Is the Personal beyond Private and Public?: New Perspectives in Social Theory and Practice
Publication Year: 2018
Is everything personal also private? The modern world is neatly compartmentalized into the private and the public, and the personal is often used interchangeably with the private as if they are the same. But are they? The book starts a new discourse by distinguishing the two and analyzing existing discourses of history, culture, politics, ethics, and law, asserts that the underlying theory is vastly different, often antagonistic. It radically changes the notions of the public, private, and personal by introducing the public–private–personal “triad,” challenging the modern binary of the public and private. This original and insightful book will provoke readers to rethink their use of the personal and the private as two different notions for the same thing.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part 1: : Recovering the Personal in Politics, Ethics, Culture, Law, History, and Theory
- Chapter 1: Personal in the Public Sphere: The Politics of Modernity
- Chapter 2: Gandhi and the Ethics of the Personal: Is Personal the Terroristic Unity of Private and Public?
- Chapter 3: Universal and Cultural Histories of the Personal
- Chapter 4: Toward a Theory of the (New) Personal
Part 2: : Engaging the Personal: Modernity, Legality, and the Practice of Helping
First published in 2018 by
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B1/I-1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044, India
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard, 55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP, United Kingdom
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Copyright © Arnab Chatterjee, 2018
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Chatterjee, Arnab, author.
Title: Is the personal beyond private and public?: new perspectives in social theory and practice/ Arnab Chatterjee.
Description: Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd,  | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2017055386 | ISBN 9789352805204 (print (hb): alk. paper) | ISBN 9789352805211 (e pub 2.0) | ISBN 9789352805228 (e book)
Subjects: LCSH: Privacy. | Social interaction.
Classification: LCC BF637.P74 C43 2018 | DDC 302.5/4—dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017055386
ISBN: 978-93-528-0520-4 (HB)
SAGE Team: Rajesh Dey, Guneet Kaur Gulati and Shobana Paul
Published by Vivek Mehra for SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, typeset in 10/12 pt Times New Roman by Fidus Design Pvt. Ltd., Chandigarh.
SAGE was founded in 1965 by Sara Miller McCune to support the dissemination of usable knowledge by publishing innovative and high-quality research and teaching content. Today, we publish over 900 journals, including those of more than 400 learned societies, more than 800 new books per year, and a growing range of library products including archives, data, case studies, reports, and video. SAGE remains majority-owned by our founder, and after Sara's lifetime will become owned by a charitable trust that secures our continued independence.
Los Angeles | London | New Delhi | Singapore | Washington DC | Melbourne
Advance Praise[Page D]
In this book, Arnab Chatterjee attempts the difficult task of describing the place of the personal in the public/private divide that is supposed to form the basis of modern institutions in Indian society. His methods are both phenomenological and historical. Of particular interest is his treatment of the little-known works of Indian Hegelians such as Brajendranath Seal and Hiralal Haldar. This book promises to draw the attention of scholars of everyday practices in modern Indian life.
Partha Chatterjee, Professor of Anthropology Columbia University
The book is very engaging.
Dipesh Chakrabarty, Lawrence A. Kimpton Distinguished Service Professor of History, The University of Chicago
This book crosses the boundaries of philosophy and social theory in very interesting ways and is a great contribution to the development of the ideas of discourse, criticism, and subjectivity.
Veena Das, Krieger-Eisenhower Professor of Anthropology, Johns Hopkins University
To my (late) ma, mejdi, bacchiya, Chotu Singh, and lately, Anuradha
Those who deeply mourned my slowness and the non-being of this work—over a long time; now, finally…
Preface[Page vi]Bulk Sales
SAGE India offers special discounts for purchase of books in bulk.
We also make available special imprints and excerpts from our books on demand.
For orders and enquiries, write to us at
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B1/I-1, Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, Post Bag 7
New Delhi 110044, India
E-mail us at firstname.lastname@example.org
Get to know more about SAGE
Be invited to SAGE events, get on our mailing list. Write today to email@example.com
This book is also available as an e-book.
Unlike Lyotard who wanted to “stroke his [Marx's] beard as a complex libidinal volume, reawakening his hidden desire and ours along with it,”1 we must be serious enough and consider that when such an energetic and forceful theorist as Marx wrote “the [modern] state is founded upon the contradiction between public and private life,”2 it rehearsed in one breath as if the taxonomic key to understanding modernity—which is the public/private divide; and notwithstanding Marx's own resolution (i.e., the abolition of private property), a corresponding failure (of thinkers including Marx) to find a way beyond the conflictual binary of the public and private, could be said to have been, pace Marx's own words, momentously, unboxed. Marx's agenda and resolution are well-known, but while Marx had an effective concern with smashing the liberal divide, there is a long list of other thinkers who have grappled—being imbibed with an unputdownable “interpretive” interest—with the problem of finding a way beyond the binary. For the great, canonical thinkers of the public sphere, Hannah Arendt had previously rejected intimacy as a “deep private;” for Habermas, it reappeared as the beyond of private and public. The personal remains manifestly and immanently under-theorized in the works of both the thinkers, and this book steps in with caution to fill this gap. Recent researches—while tracing “the ongoing struggle [since two hundred years ago] in Locke, Shafetusbury, Hutcheson, Hume, and Smith to find a framework to mediate between the public and private,”—in order to grasp our own times, switch over to—“Levinas's belief that a certain mediation between the public and private is possible and in Derrida's insistence that a discourse predicated on a clear and [Page x]absolute distinction between the public and the private can only fall into ruins.”3 Now, what is the register of this crucial, mediating mark? These researches—of which Gaston's book is the most competent and poignant example—advocate (albeit erroneously) the “secret”4 in Derrida's (and Levinas's) works to have been the tempting solution. Death (“language about death is nothing but the long history of a secret society, neither public nor private, semi-private, semi-public, on the border between the two”), the postcard (“half-private half-public neither the one nor the other”), and the telephone are Derrida's three examples of the secret meant to solve the liberal dichotomy.
All this is to make a single point: those thinkers who have been pivotal in finding (Western) modernity and continue to engage with its gestures through their breathing apostles, and also those who were prophets of colonial (and now postcolonial) modernities, could be seen to have been— though not always in an informed manner—struggling to solve the public/ private riddle with an answer of their own. This has been the story since 1767, and it runs amok till 2017. The public/private riddle is one of the strongest unsolved puzzles in the history of ideas. Strongest all the more because the dissenting strands always ran up to alternative versions or weak synonyms of either the private or the public (a classical example is the personal that appeared/and still appears as another version of the private being used as a moment of parole, that is, speech particularly in everyday life and language). The mix-up between the private and the personal has been naturalized to the extent that their doubtful assonance within texts and discourses go un-problematically, and dangerously, unheeded. Are the personal and the private the same and thus interchangeable? If not, in what ways could they be said to have been different? When did this confusion set in? Now, if it is possible to distance and distinguish them, then what are the results of such a revision? In this work, these issues will be broached to argue in favor of a trichotomy (personal, public, and private) to consequently arrive at a point beyond the debated dichotomy (where the personal and the private serve as a single algorithm and that has been conveniently pitted against the public).
This work, in an attempt to grapple with this dilemma in a new way, if not to resolve it altogether, argues the personal as a beyond of the private/public binary and distinguishes it from the private vis-à-vis [Page xi]the public. The private is opposed to the public and resists public scrutiny and publicity—the stuff of which the public is made. The way we do not know what a person is, what his/her real/final intentions are, or whether somebody is genuinely aggrieved or not—makes the personal largely unpredictable and indeterminate in the final instance, and not necessarily opposed to the public. Originally being legal-juridical categories, private and public have specific indicators. Personal relationships such as love or friendship remain outside legislation.
For the second moot point in this work, I shall show, schematically though how the journey—at least in colonial modernity, and its aftermath— has not been from personality to impersonality, as has often been assumed, but from the realm of the natural personal to that of the juridical/group/ collective personality of organizations. This will be pursued specifically in Part 2 of the work: the inviting emptiness of legal fictions—plausible even in the wake of contemporary, originary capitalism, as Rose states, “The concept of capital brings the relation of person and thing to the crunch. Capital acts like a person [and] not a thing. The illusion of natural personality is destroyed by this personification.”5 This could be provocative for many, particularly for the specialists dedicated to postcolonial theory, but, given the volume and span of the present work, I could not assuage their hunger by delving into the burgeoning literature of legal personality and legal fictions—more than that was minimally required—excluding even the exciting oeuvre that engages with neo-Kantian jurisprudence, particularly Emile Lask, Radbruch, Stammler, and Dabin.6 But while this is trapped by and in law, the root metaphors of love and friendship-(stated before), again when instituted, escape the law as event. Finally, I intend to show that all the helping structures including the welfare state and social work—which raided by the whimsical and arbitrary metaphors of “personal” relational filiations, admittedly, with or against their own intended grain—cannot be grasped by the public/private motors.II
Personalism (which posits that the person is of the supreme value) forms the primary theoretical fillip to this study. Classic treatises in this tradition [Page xii]tend to trace the lineage back to medievalism and then to the interlocution recovered from the philosophic tracts of Lotze, Fichte, Jacobi, Scheler, Feuerbach, etc. And then the neo-Hegelians turned the world of the God-based personalism upside down when Marx came with a warrant: God also became radical and worn. Putting aside the various versions of personalism, I have tended to rely on the German version (against the view that “the American school [only] … is perceived by scholars to define personalism”7); here the person is irreducible—which I think relies on and, in turn, refers to the essence of personalism. An initial note of caution here (since there is a huge literature in analytical philosophy on personal identity): this work is not inspired by nor does it intend to contribute to the debate on “who is a person” or “what is personal identity” as such, though tangentially these notions do crop up as flowers by the wayside,8 but only as much as or as many times as they are relevant to the concept-metaphor “personal” as against that of the private vis-à-vis the public. If we are to go by the definition of persons as rational beings with rights (as the legal definition purportedly goes) or of intrinsic worth and dignity “not equaled by nonpersons”9 (as goes in moral theory, too), we are in for further dismay, since the nonpersons being the self-servicing, categorical constructions of the persons themselves is out-and-out discriminatory, solipsistic, and ideological (recall the nonperson status of women, children, and slaves to understand this detestable historical logos); they were (or are) nonpersons as they have been deprived of the rights that could be accrued to them when rightfully considered. Though the general, running paradigms of all schools of personalism, regardless of their origins, believe in the “personal reason and impersonal understanding,” the “personal absolute,” and the “personal unity in diversity,”10 all are treated in this work with a defamiliarizing effect, and thereby, the orthodox personalists will find their categories being addressed after all. It is to this German tradition, where what goes by the name of personalism in a phenomenological mode, that my debt is the most; Max Scheler (a dark disciple of Husserl, and whom the latter distinctly disliked) should be named as an inspiring instance here. While personalism informs this work, in the tradition of Hegel and Alasdair Maclntyre—as they practiced it—the methodological approach [Page xiii]to be borne by this work can be called philosophical history (when the proposal was first mooted), that is, a history of concepts, ideas, and so on. After many years, in hindsight, I still find the recommendation useful. A philosophical history is necessary to interrupt the self-complicity of concepts, which would have paraded—if it were only a philosophical study—as atemporal and uniquely essential. Therefore, philosophical history, simply put, is generated when we tend to philosophize history and historicize philosophy. Hegel thinks that these binaries (history and philosophy) are sometimes “necessary dichotomies” and “one factor in life,”11 necessary because “life eternally forms itself by setting up opposition[s].” 12 But he perceives that when the might of unity “vanishes from the life of men and the antitheses lose their living connection and reciprocity and gain independence, the need of philosophy arises.”13 This gaining of independence is important: as if history and philosophy become two independent autonomous sectors of a single thought. And we must also mark the moment that it is in modernity that such oppositions take an objective form: faith versus knowledge, objectivity versus subjectivity, rational versus speculative, critical versus dogmatic, and lastly history versus philosophy. Reason unites what intellect has divided—history and philosophy. The task of reason is the task of philosophy.
Similarly, the person and the personal are not reducible to history and philosophy, too! But while transcendental phenomenology teaches us the irreducibility of the person to an act or agency (I extend it in this study to mean that the person is irreducible to the private or the public), it rarely engages with other discourses to see the consequences this view entails. The theological gloss often attributed to personalism derives, I guess, from this not-so-unclear apathy. This is abandoned in the present study to engage in a pluridisciplinary feat. This work is at the cusp of social and political philosophy, welfare sociology, social work, moral and legal theory, and philosophical history—and that too in the continental tradition. Not that the analytic tradition—as I have hinted at before— cannot offer intriguing thought forms or insights into the personal and personal identity and others, but there is a hunch that it can rarely explicate, self-reflexively, its own politics and bring back in politics, history, law, or literature in the style of cultural formations in which they occur in [Page xiv]terribly mixed moorings, in the practice of everyday life.14 This dawned on Husserl, who brooked the life-world, and Heidegger, who pushed it to extremes. Consider, for instance, when Derek Parfit concludes, “our reasons for acting should become more impersonal…it would often be better for everyone,”15 he chooses to be unaware (in fact, he could very well be) of the very fact that this is a political proposition, and public, political modernity appeared with such an axiom to be maintained and administered for its rational regime of technology; but the immanent reality of it, as I unravel it, could be examined for its truth in Chapter 1.16 But this investment does not come from nowhere. “It results as well from a kind of double censorship which the philosophy of language exercises as it sets the stage for thinking about language: Anglo-American philosophy of language not only censors the personal, it also obliterates all signs of this censorship.”17 It was incumbent upon us to restore the personal when it is seen to have been silenced in the classical continental tradition; at least, that is the complaint of Nietzsche—the first philosopher of the personal.18III
Then, the present task—the task at hand—in all its homelessness in the present work, expands along the following registers and could be [Page xv]delineated as follows in an attempt to describe the thematic matrix of the chapters.
Chapter 1 theoretically narrates how modernity arrives with a burgeoning impersonality and a formal rationality spread to life-spheres. A separation of the private and the public and the constraints of formal law are idealized. But the person with his/her “politics of dirty hands” overwhelms this disjunction and projects a peculiar crisis. In response, “personal attacks,” with their Greek origins and reaching their heights in 18th century political pornography, are such iconic examples, pointing out at the underbelly of objective events, ethics, and their symbolic dressing. The first signs of the person standing apart and standing out of the judicious separation of the public and the private, then, spillover. The person is the one, then, who can manipulate the private and the public.
Now, if Chapter 1 delineated how the person is capable of deceiving and escaping the limits set out by both the private and the public realms, the call for integrating them have been enormous and stifling, (as if) the public preacher and the private practitioner have to be reconciled in the same person and at some level of virtue! But how is it possible to integrate the private and the public at the site of an “echo” without dissolving the differences on which they are found? Taking cue from a neglected exchange between Mahatma Gandhi and Motilal Nehru, Chapter 2 brings out the dilemmas inherent in such an experiment and opens up the personal to its own prehistory. The monarch and the dictator unite the private and the public in the same, sovereign person. This chapter prefaces the prehistory of the person and the personal.
Having made in Chapter 2 a short detour into charting the pre-history of the personal in telegraphic terms—from the monarch to the dictator— we took Gandhi's desire as drive. In Chapter 3, we delve deeper into this prehistory—which because of its unavailability has to be reconstructed from disparate and disseminated sources and is bound to be episodic, while subsequently being the inscription of cultural history—which, as will be evident, could be reconstructed willfully in its sutured adequation.
After hinting at a historical and a subsequent cultural historical reconstruction of the personal in Chapter 3, it was necessary to examine if the distinction could be sustained theoretically as well. In Chapter 4, we pursue it in a short and sharp—albeit simple—manner. In concurrence with the definitive part of our book, this chapter tends to deploy the personal as recovered in history and tested in theory where the personal seems to have been problematized—matching the impersonal essence of modernity—and ought to have been expelled from the public sphere.[Page xvi]
Chapter 5 shows how the indeterminate, whimsical personal subverts all rationally determinate welfare schemes in modern civil society, and how, against its well-honed intentions, it is a journey from personality to personality. The chapter charts how the affirmation of ordinary life generated a secular ethic of social virtue. Through this, helping (among other actions) and a helping canon (social work) was to be emancipated from the personal character of an individual and his/her idiosyncratic virtues of whimsical giving. The chapter documents how Hegel— appreciating the universal aspects of poverty—had proposed the mediating institutions of civil society to order this transition. The fate of such a hunt for the universal in 19th century Bengal is examined through the texts of a Bengali neo-Hegelian, Brajendranath Seal. Part 2 (on Hiralal Haldar) of this chapter takes cue from the preceding part and expands on the journey of our modernity from natural personality to the personality of organizations. To graph this journey is fairly straight: we've deployed the personal in mirroring how the Western universal forms of impersonal civil-social helping has been smeared with the whimsical and arbitrary forms of personalistic polemic, finally, coalescing in the personality of organizations or group personalities—evident even in postcolonial India.
The last chapter (6) tries to weigh the analytical use the category personal could have in laying bare the similarities and differences between various informal helping modalities and social work—the disciplinary helping canon. The perusal—selectively—has been dispersed along the essential registers of etymology and genealogy.IV
The impact of this study may be conjectured along the following lines. Apart from re-invoking a long-lost philosophical history, the substantive content of this work—if persuasive enough—will correct and contribute to a long overdue lack in social theory and social philosophy, which—being trapped and allegedly engaged in the act of sacrificing either the private to the public or the public to the private (i.e., either domesticate the public or submit the private to public scrutiny)—went on, in an act of mourning, as if to discover alternative privacies or proletarian counter publics. The personal emerges in this book, as a distinct first, neither incorporated nor “assimilable” in either the private or the public.[Page xvii]
As it is evident, this might entail—in future—via the domestication through research of those forgotten comportments (those institutions, people and their work as social texts) a large-scale theoretical revision of the present history of modernity, philosophy of helping, and the ethics of care; it would be interesting to watch how disciplinary social sexual and legal-ethical care try to thematize this disturbance through the narrative management of historical differences.[Page xviii]Notes
1 Jean-Francois Lyotard, “The Desire Named Marx” in Libidinal Economy, transi. I. H. Grant (1994; repr., London: Continuum, 2005), 94-150.
2 Karl Marx, Selected Writings in Sociology and Social Philosophy, eds. T. B. Bottomore and M. Rubel (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1961), 222.
3 Sean Gaston, Derrida and Disinterest (London: Continuum, 2005), vii-viii.
5 Gillian Rose, Dialectic of Nihilism: Post-structuralism and Law (England: Basil Blackwell. 1984), 46.
6 Rose's book is perhaps the only classic on this (in English) which is neither used nor cited extensively.
7 Jan Olof Bengtsson, The Worldview of Personalism: Origin and Early Development (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2006), 271.
9 Bengston, The Worldview of Personalism, 31.
10 Ibid., 272.
11 G. W. F. Hegel, “The Difference Between Fichte ‘s and Schelling ‘s System of Philosophy: The Need of Philosophy” in The Hegel Reader, ed. Stephen Houlgate (Blackwell Publishers: UK, 1998), 40-43.
14 In endorsement, consider the following from Habermas:
Since analytic philosophy of language more or less confines itself to issues it has inherited from the epistemological tradition, it lacks a certain sensibility for as well as the tools for dealing with the looser and larger issues of a diagnostics of an era. Since Hegel, the philosophical discourse of modernity has, therefore, been the domain of so-called continental philosophy. In this regard, the opposition between analytic and continental currents, which has otherwise become obsolete, still somewhat makes sense.
See Jürgen Habermas, Truth and Justification, ed. and trans. Barbara Fultner (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2003), 79.
15 Derek Parfit, Reasons and Persons (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986), 442.
16 So far as Parfit's augmentation of a “rational altruism” [we should “give no priority to our own children, this would be better for all our children” (Ibid., 444)] is considered, my discussion of altruism in Chapter 6 critiquing Nagel and others could be considered a beginning. I pick up the analytic tradition on the person in a separate study.
17 Hagi Kenaan, The Present Personal: Philosophy and the Hidden Face of Language (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2005), 6.
This book is not “an accident of chapters” as some would like to fashion the print-orientation that is inscribed here; this goes back to an investment of a decade and more than six years of labored, active imagination.
In fact, throughout these years, an array of publications and seminars sustained my interest in the work and even authenticated its place among the learned (the “warm fraternity of useless erudition”)—where a paradigm is performed co-constitutively. For instance, the thesis of this book (which was sent as a paper to Sandra Harding and she was kind enough to confirm it in a letter on February 23, 2005) was first published in the year 2006 in the Indian Journal of Social Work as an article. It is indexed—as a student working on it informed me—with the US Library of Congress; London School of Economics (Sarah Hayward, Library Assistant, LSE Library, was kind enough to correspond with me on this [beginning May 8, 2016]), Sociological Abstracts, Inc. with International Sociological Association, US; Social Science Citation Index with the Institute for Scientific Information, USA; etc. I gratefully remember the gesture of scholars such as Professor Sharmila Rege who made the article a reference reading material in the Women's Studies Center at the University of Pune in 2007; I mourn her untimely demise.
I will cite the reason for rememorating all these with the help of an apparent, and immediate, hypothetical imperative. In the Prologue, I had deployed Paul Halmos who proposed a transition from pastoral social work (comprising pre-social work forms of helping) to professional social work (scientific, institutionalized disciplinary and paid form of helping). My spin on it will be available in Chapter 6 and also in others. What, however, is ridiculous—even scandalous—is to have someone who claims to have been “proposing” a pre-social work indigenous form (whose translation is even erroneous with him) as pastoral. In terms of an episodic and periodic history, too (Chapter 5 here, in longer version) while holding onto a few neo-Hegelian 19th century philosophers of colonial Bengal, I arrived at the distinction that marks and remarks [on] modern and pre-modern helping forms, and learnt how the personal not only invades the [Page xx]impersonal-rational universal modern motors of helping but contaminates and nearly destroys them (referred to in Chatterjee 2008 and published differently in 2010). I have not moved an inch away from that observation. Therefore, if any activist-scholar of the nationalist phase of a helping form bribes him/herself with the new found relata of modernity and in trying to forge an unacknowledged but inspired, labored linkage fails to match his/her otherwise empirical stuff, few would empathize. So keenly I remember (my wife's favorite) Thoreau here:
Shall I not have words as fresh as my thoughts? Shall I use any other man's word? A genuine thought or feeling can find expression for itself, if it have to invent hieroglyphics. It has the universe for type-metal. It is for want of original thought that one man's style is like another's.
Grateful thanks to Ms Nandita Bhattacharya, Professor Gautam Gupta, Professor Nilanjana Gupta, Professor Sadhan Chakraborti, Professor Soumitra Basu, Professor Gautam Bhadra, and the Governor of West Bengal, Shri Kesari Nath Tripathi.
My tryst at the Indian Institute of Advanced Study (HAS), Shimla, during 2013-15 will always remain memorable—with Professor D. N. Dhanagare, Professor Radhaballav Tripathi, Professor Udayan Mishra, Sri Rajesh Joshi, Professor Kunal Chakraborty, Shri Sumanta Banerjee—a constellation of academic and creative stalwarts. Professor Chetan Singh, the Director, and Mr Premchand, Secretary and Librarian, are the best of peoples I have ever met. Moidul Islam, Rahul Govind, Amitranjan Basu, and Enakshi Mitra were excellent academic partners and interlocutors. Dr Moidul Islam—especially—combines in him the highest standards of academic excellence, competence with a down to earth, helpful generosity and intellectual honesty that is seemingly without a parallel.
Professor Nasrin Siddiqui of Yashwantrao Chavan Academy of Development Administration (YASHADA), Pune (in 2008), Shuddhabrata, Jeebesh, Monica, Sadan Jha, and Vivek Narayanan (in 2007)—the poet—besides Professor Pratiksha Baxi, Professor Lawrence Liang, and V. Sanal Mohan who remain as the Delhi-based authors whom I admire, acknowledge, and keenly follow.
At the Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta (CSSSC) in Kolkata, my past, elective affinities with Shri Prabir Basu (whose non-administrative poetics—he being a great translator of Jibanananda Das) relieves and robs me of any nightmares; Professor Partha Chatterjee, Professor Pradip Bose, Professor Tapati Guhathakurta, and Professor Rosinka Chaudhury contributed to my work with longstanding empathy, [Page xxi]at times deliberate pity due to the prolong, era-taking attitude of mine (in response, my shy answer was always Walter Benjamin: “under the shadow of Saturn, I'm slow.”)
Dr Debarshi Sen—a perfect academic administrator at IIAS first and then at CSSSC, Kolkata—sets a standard too high for any bureaucrat, but is an absolute well-wisher. Only Sandip Chatterjee, the ex-registrar of TISS and JNU, gloriously matches the level set by Prabir Basu and Debarshi Sen and is with force an honorable exception.
Dr Palash Mandai, Professor Arya Ghosh, Arunangsu Guhathakurta, Mohid Hyder, Sanjib Ganguly, and Ranjan Banerjee bear the remnants of the Deoghar and the Santiniketan gang. Professor Rajsekhar Basu, Professor Sanjeeb Mukherjee, Professor Someswar Bhowmik, Dr Abhijit Roy, and Shri Bibhas Bagchi are all stars of the Kolkata academia. Subodh Sarkar, Roro Sarkar are superstars. I owe each of them a mental nail. Professor Manas Roy, Professor Dipankar Gupta, Professor Mahendra Pal Singh, Professor Surinder Singh Jodhka, Professor Abha Chauhan, Professor Aditya Nigam, and Professor Rajeev Bhargava, with their distant presence, do not always know that they epistemically excite me and I have an inheritance of gain. The same goes for Soumyabrata Choudhury and Prasenjit Biswas—two continental stars, besides our own Aniruddha Choudhury and Rahul Govind—in the Indian and international philosophical space.
Also, the late Niranjan Chatterjee, Atonu Chatterjee (who introduced me to the Subaltern Studies when I was in higher secondary), Manisha Chatterjee, Paramita Chatterjee, Tathagata (Nanda) Ray, Sushmita (Minti) Chatterjee, Sujit and Srirup Kanjilal—as my immediate and extended family—suspect that even in social intercourse, I'm engaged in “fake encounters,” but the kinship—they know—is too real, even if materially absent at times.
My wife, Anuradha Chatterjee, came from nearly nowhere in 2016 and has defamiliarized my life to the extent it is not recognizably the same anymore. Having worked on Emerson and Thoreau and American neo-transcendentalism, she is equally eloquent about poets who were auto-destructive and often killed themselves. That is a (mis)match with her conservatist orthodoxy and hides the immense duties she caps and carries on her lean shoulders.
Finally, the book is dedicated to my mother Dipali Chatterjee (among other fellow tragedians) who even months before her death on October 30, 2006 was scared about my tryst with obscure and sometimes scandalous thinkers and writers and urged me to come to terms with acceptable academia in Kolkata and India. She wished me to put to rest my habit of [Page xxii]“polemicizing,” which has earned me a team of fierce and active “well-wishers.” Her unforgettable concern will always remain higher than my unforgivable stubbornness. Higher all the more because she, apart from Guddie, would have been the happiest to know that my work has had such a large and informed audience that goes with the prestige and stardom of SAGE.
And I must confess now, “particularly” before you “actually” read the book, that my fiancé and companion Chotu-Chotu Singh—whom some erroneously call a parakeet—dug her heels and nails in every letter and ate some of them too. It is Chotu who screamed in her shrill voice once, “You can read nothing except through appetite” and thereby obliged me to be in a frozen standstill. And I'm still standing there, here and nowhere, only to later find Chotu sitting on my shoulder, wings bare.
Grateful thanks to all!
Bibliography[Page 237]A Lecture on the Life and Labours of Rammohun Roy. Edited by . Calcutta: Sadharan Brahmo Samaj, 1977. First published in 1879.A Portrait of Walter Benjamin.” In Prisms, translated by Samuel and Shierry Weber, 227-41. London: Neville Spearman, 1967.. “Letter to Walter Benjamin.” In Aesthetics and Politics, edited by , , , , , 110-33. London: Verso, 1980.. “Anti-Semitism and Fascist Propaganda.” In The Stars Down to Earth and Other Essays on the Irrational in Culture, edited by , 218-31. London: Routledge, 2002.. “1990. Negative Dialectics. Translated by London: Routledge, 1990..Dialectic of Enlightenment. Translated by J. Cumming. London: Verso, 1992., and .Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Translated by Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1998.From Charity to Social Work: Mary E. Richmond and the Creation of an American Profession. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004.Islamic Law: Social and Historical Contexts. London: Routledge, 1988., ed.Evolution of Public Sphere in India.” Economic and Political Weekly 36, no. 26 (2001): 2419-25., 2001. “Caste and Class.” In The Essential Writings of B. R. Ambedkar edited by V. Rodrigues, 99-105. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2002.“Reply to the Mahatma.” In The Essential Writings of B. R. Ambedkar, 306-19. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2002.“Machiavelli and Us. Translated by Gregory Eliott. London: Verso, 1999.Ethics for Adversaries: The Morality of Roles in Public and Professional Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.The Politics. Translated by Benjamin Jowett. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.Politics.” In The Basic Works of Aristotle, edited by , 1114-316. New York, NY: The Modern Library, 2001.“Rhetorica.” In The Basic Works of Aristotle, edited by , 1325-451. New York, NY: The Modern Library, 2001.“P. Ramanatha Aiyar ‘s Concise Law Dictionary. New Delhi, Wadhwa Company: 2004..The Dialectics of Outside and Inside.” In The Continental Aesthetics Reader, edited by , 151-63. London: Routledge, 2000.[Page 238]. “Bangla Sahityer Ittivritta, Vol. IV [Bengali]. Calcutta: Modern Book Agency Pvt. Ltd, 1973..Bangiya Sabdakosh, Vol. II [Bengali]. Kolkata: Sahitya Academy, 1966.“East” Meeting “West”: A Note on Colonial Chronotopicity. Calcutta: Jadavpur University, 1994.In Natural Law and the Theory of Society 1500-1800by Otto Gierke, edited and translated by Ernest Barker, ix-lxxxviii. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1950.. ‘Introduction.’Political Thought in England 1848—1914. London: Oxford University Press, 1951.Early Greek Philosophy. England: Penguin Books, 2001.Samayiki, puruno samoyik patrer prabandha samkalan, Vol. 1 [Bengali], 1856-1901. Calcutta: Ananda Publishers, 1998.. ed.Swami Vivekananda and Seva: Taking Social Service Seriously.” In Swami Vivekananda and the Modernisation of Hinduism, edited by William Radice, 45-58. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.. “The Worldview of Personalism: Origin and Early Development. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2006..The Communicative Ethics Controversy. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1990., and , eds.Outline of the Psychophysical Problem.” In Selected Writings: Vol 1, 1913-26, edited by M. Bullock and M. W. Jennings, 393-401. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996.. “Oedipus, or Rational Myth.” In Selected Writings, Vol. 2, Part 2, 1931-34, edited and translated by R. Livingstone et al., and edited by M. W. Jennings and H. Eiland et al. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 2005.“Bentham ‘s Theory of Fictions. Edited by London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd, 1932.Indo-European Language and Society. Translated by Elizabeth Palmer. London: Faber and Faber Limited, 1973.The Politics of Authenticity: Radical Individualism and the Emergence of Modern Society. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1970.Heidegger & the Political. London: Routledge, 1998..Dirty Hands and Clean Gloves: Liberal Ideals and Real Politics.” European Journal of Political Theory 9, no. 4 (2010): 412-30.. 2010. “Erotic ‘Remedy’ Prints and the Fall of the Aristocracy in Eighteenth Century France.” Political Theory 25, no. 5 (1997): 680-715.. 1997. “The Popularity of Language: Rousseau and the Mother Tongue.” In The Politics of Deconstruction: Jacques Derrida and the Other of Philosophy, edited by Martin McQuillan, 98-115. London: Pluto Press, 2007.. “Equality and Universality: Essays in Social and Political Theory. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2003.The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, 2009. First published in 1994.Jal Rajar Katha: Bardhamaner Pratapchand [Bengali]. Kolkata: Ananda Publishers, 2002.The Ethical Insufficiency of Egoism and Altruism: India in Transition.” In Indian Democracy: Meanings and Practices, edited by Rajinder Vora and Suhas Palshkar, 215-32. New Delhi: SAGE Publications, 2004.[Page 239]. “Rammohan Samiksha [Bengali] edited by . Kolkata: Saraswat Library. 1983.The Individual and Society.” In The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought, edited by J. H. Burns, 588-606. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.. “Social Service in India: An Introduction to Some Social and Economic Problems of the Indian People. London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1939., ed.The Construction of Corruption, or Rules of Separation and Illusions of Purity in Bourgeois Societies.” Social Text 77, 21, no. 4 (2003): 9-33.. “The Welfare State in Historical Perspective.” In The Welfare State: A Reader, edited by Christopher Pierson and Francis G. Castles, 18-31. Cambridge: Polity Press & Blackwell Publishers, 2000.. “Personality Rights in European Tort Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010., , and , eds.Heidegger, Kant and ‘Dirty’ Politics.” European Journal of Political Theory 6, no. 1 (2007): 67-86.. “Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative. New York, NY: Routledge, 1997..Plurality, Promises, and Public Spaces.” In Hannah Arendt and the Meaning of Politics, edited by Craig Calhoun and John McGrowan, 232-59. Minneapolis, MN, and London: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.. 1997. “Hannah Arendt and the Meaning of Politics. Minneapolis, MN, and London: University of Minnesota Press, 1997., and , eds.The Problem of'Dirty Hands’ and Corrupt Leadership.” The Independent Review 8, no. 3 (2004): 363-85.. “Gifting and Receiving.” In Tradition, Pluralism and Identity: In Honour of T N. Madan, edited by Veena Das, Dipankar Gupta, and Patricia Uberoi, 283-305. New Delhi: SAGE Publications, 1999.. “Phenomenology and the Problem of History: A Study of Husserl ‘s Transcendental Philosophy. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1974.Habitations of Modernity: Essays in the Wake of Subaltern Studies. New Delhi: Permanent Black, 2004.Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007.Thoreau's Waiden in Our Times in the Light of Transcendentalism.” Unpublished PhD Dissertation. 2017.. “Private/Public Dwander Baire: Personal/ Byaktigoto Niye Notun Kichoo” [Bengali]. Ababhas 5, no. 3 (2005): 91-108.. 2005. “Beyond Private and Public: New Perspectives on Personal and Personalist Social Work.” The Indian Journal of Social Work 67, no.3 (2006): 215-31.“Political Studies Review 5, no. 1 (2007).Review article on Derrida.Objective Helping, Hegel and Three Indian reformers in the Colonial Civil Society: Prefacing the Personalytical History of Social Work.” The Indian Journal of Social Work 71, no. 2 (2010a): 145-66.“Sociological Bulletin: Journal of the Indian Sociological Society 59, no. 3 (2010b): 407-22.[Page 240]2010b. “Is person/al the terrorized unity of private and public? Rethinking Gandhi, Integrationism & the Politics of Pure Means.”Corporate Social Work or ‘Being’ Empowered and ‘Doing’ Empowerment: Preface to a Discourse Ethical Monitoring of the Capability Approach.” Journal of Human Values 17, no. 2 (2011): 161-70.. “Categorical Blue: Personalytic Ethic in Social Work and Other Structures of Helping. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study (HAS), 2017.Towards Freedom: Documents on the Movement for Independence in India, 1938, Part III, 2417. New Delhi: Indian Council for Historical Research and Oxford University Press, 1999.ed.The Moment of Manoeuvre: Gandhi and the Critique of Civil Society.” In Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World: A Derivative Discourse? 54-130. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1986.. 1986. “Communities and the Nation.” In The Nation and Its Fragments. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994.“Democracy and the Violence of the State: A Political Negotiation of Death.” Paper circulated for CSSS Cultural Studies Workshop at Bharatpur, Rajasthan, 1999.“Review of Tika Tippani by . Baromas 20, no. 1 (2000): 175-77.On Civil and Political Society in Post Colonial Democracies.” In Civil Society: History and Possibilities, edited by and , 165-78. Cambridge University Press, New Delhi: Foundation Books, 2002 (2001).“Introduction: History in the Vernacular.” In History in the Vernacular, edited by and , 1-24. New Delhi: Permanent Black, 2008.“Review of Hindudharmer Sreshthata by Basu [Bengali] Rajnarayan. Bankim Rachanabali Vol. II, 6th ed. Calcutta: Sahitya Samsad, 1977..Dharmatattva. Translated by . New Delhi: Oxford University Press, (1888) 2003..Subjectivity and Otherness: Philosophical Reading of Lacan. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2007.Attack on an Enemy of Freedom (The Second Philippic Against Antony).” In Selected Works, 101-153, translated by England: Penguin Books, 1981.“De Oratore” and “Orator.” In The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings from Classical Times to the Present. 2nd Ed. edited by. Patricia Bizzell and Bruce Herzberg, pp. 283-343. New York: Bedford St. Martin's, 2001.“The Person and Moral Agency.” In Social Work and Social Philosophy: A Guide for Practice, 6-22. Boston, MA: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985.and 1985. “Politics and the Problem of Dirty Hands.” In A Companion to Ethics, edited by Peter Singer, 373-83. UK: Blackwell, 1993.1993. “GLQ: A Journal of Gay and Lesbian Studies 2, no. 4 (1999): 399-424.. 1999. “Holi in Banaras and the Mahaland of Modernity.”A History of Philosophy, Vol. IX (Maine De Biran to Sartre). London: Search Press, 1975.The Protestant Sect Credit Machine: Social Capital and the Rise of Capitalism.” Journal of Classical Sociology 7, no. 3 (2007): 267—90.. “Who is the Political Actor? An Existential Phenomenological Approach.” In Phenomenology of the Political, edited by and 11-28. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.[Page 241]. “The Forbidden Best-sellers of Pre-revolutionary France, New York, NY: Norton, 1995.Towards a Philosophy of Social Work in India. New Delhi: Popular Book Services, 1967.ed.Encyclopedia of Enlightenment, Vol 1. Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 2001.ed.Return to Philology.” In Resistance to Theory, edited by 21-26. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota University Press, 1986.. “Spurs: Nietzsche's Styles. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1979.The Gift of Death. Translated by . Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995.Des Tours de Babel.” In Psyche, Inventions of the Other, Vol. 1, edited by and 191-225. California: Stanford University Press, 2007.“Ideologies and Social Work: Historical and Contemporary Analyses. Jaipur: Rawat Publications, 2002.Forgiveness and Politics: Dirty Hands and Imperfect Procedures.”Political Theory 26, no. 5 (1998): 700-24.. “Foreward.” In The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies, translated by vii-xviii. London: Routledge, 1990.. 1990. “The Possibility of an Ethical Politics: From Peace to Liturgy.” Philosophy and Social Criticism 26, no.4 (2000): 49-73.. “1990. “The Diffusion of Cultural Patterns in Feudal Society.” In French Studies in History, Vol. II, edited by and . 214-22. Hyderabad: Orient Longman, 1988..Banglar Jagorone missonarir daan.” In Unish Sataker Bangalijiban O Sanskriti, edited by and . Kolkata: Pustakbiponi, 2003.. 2003. “Trouble with Strangers: A Study of Ethics. Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008.The Civilizing Process (The History of Manners). Translated by Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1978.Time and Timing.” In On Civilization, Power and Knowledge: Selected Writings, edited by and 253-59. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1998.“Introduction.” In The Multiple Self, edited by 1-34. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1986.. “Social Policy, 1830—1914: Individualism, Collectivism and the Origins of the Welfare State, 102-03. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978.., ed.Geoffrey Boycott.” In Flirtation Seduction Betrayal: Interviews with Heroes and Villains, 33-41. London: Constable & Robnson Ltd, 2002.. 2002. “Max Weber's Theory of Personality: Individuation, Politics and Orientalism in the Sociology of Religion. Brill: Leiden, 2013..Karl Fischer's Review of The Protestant Ethic, 1907.” In The Protestant Ethic Debate: Max Weber's Replies to his Critics 1907—10, edited by and translated by Austin Harrington and Mary Shields, 27-29. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2001.. “Malice. Translated by . London: Verso, 2003.A Preface to Transgression.” In Essential Works: Aesthetics, Method and Epistemology, Vol. 2, 69-87. London: Penguin: Books, 2000.[Page 242]. “Politics and Reason.” In Politics, Philosophy, Culture: Interviews and Other Writings 1977-84, edited by 57-85. New York: Routledge, 1990.. “Subjectivity and Truth.” In The Politics of Truth, edited by and 171-98. New York, NY: Semiotext(e), 1997.. “Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego.” In Civilization, Society and Religion, Vol. 12, translated by and 89-184. New Delhi: Shrijee's Book International, 2003.. “The Cultural Construction of the Person in Bengal and Tamil Nadu.” In Concepts of Person: Kinship, Caste and Marriage in India, edited by Akos Ostor, Lina Fruzzeti and 8-30. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1983.and . “Law and Society in Modern India. Bombay: Oxford University Press, 1992.Prohibition at Any Cost. Compiled by Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House, 1960a.Voluntary Poverty (Compiled by ). Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House, 1960b.Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Vol. 25. India: The Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 1967.The Essential Writings of Mahatma Gandhi. Edited by Raghavan Iyer. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1991.1991. The Essential Writings of Mahatma Gandhi (ed. ). New Delhi: Oxford University Press.1996/M.K. Gandhi's Hind Swaraj: A Critical Edition. Edited by and . New Delhi: Orient Blackswan, 2010.Derrida and Disinterest. Continuum: London, 2005.Seven Types of Obloquy: Travesties of Marxism.” In Socialist Register, edited by and 1—34. London: The Merlin Press, 1990.. “Jewish Charitable Bequests and Hekdesh Trust in Thirteenth-Century Spain.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 34, no. 3 (2005): 423-10.. “Reason and Culture: The Historic Role of Rationality and Rationalism. UK: Blackwell, 1992.Pastoral. London: Routledge, 1999.Private Vices, Public Benefits: Bernard Mandeville ‘s Political Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.1964. ‘Gifts’ and ‘Giving’ in the Rigveda. Hosiarpur: Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute, Sadhu Ashram, 1964. (Reprinted from Vishveshvaranand Indological Journal 2, no. 1 (1964)..The Professional Social Worker.” In History and Philosophy of Social Work in India, edited by Bombay: Allied Publishers Private Limited, 1968, 27-34.“The Problem of Dirty Hands.” The Journal of Religious Ethics 17, no. 1(1989): 31-61.. “Giving in America: From Charity to Philanthropy.” In Charity, Philanthropy and Civility in American History, edited by and 29-48. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002.. “History at the Limit of World-History. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2003.[Page 243]The Domesticated Public: Tradition, Modernity and the Public/Private Divide.” In The Public and the Private Issues of Democratic Citizenship, edited by 56-73. New Delhi: SAGE Publications, 2003.. “A History of Greek Philosophy, The Earlier PreSocraticsand Pythagoreans the Vol. 1. London: Cambridge University Press, 1962.The Public Sphere: An Encyclopedia Article.” New German Critique 3, no. 51 (1974): 49-55.. “The New Obscurity: The Crisis of the Welfare State and the Exhaustion of Utopian Energies.” In The New Conservatism: Cultural Criticism and the Historians’ Debate, translated by 48-70. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989.. “The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity: Twelve Lectures. Translated by Frederick Lawrence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Cambridge, 1993..The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Translated by Great Britain: Blackwell Publishers & Polity Press, 1996a..Further Reflections on the Public Sphere's.” In Habermas and the Public Sphere, edited by 421-61. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1996b.. “The Inclusion of the Other: Studies in Political Theory. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1998..Walter Benjamin: Consciousness-Raising or Rescuing Critique.” In On Walter Benjamin: Critical Essays and Recollections, edited by 90-128. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1999.. “Truth and Justification. Edited and translated by . Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2003..Hegelianism and Human Personality. Calcutta: University of Calcutta, 1910.Neo Hegelianism. London: Heath Cranton Ltd, 1927.The Promise of Interpretation: Reflections on the Hermeneutical Imperative in Kant and Nietzsche.” In Looking After Nietzsche, edited by 19-47. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1990.. “Premises: Essays on Philosophy and Literature from Kant to Celan. Translated by . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990..Pleroma—Reading in Hegel: The Genesis and Structure of a Dialectical Hermeneutics in Hegel. Translated by by . and S. Jarvis. London: The Athlone Press, 1998..Charities and Social Aid in Greece and Rome. Great Britain: Thames and Hudson, 1968.French Studies in History, Vol. II, 214-22. Hyderabad: Orient Longman, 1988., ed.Gandhi in His Time and Ours. Delhi: Permanent Black, 2003.Altruism.” In Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Vol. 1, 354-58. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1974 (1908).. “The Question of Being. Translated by . and New York, NY: Twayne Publishers, 1956.Being and Time. Translated by . and San Francisco, CA Harpe, 1962.What is Called Thinking? Translated by , 62. New York, NY: Perennial, 1976.[Page 244].Early Greek Thinking. Translated by and San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row, 1984.Hegel's Philosophy of Mind (Translated from The Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences). Translated by William Wallace. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1894.Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion, Vol. II. Translated by Rev and . London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd, 1895.Hegel's Lectures on the History of Philosophy, Vol. 1. Translated by London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1955 (1892).Love.” In On Christianity: Early Theological Writings. Translated by New York, NY: Harper Torchbooks, 1961, 302-08.“Hegel's Philosophy of Nature. Translated by Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.Natural Law. Translated by Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970.The Philosophy of Subjective Spirit, Vol. II. Translated by Holland: D. Reidelberg Company, 1979.Lectures on the philosophy of World History, Introduction: Reason in History. Translated by H. B. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion (One Volume Edition, The Lectures of 1827). Edited by translated by and Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1988.Elements of the Philosophy of Right. Translated by UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991.Phenomenology of Spirit. Translated by Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass Publishers, 1998a.The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's System of Philosophy: The Need of Philosophy.” In The Hegel Reader, edited by 40-43. UK: Blackwell Publishers, 1998b.“Supererogation: Its Status in Ethical Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.Leviathan. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, 1997.Kingship. London: Oxford University Press, 1927.Leviathan, 1998. Ed. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.The Elements of Law: Natural and Politic. Edited by New York: Routledge.. (1969 edition) 2013.1924. Elements of Jurisprudence, Calcutta: Progressive Publishers., Sir .Dirty Hands.” British Journal of Political Science 12, no. 4(1982): 385-98.. “The Earliest Hospitals in Byzantium, Western Europe, and Islam,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 34, no. 3 (2005): 361-89.. 2005. “The Presocratics, London: Duckworth, 1983.Studies on Marx and Hegel. Translated by . New York, NY: Harper & Row Publishers, 1969.Genesis and Structure of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit. Translated by . and Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1974.Generosity and Property in Aristotle's Politics.” Social Philosophy and Policy 4, no. 2 (1999): 37-54. (In Aristotle: Critical Assessments, Vol. IV, edited by 164-81. London: Routledge, 1999.)[Page 245]1999. “The Personalization of CARE Services and the Early Impact on Staff Activity Patterns.” Journal of Social Work 13, no. 2 (2011): 141-63.Jose-Luis Fernandez, and Ann Netten. “The Turn of the Screw.” In The Great Short Novels of Henry James. Mumbai, India: Jaico Publishing House, 2002, 627-748.. “The Story of My Life, Vol. II. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1958.Hegel and the Economics of Civil Society.” In Civil Society: History and Possibilities, edited by and 105-30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2002.. “Lectures on Ethics. Translated by . New York, NY: Harper and Row: New York, 1963.What is Enlightenment?” In Critique of Practical Reason, and Other Writings in Moral Philosophy, edited by . New York, NY: Garland Publishing, 1976.“Practical Philosophy. UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.1976. “The Art and Science of Helping.” In Talking About Welfare: Readings in Philosophy and Policy Social edited by and . London: Routledgeand 267-89..The Present Personal: Philosophy and the Hidden Face of Language. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2005.The Genesis of Heidegger's Being and Time. Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1993.Polities’: Still a Dirty Word.” The Antioch Review 15, no. 4(1955): 457-66.. “Nietzsche and the Vicious Circle. Translated by London: Continuum, 2005 (1997).Machiavelli and the Profanation of Politics.” In his Reflections of a Neo Conservative: Looking Back, Beyond Looking 123-35. New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1986.. “Darkness at Noon.” In The Political Imagination in Literature, edited by and . New Yok, NY: The Free Press, 192-205.. 1969. “Nietzsche and Metaphor. Translated by . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993.Outline of a Phenomenology of Right. Translated by and Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc, 2007.Social Work: An Experience and Experiment in India. New Delhi: Gitanjali Publishing House, 1994.Retreating the Political, xiv-xxviii. Edited by . London: Routledge, 1997., and .Minding the Gap: The Subject of Politics.” In The Making of Political Identities, edited by 11-39. London: Verso, 1994.and . “The Foundations of Sovereignty. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1931(1921)..The Image of the Body and Totalitarianism.” In The Political forms of Modern Society, edited by 292-306. Delhi: Disha Publications, 1989.. “Savings Banks.” In Social Policy, 1830—1914 edited by Evans, 1978.. “Totality and Infinity: An Essay on Exteriority. Translated by . Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press, 2000.[Page 246]A Man-God?” In Entre Nous: Thinking-of-the-other. Translated by and . London: Continuum, 2007, 46-52.. “Entre Nous: Thinking—of-the-Other. Translated by and Harshav. London: Continuum, 2007.Is Ontology Fundamental.” In Entre Nous: Thinking-of-the-Other, translated by 1-10. London: Continuum, 2007.“On Gillian Rose and Love.” Telos 2008, no. 143 (2008): 47-62.. “Two Treatises of Government. London: J.M Dent & Son's Ltd. (Everyman's Library), 1982 (1924).Notes on Roman Law: Law of Persons, Law of Contracts.” 1912. Available at: https://archive.org/stream/cu31924021206804/cu31924021206804_djvu.txt (accessed on August 11, 2017).. “Political Theory in the Welfare State. Translated by Jr. New York, NY: Walter De Gruyter Berlin, 1990.Personalising Public Services: Understanding the Personalisation Narrative (Bristol: Policy Press, 2013). Critical Social Policy 33, no. 1 (2013): 187-89.. Review of Catherine Needham,The Desire Named Marx.” In Libidinal Economy, translated by 94-150. London: Continuum, 2005 (1993).. “The Prince. Translated and edited by New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, 1992.After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory, 2nd ed. Indiana: University of Notre Dame, 1984.The Theory of Property Right.” In The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism, Hobbes to Locke, 197-221. London: Oxford University Press, 1972.“Of the Social Categories ‘Private’ and ‘Public’: Considerations of Cultural Context.” In Mahajan 88-102. 2003.“State, Trust and Corporation. Edited by . and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.Professional Men, Professional Women: The European Professions from the Nineteenth Century until Today. Translated by Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, 2011.Owning and Belonging: A Semiotic Investigation of the Affective Categories of a Bourgeois Society.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 46, no. 2 (2004): 300-25.. “Social Work During the British Period.” In History and Philosophy of Social Work in India, edited by 25-35. Bombay: Allied Publishers Private Limited, 1968.. “Social Policy. London: Hutchinson University Library, 1965.Voluntary Action.” In Sociology at the Crossroads and Essays other 329-41. London: Heinemann, 1963a.“The Recent History of Professionalism in Relation to Social Structure and Social Policy.” In Sociology at the Cross Roads, 150-70. 1963b.“Citizenship and Social Class.” In The Foundations of the Welfare State, Vol. 1. Edited by and . UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, 2000.“Selected Writings in Sociology and Social Philosophy. Edited by and Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1961.A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right’ (1843).” In The Young Hegelians: An Anthology, edited by 310-22. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.[Page 247]“A Hobbes Dictionary, Cambridge: Blackwell, 1995.Treatise on the Doctrine of Presumption and Presumptive Evidence as Affecting the Title to Real and Personal Property. London: Joseph Butterworth and Son, Law Booksellers, 1827..Keshub Chunder Sen.” In Keshub Chunder Sen, edited by Calcutta: F. Max Mueller, 1976.“Radical Underworld, Prophets, revolutionaries, and Pornographers in London, 1795-1840. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.Poverty, Charity, and Coercion in Elizabethan England.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 34, no. 3 (2005): 423-40.. “The Personality of the Absolute.” In Studies in Hegelian Cosmology. Available at: http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mctaggart/cosmology/ch03.htm, para 70 (accessed on July 13, 2008).“Studies in Hegelian Cosmology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1918 (1901).and .Mind, Self, and Society, From the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist. Edited by Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1972 (1934)..On Liberty.” In Utilitarianism, Liberty and Representative Government. New York, NY: J. M. Dent and Sons Ltd, 1936 (1910).. “Co-operation.” In Social Policy, 1830-1914: Individualism, Collectivism and the Origins of the Welfare State, edited by London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978.“From Personal Duties towards Personal Rights: Late Medieval and Early Modern Political thought, 1300—1600. Montreal: McGill Queens University Press, 1994.Identity and Integrity.” In Multiculturalism, Liberalism and Democracy, edited by and 58-79. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999.. “Social Work: A Profession of Many Faces. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998 (1977).., andPrivacy, Privation, Perversity: Toward New Representations of the Personal.” Signs 25, no. 2 (2000): 322-51.. 2000. “The Pirate's Fiancee. London: Verso, 1988.Samajik Probondho in Bhuudeb Rachanasambhar, 1—263. Edited by . Kolkata: Mitra O Ghosh, 1968.The Possibility of Altruism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978.Beauty by Banning.” The Telegraph, Kolkata, October 23, 2003.. “Shattered Love.” In A Finite Thinking, edited by 245—74. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003.. “The Illegitimacy of Nationalism: Rabindranath Tagore and the Politics of Self in his Return from Exile, 1-94. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001 (1998).Selected Works of Motilal Nehru, Vol. 3. Edited by and New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Limited, 1984.Making Sense of Human Rights: Philosophical Reflections on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1987..Philosophy During the Tragic Age of the Greeks (1873).” In Early Greek Philosophy and Essays other translated by 71-170. London: T.N. Foulis, 1911.[Page 248]. “The Will to Power. Translated by and New York, NY: Vintage Books, 1968.On the Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo. Translated by and New York, NY: Vintage Books, 1989.Basic Writings of Nietzsche. Translated by . New York, NY: The Modern Library, 2000.On the Genealogy of Morals In Basic Writings of Nietzsche, 437-599. Translated by . New York: The Modern Library, 2000.Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future in Walter Kaufmann (transi. & ed.)Basic Writings of Nietzsche, 179-136. New York: The Modern Library, 2000.Writings from the Late Notebooks. Translated by . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.The Anti-Christ, Ecce Homo Twilight of the Idols, and Writings Other 69-151. Translated by . UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.Homer and Classical Philology.” In The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Vol. III, edited by translated by 1910. Available as Project Gutenberg E-Book #18188, Released on April 17, 2006 (accessed on October 8, 2008).“Nietzsche: Selected Stories. New Delhi: Mahaveer Publishers, 2011.The Civic Ideal.” In Civic Ideal and Indian Nationality in The Complete works of Sister Nivedita, Vol. IV, 205-325. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama, 1996.. “The Civic Ideal.” The Modern Review 3, no. 1 (1908): 1-4.. “The Quest for Legitimacy: On Authority and Responsibility in Governance. Rotterdam: Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), Erasmus University, 2000.Maturity and Modernity: Nietzsche, Weber, Foucault and the Ambivalence of Reason. New York, NY: Routledge, 1994.Privacy, Morality, and the Law.” Philosophy and Public Affairs 12, no. 4 (2003): 269-88.“Reasons and Persons, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.Hegel, Marriage, and the Standpoint of Contract.” In Feminist Interpretations of G. W. F. Hegel, edited by Patricia Jagentowicz Mills, 209-23. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996.. “The Person.” In Social Case Work: A Problem Solving Process, 6-26. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1957.. “The Principles of Phenomenology.” In Philosophical Writings of Pierce, edited by 75-97. New York, NY: Dover Publications, 1955.. “Apology.” In The Trial and Death of Socrates, translated by Grube, 21-42. Cambridge, MA: Hackett Publishing Company Inc, 1975.. “The History of Law English, Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1952.and .The Principles of Friendly Societies.” In Social Policy, 1830—1914: Individualism, Collectivism and the Origins of the welfare state, edited by 104 London: Routledge & Paul Kegan, 1978.“A Theory of Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.The Felt Community, Commonality and Mentality Before the Emergence of Indian Nationalism. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2003..Social Work Values and Ethics. Jaipur: Rawat Publications, 2005.[Page 249]Property. London: Macmillan, 1986.Social Work and Received Ideas. London: Routledge, 1988.and Stewart Collins.Hegel Contra Sociology. London: Athlone, 1981.Dialectic of Nihilism: Post-structuralism and Law. England: Basil Blackwell, 1984.The Social Contract. Translated by . Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1984..The Social Contract and the First and Second Discourses. Edited by . New Haven, CT: Yale University Pres, 2002..Bharatiya Samgha Tatva [Bengali]. Prabartak Publishing House: Kolkata, 1932.Review of The Reality of Social Groups” by . Mind 117, no. 467(2008): 731-35.. “Pluralism and the Personality of the State. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.Poetics of Village Politics, The Making of West Bengal's Rural Communism. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2003..Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc, 1995.Orientalism. New Delhi: Penguin Books, 2001 (1978).Bhavprachar O Samgathan, [Bengali]. Kolkata: Udbodhon Karyalaya, 2003.The Political Institutions and Theories of the Hindus: A Study in Comparative Politics. Leipzig: Verlag Von Markert & Petter, 1922..The Positive Background of Hindu Sociology, Introduction to Hindu Positivism. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas, 1985..Daridranarayner Samaj-shastra.” In Samaj Vijnan, 59-80. Calcutta: Chakraborty Chatterjee Company Limited, 1938.. “Dirty Hands.” In The Political Imagination in Literature, edited by and 206-19. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1969.. “Philosophical Perspectives. Translated by Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1958.Formalism in Ethics and Non-Formal Ethics of Values. Translated by and Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1973.Historico-critical Introduction to the Philosophy of Mythology. Translated by . and Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2007.Political Theology: Four Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty. Translated by . Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1985.Person and Polis: Max Scheler's Personalism as Political Theory. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1987..Privacy: Philosophical Dimensions of the Literature.” In Philosophical Dimensions of Privacy, edited by 1—33. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1984.. “The Neo Romantic Movement in Literature (1890-91).” In New Essays in Criticism. Calcutta: Papyrus, 1994 (1903).. “Rammohun Roy: The Universal Man. Calcutta: Sadharan Brahmo Samaj, 1933..Bangla Rachana [Bengali]. Edited by . Kolkata: Patralekha, 2013.[Page 250].Curing Evils at Their Source: The Arrival of Scientific Giving.” In Charity, Philanthropy and Civility in American History, edited by and , 217-39. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.. “The Argumentative Indian: Writings on Indian History, Culture and Identity. London: Penguin Books, 2005.The Brahmo Samaj, or Theism in India.” In The Golden Book of Rammohun Roy, edited by Mitra. Calcutta: Rammohun Library & Free Reading Room, 1997.. “Keshab Chandra Sen defends his conduct in regard to Cooch Behar Marriage.” In Keshub Chunder Sen by edited by Appendix-III, 69-73. Calcutta: S. Gupta and Brothers, 1976.. “Asia's Message to Europe.” In Keshub Chunder Sen by , edited by Appendix VIII, 103-17. Calcutta: S. Gupta and Brothers, 1976.. “Discussing the Public Domain.” In Sarai Reader 01, 1-9. New Delhi: Sarai-CSDS, 2001.“Offences Against marriage: Negotiating Custom in Colonial Bengal.” In A Question of Silence: The Sexual Economics of Modern India, edited by 77-110. New Delhi: Kali for Women, 1998.. “The Fall of Public Man. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.Hegelianism and Personality (1887). In G. W. F. Hegel: Critical Assessments Vol. II, edited by 20-40. London: Routledge, 1998.Famine, Philanthropy and the Colonial State: North India in the Early Nineteenth Century, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001.Construing Disagreement: Consensus and Invective in ‘Constitutional’ Debate.” Political Theory 30, no. 2 (2002): 175-203.. “The Philosophy of Money. Translated by and . London: Routledge, 1990.The Poor Person.” In Sociology: Inquiries into the Construction of Social Forms, Vol. 2, 409-42. Translated by and . Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2009.“Sociology: Inquiries into the Construction of Social Forms, Vol. 1. Translated by and . Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2009.The Foundations of Modern Political Thought, Vol. 2: The Age of Reformation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992 (1978).Self Help. Mumbai: Wilco Publishing House: 2004 (1986).On Walter Benjamin: Critical Essays and Recollections. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1988, 292-325.ed.A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Towards a History of the Vanishing Present. Calcutta: Seagull, 1999..The Philosophy of Hegel: A Systematic Exposition. New York, NY: Dover Publications, 1995..The Political Philosophy of Hobbes: Its Basis and Its Genesis. Translated by Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1963.The Problem of Dirty Hands in Politics: Peace in the Vegetable Trade.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 28, no. 3 (1995): 479-507.“Deathly Silence.” Hindustan Times, August 13, 2004. (Jointly Authored).[Page 251]and “Ashis Nandy and the Making of Critical Neo-Gandhian Discourse on Development.” Paper in UGC DRS Programme’ Compendium Volume, Calcutta University, 2005.. “The Corrupt Son of the Erupting City: Kolkata in Law and Lovely Matters Like Relationships.” Fellowship paper presented at CSDS, Delhi, in October 2006 for SARAI, Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS), Delhi, October 2006.. “Sexy Dresses, Erotic Spaces: The Sport of Spatial Identity in an Indian Muslim Tennis Woman.” Paper presented at the “Engaging Islam: Feminisms, Religiosities and Self Determinations” conference organized by the Fall Institute, University of Massachusetts, Boston, September 12-16, 2007.. “Whither Formalism, Fundamentalism or Feminism? Mirza Sania ‘Sexy’ Dressing and the Politics of Youth Perception.” Research paper commissioned by Konrad Adenauer Foundation along with Lokniti, Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS), New Delhi, 2007.. “Women's’ Studies for Clothing, Feminism for Dress? An Inquiry into Gender and Genre.” Working paper presented at the Indian Association of Women's Studies (IAWS) Conference, Lucknow, 2008.. “Italir Renaissence, Bangalir Sanskriti [Bengali]. Calcutta: Ananda Publishers, 1996.Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989.Modern Social Imaginaries.”14, no.l (2002): 91-124.“Shoksawbha.” In Prabandha Samagra, Vol. II, 505-10. Kolkata: Bikas Grantha Bhavan, 2003.. “Gora.” In Uponyas Sangraha [Bengali], 1-320.Kolkata: Juthika Book Stall, 2002.. “Prabandha Samagra, 3 vols. Kolkata: Bikash Grantha Bhavan, 2003..Dana and Daksina [Bengali]: A Form of Exchange.” In Cultural Pasts: Essays in Early Indian Genealogy, 521-35. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000.. “Phenomenology of the Political. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.and eds.Who Is My Stranger?” In Talking about Welfare: Readings in Philosophyand Policy Social edited by and 207-36. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1976.. M. “Community and Civil Society. Translated by and Margaret Hollis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. First published in 1887.Mukti.” In Jiggasa, 171-209. Kolkata: Granthamala, 1982.. “Indian Democracy: Meanings and Practices, 215-32. New Delhi: SAGE Publications, 2004.and eds.History and Philosophy of Social Work in India. Bombay: Allied Publishers Private Limited, 1968.. ed.Political Action: The Problem of Dirty Hands.” Philosophy and Public Affairs 2, no. 2 (1973): 160-80.. “The Political Imagination in Literature. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1969.eds.The Problem of Choice.” In The Political Imagination in Literature, 206-19. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1969.and eds. “The Right to Privacy.” Harvard Law Review 4, no. 5(1890): 193-220.[Page 252]., and “The First Philosopher s: The Presocratics and the Sophists. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.trans.Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, Vol. II. Edited by and . Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1978.Intermediate Reflections on the Economic Ethics of the World Religions: Theory of the Stages and Directions of Religious Rejection of the World.” In The Essential Weber: A Reader, edited by 215-44. London: Routledge: London, 2004.“Science as a Vocation.” In Max Weber's Complete Writings on Academics and Vocations Political translated by 25-42. New York, NY: Algora Publishing, 2008.“Tragic Remorse—The Anguish of Dirty Hands.” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7, no. 5 (2005): 453-17.. “Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. London: Fontana, Croom Helm, 1976.From Charity to Social Work: In England and the United States. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962.Rhetoric and Public Reasoning: An Aristotelian Understanding of Political Deliberation.”Political Theory 34, no. 4 (2006): 417-38.. “Hannah Arendt and the Meaning of the Public/Private Distinction.” in Hannah Arendt and the Meaning of Politics, edited by Calhoun and 207-31. Minneapolis, MN and London: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.. “The Plague of Fantasies. London: Verso, 1997.
About the Author