (1976). The measurement of job characteristics. Academy of Management Journal, 19, 195–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255772
    Slocum, J. W., Jr., & Topichak, P. M. (1972). Do cultural differences affect job satisfaction?Journal of Applied Psychology, 56, 177–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0032663
    Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., & Near, P. J. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 653–663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.68.4.653
    Smith, M. J., Hurrell, J. J., Jr., & Murphy, R. K., Jr. (1981). Stress and health effects in paced and unpaced work. In G.Salvendy & M. J.Smith (Eds.), Machine pacing and occupational stress. London: Taylor & Francis.
    Smith, P. B., & Misumi, J. (1989). Japanese management: A sun rising in the West? In C. L.Cooper & I. T.Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology, 1989 (pp. 329–369). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Smith, P. C., Kendall, L. M., & Hulin, C. L. (1969). Measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement. Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Spector, P. E. (1982). Behavior in organizations as a function of employees' locus of control. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 482–497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.91.3.482
    Spector, P. E. (1985). Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 693–713. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00929796
    Spector, P. E. (1986). Perceived control by employees: A meta-analysis of studies concerning autonomy and participation at work. Human Relations, 11, 1005–1016.
    Spector, P. E. (1987). Interactive effects of perceived control and job stressors on affective reactions and health outcomes for clerical workers. Work & Stress, 1, 155–162.
    Spector, P. E. (1988). Development of the Work Locus of Control Scale. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 335–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1988.tb00470.x
    Spector, P. E. (1992a). A consideration of the validity and meaning of self-report measures of job conditions. In C. L.Cooper & I. T.Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology, 1992 (pp. 123–151). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Spector, P. E. (1992b). Summated Rating Scale construction: An introduction (Sage University Paper series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, No. 07–082). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Spector, P. E. (1997). The role of frustration in anti-social behavior at work. In R. A.Giacalone & J.Greenberg (Eds.), Anti-social behavior in the workplace (pp. 1–17). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Spector, P. E., Dwyer, D. J., & Jex, S. M. (1988). Relation of job stressors to affective, health, and performance outcomes: A comparison of multiple data sources. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 11–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.73.1.11
    Spector, P. E., & Jex, S. M. (1991). Relations of job characteristics from multiple data sources with employee affect, absence, turnover intentions, and health. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 46–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.1.46
    Spector, P. E., & O'Connell, B. J. (1994). The contribution of personality traits, negative affectivity, locus of control and Type A to the subsequent reports of job stressors and job strains. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67, 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1994.tb00545.x
    Spector, P. E., & Wimalasiri, J. (1986). A cross-cultural comparison of job satisfaction dimensions in the United States and Singapore. International Review of Applied Psychology, 35, 147–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1986.tb00909.x
    Staw, B. M., Bell, N. E., & Clausen, J. A. (1986). The dispositional approach to job attitudes: A lifetime longitudinal test. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 56–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392766
    Staw, B. M., & Ross, J. (1985). Stability in the midst of change: A dispositional approach to job attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 469–480. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.70.3.469
    Steers, R. M., & Rhodes, S. (1978). Major influences on employee attendance: A process model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63, 391–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.63.4.391
    Stewart, W., & Barling, J. (1996). Fathers' work experiences effect children's behaviors via job-related affect and parenting behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 221–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1379%28199605%2917:3%3C221::AID-JOB741%3E3.0.CO;2-G
    Storms, P. L., & Spector, P. E. (1987). Relationships of organizational frustration with reported behavioural reactions: The moderating effect of locus of control. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 60, 227–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1987.tb00255.x
    Taber, T. D., & Taylor, E. (1990). A review and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Job Diagnostic Survey. Personnel Psychology, 43, 467–500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1990.tb02393.x
    Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: Path analysis based on meta-analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46, 259–293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1993.tb00874.x
    Tharenou, P. (1993). A test of reciprocal causality for absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 269–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030140306
    Thomas, L. T., & Ganster, D. C. (1995). Impact of family-supportive work variables on work-family conflict and strain: A control perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 6–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.80.1.6
    Trice, A. D., & Tillapaugh, P. (1991). Children's estimates of their parents' job satisfaction. Psychological Reports, 69, 63–66.
    Trist, E. L., & Bamforth, K. W. (1951). Some social and psychological consequences of the longwall method of coal-getting. Human Relations, 4, 3–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872675100400101
    Tuch, S. A., & Martin, J. K. (1991). Race in the workplace: Black/white differences in the sources of job satisfaction. Sociological Quarterly, 32, 103–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1991.tb00347.x
    Waddell, F. T. (1983). Factors affecting choice, satisfaction, and success in female self-employed. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 23, 292–304.
    Wall, T. D., Corbett, J. M., Martin, R., Clegg, C. W., & Jackson, P. R. (1990). Advanced manufacturing technology, work design, and performance: A change study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 691–697. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.6.691
    Wall, T. D., & Martin, R. (1987). Job and work design. In C. L.Cooper & I. T.Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology, 1987 (pp. 61–92). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Warr, P., & Payne, R. (1983). Affective outcomes of paid employment in a random sample of British workers. Journal of Occupational Behaviour. 4, 91–104.
    Watson, D., Pennebaker, J. W., & Folger, R. (1986). Beyond negative affectivity: Measuring stress and satisfaction in the workplace. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 8, 141–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J075v08n02_09
    Weaver, C. N. (1978). Job satisfaction as a component of happiness among males and females. Personnel Psychology, 31, 831–840. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1978.tb02126.x
    Weiss, D. J., Dawis, R. V., England, G. W., & Lofquist, L. H. (1967). Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation, No. 22). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
    Weiss, D. J., Dawis, R. V., Lofquist, L. H., & England, G. W. (1966). Instrumentation for the theory of work adjustment (Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation, No. 21). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
    Weitz, J. (1952). A neglected concept in the study of job satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 5, 201–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1952.tb01012.x
    Westman, M. (1992). Moderating effect of decision latitude on stress-strain relationship: Does organizational level matter?Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 713–722. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030130707
    Wexley, K. N., Alexander, R. A., Greenawalt, J. P., & Couch, M. A. (1980). Attitudinal congruence and similarity as related to interpersonal evaluations in manager-subordinate dyads. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 320–330. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255434
    White, A. T., & Spector, P. E. (1987). An investigation of age-related factors in the age-job satisfaction relationship. Psychology and Aging, 2, 261–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.2.3.261
    Williams, L. J., Gavin, M. B., & Williams, M. L. (1996). Measurement and nonmeasurement processes with negative affectivity and employee attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 88–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.1.88
    Witt, L. A., & Nye, L. G. (1992). Gender and the relationship between perceived fairness of pay or promotion and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 910–917. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.6.910
    Wolf, M. G. (1970). Need gratification theory: A theoretical reformulation of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction and job motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 54, 87–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0028664
    Wright, J. D., & Hamilton, R. F. (1978). Work satisfaction and age: Some evidence for the “job change” hypothesis. Social Forces, 56, 1140–1158.
    Zeitz, G. (1990). Age and work satisfaction in a government agency: A situational perspective. Human Relations, 43, 419–438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679004300502
    Zultowski, W. H., Arvey, R. D. & Dewhirst, H. D. (1978). Moderating effects of organizational climate on relationships between goal-setting attributes and employee satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 217–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791%2878%2990036-2

    Author Index

    About the Author

    Paul E. Spector is Professor of Industrial/Organizational Psychology at the University of South Florida. His research interests include both the content and methodology of the field. Content areas concern the impact of jobs on the behavior and well-being of employees, including counterproductive behavior, job satisfaction, job stress, and withdrawal behavior. Methodological areas are complex statistics and psychological measurement. Professor Spector has published in many journals of the field, including Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Management, Journal of Organizational Behavior (JOB), Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology (JOOP), and Psychological Bulletin. He has written three other books for Sage Publications on computer programming with the SAS language and research methodology. He also has written an industrial/organizational psychology textbook. At present, he is an associate editor for JOOP, and the Point/Counterpoint editor for JOB. In addition to writing this book, he is a member of the editorial board for this Advanced Topics in Organizational Behavior book series.


    • Loading...
Back to Top