Investigating Sociological Theory


Charles Turner

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • From a Review

    ‘In this authoritative and strikingly original book, Charles Turner demonstrates that sociological theory far from being some dry, boring meta-discourse of society is an ethically engaged enterprise, intimately connected to the arts of living in the contemporary world. Accessible to both students and seasoned practitioners, this book is at once a terrific defenvce and itself an elegant example of the continuing relevance and intellectual vitality of sociological theory. Turner's brilliant discussion thoroughly deserves to resonate across the discipline of sociological theory in both its European and north American versions.’

    Thomas Osborne, University of Bristol


    View Copyright Page


    This book has been a long time coming and even now its results feel provisional. Had it not been for several people they would be more so; firstly, life in today's university would be less rewarding were it not for students who either say things that surprise you or force you to think more clearly. Over the years there have been several who have contributed, often in ways of which they are not aware, to what I have written here. They are Jody Adams, Ian Ashbridge, Vivienne Boon, Simon Campbell, Luke Doggett, Katherine Ellett, Lucy Hewitt, Maarten Hillebrandt, Will Leggett, Andrew Nicholls, Minerva Ocolisan, Kevon Perry, Natalie Pitimson, Elisabeth Simbuerger, Angelica Thumala, Rolando Vazquez and Julie Walsh. I have benefited from conversations with and suggestions from friends and colleagues Ariadna Acevedo, Jim Beckford, Daniel Chernilo, Rachel Cohen, Tony Elger, Robert Fine, Mike Gane, Peter Lassman, Herminio Martins, and Jennifer Platt. For helping me sustain a long-running lament about the state of sociology and how it isn't like it was(n't) in our day a special mention should go to The Four Yorkshiremen: Mark Erickson, Paul du Gay, Graeme Gilloch and Tom Osborne.

    The book is dedicated to the memory of Irving Velody, inspiring teacher and friend; while I am resigned to the thought that he might have rolled his eyes and guffawed in places, I would like to think that he would have been sympathetic to parts of it.

    Finally, one more thing: thank you to my wife, Zeynep, without whom this book would have been finished earlier.


    Figures 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4 from Mary Douglas (2003) Natural Symbols: Explorations of Cosmology. Routledge (Routledge Classics), Diagram 4 (‘Grid and Group’) page 60. Reprinted with permission.

    Figure 5.1 from John Scott (1995) Sociological Theory, Aldershot, Edward Elgar. Reprinted with permission.

    Figure 5.2 from Richard Munch (1988) ‘The dispositions of the personality system’, Understanding Modernity, Figure 9, p. 140. Routledge. Reprinted with permission.

    Figure 5.5 from BONNER, ANTHONY; SELECTED WORKS OF RAMON LLULL 1232–1316, VOLUMES 1 AND 2: © 1985 Princeton University Press Reprinted by permission of Princeton University Press.

    Figures 5.8 and 5.9 from T. Parsons and N. Smelser (1958) Economy and Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Reprinted with permission from Neil Smelser.

    Figure 5.10 from POWER AND PRIVILEGE: A THEORY OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION by Gerhard Emmanuel Lenski, Jr. Copyright © 1984 by the University of North Carolina Press. Used by permission of the publisher.

    Figure 5.13 from E. Gellner (1983) Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell. Reprinted with permission.

    Figure 5.14 from M.S. Archer (1982) ‘Morphogenesis versus Structuration: on combining structure and action’, The British Journal of Sociology, 33 (4): 445–83. Reprinted with permission.

    Figure 5.15 from Mary Douglas (2003) Natural Symbols: Explorations of Cosmology. Routledge (Routledge Classics), Diagram 4 (‘Grid and Group’) page 60. Reprinted with permission.

    Figure 5.16 from M. Douglas (1975) Implict Meanings, p. 224. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Reprinted with permission.

    Figure 5.17 from E. Gellner ‘Concepts and society’, in B. Wilson (ed.), Rationality. Oxford: Blackwell. Reprinted with permission.

    Figures 5.19, 5.20 and 5.22 from A. Giddens (1984) The Constitution of Society. Cambridge: Polity Press. Reprinted with permission.

    Figure 5.21 from C.G. Jung ([1948] 1970) ‘A psychological approach to the dogma of the trinity’ in Collected Works, Vol. 11, p. 125. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Reprinted with permission.

  • Conclusion

    Anthony Giddens was once asked in an interview about his current reading; he replied that he and most of his colleagues had little time to read these days because they were too busy writing their own books. Now although calling something a false opposition is a cheap form of criticism, this does sound like one. Some of the figures discussed in this book do seem to have given up reading after the age of 35 and to have spent the rest of their careers writing, and writing too much; but many of them, and many of the best of them, were voracious readers as well as prodigious writers, so much so that, for all the light-hearted way in which I have read one or two of them, one cannot help being awe-struck by the sheer human effort that went into their work, by the bloody-mindedness with which they pursued what is, after all, a chimera: the truth about society.

    At the end of a general overview that has consisted largely of readings of sociological theory, one hesitates to make any suggestions about how to write sociological theory. When I used the phrase ‘theoretical liberalism’ I meant to say that the approaches to inquiry discussed here seem too various and too arbitrarily constructed for any synthesis of them to be meaningful. I still take this to be true, yet at the same time the theorists discussed in this book seem too closely related to one another for us to talk of a fragmented discipline whose tattered remains lie strewn across Borges' deserts: ‘Deserts are windy places’ (Bauman, 1995: 88). No, whatever their differences they are all engaged in the same enterprise, the attempt to conceptualise the social, and seem beset by similar sorts of difficulty when they make that attempt; maybe in this respect there is a sociological sensibility after all, something that is there in the work of every theorist we have discussed here, there even when they run up rather sharply against the limits of what they can say or when they become lost in endless speech.

    Either way, the lesson of their works if not of their lives is that without a striving for the impossible the possible would never happen. That is a defence of the idea of utopia, one worth making even if the utopias we now have available are only individual ones; it also a defence of sociological theory, both as something that a small and heroic band of people have written, and as something that a larger group is faced with the task of trying to understand. That larger group includes both students and their teachers. To them I say: keep reading.


    1 The Freud scholar Philip Rieff argued that erudition as a scholarly style was a vice rooted in modern Protestantism. His fiercest criticism of it was directed not at Simmel but at Carl Gustav Jung – ‘probably no note was left unused’ – and then … at Weber (Rieff, 1966: 126–8, 2008: 124).

    2 The tree diagram I include here bears a superficial resemblance to the one Baldamus draws in order to makes sense of Parsons (Baldamus, 1976: 113). But Baldamus's is far more complicated and, for our purposes, unnecessarily so.

    3 I should say here that, while I can understand the moral reasons for wanting to disagree with this, I do not see what is gained intellectually by repeatedly claiming that the validity of an analytical device is rendered worthless by the fact of its having specific cultural origins, be they European, or male, or white, or what is worse, all of them together (see Chapter 6). For the origin of the distinction between origin and validity see Bergner (1982).

    4 For a failure to appreciate Goffman's use of metaphor, his sense of his own limits, and indeed his sociology as a whole, see Jameson (1976). Whereas for his admirers Goffman's greatest achievement is the fashioning of a battery of categories and metaphors that draw us towards the nuance and variety of social life, for Jameson he has drawn us towards its trivialities. There is something to be said for this line of argument, but in order to maintain a sense of large scale significance Jameson's preferred tools of analysis are ‘late capitalism’, ‘consumerism’ and ‘postmodernism’, categories that, set against even Parsons' pattern variables, look rather cumbersome. On nuance see Collini (2004).

    5 If this openness to modernism is indeed a distinctive feature of the sceptical style then it must be said that the sceptical style remains undeveloped in sociology but also in the social sciences more generally. For an attempt to employ, in a single account, multiple voices in relation to the same phenomenon, see Latour (1996). James Clifford wrote a famous critique of Clifford Geertz's attempt to establish the sovereign authority of his authorial voice, and flirted with the idea of a multi-voiced ethnography without developing it (see Clifford, 1988).


    Adler, J. (2003) ‘Im Zickzack’, Merkur 57. Jahrgang, Heft 648 (April): 319–32.
    Adorno, T. W. (1976a) ‘Sociology and empirical research’, in T. W.Adorno et al. (eds), The Positivist Dispute in German Sociology. London: Heinemann.
    Adorno, T. W. (1976b) ‘Einleitung’, in E.Durkheim, Soziologie und Philosophie. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.
    Adorno, T. W. (1991a) The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture. London: Routledge.
    Adorno, T. W. (1991b) ‘The essay as form’, in Notes to Literature, Vol. I. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Adorno, T. W. (1998) ‘Scientific experiences of a European scholar in America’, in Critical Models: Interventions and Catchwords. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Adorno, T. W. (2000) Introduction to Sociology. Cambridge: Polity.
    Adorno, T. W. (2002) The Stars Down to Earth and Other Essays on the Irrational in Culture. London: Routledge.
    Adorno, T. W. et al. (1950) The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper and Row.
    Adorno, T. W. and Horkheimer, M. ([1947] 1973) Dialectic of Enlightenment. London: Allen Lane.
    Alexander, J. (1987) Twenty Lectures: Sociological Theory since 1945. London: Hutchinson Education.
    Alexander, J. (1989) ‘Sociology and discourse’, in Structure and Meaning: Rethinking Classical Sociology. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Alexander, J. (1995) Fin-de-Siecle Sociological Theory. London: Verso.
    Allen, N. J. (2000) Categories and Classifications. Oxford: Berghahn Books.
    Althusser, L. (1969) For Marx. London: NLB.
    Andreski, S. (1972) Social Sciences as Sorcery. London: Deutsch.
    Archer, M. S. (1982) ‘Morphogenesis versus structuration: on combining structure and action’, The British Journal of Sociology, 33 (4): 455–83.
    Arnheim, R. (1966) ‘Perceptual analysis of a symbol of interaction’, in Towards a Psychology of Art. London: Faber & Faber.
    Aristotle (1941) ‘Poetics’, in R.McKeon (ed.), The Basic Works of Aristotle. New York: Random House.
    Baehr, P. (2001) ‘The “iron cage” and the “shell as hard as steel”: Parsons, Weber, and the Stahlhartes Gehäuse metaphor in the Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism’, History and Theory, 40 (2): 153–69.
    Baehr, P. (2002) Founders, Classics, Canons. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.
    Baehr, P. and O'Brien, M. (1994) ‘Founders, classics and the concept of a canon’, Current Sociology, 42 (1): 1–151.
    Baker, N. (1989) The Mezzanine. London: Granta.
    Baker, N. (1990) Room Temperature. London: Granta.
    Baldamus, W. (1972) ‘The role of discoveries in social science’, in T.Shanin (ed.), The Rules of the Game: Cross-disciplinary Essays on Models in Scholarly Thought. London: Tavistock Publications.
    Baldamus, W. (1976) The Structure of Sociological Inference. London: Martin Robertson.
    Baldamus, W. (1992) ‘Understanding Habermas's methods of reasoning’, History of the Human Sciences, 5 (2): 97–115.
    Baptista, L. C. (2003) ‘Framing and cognition’, in J.Treviso (ed.), Goffman's Legacy. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
    Barthes, R. (1981) Camera Lucida. London: Cape.
    Bauman, Z. (1976) Socialism: the Active Utopia. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Bauman, Z. (1978) Hermeneutics and Social Science. London: Hutchinson.
    Bauman, Z. (1988) Modernity and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Polity.
    Bauman, Z. (1993) Postmodern Ethics. Cambridge: Polity.
    Bauman, Z. (1995) Life in Fragments. Cambridge: Polity.
    Bauman, Z. (2000) Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity.
    Bauman, Z. (2003) Liquid Love. Cambridge: Polity.
    Bauman, Z. (2007) Consuming Life. Cambridge: Polity.
    Benjamin, W. (1983) Charles Baudelaire. London: Verso.
    Berger, P. (1978) ‘The problem of multiple realities: Alfred Schutz and Robert Musil’, in T.Luckmann (ed.), Phenomenology and Sociology. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Berger, P. and Luckmann, T. (1966) The Social Construction of Reality. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Bergner, J. (1982) The Origins of Formalism in Modern Social Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Berlin, I. (1997) The Proper Study of Mankind. London: Chatto and Windus.
    Bernhard, T. (1989) Old Masters. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Black, M. (1962) Models and Metaphors: Studies in Language and Philosophy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
    Bloom, A. (1987) The Closing of the American Mind. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Bloom, H. (1973) The Anxiety of Influence. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bloom, H. (1995) The Western Canon. London: Papermac.
    Blumenberg, H. (1982) Lebenszeit und Weltzeit. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.
    Blumenberg, H. (1985) Work on Myth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Blumenberg, H. (2001) Aesthetische und Metaphorologische Schriften. Frankfurt: Surkamp.
    Borges, J. L. (1964a) ‘Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote’, in Labyrinths. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Borges, J. L. (1964b) ‘Funes the Memorious’, in Labyrinths. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Borges, J. L. (1975) ‘Of exactitude in science’, in A Universal History of Infamy. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Borges, J. L. and Bioy-Casares, A. (1982) ‘An evening with Ramon Bonavena’, in Chronicles of Bustos Domecq. London: Allen Lane.
    Bourdieu, P. (1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bourdieu, P. (1990) Photography: a Middle-brow Art. Cambridge: Polity.
    Bourdieu, P. (1996) The Rules of Art: Genesis and Structure of the Literary Field. Cambridge: Polity.
    Bourdieu, P. (1997) The State Nobility. Cambridge: Polity.
    Brown, R. H. (1977) A Poetic for Sociology: Toward a Logic of Discovery for the Human Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Brown, R. H. (1992) ‘Social science and society as discourse’, in S.Seidman and D.Wagner (eds), Postmodernism and Social Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Bryson, N. (1983) Vision in Painting. London: Macmillan.
    Byrne, D. (1998) Complexity Theory and the Social Sciences: An Introduction. London: Routledge.
    Calasso, R. (1994) The Ruin of Kasch. London: Carcanet.
    Calvino, I. (2000) ‘Why read the classics?’, in The Literature Machine. London: Vintage.
    Clifford, J. (1988) The Predicament of Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Collini, S. (2004) ‘On variousness; and on persuasion’, New Left Review, 27, May/June: 65–97.
    Collins, R. (1994) Four Sociological Traditions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Craib, I. (1994) Modern Social Theory. Brighton: Wheatsheaf.
    Dahrendorf, R. (1968) ‘Out of utopia’, in Essays in the Theory of Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    Dawe, A. (1978) ‘Two theories of action’, in T.Bottomore and R.Nisbet (eds), A History of Sociological Analysis. New York: Basic Books.
    Derrida, J. (1994) Spectres of Marx. London: Routledge.
    Derrida, J. ([1967] 1997) Of Grammatology (
    corrected edn
    ). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Douglas, M. (1966) Purity and Danger. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Douglas, M. (1975) ‘In the nature of things’, in Implicit Meanings. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Douglas, M. (2003) Natural Symbols: Explorations in Cosmology. New York: Routledge.
    Durkheim, E. ([1915] 1995) The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. New York: Free Press.
    Durkheim, E. (1984) The Division of Labour in Society. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Durkheim, E. ([1897] 1952) Suicide. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Durkheim, E. and Mauss, M. ([1903] 1967) Primitive Classification. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Elias, N. (1978) What Is Sociology?London: Hutchinson.
    Elias, N. ([1939] 1982) The Civilising Process. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Elias, N. (1998a) ‘The concept of everyday life’, in S.Mennell and J.Goudsblom (eds), The Norbert Elias Reader. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Elias, N. (1998b) ‘Game models’, in S.Mennell and J.Goudsblom (eds), Norbert Elias on Civilisation, Power and Knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Eliot, G. (1994) Middlemarch. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Elster, J. (1986) Introduction to Karl Marx. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Engels, F. (1970) Socialism: Utopian and Scientific. Moscow: Progress Publisher.
    Faulkner, W. (1946) The Sound and the Fury & As I Lay Dying. New York: Modern Library.
    Feynman, R. (1990) Q.E.D.: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. London: Penguin.
    Foucault, M. (1970) The Order of Things. London: Tavistock.
    Foucault, M. (1972) The Archaeology of Knowledge. London: Tavistock.
    Foucault, M. (1983) This Is Not A Pipe. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Foucault, M. (1990) The History of Sexuality, Vol. 2: The Use of Pleasure. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Foucault, M. (1991) ‘On genealogy and ethics: an interview’, in The Foucault Reader. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Foucault, M. (1998) Aesthetics, Method and Epistemology. London: Allen Lane.
    Foucault, M. (2000) Power. London: Allen Lane.
    Freud, S. (2002) Psychopathology of Everyday Life. London: Penguin.
    Galison, P. (1997) Image and Logic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Garfinkel, H. (1967) Studies in Ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Geertz, C. (1973) The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.
    Geertz, C. (1983) Local Knowledge. New York: Basic Books.
    Gell, A. (2006) ‘Strathernograms, or the Semiotics of Mixed Metaphors’, in The Art of Anthropology: Essays and Diagrams. Oxford: Berg.
    Gellner, E. (1973) ‘Concepts and society’, in B.Wilson (ed.), Rationality. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Gellner, E. (1979) Spectacles & Predicaments: Essays in Social Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gellner, E. (1983) Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Geuss, R. (2005) Outside Ethics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Giddens, A. (1984) The Constitution of Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Giddens, A. (1992) The Transformation of Intimacy. Cambridge: Polity.
    Goffman, E. (1959) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Goffman, E. (1961) Encounters. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Goffman, E. (1968) Asylums. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Goffman, E. (1971) Relations in Public. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Goffman, E. (1974) Frame Analysis. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Goffman, E. (1981) Forms of Talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Goldmann, L. (1981) Method in the Sociology of Literature. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Goldthorpe, J. H., Lockwood, D., Bechhofer, F. and Platt, J. (1969) The Affluent Worker in the Class Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gombrich, E. (1996) ‘The visual image: its place in communication’, in The Essential Gombrich: Selected Writings on Art and Culture. London: Phaidon.
    Goodman, N. (1968) Languages of Art. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Goodman, N. (1978) Ways of World Making. Hassocks: Harvester.
    Grossman, D. (2006) Lion's Honey: the Myth of Samson. Edinburgh: Canongate.
    Gumbrecht, H.-U. (2006) ‘Über Niklas Luhmanns intellektuelles Vermächtnis’, Merkur8.
    Hadot, P. (1995) Philosophy as a Way of Life. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Heilbron, J. (1995) The Rise of Social Theory. Cambridge: Polity.
    Hennis, W. (2000) Max Weber's Science of Man. Newbury: Threshold.
    Hobbes, T. (1991) Leviathan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Horkheimer, M. ([1938] 1995) ‘Montaigne and the function of scepticism’, in Between Philosophy and Social Science: Selected Early Writings. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Jameson, E. (1976) ‘On Goffman's Frame Analysis’, Theory and Society, 3 (1): 119–33.
    Jarvis, S. (1998) Adorno: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: Polity.
    Jung, C. G. ([1948] 1970) ‘A psychological approach to the dogma of the trinity’, in Collected Works, Vol. 11. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Kant, I. ([1784] 1970) ‘An answer to the question: What is enlightenment?’, in H.Reiss (ed.), Kant's Political Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Klee, P. (1978) Pedagogical Sketchbook. London: Eaber & Eaber.
    Kuhn, T. (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Kundera, M. (1995) Testaments Betrayed. London: Eaber & Eaber.
    Kundera, M. (2007) The Curtain. London: Eaber.
    Lakatos, I. (1978) Philosophical Papers I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Laslett, P. and Runciman, W. G. (eds) (1962) Philosophy, Politics and Society, 2nd series. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Latour, B. (1993) We Have Never Been Modern. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Latour, B. (1996) Aramis, or, The Love of Technology, trans. CatherinePorter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Latour, B. (1998) ‘How to be iconophilic in art, science and religion’, in P.Galison and C. A.Jones (eds), Picturing Science, Producing Art. London: Routledge.
    Latour, B. (2005) Reassembling the Social: an Introduction to Actor-Network Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Latour, B. and Weibel, P. (eds) (2005) Making Things Public: Atmospheres of Democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Lepenies, W. (1986) Between Literature and Science: the Rise of Sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Lepenies, W. (1992) Melancholy and Society. London: Harvard University Press.
    Lévi-Strauss, C. (1972) The Savage Mind. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
    Levitas, R. and Velody, I. (eds) (2003) ‘Glimpses of utopia’, in History of the Human Sciences, 16 (1).
    Lockwood, D. (1988) ‘Social integration and system integration’, in Solidarity and Schism. Oxford: Clarendon.
    Luhmann, N. (1986) Love as Passion. Cambridge: Polity.
    Lukes, S. (2004) Power: a Radical View,
    2nd rev. edn.
    Palgrave: Macmillan.
    Lynch, M. (1991) ‘Pictures of nothing? Visual construals in social theory’, Sociological Theory, 9 (1): 1–20.
    Mann, M. (1984) ‘The autonomous power of the state’, Archive Européens de Sociologie, 25: 185–213.
    Mannheim, K. (1936) Ideology and Utopia. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Mannheim, K. (1982) Structures of Thinking. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Manning, P. (1989) ‘Ritual talk’, Sociology, 23 (3): 365–85.
    Manning, P. (2005) Freud and American Sociology. Cambridge: Polity.
    Marquard, O. (1989) Farewell to Matters of Principle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Marshall, B. L. and Witz, A. (eds) (2004) Engendering the Social: Feminist Encounters with Sociological Theory. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Martins, H. (1972) ‘The Kuhnian “revolution” and its implications for sociology’, in T. J.Nossiter, A. H.Hanson and S.Rokkan (eds), Imagination and Precision in the Social Sciences. New York: Humanities Press.
    Marx, K. (1975) ‘Preface to a Contribution to a Critique of Political Economy’, in Early Writings. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Marx, K. (1978) ‘The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte’, in R.Tucker (ed.), The Marx-Engels Reader. New York: Norton.
    Mauss, M. (1985) ‘The category of the person’, in S.Collins, S.Lukes and M.Carrithers (eds), The Category of the Person. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Mennell, S. (2006) ‘Elias and the counter-ego: personal recollections’, History of the Human Sciences, 19 (2): 73–91.
    Merton, R. K. (1993) On the Shoulders of Giants: A Shandean Postscript. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Merton, R. K. (1996) ‘The ethos of science’, in P.Sztompka (ed.), Robert Merton on Social Structure and Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Milbank, J. (1990) Theology and Social Theory: Beyond Secular Reason. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Milner, A. (1996) Literature, Culture and Society. London: Routledge.
    Mills, C. W. (1960) The Sociological Imagination. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Mills, C. W. (2000) Letters and Autobiographical Writings, ed. KathrynMills with PamelaMills. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Mitchell, W. J. T. (1981) ‘Diagrammatology’, Critical Inquiry, 6: 622–33.
    Montesquieu (1989) The Spirit of the Laws. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Moore, B. (1977) Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Moore, W. E. (1963) Social Change. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Mouzelis, N. (1995) Sociological Theory: What Went Wrong?London: Routledge.
    Mouzelis, N. (2008) Modern and Postmodern Social Theorising: Bridging the Divide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Münch, R. (1988) Understanding Modernity. London: Routledge.
    Musil, R. (1995) The Man without Qualities. London: Picador.
    Needham, R. (1979) Symbolic Classification. Santa Monica: Goodyear Publishing.
    Nehamas, A. (1998) The Art of Living. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Neurath, O. (1980) International Picture Language. Reading: University of Reading.
    Nietzsche, F. (1976) ‘On truth and lies in an extra-moral sense’, in W.Kaufmann (ed.), The Portable NietzscheLondon: Penguin
    Nietzsche, F. (1994) On the Genealogy of Morality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Nisbet, R. (1967) The Sociological Tradition. London: Heinemann.
    Nisbet, R. (1976) Sociology as an Art Form. London: Heinemann.
    Oakeshott, M. (1991) ‘Introduction to Leviathan’, in Rationalism and Politics and Other Essays. Indianapolis: Liberty Press.
    Oakeshott, M. (1996) The Politics of Faith and the Politics of Scepticism. London: Yale University Press.
    Osborne, T. (1998) Aspects of Enlightenment. London: UCL Press.
    Outhwaite, W. (2006) The Future of Society. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Parsons, T. (1937) The Structure of Social Action. New York: Free Press.
    Parsons, T. (1949) ‘Propaganda and social control’, in Essays in Sociological Theory. Glencoe: Free Press.
    Parsons, T. (1951) The Social System. Glencoe: Free Press.
    Parsons, T. (1960) ‘Pattern variables revisited: a reply to Robert Dubin’, American Sociological Review, 25 (4): 467–83.
    Parsons, T. (1968) ‘Systems theory’, in International Encyclopaedia ofthe Social Sciences. New York: Macmillan and Free Press.
    Parsons, T. (1969) Politics and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.
    Parsons, T. and Smelser, N. (1958) Economy and Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Peirce, C. S. (1958) Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, Vol. IV. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Plessner, H. ([1953] 1978) ‘With different eyes’, in T.Luckmann (ed.) Phenomenology and Sociology. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Poggi, G. (1972) Images of Society: Essays on the Sociological Theories of Tocqueville, Marx, and Durkheim. London: Oxford University Press.
    Poggi, G. (1996) ‘Lego quia inutile: an alternative justification for the classics’, in S. P.Turner (ed.), Social Theory and Sociology. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Poggi, G. (2001) Forms of Power. Cambridge: Polity.
    Rex, J. and Moore, R. (1967) Race, Community and Conflict: a Study of Spark brook. London: Oxford University Press.
    Ricoeur, P. (1970) Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation. New Haven: Yale University Press.
    Ricoeur, P. (1977) The Rule of Metaphor. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    Rieff, P. (1959) Freud: the Mind of the Moralist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Rieff, P. (1966) The Triumph of the Therapeutic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Rieff, P. (2008) Charisma: the Gift of Grace and How It Has Been Taken from Us. New York: Vintage.
    Rorty, R. (1982) Consequences of Pragmatism. Brighton: Harvester.
    Rorty, R. (1989) Contingency, Irony and Solidarity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Rose, G. (1981) Hegel contra Sociology. London: Athlone.
    Rosenthal, M. (1982) ‘The prototypical triangle of Paul Klee’, The Art Bulletin, 64 (2): 299–310.
    Runciman, W. G. (1983) A Treatise of Social Theory, Vol. I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Runciman, W. G. (1998) The Social Animal. London: HarperCollins.
    Sacks, O. (1985) The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. London: Picador.
    Said, E. (1991) Musical Elaborations. London: Vintage.
    Schelsky, H. (1957) Die skeptische Generation. Dusseldorf: Diederichs.
    Schutz, A. (1962) ‘Common-sense and scientific interpretations of human action’, in Collected Papers, Vol. I: The Problem of Social Reality. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
    Schutz, A. (1964) Collected Papers, Vol. II: Studies in Social Theory. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
    Scott, J. (1995) Sociological Theory: Contemporary Debates. London: Edward Elgar.
    Shin, S.-J. (1994) The Logical Status of Diagrams. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Shklar, J. (1969) After Utopia. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Simmel, G. (1950) The Sociology of Georg Simmel, trans., ed., and with an introduction by Kurt H.Wolff. Glencoe: Free Press.
    Simmel, G. (1959) Essays on Sociology, Philosophy and Aesthetics, ed. KurtWolff. New York: Harper and Row.
    Simmel, G. (1968) The Conflict of Modern Culture and other Essays, ed. PeterEtzkorn. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Simmel, G. (1971) On Individuality and Social Forms: Selected Writings. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Simmel, G. (1980) The Philosophy of Money. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Simmel, G. (1984) On Women, Sexuality and Love. London: Yale University Press.
    Simmel, G. (1997) ‘The adventure’, in D.Frisby and M.Featherstone (eds), Simmel on Culture. London: Sage.
    Skocpol, T. (1979) States and Social Revolutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Sloterdijk, P. (1987) Critique of Cynical Reason. London: Verso.
    Sorokin, P. (1956) Fads and Foibles in Modern Sociology. Chicago: H. Regnery Co.
    Starr, P. (1992) ‘Social categories and claims in the liberal state’, in M.Douglas and D.Hull (eds), How Classification Works: Nelson Goodman among the Social Sciences. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Steiner, G. (1959) Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky: Essays in Contrast. London: Faber & Faber.
    Stern, J. P. (1992) Heart of Europe: Essays on Literature and Ideology. Oxford: Blackwell.
    StrongP. M. (1979) ‘Sociological imperialism and the profession of medicine: a critical examination of the thesis of medical imperialism’, Social Science and Medicine, Part A. Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, 13: 199–215.
    Tenbruck, F. (1959) ‘Formal sociology’, in K.Wolff (ed.), Georg Simmel on Sociology and Philosophy. New York: Harper and Row.
    Tenbruck, F. (1975) ‘Der Fortschritt der Wissenschaft als Trivialisierungsprozess’ [Scientific Progress as a Process of Trivialization], in N.Stehr and R.König (eds), Wissenschaftssoziologie. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. pp. 19–47.
    Turner, C. (2003) ‘Mannheim's utopia today’, History of the Human Sciences, 16 (1): 27–47.
    Turner, S. P. (1994) Max Weber: The Lawyer as Social Thinker. London: Routledge.
    Unger, R. M. (1987) Social Theory: Its Situation and Task. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Urry, J. (1999) Sociology Beyond Societies. London: Routledge.
    Urry, J. (2003) Global Complexity. Cambridge: Polity
    Van Gennep, A. ([1911] 1967) The Semi-Scholars. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Velody, I. (1989) ‘Socialism as a sociological problem’, in P.Lassman (ed.), Politics and Social Theory. London: Routledge.
    Wacquant, L. (2006) ‘Pierre Bourdieu’, in R.Stones (ed.), Key Contemporary Thinkers. London: Macmillan.
    Wagner, P. (1991) ‘Science of society lost: on the failure to establish sociology in Europe during the “classical” period’, in P.Wagner, B.Wittrock and R.Whitley (eds), Discourses on Society. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
    Wagner, P. (1999) ‘“An entirely new object of consciousness, of volition, of thought”: the coming into being and (almost) passing away of “society” as a scientific object’, in L.Daston (ed.), Biographies of Scientific Objects. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Weber, M. (1949) ‘Objectivity in social science and social policy’, in The Methodology of the Social Sciences. New York: Free Press.
    Weber, M. (1951) The Religion of China. New York: Free Press.
    Weber, M. (1975) Max Weber: A Biography. New York: Wiley.
    Weber, M. (1978) Economy and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Weber, M. (1989) ‘Science as a vocation’, in P.Lassman and I.Velody (eds), with H.Martins, Max Weber's ‘Science as a Vocation’. London: Unwin Hyman.
    Weber, M. (1994) ‘The profession and vocation of politics’, in P.Lassman and R.Speirs (eds), Political Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Weber, M. (2002) The Protestant Ethic and the ‘Spirit’ of Capitalism and Other Writings. New York: Penguin Books.
    Williams, Robin (1983) ‘Sociological tropes: a tribute to Erving Goffman’, Theory, Culture & Society, 2 (1): 99–102.
    Williams, Rowan (2008) Dostoyevsky: Language, Faith and Fiction. Waco: Baylor University Press
    Wittgenstein, L. (1994) Philosophical Investigations,
    3rd edn
    . Oxford: Blackwell.
    Wolin, S. (2004) Politics and Vision,
    expanded edn
    . Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Yates, F. (19a82) Lull and Bruno. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website